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# MA 105: Calculus

Autumn 2011
Solutions and Marking Scheme for Quiz 1
1 Let a, b be real numbers such that 0 < a < b. Consider the sequence
{x
n
} defined recursively by
x
1
= a and x
n+1
=

ab
2
+ x
2
n
a + 1
for n N.
Show that {x
n
} is bounded above and monotonically increasing. Also, find
lim
n
x
n
. [4 marks]
Solution: We show by induction on n that 0 < x
n
< b for all n N. First, 0 < x
1
< b
since x
1
= a and it is given that 0 < a < b. Next, suppose n 1 and 0 < x
n
< b.
Then
x
n+1
=

ab
2
+ x
2
n
a + 1
<

ab
2
+ b
2
a + 1
= b,
since b > 0. Thus, by the principle of induction, x
n
< b for all n N. So the sequence
{x
n
} is bounded above. . . . [1 mark]
Now, since x
2
n+1
=
(ab
2
+ x
2
n
)
(a + 1)
, we obtain ax
2
n+1
+ x
2
n+1
= ab
2
+ x
2
n
and hence
x
2
n+1
x
2
n
= a

b
2
x
2
n+1

=x
n+1
x
n
=
a

b
2
x
2
n+1

x
n+1
+ x
n
=x
n+1
x
n
> 0,
since 0 < x
n
< b for all n N. This proves that {x
n
} is monotonically increasing.
. . . [1 mark]
Since {x
n
} is monotonically increasing and bouded above, it follows that {x
n
} is
convergent. . . . [1 mark]
Finally, let L = lim
n
x
n
. Then L 0 since x
n
> 0 for all n N. Moreover, taking
limits in the recurrence relation,
L
2
=
ab
2
+ L
2
a + 1
=a(L
2
b
2
) = 0 =L
2
= b
2
=L = b,
since a > 0, b > 0, and L 0. Thus, lim
n
x
n
= b. . . . [1 mark]
2. Let f : [0, 1] R be a continuous function such that f(0) =

2
and f(x) is irrational for every x [0, 1]. Show that
f(x) =

## 2 for every x [0, 1]. [4 marks]

1
Solution: Assume, on the contrary, that f(c) =

## 2 for some c [0, 1]. Note that

we must have c > 0. . . . [1 mark]
Now since f has continuous, it has the IVP. Hence f attains every value between
f(0) and f(c). . . . [1 mark]
But since f(0) =

## 2 = f(c), there exists a rational number between f(0) and

f(c). . . . [1 mark]
This contradicts the fact that f(x) is irrational for every x [0, 1]. Hence we
must have f(x) =

## 2 for every x [0, 1]. . . . [1 mark]

Aliter: Since f : [0, 1] R has continuous, by the Intermediate Value Theorem,
f ([0, 1]) must be an interval. . . . [2 marks]
Since there is a rational number between any two real numbers, and since f(x) is
irrational for every x [0, 1], we must have f ([0, 1]) = {

2}. . . . [1 mark]
Hence f(x) =

## 2 for every x [0, 1]. . . . [1 mark]

3. Consider f : (/2, /2) R defined by
f(x) :=

## 1 cos (sin x) for x (/2, /2) .

Determine the set of all points in (/2, /2) where f is differentiable.
Justify your answer. [4 marks]
Solution: Since | sin x| 1 < for all x R, we see that cos(sin x) = 1 if and only
if sin x = 0. And for x (/2, /2), it clear that sin x = 0 if and only if x = 0.
Moreover, for x (/2, /2) with x = 0, we have | sin x| < |x| < /2, and hence
1 cos (sin x) > 0. . . . [1 mark]
Now, since sine and cosine functions are dierentiable everywhere and since the
squareroot function y

y is dierentiable on (0, ), it follows from the Chain
Rule that f is dierentiable at every x (/2, /2) with x = 0. . . . [1 mark]
As for x = 0, we have for any h R with h = 0,
f(h) f(0)
h
=

1 cos (sin h)
h
=

2 sin
2
((sin h)/2)
h
=

sin

sin h
2

h
and further

sin

sin h
2

h
=

sin

sin h
2

sin h
2

sin h
2h
.
But the limit of the above quantity as h 0 does not exist, since the left-(hand)
and right-(hand) limits exist and are dierent (in sign). So it follows that f is not
dierentiable at 0. . . . [1 mark]
Thus we conclude that the set of all points in (/2, /2) where f is dierentiable
is (/2, 0) (0, /2). . . . [1 mark]
[Only 2 marks for merely writing f

