9 views

Uploaded by Anchit Gupta

MA105 iitb

- Chapter 15 i Trigonometry II Student
- Calculus book
- Engineering.mechanics.dynamic.bedford.ch13
- HS Advanced Topics Final
- pretest 10 algebra 2
- 15 - Trigonometry
- kleppner-an-Introduction-to-Mechanics-2ed-Solutions.pdf
- All Trig Revision Qus
- Vector Applications 2
- MrJacksonMaths Unit 2 Higher June 2012
- Graphs of Trigonometric Functions
- Combined QP - C3 Edexcel.pdf
- mathsanew , Intermediate I year Sample Question Papers
- The Fourier Series_rmt
- Calculus 1995
- trigonometria
- 9-1 trig identities
- Calculus Alternative proof of sin'(x) = cos(x).pdf
- Algebra
- engineering mathematics Formula Sheet

You are on page 1of 4

Autumn 2011

Solutions and Marking Scheme for Quiz 1

1 Let a, b be real numbers such that 0 < a < b. Consider the sequence

{x

n

} defined recursively by

x

1

= a and x

n+1

=

ab

2

+ x

2

n

a + 1

for n N.

Show that {x

n

} is bounded above and monotonically increasing. Also, find

lim

n

x

n

. [4 marks]

Solution: We show by induction on n that 0 < x

n

< b for all n N. First, 0 < x

1

< b

since x

1

= a and it is given that 0 < a < b. Next, suppose n 1 and 0 < x

n

< b.

Then

x

n+1

=

ab

2

+ x

2

n

a + 1

<

ab

2

+ b

2

a + 1

= b,

since b > 0. Thus, by the principle of induction, x

n

< b for all n N. So the sequence

{x

n

} is bounded above. . . . [1 mark]

Now, since x

2

n+1

=

(ab

2

+ x

2

n

)

(a + 1)

, we obtain ax

2

n+1

+ x

2

n+1

= ab

2

+ x

2

n

and hence

x

2

n+1

x

2

n

= a

b

2

x

2

n+1

=x

n+1

x

n

=

a

b

2

x

2

n+1

x

n+1

+ x

n

=x

n+1

x

n

> 0,

since 0 < x

n

< b for all n N. This proves that {x

n

} is monotonically increasing.

. . . [1 mark]

Since {x

n

} is monotonically increasing and bouded above, it follows that {x

n

} is

convergent. . . . [1 mark]

Finally, let L = lim

n

x

n

. Then L 0 since x

n

> 0 for all n N. Moreover, taking

limits in the recurrence relation,

L

2

=

ab

2

+ L

2

a + 1

=a(L

2

b

2

) = 0 =L

2

= b

2

=L = b,

since a > 0, b > 0, and L 0. Thus, lim

n

x

n

= b. . . . [1 mark]

2. Let f : [0, 1] R be a continuous function such that f(0) =

2

and f(x) is irrational for every x [0, 1]. Show that

f(x) =

1

Solution: Assume, on the contrary, that f(c) =

we must have c > 0. . . . [1 mark]

Now since f has continuous, it has the IVP. Hence f attains every value between

f(0) and f(c). . . . [1 mark]

But since f(0) =

f(c). . . . [1 mark]

This contradicts the fact that f(x) is irrational for every x [0, 1]. Hence we

must have f(x) =

Aliter: Since f : [0, 1] R has continuous, by the Intermediate Value Theorem,

f ([0, 1]) must be an interval. . . . [2 marks]

Since there is a rational number between any two real numbers, and since f(x) is

irrational for every x [0, 1], we must have f ([0, 1]) = {

2}. . . . [1 mark]

Hence f(x) =

3. Consider f : (/2, /2) R defined by

f(x) :=

Determine the set of all points in (/2, /2) where f is differentiable.

Justify your answer. [4 marks]

Solution: Since | sin x| 1 < for all x R, we see that cos(sin x) = 1 if and only

if sin x = 0. And for x (/2, /2), it clear that sin x = 0 if and only if x = 0.

Moreover, for x (/2, /2) with x = 0, we have | sin x| < |x| < /2, and hence

1 cos (sin x) > 0. . . . [1 mark]

Now, since sine and cosine functions are dierentiable everywhere and since the

squareroot function y

y is dierentiable on (0, ), it follows from the Chain

Rule that f is dierentiable at every x (/2, /2) with x = 0. . . . [1 mark]

As for x = 0, we have for any h R with h = 0,

f(h) f(0)

h

=

1 cos (sin h)

h

=

2 sin

2

((sin h)/2)

h

=

sin

sin h

2

h

and further

sin

sin h

2

h

=

sin

sin h

2

sin h

2

sin h

2h

.

