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Review of the Latest Practices on

Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals


Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism
Policies and Proposals
(2007)
Final Report
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Overview
1.1.1 Tourism is a growing industry in Hong Kong and millions of tourists are flocking to
experience Hong Kongs wonders every year. Apart from visiting traditional
attractions tourists are !ecoming more and more interested in visiting attractions
wit" t"e concept of sustaina!le tourism. T"e market and demand for sustaina!le
tourism is growing in Hong Kong as well as internationally.
1.1.# $n recent years t"ere "ave !een increasing num!ers of new initiatives and proposals
to t"e government to furt"er en"ance Hong Kongs attractiveness to tourists. %any
of t"e proposals are associated wit" en"ancing green attractions in Hong Kong suc"
as developing country parks pristine sites and !eac"es into tourism attractions.
Accordingly t"ere is an increasing need to en"ance t"e present tools for evaluating
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t"e environmental accepta!ility and sustaina!ility of tourism proposals and
developing an environmental evaluation process for tourism policies and proposals
w"ic" can !e assisted !y reviewing w"at ot"er countries are doing and !y
understanding international trends.
1.1.& Atkins '"ina (td. )Atkins* "ave !een commissioned to undertake a review under t"e
Tender Ref.+ ,A -./--0 1Tender for Hire of ,ervice for a Review of t"e (atest
2ractices on 3nvironmental 3valuation of Tourism 2olicies and 2roposals.
1.2 Objectives of the Services
1.#.1 T"e goal of t"is review is to collect information to facilitate t"e 3nvironmental
2rotection 4epartment )324* in identifying tools for t"e environmental evaluation of
two kinds of initiatives+
Tourism policies programmes and plans5 and
,ustaina!le tourism proposals.
1.#.# T"e specific o!6ectives of t"is review are to+
$dentify and review t"e latest policies policy tools mec"anisms and practices
on environmental protection scrutiny of tourism policies programmes and
plans5 and
$dentify and review t"e latest guidelines criteria re7uirements tools and
practices on assessing certifying and enforcing sustaina!le tourism proposals
including !ot" t"e statutory and t"e non/statutory systems.
1.#.& A review was undertaken of t"e latest international practices in t"ese areas w"ic"
included several different countries development co/operations and ot"er
international organisations renowned in t"e field of sustaina!le tourism. For tourism
proposals t"e o!6ective was also to present examples of environmentally sustaina!le
tourism pro6ects t"at "ave !een implemented in eac" country and for eac"
development co/operation and organisation.
1.#.0 ,tage 1 of t"is assignment reported t"e findings of t"e review of t"e practices of nine
different countries and one development co/operation. ,tage # of t"is assignment
includes t"e Final Report covering t"e ,tage 1 findings and t"e remaining ten
countries and six organisations identified for ,tage #. T"e countries and t"e
development co/operations for t"e two stages were selected !y t"e 324 and are
presented in Ta!le 1.1.
Table 1.1Countries and Organisations for Review in Each tage
Countries
Stage 1
Europe Australasia
Finland Australia
France 8ew 9ealand
,wit:erland orth A!erica
;nited Kingdom ;nited ,tates of America
Asia
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"evelop!ent Co#operations <apan
;nited 8ations 3nvironment
2rogramme );832*
,out" Korea
Stage 2
Europe orth A!erica
Austria 'anada
4enmark Asia
=ermany %ainland '"ina
8et"erlands ,ingapore
8orway T"ailand
2ortugal
"evelop!ent Co#operations Other $nternational Organisations
;nited 8ations 4evelopment
2rogramme );842*
;nited 8ations >orld Tourism
?rganisation );8>T?*
Asian 4evelopment @ank )A4@* ;nited 8ations 3ducational ,cientific and
'ultural ?rganisation );83,'?* >orld
Heritage 'entre
>orld @ank )>@* =reen =lo!e
1.#.A Buestionnaires were sent to t"e aut"orities of t"e countries and organisations a!ove
for understanding t"eir practices in relation to t"e o!6ectives of t"is assignment.
,ince t"e aut"orities of France and 2ortugal did not respond to t"e 7uestionnaire and
relevant information could not !e o!tained t"roug" literature review t"ese two
countries were replaced !y ,out" Africa and 'osta Rica.
1.#.. T"e organisations C co/operations identified in t"e !rief include t"e ;nited 8ations
3nvironment 2rogramme );832* t"e ;nited 8ations 4evelopment 2rogramme
);842* t"e Asian 4evelopment @ank )A4@* and >orld @ank )>@*. $n addition
t"ree internationally renowned organisations in t"e field of sustaina!le tourism were
selected and agreed !y t"e 324 for t"is review as descri!ed !elow.
1.#.D T"e >orld Tourism ?rganisation );8>T?* is a specialised agency of t"e ;nited
8ations and is a leading international organisation in t"e field of tourism. $t plays a
central and decisive role in promoting t"e development of responsi!le sustaina!le
and universally accessi!le tourism. T"e ;8>T? serves as a glo!al forum for tourism
policy issues and is a practical source of tourism related information. $t encourages
t"e implementation of t"e =lo!al 'ode of 3t"ics for Tourism to minimise t"e negative
social and environmental impacts. T"is organisation is included !ecause a review of
its work can provide a wider perspective of t"e latest trends in sustaina!le tourism.
1.#.E T"e ;nited 8ations 3ducational ,cientific and 'ultural ?rganisation );83,'?* is
dedicated to promoting international dialogue and co/operation in t"e fields of
education natural science social culture and communication. ?ne of ;83,'?s
many roles is t"e assessment and designation as well as t"e monitoring of t"e
management for t"e list of >orld Heritage ,ites !y t"e ;83,'? >orld Heritage
'entre. T"is is an esta!lis"ed programme and will provide very useful insig"t into t"e
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met"ods adopted for assessing and monitoring sites against an international set of
guidelines w"ic" are !ased on t"e principles of sustaina!le development and
tourism.
1.#.F =reen =lo!e is t"e glo!al !enc"marking certification and improvement system for
sustaina!le travel and tourism. $t is !ased on Agenda #1 and principles for
sustaina!le development endorsed !y t"e 3art" ,ummit in 1FF#. T"e system w"ic"
provides companies communities and consumers wit" a pat" to sustaina!le travel
and tourism was initially developed in 1FF& !y t"e >orld Travel and Tourism 'ouncil
)as =reen =lo!e #1*. 'ompanies and communities are certified in accordance wit"
four glo!al standards+ company community international ecotourism and precinct
planning and design. A review of =reen =lo!e provides an understanding of a
leading certification system for sustaina!le tourism.
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2. !"C#$ROUND
2.1 Concepts an% "efinitions
Sustainable Tourism