## 1 cos (sin x)) and

concluding that f is dierentiable is (/2, 0) (0, /2) using this formula.]
2
4. Let f : [0, 2] R be a continuous function such that its second derivative
f

exists everywhere on the open interval (0, 2). Suppose the line segment
joining (0, f(0)) and (2, f(2)) intersects the graph of f at a third point (t, f(t)),
where 0 < t < 2. Prove that f

## (c) = 0 for some c (0, 2). [4 marks]

Solution: Since the three points (0, f(0)), (t, f(t)), and (2, f(2)) lie on the same line,
we must have
f(t) f(0)
t 0
=
f(2) f(t)
2 t
= m say. . . . [1 mark]
Applying (Lagranges) Mean Value Theorem (twice), we see that there are c
1
(0, t)
and c
2
(t, 2) such that
f

(c
1
) = m = f

(c
2
). . . . [1 mark]
Next, since f

## is dierentiable and hence continuous

on [c
1
, c
2
]. . . . [1 mark]
Also, since f

(c
1
) = f

(c
2
), it follows from Rolles Theorem that f

(c) = 0 for
some c (0, 2). . . . [1 mark]
Aliter: Consider a change of axes so as to make the line joining (0, f(0)), (t, f(t)),
and (2, f(2)) to be the x-axis. More precisely, consider g : [0, 2] R dened by
g(x) := f(x) f(0) mx, where m is as above. Then g(0) = g(t) = g(2) = 0;
moreover g is continuous on [0, 2] and g

## exists on (0, 2). Hence by Rolles Theorem,

there are c
1
(0, t) and c
2
(t, 2) such that g

(c
1
) = 0 = g

(c
2
), and consequently,
g

(c) = f

(c) = 0 for some c (0, 2). [The step marking is similar to that in the
previous solution. Deduct 1 mark if the function g corresponding to the change of
axes and the fact that it satises the hypotheses of Rolles Theorem is not stated.]
5. Find the points on the ellipse 4x
2
+ y
2
= 4 that are farthest away
from the point (1, 0). Justify your answer. [4 marks]
Solution: The distance between a point (x, y) and (1, 0) is d =

(x 1)
2
+ y
2
.
Also, if (x, y) is on the given ellipse, then y
2
= 4 4x
2
and x [1, 1]. . . . [1 mark]
Thus, it suces to nd the abolute maximum of f : [1, 1] R dened by
f(x) = d
2
= (x 1)
2
+ (4 4x
2
) = 3x
2
2x + 5 for x [1, 1]
the value(s) of x where it is attained. . . . [1 mark]
Clearly, f is dierentiable and f

## (x) = 6x 2 vanishes only at x = 1/3. Since

f(1) = 4, f(1) = 0 and f(1/3) = 16/3, it follows that the absolute maximum of
f is 16/3, which is attained at x = 1/3.
Consequently, the points on the ellipse 4x
2
+ y
2
= 4 that are farthest away from
the point (1, 0) are (1/3, 4

2/3). . . . [2 marks]
(Note: Deduct 1 mark if only one of the two points (1/3, 4

2/3) is mentioned.
Also deduct 1 mark if only the value of f(1/3) is computed and it is presumed to
be the absolute maximum, without any justication for the same.)
3
Aliter: Use the polar coordinates to represent a typical point P on the ellipse as
(cos , 2 sin ). The distance between P and (1, 0) is
d =

(cos 1)
2
+ 4 sin
2
=

2 2 cos + 3 sin
2
. [1 mark]
Hence it suces to maximize
f() = d
2
= 2 2 cos + 3 sin
2
for [0, 2]. [1 mark]
We have
f

## () = 0 2 sin (1 + 3 cos ) = 0 sin = 0 or cos =

1
3
Now if sin = 0 [and in particular, if is one of the end-points 0, 2], then cos = 1
and the corresponding values of f() are 0 and 4. On the other hand, if cos = 1/3,
then sin = 2

2/3 and the only corresponding value of f() is 16/3. Since 16/3 is
the largest of the values of f at the critical points and the end-points, it follows that
f has an absolute maximum when cos = 1/3 and sin = 2

2/3. Consequently,
the points on the ellipse 4x
2
+y
2
= 4 that are farthest away from the point (1, 0) are
(1/3, 4

2/3). . . . [2 marks]
4