But the limit of the above quantity as h 0 does not exist, since the left-(hand)

and right-(hand) limits exist and are dierent (in sign). So it follows that f is not

dierentiable at 0. . . . [1 mark]

Thus we conclude that the set of all points in (/2, /2) where f is dierentiable

is (/2, 0) (0, /2). . . . [1 mark]

[Only 2 marks for merely writing f

concluding that f is dierentiable is (/2, 0) (0, /2) using this formula.]

2

4. Let f : [0, 2] R be a continuous function such that its second derivative

f

exists everywhere on the open interval (0, 2). Suppose the line segment

joining (0, f(0)) and (2, f(2)) intersects the graph of f at a third point (t, f(t)),

where 0 < t < 2. Prove that f

Solution: Since the three points (0, f(0)), (t, f(t)), and (2, f(2)) lie on the same line,

we must have

f(t) f(0)

t 0

=

f(2) f(t)

2 t

= m say. . . . [1 mark]

Applying (Lagranges) Mean Value Theorem (twice), we see that there are c

1

(0, t)

and c

2

(t, 2) such that

f

(c

1

) = m = f

(c

2

). . . . [1 mark]

Next, since f

on [c

1

, c

2

]. . . . [1 mark]

Also, since f

(c

1

) = f

(c

2

), it follows from Rolles Theorem that f

(c) = 0 for

some c (0, 2). . . . [1 mark]

Aliter: Consider a change of axes so as to make the line joining (0, f(0)), (t, f(t)),

and (2, f(2)) to be the x-axis. More precisely, consider g : [0, 2] R dened by

g(x) := f(x) f(0) mx, where m is as above. Then g(0) = g(t) = g(2) = 0;

moreover g is continuous on [0, 2] and g

there are c

1

(0, t) and c

2

(t, 2) such that g

(c

1

) = 0 = g

(c

2

), and consequently,

g

(c) = f

(c) = 0 for some c (0, 2). [The step marking is similar to that in the

previous solution. Deduct 1 mark if the function g corresponding to the change of

axes and the fact that it satises the hypotheses of Rolles Theorem is not stated.]

5. Find the points on the ellipse 4x

2

+ y

2

= 4 that are farthest away

from the point (1, 0). Justify your answer. [4 marks]

Solution: The distance between a point (x, y) and (1, 0) is d =

(x 1)

2

+ y

2

.

Also, if (x, y) is on the given ellipse, then y

2

= 4 4x

2

and x [1, 1]. . . . [1 mark]

Thus, it suces to nd the abolute maximum of f : [1, 1] R dened by

f(x) = d

2

= (x 1)

2

+ (4 4x

2

) = 3x

2

2x + 5 for x [1, 1]

the value(s) of x where it is attained. . . . [1 mark]

Clearly, f is dierentiable and f

f(1) = 4, f(1) = 0 and f(1/3) = 16/3, it follows that the absolute maximum of

f is 16/3, which is attained at x = 1/3.

Consequently, the points on the ellipse 4x

2

+ y

2

= 4 that are farthest away from

the point (1, 0) are (1/3, 4

2/3). . . . [2 marks]

(Note: Deduct 1 mark if only one of the two points (1/3, 4

2/3) is mentioned.

Also deduct 1 mark if only the value of f(1/3) is computed and it is presumed to

be the absolute maximum, without any justication for the same.)

3

Aliter: Use the polar coordinates to represent a typical point P on the ellipse as

(cos , 2 sin ). The distance between P and (1, 0) is

d =

(cos 1)

2

+ 4 sin

2

=

2 2 cos + 3 sin

2

. [1 mark]

Hence it suces to maximize

f() = d

2

= 2 2 cos + 3 sin

2

for [0, 2]. [1 mark]

We have

f

1

3

Now if sin = 0 [and in particular, if is one of the end-points 0, 2], then cos = 1

and the corresponding values of f() are 0 and 4. On the other hand, if cos = 1/3,

then sin = 2

2/3 and the only corresponding value of f() is 16/3. Since 16/3 is

the largest of the values of f at the critical points and the end-points, it follows that

f has an absolute maximum when cos = 1/3 and sin = 2

2/3. Consequently,

the points on the ellipse 4x

2

+y

2

= 4 that are farthest away from the point (1, 0) are

(1/3, 4

2/3). . . . [2 marks]