#.1.1 At t"e 1FF# 3art" ,ummit in Rio de <aneiro Agenda #1
1
was adopted !y 1E#
countries and sets out a compre"ensive !lueprint of actions to !e taken glo!ally
nationally and locally !y organisations of t"e ;nited 8ations );8* governments and
ma6or groups in every area to !ring a!out sustaina!le development. ,take"olders of
t"e travel and tourism industry including world organisations governments and
industries started to include sustaina!le development principles into t"eir agendas
and t"e concept of sustainable tourism "as gat"ered momentum ever since.
#.1.# T"e >orld Tourism ?rganisation )>T?* 'ommittee on ,ustaina!le 4evelopment of
Tourism defines sustaina!le tourism as+
Development that meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while
protecting and enhancing opportunities for the future. It is envisaged as leading to
management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic
needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological
processes, biological diversity and life support systems
2
.
#.1.& T"e <o"annes!urg ,ummit on ,ustaina!le 4evelopment in #--#
&
led t"e way for >T?
to revise t"e definition of sustaina!le tourism in #--0. T"ey define sustaina!le
tourism as+
Sustainable tourism development guidelines and management practices are
applicable to all forms of tourism in all types of destinations, including mass tourism
and the various niche tourism segments. Sustainability principles refer to the
environmental, economic and sociocultural aspects of tourism development, and a
suitable balance must be established between these three dimensions to guarantee
its longterm sustainability
!
.
#.1.0 T"us according to >T? sustaina!le tourism s"ould+
%ake optimal use of environmental resources t"at constitute a key element in
tourism development maintain essential ecological processes and "elp to
conserve natural resources and !iodiversity.
Respect t"e socio/cultural aut"enticity of "ost communities conserve t"eir
!uilt and living cultural "eritage and traditional values and contri!ute to inter/
cultural understanding and tolerance.
1
Agenda #1 ;8 4epartment of 3conomic and ,ocial Affairs 4ivision for ,ustaina!le 4evelopment.
"ttp+CCwww.un.orgCesaCsustdevCdocumentsCagenda#1Cindex."tm
#
GAgenda #1 for t"e Travel and Tourism $ndustry+ 4efinitions.H >T? >TT' and 3art" 'ouncil.
"ttp+CCwww.world/tourism.orgCsustaina!leCdocCa#1/def.pdf
&
3art" ,ummit #--#. "ttp+CCwww.eart"summit#--#.orgC
0
,ustaina!le 4evelopment of Tourism ;nited 8ations >orld Tourism ?rganisation.
"ttp+CCwww.unwto.orgCframesetCframeIsustaina!le."tml
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3nsure via!le long/term economic operations providing socio/economic
!enefits to all stake"olders t"at are fairly distri!uted including sta!le
employment and income/earning opportunities and social services to "ost
communities and contri!ute to poverty alleviation.
#.1.A As defined !y t"e =lo!al 4evelopment Researc" 'entre sustaina!le tourism in its
purest sense is+
"n industry which attempts to ma#e a low impact on the environment and local
culture, while helping to generate income, employment, and the conservation of
local ecosystems. It is responsible tourism which is both ecologically and culturally
sensitive
$
.
#.1.. $n 8ew 9ealand sustaina!le tourism is a!out operators and regions working smarter
and more sustaina!ly. For example operators s"ould+
%ake t"eir !usiness practice more energy/ and waste/efficient5
$nvolve t"e community in decision making5
$dentify potential risks to t"e environment from t"eir !usiness and avoiding
t"ose risks5
$dentify opportunities to market a !usiness as sustaina!le5 and
$dentify !eneficial partners"ips.
T"e natural environment our communities cultures and !usinesses all form part of
w"at makes up t"e tourism industry. @usinesses can !enefit from t"e increasing
num!er of visitors seeking an aut"entic and interactive experience !y incorporating
sustaina!le !usiness practices into t"eir operations
.
.
#.1.D Alt"oug" definitions of sustaina!le tourism vary somew"at t"ey all em!race t"e
sustaina!ility principles in environmental socio/cultural and economic terms and
re7uire a commitment from stake"olders involved including governments tourism
operators t"e community and visitors. T"e underlying principle of sustaina!le
tourism development is to ensure economic social and environmental via!ility for
tourism developments for its life span. $t is important to distinguis" t"e difference in
t"e concept of ecotourism from sustaina!le tourism w"ic" includes all sectors of t"e
tourism industry and not 6ust nature or culture/!ased attractions.
#.1.E %aking tourism sustaina!le is not limited to t"e level of policy and planning !ut can
also !e enforced in t"e development and operation of tourism. 'ertification systems
initiated !y independent organisations or individual countries for tourism operators
infrastructure and destinations are gaining more recognition and can also play an
important role )e.g. =reen =lo!e offers four types of certification standards for
company community C destinations international ecotourism and precinct planning
and design*.
A
,ustaina!le Tourism =lo!al 4evelopment Researc" 'entre. "ttp+CCwww.gdrc.orgCuemCeco/tourCeco/
tour."tml
.
,ustaina!le Tourism %inistry for t"e 3nvironment. "ttp+CCwww.mfe.govt.n:CissuesCsustaina!le/
industryCinitiativesCsustaina!le/tourismC
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%cotourism
#.1.F 'onfusion over t"e meaning of sustaina!le tourism "as !een compounded in some
countries !y use of t"e term GecotourismH as meaning t"e same as Gsustainable
tourismH. However ecotourism is more appropriately considered to !e a su!set of
sustaina!le tourism
D
.
#.1.1- T"e year #--# was declared !y t"e ;8 as t"e $nternational Jear of 3cotourism and
Bue!ec 4eclaration on 3cotourism was announced during t"e >orld 3cotourism
,ummit. $n t"e declaration it is recognised t"at ecotourism em!races t"e principles
of sustaina!le tourism concerning t"e economic social and environmental impacts
of tourism.
#.1.11 To distinguis" ecotourism from t"e sustaina!le tourism t"e declaration stated t"at
ecotourism em!races t"e following specific principles+
'ontri!utes actively to t"e conservation of natural and cultural "eritage5
$ncludes local and indigenous communities in its planning development and
operation and contri!uting to t"eir well/!eing5
$nterprets t"e natural and cultural "eritage of t"e destination to visitors5 and
(ends itself !etter to independent travellers as well as to organi:ed tours for
small si:e groups
E
.
&olicy, &lan and &rogramme
#.1.1# 2olicy plan and programme can !e understood as a "ierarc"y in a decision/making
process. @roadly speaking a policy is a "ig" level of action incorporating general
goals. A plan or programme is a set of practical action or procedure designated to
implement policies and ac"ieve t"eir aims.
#.1.1& A local example of t"e actions leading up to t"e development of programme is as