4

- Chapter 15 i Trigonometry II StudentUploaded byAngie Kong Su Mei
- Calculus bookUploaded byeliseudesafate
- Engineering.mechanics.dynamic.bedford.ch13Uploaded byOzkhar AF
- HS Advanced Topics FinalUploaded byEdfinity
- pretest 10 algebra 2Uploaded bydekoes
- 15 - TrigonometryUploaded byMark
- kleppner-an-Introduction-to-Mechanics-2ed-Solutions.pdfUploaded byDaniel Borrero
- All Trig Revision QusUploaded byAlan Wai
- Vector Applications 2Uploaded bySurya Pappu
- MrJacksonMaths Unit 2 Higher June 2012Uploaded byRussell Jackson
- Graphs of Trigonometric FunctionsUploaded byDeez Nuts
- Combined QP - C3 Edexcel.pdfUploaded byYogesh Ganesh
- mathsanew , Intermediate I year Sample Question PapersUploaded byAkshay Pandey
- The Fourier Series_rmtUploaded byHedy Febriana Puspita Sari
- Calculus 1995Uploaded bysayhigaurav07
- trigonometriaUploaded bykennedy
- 9-1 trig identitiesUploaded byapi-277585828
- Calculus Alternative proof of sin'(x) = cos(x).pdfUploaded bynm
- AlgebraUploaded bySyafiq Aiman
- engineering mathematics Formula SheetUploaded byJames William Lang
- 14-6 Sum and Difference FormulasUploaded byBon Andrie Balana
- HW2 SolutionUploaded bymrm3za
- Math Bank 6Uploaded byRavi Prakash Jadhav
- Trig CloseoutUploaded byhelloimgy97
- 30thmonday2015Uploaded byapi-285146233
- Calc2 3 Complex NumbersUploaded byAnonymous xuEZu5Ky
- 1. Theory Maclaurin'sUploaded byShubham
- January 2014 (IAL) MS - C12 Edexcel-2Uploaded byMADAN
- Week VIUploaded bynino
- The Sine and Cosine FunctionsUploaded byjanellennui

- class_11_mathematics_unsolved_sample_paper_05.pdfUploaded byNitin Kumar
- ClusteringUploaded byChanpreet Singh
- Fourier Analysis-A Signal processing approach .pdfUploaded byTint Swe Oo
- Quadratic EquationsUploaded byAnanthakrishnan Tinneveli V
- 1. Logic and ProofUploaded bySnooker King
- matrix addition lesson planUploaded byapi-254434819
- EE3tp4 Exam 2014Uploaded byChris Aiello
- EigenValue Decay a New Method for Neural Network RegularizationUploaded byfrangky200787
- MasseyUploaded byAnonymous901
- SLMCC 2014Uploaded byAnonymous L05IkqtA
- Inversion and Acceptance RejectionUploaded bygowthamkurri
- 1 Deep Learning - Table of ContentUploaded byArief Prihantoro
- 2015_smo_booklet.pdfUploaded byMartin Martin Martin
- ch13-3Uploaded byDeo John Morante Bigoy
- Solved Examples Ch 19Uploaded bySofia
- NSMTeacher'sResource_class7Uploaded byNasir Mehmood
- Secondary 3 Mathematics Worksheet - IndicesUploaded byatshhhhh
- 09-rasterizationUploaded byAnish Desai
- Applications in Ch4Uploaded bykalite123
- God Exists! by Robert K. MeyerUploaded bypfranks
- Selection of problems in IdealsUploaded byMason Keller
- Equivalent NormsUploaded byMorvaridYi
- chapt2z-transform-121014140350-phpapp01 (1)Uploaded byjisha mv
- A Comparative Analysis of Several Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problem FormulationsUploaded byBang Ha Ban
- Real Numbers.pdfUploaded byyasmohankumar
- algo (Autosaved).docxUploaded bysanju1t
- MIT2_29F11_lect_9Uploaded bycostpop
- Final Exam Mat093 Sep 2013 n Nov 2013Uploaded bySyahir Hamidon
- collectionUploaded byarijitk74
- Branch and Bound Technique for Single Machine Scheduling Problem Using Type-2 Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers.Uploaded byIJSRP ORG