follows+ as a conse7uence of t"e downturn in visitor arrivals after 1FFD t"e
government of t"e Hong Kong ,pecial Administrative Region )HK,AR* decided t"at
Hong Kong needed to diversify its tourism product to stay competitive. $t was
identified t"at family market was seen as one of t"e options. $t t"en !ecame a
government policy to identify family friendly attractions products and to esta!lis" an
institution )Hong Kong Tourism 'ommission* to look at t"is specific issue. T"is policy
was t"en developed as part of a study to review possi!le locations and attractions C
concepts )e.g. ;niversal ,tudios 4isneyland* w"ic" was t"e planning or programme
stage. 2olicy plan and programme are of strategic level and t"e implementation of a
plan or programme is t"roug" pro6ect)s* )i.e. 4isneyland t"eme park*.
D
>orks"op on ,ustaina!le Tourism 'orporate ,ocial Responsi!ility 8etwork. "ttp+CCwww.eeg/
uae.orgCcsrCworks"op/series/#F/11/-0."tm
E
Bue!ec 4eclaration on 3cotourism >orld 3cotourism ,ummit K Bue!ec #--#. "ttp+CCwww.world/
tourism.orgCsustaina!leC$J3C7ue!ecCanglaisCdeclaration."tml
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Sustainable Tourism &roposals
#.1.10 Tourism itself is a !road concept and tourism pro6ects can vary greatly in si:e and
nature. For example t"ey can range from a t"eme park development )e.g.
4isneyland* or a walking trail in a country park and can include infrastructure to
support t"e existing tourism facilities )e.g. access road improvement to a resort area*
or a reform of a licensing system for tourism operators in a protected area. As suc"
t"e sustaina!le tourism pro6ects identified for t"is review are wide ranging.
Screening
#.1.1A ,creening is a process of determining w"et"er or not an assessment is re7uired for a
particular pro6ect and it is intended to ensure t"at proposed pro6ect is su!6ect to t"e
appropriate extent and type of environmental assessment.
Scoping
#.1.1. ,coping provides a focus for environmental assessment !y identifying key issues of
concern at an early stage and ensuring t"at t"ey are su!6ect to assessment at t"e
appropriate level.
%nvironmental 'eport
#.1.1D 3nvironmental report means a document containing t"e description of t"e likely
environmental impacts. T"e terminology used for descri!ing t"e document varies in
different countries )e.g. environmental report environmental statement assessment
statement*.
#.1.1E T"e level of details and t"e content re7uirements of environmental report are su!6ect
to t"e assessment re7uirements of t"e countries. An environmental report can
contain preliminary review findings or compre"ensive analysis of assessment results.
&ublic (onsultation
#.1.1F 2u!lic consultation is a process involving t"e pu!lic w"ic" is formalised t"erefore
o!liging t"e competent aut"ority to take t"e results into consideration. $ncreasingly
green groups or organisations engage in t"e process of pu!lic consultation and
contri!ute during t"e environmental protection scrutiny of tourism policies plans
programmes and proposals.
Strategic %nvironmental "ssessment )S%"*
#.1.#- ,3A is a systematic process wit" multi/stake"older involvement for analysing and
evaluating environmental implications of proposed policies plans and programmes
for assisting in strategic or planning decision/making and for following up strategic or
planning decisions
F
.
#.1.#1 ,3A includes t"e evaluation of t"e likely environmental implications t"at will
ultimately lead to determining t"e scope of an environmental report and its
preparation and pu!lic participation and consultation and taking t"ese factors into
account in t"e plan or programme
1-
.
F
Hong Kong ,trategic 3nvironmental Assessment %anual )$nteractive 3dition* 324.
"ttp+CCwww.epd.gov."kCepdCenglis"Cenvironmentin"kCeiaIplanningCsea#--ACinteractiveCp1-111."tml
1-
2rotocol on ,trategic 3nvironmental Assessment to t"e 'onvention on 3nvironmental $mpact
Assessment in a Trans!oundary 'ontext ;nited 8ations 3conomic 'ommission for 3urope.
"ttp+CCunece.orgCenvCeiaCdocumentsCprotocolenglis".pdf
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Strategic %nvironmental +onitoring and "udit )S%+,"*
#.1.## ,3%LA is a process of monitoring t"e enviornmental performance and auditing t"e
results of t"e performance of implementing a policy plan or programme.
2.2 &ac'groun% to the (eview
%nvironmental %valuation of Tourism &olicies, &lans and &rogrammes
#.#.1 T"e multi/sectoral nature of tourism makes t"e development of tourism policy a
complex matter. %any government departments suc" as finance immigration "ealt"
education and environment )to name !ut a few* can "ave an influence on "ow
tourism policies are developed.
#.#.# To facilitate t"e process of policy making most 6urisdictions "ave a %inistry of Tourism
or a similar entity t"at is c"arged wit" co/ordinating t"e process of tourism policy
making. @ecause of its status as a ,pecial Administrative Region ),AR* of t"e
2eoples Repu!lic of '"ina )2R'* Hong Kongs situation is different.
#.#.& 2rior to t"e esta!lis"ment of t"e Tourism 'ommission )T'* under t"e 3conomic
4evelopment and (a!our @ureau of t"e =overnment of t"e HK,AR in %ay 1FFF
Hong Kong did not "ave a single government entity t"at was responsi!le for tourism
policy and development. Alt"oug" t"e Hong Kong Tourist Association )HKTA* "ad
!een esta!lis"ed decades !efore its role was predominantly t"e marketing of t"e
destination )t"is role is now played !y t"e Hong Kong Tourist @oard )HKT@**.
#.#.0 ,ince its esta!lis"ment t"e T' "as spear"eaded t"e development of tourism in Hong
Kong !y initiating ma6or tourism infrastructure pro6ects suc" as Hong Kong
4isneyland and !y commissioning consultancy studies t"at investigate t"e feasi!ility
of potential new tourism pro6ects suc" as ecotourism in t"e 8ort"ern 8ew Territories.
#.#.A $n its decision making process t"e T' draws on t"e knowledge of t"e mem!ers of t"e
Tourism ,trategy =roup t"at is made up of representatives of government industry
and academics. T"e T' provides a voice for tourism in all government decisions t"at
impact on t"e way t"e sector develops in Hong Kong and t"us makes a ma6or
contri!ution to t"e success of tourism.
#.#.. Tourism is one of t"e ma6or economic pillars of Hong Kong. $n #--A t"e tourism
industry set a new record wit" over #& million visitor arrivals up D.1M year/on/year
11
.
Tourism expenditure associated wit" in!ound tourism registered dou!le/digit growt"
of 10.1M compared wit" #--0 reac"ing a total of HKN1-A... !illion
1#
.
#.#.D Tourism related activities can eit"er impact positively or negatively on t"e environment
in w"ic" t"ey take place. ?n t"e positive side growt" in tourism can !e a catalyst for
improving t"e environmental 7uality conserving t"e natural environment and cultural
"eritage !ecause of t"e expectations and demands from tourists for an intact
environment. ?n t"e negative side if not properly managed tourism may compete for
scarce resources )e.g. land* cause degradation of t"e p"ysical environment
contri!ute to local air pollution and may put considera!le pressures on local
communities.
#.#.E T"e interdependence !etween tourism and t"e environment makes environmental
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Tourism 2erformance Tourism 'ommission.
"ttp+CCwww.tourism.gov."kCenglis"CstatisticsCstatisticsIperform."tml
1#
HKT@ releases #--A Oisitor ,pending and Fe!ruary #--. Oisitor Arrival Figures Asia Travel Tips.
"ttp+CCwww.asiatraveltips.comCnews-.C#D&/HongKong.s"tml
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protection scrutiny important in t"e decision/making process of tourism policies. $n
Hong Kong environmental protection scrutiny of many tourism activities is presently
re7uired wit"in t"e current administrative and statutory framework.
#.#.F 'urrently ,3As in Hong Kong are generally applica!le to t"ree types of policies plans
and programmes including territorial land use planning
1&
transportation strategies
and policies
10
and sectoral strategies and policies
1A
. ,ome of t"e policies strategies
w"ic" "ave !een undergone t"e ,3A process were related to tourism development
)e.g. cross !oundary transportation planning could facilitate t"e cross !order tourism
development*.
#.#.1- T"e #--A/#--. '"ief 3xecutives 2olicy Address stated t"at in t"e future all new
ma6or government policies will !e su!6ect to environmental protection scrutiny
1.
and
t"at sustaina!ility and environmental considerations would !e taken into account
!efore ma6or policy decisions were made
1D
. %a6or tourism policies t"us are re7uired
to go t"roug" a strategic environmental assessment process under t"is
administrative re7uirement.
#.#.11 Apart from t"e administration re7uirement ,3A can !e undertaken under t"e
3nvironmental $mpact Assessment ?rdinance )3$A?*
1E
. ;nder t"e 3$A? it is
mandated to undertake 3nvironmental $mpact Assessment )3$A* for ma6or ur!an
development or redevelopment pro6ects listed in ,c"edule & of t"e ?rdinance prior to
construction and operation. T"e assessment can !e regarded as statutory ,3A for
ma6or development plans. T"e 8ort"s"ore (antau 4evelopment Feasi!ility ,tudy
completed in #--- is one example of an ,3A report for a development plan under
t"e 3$A? decisions
1F
.
(ertification, "ssessment and %nforcement for Sustainable Tourism &roposals
#.#.1# T"ere is no statutory and non/statutory re7uirement on t"e certification assessment
and enforcement for sustaina!le tourism proposals in Hong Kong. ,ome tourism
proposals are under t"e am!it of t"e 3$A?.
#.#.1& T"e 3$A? is adopted to provide for assessing t"e environmental impacts of certain
pro6ects and proposals so as to protect t"e environment. To minimise t"e potential
environmental impact from pro6ect developments a list of pro6ects t"at can "ave
adverse impact on t"e environment are defined as 4esignated 2ro6ects in ,c"edule
# of t"e 3$A? and it is mandated t"at t"ese 4esignated 2ro6ects are su!6ect to an
3$A process.
#.#.10 An 3nvironmental 2ermit is re7uired from t"e 4irector of t"e 324 for a 4esignated
2ro6ect prior to construction and operation. $n t"e 3$A process t"e assessment of
environmental impacts of a pro6ect are re7uired t"roug" eit"er an initial
environmental review of a 2ro6ect 2rofile if t"e 4irect Application of an
1&
G Hong Kong ,trategic 3nvironmental Assessment %anual )$nteractive 3dition*H 324.
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Hong Kong ,trategic 3nvironmental Assessment %anual )$nteractive 3dition*H 324.
"ttp+CCwww.epd.gov."kCepdCenglis"Cenvironmentin"kCeiaIplanningCsea#--ACinteractiveCp&1-1-#."tml
1A
Hong Kong ,trategic 3nvironmental Assessment %anual )$nteractive 3dition*H 324.
"ttp+CCwww.epd.gov."kCepdCenglis"Cenvironmentin"kCeiaIplanningCsea#--ACinteractiveCp&1-1-&."tml
1.
GT"e #--A/. 2olicy AddressH HK,AR. "ttp+CCwww.policyaddress.gov."kC-A/-.CengCpAF."tm
1D
G(' 2aper 8o. '@)1* &00C-A/-.H (egislative 'ouncil. "ttp+CCwww.legco.gov."kCyr-A/
-.Cenglis"CpanelsCeaCminutesCea-A1-#1.pdfPsearc"QM###--A/#--.M#-policyM#-address
M#-environmentalM#-protectionM#-scrutinyM##
1E
3nvironmental $mpact Assessment ?rdinance 324.
"ttp+CCwww.epd.gov."kCeiaCenglis"ClegisCindex1."tml
1F
8ort"s"ore (antau 4evelopment Feasi!ility ,tudy Final Report 3nvironmental Resources
%anagement. "ttp+CCwww.epd.gov."kCeiaCregisterCreportCeiareportCeiaI-0-#---Cindex."tml
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3nvironmental 2ermit is soug"t or !y applying for an 3$A ,tudy @rief and
undertaking a detailed study in an 3$A report s"ould t"e full 3$A process !e re7uired.
2u!lic inspection is re7uired for !ot" processes. T"e principles procedures
guidelines re7uirements and criteria of conducting an 3$A are detailed in t"e relevant
Tec"nical %emorandum
#-
and =uidance 8otes
#1
. @y undertaking an 3$A t"e
potential impacts of a pro6ect and alternatives or mitigation measures can !e
identified in t"e early planning stages.
#.#.1A $n ,c"edule # of t"e 3$A? some tourist and recreational developments are classified
as designated pro6ects suc" as a motor racing circuit a t"eme park or amusement
park wit" a site area of more t"an #- "ectares in si:e. ;nless ot"erwise specified in
,c"edule # pro6ects located in an existing or ga:etted proposed country park or
special area a conservation area an existing or ga:etted proposed marine park or
marine reserve a site of cultural "eritage and a site of special scientific interest are
also defined as designated pro6ects. As more tourists are interested in t"e green
attractions in Hong Kong more proposals associated wit" tourism development in
t"e a!ove areas are expected from developers.
#.#.1. T"e 3$A? is t"e existing legal mec"anism t"at is used to ensure t"e tourism related
pro6ects wit"in t"e a!ove scopes are implemented in an environmentally sustaina!le
manner.
#-
Tec"nical %emorandum 324. "ttp+CCwww.epd.gov."kCeiaCenglis"ClegisCindex&."tml
#1
A =uide to 3nvironmental $mpact Assessment ?rdinance 324.
"ttp+CCwww.epd.gov."kCeiaCenglis"CguidCindex1."tml
Final Report Page 11
Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals
%. &ET'ODO(O$)
%.1 (eview )rocess
&.1.1 4ue to t"e specific information re7uired for t"is review a 7uestionnaire was developed
and circulated to relevant parties in t"e countries and t"e organisations t"at were
identified. T"e 7uestionnaire is provided in Appendix A1 and t"e information
re7uested included information on t"eir environmental evaluation mec"anisms of
tourism policies plans and programmes and statutory or non/statutory re7uirements
of certification assessment and enforcement for sustaina!le tourism proposals.
&.1.# For eac" of t"e countries and organisations t"e government aut"orities responsi!le
for environmental protection and for tourism policy were targeted. T"is included
national regional or local aut"orities environmental protection aut"orities or tourism
commissions. T"e aut"orities t"at "ave !een contacted are summarised in Appendix
A#. All communication )w"et"er !y email letter or p"one call* was centrally recorded
and carefully tracked.
&.1.& $n parallel wit" t"e circulation of re7uests for information an internet and literature
searc" was also carried out and t"e sources of information were recorded.
&.1.0 T"e 7uestionnaires t"at were returned were compiled into summary ta!les in
appendices and an analysis of t"e policy tools was undertaken.
&.1.A An overall review and comparison of t"e various mec"anisms and processes used for
t"e environmental evaluation of tourism policies plans and programmes and for
certification assessment and enforcement for sustaina!le tourism proposals was
t"en undertaken.
&.1.. References "ave !een 7uoted for t"e information provided and acknowledgements
"ave !een made appropriately. T"e relevant we!/links to t"e full version of
information and documents referenced "ave eit"er !een provided or as necessary a
"ard copy of t"e documents "as !een included. Furt"er agreements "ave !een
o!tained from t"e relevant sources for producing t"e reports and reproduction of any
legislation or tec"nical guidance documents t"at are not pu!licly availa!le.
&.1.D To ensure t"e correct analysis and interpretation was undertaken !ot" internal and
external review from t"e countries C organisations providing t"e information was
undertaken.
%.2 (eview Approach
&olicy Tools
&.#.1 $n practicing environmental protection scrutiny on tourism policies plans and
programmes and assessment certification and enforcement for sustaina!le tourism
proposals a wide range of policy tools are used C initiated. $n general t"ey can !e
categorised into command and control voluntary and economic instruments. T"is
study identifies "ow t"ey are used in different countries and organisations.
&.#.# 'ommand and control instruments cover !ot" legislative and administrative
re7uirements including legislations regulations licensing land use planning and
development control. (egislation provides t"e aut"ority to enforce re7uirements
w"ic" are defined and ela!orated !y regulations. (icensing is "elpful in strengt"ening
compliance suc" as controlling t"e num!er of operators in a particular area.
Final Report Page 12
Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals
&.#.& $n terms of t"e environmental protection scrutiny in t"e tourism decision/making
process legislation and regulations could !e used for t"e purpose of controlling
environmental impact )e.g. control t"e disc"arge of wastewater in t"e protected area*
or promoting environmental sustaina!ility )e.g. empower an aut"ority to promote
sustaina!le tourism*. T"e legislation and regulations can !e specific to tourism )e.g.
T"e %aldives Tourism Act 1FFF provides a framework for t"e determination of :ones
and islands for t"e development of tourism in %aldives* or generally applied to
environmental protection )e.g. 3$A?*.
&.#.0 Ooluntary instruments include guidelines codes of conduct reporting and auditing and
certification. =uidelines and codes of conduct can !e drawn up !y t"e government C
organisations or initiated !y t"e industry eit"er implemented in individual country or
internationally. =uidelines and codes are not limited to operation )e.g. code of
conduct for tour operators in sensitive area*5 it can !e applied in t"e policy planning
and development control process. ,imilarly reporting and auditing could !e used as
assessment criteria in evaluating a plan or proposal or a monitoring tool for a pro6ect.
&.#.A 'ertification in tourism is used primarily to measure t"e 7uality of tourism operators or
destinations. Recently more certification sc"emes cover sustaina!ility issues and C
or measure GprocessH suc" as "aving an environmental management in t"e tourism
development plan.
&.#.. 3conomic instrument can !e implemented in t"e forms of imposing taxes or c"arges
or providing financial incentives. Taxes C c"arges in relation to environmental input or
output during tourism activities or protected areas can !e used to affect t"e
environmental performance of a tourism pro6ect or a destination suc" as entrance fee
of a national park can "elp to control t"e num!er of visitors. Financial assistance
offered !y government or world organi:ation could influence t"e environmental
performance of tourism development )e.g. ;83,'? >orld Heritage sites*.
"nalysis of the &olicy Tools
&.#.D $n analysing t"e policy tools adopted !y individual countries and organisations
identified in t"is study t"e following aspects of t"e tools were reviewed+
Type of t"e policy tool )i.e. statutory or non/statutory*
Aut"orities and stake"olders
2rocess
o ,creening and ,coping
o Assessment %et"od
o 3nvironmental Reporting
o 'onsultation
%onitoring
&.#.E ;pon t"e findings of individual countries and organisations an overall review and
comparison were undertaken to identify t"e trend of glo!al practices in t"e
environmental evaluation of tourism policies plans and programmes and
certification assessment and enforcement for sustaina!le tourism proposals.
&.#.F T"e review and comparison covered t"e following aspects+
Types of policy tool adopted
Final Report Page 13
Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals
o command and control instrument5
o voluntary instrument5 and
o economic instrument.
,tatutory or non/statutory
'"aracteristics of sustaina!le tourism pro6ects
"pplication and -imitation
&.#.1- As descri!ed in ,ection # tourism itself is a !road concept and tourism development
is not limited to t"e tourism policies plans programmes and proposals !ut can !e
driven !y ot"er non/tourism policies plans programmes and proposals )e.g. an
improvement in t"e access road to a country park can affect t"e tourism activities in
t"e park*. T"is study focuses on t"e environmental evaluation mec"anisms and
processes for tourism specific policies plans and programmes and t"e certification
assessment and enforcement for sustaina!le tourism proposals.
&.#.11 T"e examples of sustaina!le tourism pro6ects presented in t"is report are not
necessarily tourism specific. T"e pro6ects t"emselves may "ave !een driven !y t"e
need of environmental improvement protection of cultural "eritage improvement in
local employment and ot"er factors.
&.#.1# T"e review of t"e environmental evaluation mec"anisms and processes for tourism
policies plans programmes and proposals was primarily undertaken at national C
federal level. A review of regional C territorial practices was only undertaken w"en t"e
national C federal mec"anisms or processes were not availa!le. As suc" more
specific area wide C state wide programmes may!e in place.
Final Report Page 14
Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals
*. RE+IE, -INDIN$
*.1 )resentation of the *in%ings
0.1.1 2art two of t"is report presents t"e findings and analysis of t"e review of eac" country
or organisation. 3ac" country or organisation is presented wit" a summary of t"e
processes adopted for t"e environmental protection scrutiny of tourism policies
plans and programmes as well as t"e met"ods used for t"e certification assessment
and enforcement for sustaina!le tourism proposals. Reference is made to t"e
information presented in a summary ta!le for eac" country or organisation in an
Appendix. >"ere necessary copies of t"e statutory or guideline documents used in
t"ese processes are also attac"ed wit"in eac" Appendix.
0.1.# T"e findings are alp"a!etically presented from t"e countries in t"e regions+ 3urope
Australasia 8ort" America ,out" America Asia and Africa. 4evelopment co/
operations and ot"er organisations are presented following t"e country reviews.
Final Report Page 15
Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals
.. "N"()I "ND DICUION
A.1.1 @ased on t"e findings of t"e various mec"anisms and processes used for t"e
environmental evaluation of tourism policies plans and programmes as well as t"e
assessment certification and enforcement for sustaina!le tourism proposals an
analysis "as !een undertaken on t"e trend similarity or difference of t"e
mec"anisms and processes employed in different countries C organisations.
..2 "iscussion on the Environ!ental Evaluation of +ouris! )olicies, )lans an%
)rogra!!es
A.#.1 ?nly command and control instrument were identified in t"e environmental evaluation
of tourism policies plans and programmes. 3conomic and voluntary instruments for
environmental evaluation of tourism policies plans and programmes were not found
in t"e countries of t"is review study.
A.#.# 4ue to t"e status of t"e development co/operations and t"e international
organisations t"e environmental evaluation instrument t"ey "ave used are on
voluntary rat"er t"an command and control !asis.
&olicy Tools for %nvironmental %valuation of Tourism &olicies, &lans and
&rogrammes
Tourism &olicies (ountries
A.#.& 8ot all countries in t"is review study "ave re7uirements eit"er statutory or
administrative for environmental evaluation of tourism policies.
A.#.0 T"ere are eig"t )i.e. 4enmark Finland 8et"erlands 8orway Australia 'anada
;nited ,tates of America and <apan* out of nineteen countries implementing
environmental evaluation on tourism policies. T"e policy tools adopted for t"e
environmental evaluation are different for t"e countries.
A.#.A ?ut of t"e eig"t countries wit" environmental evaluation re7uirements for tourism
polices only <apan is employing !ot" statutory and administrative framework.
8ationally t"e environmental evaluation mec"anism for tourism policies in <apan "as
not yet developed w"ile its application is limited to suc" as water development
activities. $n term of tourism policies t"e evaluation re7uirements are only
implemented in t"e prefectures and cities.
A.#.. 4enmark 8et"erlands 8orway and 'anada adopt an administrative approac" to
scrutinise environmental implications of tourism policies. T"e re7uirements are
provided in principle !asis )i.e. contains t"e !asic components C re7uirements for
evaluation* rat"er t"an prescriptive procedural approac" )i.e. provides a procedure
for evaluation*.
A.#.D Finland t"e ;nited ,tates of America and Australia are adopting a statutory approac"
for t"eir environmental evaluation of tourism policies !ut t"e contents are very
different.
Final Report Page 16
Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals
A.#.E T"e 3nvironmental 2rotection and @iodiversity 'onservation )32@'* Act is t"e key
legislation for assessing environmental implications of any actions t"at can "ave
significant impacts on t"e national significant matters in Australia. T"e legislation is
mainly applica!le to p"ysical activities5 "owever it can apply to policies in w"ic"
development activities will !e followed.
A.#.F ,imilar to Australia t"e 8ational 3nvironmental 2olicy Act )832A* and its regulations
are adopted to assess environmental implications of other ma.or /ederal actions in
t"e ;nited ,tates of America w"ic" can apply to policies plans programmes as well
as pro6ects.
Tourism &olicies 0rganisations
A.#.1- Two organisations Asian 4evelopment @ank and >orld @ank "ave re7uirements on
environmental evaluation of tourism policies. T"e ;nited 8ations 4evelopment
2rogramme );842* assists countries in integrating environmental considerations
during planning and decision/making process !ut t"ere is no stated re7uirement.
Tourism &lans and &rogrammes (ountries
A.#.11 8ot all countries in t"is review study "ave re7uirements eit"er statutory or
administrative for environmental evaluation of tourism plans and programmes.
A.#.1# T"ere are twelve )i.e. Austria 4enmark Finland 8et"erlands 8orway ;nited
Kingdom Australia 'anada ;nited ,tates of America '"ina <apan and ,out"
Korea* out of nineteen countries "ave environmental evaluation mec"anisms for
tourism plans and programmes.
A.#.1& 8orway and <apan are adopting !ot" statutory and administrative framework w"ile
t"e ot"er countries adopt eit"er administrative or statutory policy tools.
A.#.10 A strategic environmental assessment approac" "as !een adopted in all 3uropean
countries )i.e. Austria 4enmark Finland 8et"erlands 8orway and t"e ;nited
Kingdom* and 'anada. T"e re7uirements of t"e ,3A for tourism plans and
programmes of t"ese 3uropean countries are !ased on t"e 3;s ,3A 4irective. An
environmental assessment is re7uired if t"e tourism plan or programme will set t"e
framework for t"e future consent of a designated pro6ect.
A.#.1A $n 'anada an environmental assessment is re7uired under t"e administrative
re7uirements if t"e plan or programme is likely to "ave significant environmental
impacts and re7uires 'a!inet approval.
A.#.1. Alt"oug" it is in t"e stage of development t"e approac" for <apan in t"e
environmental evaluation of tourism plans and programmes are also !ased on
strategic assessment approac".
A.#.1D T"e 3nvironmental 2rotection and @iodiversity 'onservation )32@'* Act is t"e key
legislation for assessing environmental implications of any actions t"at can "ave
significant impacts on t"e national significant matters in Australia. T"e legislation is
mainly applica!le to p"ysical activities5 "owever it can apply to plans and
programmes in w"ic" development activities will !e followed.
Final Report Page 17
Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals
A.#.1E ,imilar to t"e Australia t"e 8ational 3nvironmental 2olicy Act )832A* and its
regulations are adopted to assess environmental implications of other ma.or /ederal
actions in t"e ;nited ,tates of America w"ic" can apply to policies plans
programmes as well as pro6ects.
A.#.1F $n '"ina environmental evaluation of tourism plans and programmes are re7uired
prior to t"e esta!lis"ment of t"e plans or programmes.
A.#.#- T"e statutory approac" for environmental evaluation of tourism plans and
programmes in Korea is different from ot"er countries. T"e environmental evaluation
is conducted w"en t"e framework of t"e plans or programme "ave already C almost
!een confirmed.
Tourism &lans and &rogrammes 0rganisations
A.#.#1 Two organisations Asian 4evelopment @ank and >orld @ank "ave re7uirements on
environmental evaluation of tourism plans and programmes. T"e ;nited 8ations
4evelopment 2rogramme );842* assists countries in integrating environmental
considerations during planning and decision/making process !ut t"ere is no stated
re7uirement.
A.#.## A summary of environmental evaluation tools for tourism policies plans and
programmes is presented in ta!le A.1.
Final Report Page 18
Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals
Table ..2u//ar0 of Environ/ental Evaluation Tools for Touris/ 1olicies2 1lans and 1rogra//es
Countr- . Organisation )olicies )lans )rogra!!es
3nvironmental 3valuation Tools ,tatutory Administrative ,tatutory Administrative ,tatutory Administrative
Austria R R R R
4enmark R R R
Finland R R R
=ermany R R R R R R
8et"erlands R R R
8orway R
,wit:erland R R R R R R
;nited Kingdom R R R R
Australia R R R
8ew 9ealandS R R R R R R
'anada R R R
;nited ,tates of America R R R
'osta Rica R R R R R R
'"ina R R R R
<apanSS
,ingapore R R R R R R
,out" Korea R R R R
T"ailand R R R R R R
,out" Africa R R R R R R
Asian 4evelopment @ank R R R
=reen =lo!e R R R R R R
;nited 8ations 4evelopment 2rogramme R R R R R R
;nited 8ations 3nvironment 2rogramme R R R R R R
;83,'? >orld Heritage R R R R R R
;nited 8ations >orld Tourism ?rganisation R R R R R R
>orld @ank R R R
Remarks+
HRH / information on environmental evaluation tools were not found in t"is review study.
GH / environmental evaluation tools were found in t"is review study.
GSH / environmental implications of tourism related policies plans or programmes can !e incorporated in t"e regional or district plans stipulated in t"e statutory re7uirements
GSSH / under development and "as not yet esta!lis"ed a national environmental evaluation framework
Final Report Page 19
Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals
Final Report Page 20
Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals
%nvironmental %valuation 'e1uirements for Tourism &olicies, &lans or &rogrammes
A.#.#& T"e following descri!es t"e environmental evaluation re7uirements of t"e eleven
countries )i.e. Austria 4enmark Finland 8et"erlands 8orway ;nited Kingdom
Australia 'anada ;nited ,tates of America '"ina and ,out" Korea* w"ic" "ave
environmental evaluation mec"anisms for tourism policies and C or tourism plans or
programmes. <apan is not included in t"e discussion !ecause t"e national
re7uirements "ave not yet esta!lis"ed.
A.#.#0 Alt"oug" environmental evaluation is re7uired for tourism policies plans and
programmes in t"e Asian 4evelopment @ank and >orld @ank specific details on t"e
re7uirements of environmental evaluation were not found.
Screening and Scoping
A.#.#A T"e re7uirements for screening and scoping vary wit" t"e countries.
A.#.#. ?nly Finland 8et"erlands 8orway and Australia re7uire !ot" screening and scoping
w"ile no screening and scoping are re7uired in t"e ;nited Kingdom and ,out"
Korea.
A.#.#D $n 4enmark screening and scoping are re7uired for tourism policies !ut not tourism
plans and programmes.
A.#.#E $n Austria t"e ;nited ,tates of America and '"ina screening is not re7uired !ut
scoping is re7uired. 'anada is t"e only one t"at screening is re7uired !ut scoping is
not re7uired.
"ssessment +ethod
A.#.#F Apart from Australia assessment met"od is not specified in t"eir re7uirements of t"e
ot"er ten countries.
A.#.&- Australia is different in w"ic" t"e 3nvironment %inister advises t"e assessment
met"od )i.e. preliminary information 23R 3$, $n7uiry* t"at s"ould !e taken for a
pro6ect. T"e assessment is varied in terms of t"e scope and extent of t"e
assessment t"e met"od and t"e level of pu!lic participation.
%nvironmental 'eporting
A.#.&1 Re7uirements for reporting on preliminary review findings and C or on compre"ensive
analysis of assessment results vary wit" different countries.
A.#.&# Apart from Australia and 'anada reporting on preliminary environmental review of
tourism policies and C or tourism plans and programmes is not specified in t"e
relevant statutory or administrative re7uirements of t"e ot"er nine countries.
A.#.&& $n t"e process of making referral in Australia and conducting preliminary scan in
'anada reporting for t"ese initial reviews are re7uired. Re7uirements for furt"er
assessment will !e !ased on t"e results of t"ese initial reviews. $f furt"er analysis are
re7uired environmental report containing t"e compre"ensive analysis of t"e likely
environmental impacts are re7uired in Australia. $n 'anada t"e results of t"e
analysis s"all !e summarised as pu!lic statement wit" t"e policies plans and
programmes.
Final Report Page 21
Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals
A.#.&0 3nvironmental reporting for analysing t"e assessment results of tourism policies
and C or plans and programmes is re7uired in Austria 4enmark Finland
8et"erlands 8orway t"e ;nited Kingdom t"e ;nited ,tates of America '"ina and
Korea.
A.#.&A $n 4enmark t"e assessment findings of tourism policies s"all !e incorporated into
t"e policy proposals su!mitted for approval.
A.#.&. $n t"e ;nited ,tates some policies plans and programmes re7uire reporting on
preliminary review )environmental assessment document* and ot"er re7uired
compre"ensive reporting )environmental impact statement*.
A.#.&D T"e content re7uirements in t"e environmental reporting are provided in t"e relevant
statutory or administrative re7uirements in Austria 4enmark Finland 8et"erlands
8orway t"e ;nited Kingdom Australia t"e ;nited ,tates of America and '"ina !ut
not in 'anada and Korea. $n Korea two types of forms are specified to cover t"e
general environmental status and t"e environmental impacts specific to t"e pro6ect.
(onsultation
A.#.&E 'onsultation wit" aut"orities is re7uired for all countries wit" environmental
evaluation re7uirements on tourism policies plans and programmes.
A.#.&F 2u!lic consultation is stipulated in all of t"e countries except Korea during t"e
evaluation process. 2u!lic opinions will !e solicited on t"e draft tourism policies
plans or programmes and t"e environmental report.
A.#.0- $n 4enmark pu!lic participation is re7uired during t"e evaluation process of tourism
plans and programmes !ut not tourism policies.
A.#.01 For countries wit" pu!lic consultation in t"e evaluation process t"e competent
aut"ority is re7uired to take into account t"e pu!lic opinions in making t"e decisions
on t"e policies plans or programmes proposals and to display t"e relevant
information of t"e decision for pu!lic inspection.
+onitoring
A.#.0# %onitoring for t"e environmental impacts of t"e implementation of t"e tourism
policies plans and programmes are re7uired in all of t"e countries wit"
environmental evaluation processes except t"e ;nited ,tates of America.
A.#.0& A summary of environmental evaluation re7uirements for tourism policies
programmes and plans is presented in ta!le A.#.
Final Report Page 22
Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals
Table ..%u//ar0 of Environ/ental Evaluation Re3uire/ents for Touris/ 1olicies2 1lans and 1rogra//es
Countries Screening an% Scoping Assess!ent /etho% Environ!ental (eporting Consultation /onitoring
Austria Screening is not required.
Scoping is required.

ssess!ent !et"od is not speci#ied
Reporting on assess!ent results is
required and preli!inar$ re%ie& reporting is
not required.
'ontent require!ents #or reporting are
pro%ided.

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.

Pu(lic consultation is required.


)onitoring is required.
4enmark Screening and scoping are required #or
policies (ut not required in plans and
progra!!es.

ssess!ent !et"od is not speci#ied.


*etails o# t"e reporting depend on t"e
purpose o# t"e polic$ and it s"ould (e part o#
t"e polic$ proposal.
Reporting on assess!ent results is
required and preli!inar$ re%ie& reporting is
not required #or plans and progra!!es.
'ontent require!ents #or reporting are
pro%ided #or policies+ plans and progra!!es.

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.

Pu(lic consultation is not required #or policies (ut


is required #or plans and progra!!es.
)onitoring is required #or policies+ plans
and progra!!es.
Finland Screening and Scoping are required.
ssess!ent !et"od is not speci#ied.
Reporting on assess!ent results is
required and preli!inar$ re%ie& reporting is
not required.
'ontent require!ents #or reporting are
pro%ided.

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.

Pu(lic consultation is required.


)onitoring is required.
8et"erlands Screening and scoping are required.
ssess!ent !et"od is not speci#ied.
Reporting on assess!ent results is
required and preli!inar$ re%ie& reporting is
not required.
'ontent require!ents #or reporting are
pro%ided.

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.

Pu(lic consultation is required.


)onitoring is required.
8orway Screening and scoping are required.
ssess!ent !et"od is not speci#ied.
Reporting on assess!ent results is
required and preli!inar$ re%ie& reporting is
not required.
'ontent require!ents #or reporting are
pro%ided.

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.

Pu(lic consultation is required.


)onitoring is required.
;nited Kingdom Screening and scoping are not required.
ssess!ent !et"od is not speci#ied.
Reporting on assess!ent results is
required and preli!inar$ re%ie& reporting is
not required.
'ontent require!ents #or reporting are
pro%ided.

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.

Pu(lic consultation is required.


)onitoring is required.
Australia Screening and scoping are required.
ssess!ent !et"od is speci#ied ($ t"e
Reporting on preli!inar$ re%ie& is
required in t"e process o# !a,ing re#erral

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.


)onitoring is required.
Final Report Page 23
Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals
Countries Screening an% Scoping Assess!ent /etho% Environ!ental (eporting Consultation /onitoring
-n%iron!ent )inister. and assess!ent on preli!inar$ in#or!ation.
Reporting on assess!ent results is
required i# #urt"er assess!ent is required.
'ontent require!ents #or reporting are
pro%ided.

Pu(lic consultation is required.


'anada Screening is required.
Scoping is not required.

ssess!ent !et"od is not speci#ied.
Reporting on preli!inar$ re%ie& can (e
underta,en.
Reporting on assess!ent results is
required i# #urt"er assess!ent is required.
'ontent require!ent #or reporting &ere
not #ound.

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.

Pu(lic consultation is reco!!ended.


)onitoring is required.
;nited ,tates of
America
Screening is not required.
Scoping is required.

ssess!ent !et"od is not speci#ied.
So!e pro.ects require reporting on
preli!inar$ re%ie& /en%iron!ental
assess!ent docu!ent0 and so!e pro.ects
require reporting on assess!ent results
/en%iron!ental i!pact state!ent0
'ontent require!ent #or t"e
en%iron!ental i!pact state!ent are pro%ided

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.

Pu(lic consultation is required.


Pro%ision on !onitoring &as not #ound.
'"ina Screening is not required.
Scoping is required.

ssess!ent !et"od is not speci#ied (ut is
reco!!ended in t"e guidelines.
Reporting on preli!inar$ re%ie& can (e
underta,en and reporting on assess!ent
results is required.
'ontent require!ent #or reporting are
pro%ided

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.

Pu(lic consultation is required.


)onitoring is required.
,out" Korea Screening and scoping are not required.
ssess!ent !et"od is not speci#ied.
Reporting on assess!ent results is
required and preli!inar$ re%ie& reporting is
not required.
'ontent require!ents #or reporting &ere
not #ound.

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.

Pu(lic consultation is not required.


)onitoring is required.
Remarks+
T"e summary ta!le only covered countries and organisations wit" re7uirements for environmental evaluation of tourism policies plans and programmes..
Final Report Page 24
Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals
..% "iscussion on the Certification for Sustainable +ouris! )roposals
A.&.1 Apart from 'osta Rica no government aut"orities in t"e countries and relevant parties
in t"e organisation in t"is review study operate certification programme or system for
sustaina!le tourism proposals.
A.&.# Ooluntary certification programme initiated !y t"e non/government !odies were found
in 4enmark Australia t"e ;nited ,tates of America and t"e =reen =lo!e. =ermany
"as developed an environmental la!eling system w"ile an environmental
accreditation programmes for tourism !usinesses is under development in 8ew
9ealand.
A.&.& T"e 'osta Rica Tourism @oard operated a 'ertification for ,ustaina!le Tourism w"ic"
is on voluntary !asis for tourism industry )i.e. "otels providers agents* and
measured against t"e sustaina!ility principles.
A.&.0 $n 4enmark a la!elling sc"eme for 4anis" destinations 4estination #1 "as !een
developed and currently operated !y t"e 4estination #1 @oard w"ic" is composed of
organisations from tourism industry. T"e criteria for certification are !ased on t"e
ecological economic and socio/cultural sustaina!ility.
A.&.A $n Australia a non/profit organisation 3cotourism Australia "as developed t"ree types
of nature tourism or ecotourism product including tours attractions and
accommodation w"ic" are accredited on t"e principles of environmental economic
and social sustaina!ility.
A.&.. $n t"e ;ntied ,tates of America t"e ,ustaina!le Tourism 3co/'ertification 2rogram
),T32* was developed !y t"e ,ustaina!le Travel $nternational ),T$* w"ic" is
designed for !usinesses of all si:es t"at operate wit"in t"e segments of t"e travel
and tourism industry including tour operators accommodations attractions
transportation service providers and community !ased tourism.
A.&.D $n =ermany a national !rand for Tnatural en6oymentT Oia!ono is currently operated !y
a private company Oia!ono =m!H. Oia!ono is applica!le to accommodations
campsites destinations and country parks. 3nvironmental aspects are t"e ma6or
assessment criteria for granting t"e license of using t"e !rand.
A.&.E $n 8ew 9ealand t"e operator of Bualmark )i.e.8ew 9ealand tourismUs official 7uality
agency* is developing an environmental accreditation programme for tourism
!usinesses.
..* "iscussion on the Assess!ent for Sustainable +ouris! )roposals
A.0.1 Apart from 8ew 9ealand statutory or non/statutory assessment re7uirements for
sustaina!le tourism proposals were not found in t"e countries and organisations in
t"is study.
A.0.# 8ew 9ealand is adopting an effects/!ased statutory approac" in managing t"e
sustaina!ility issues in t"e country. Activities involve t"e use development and
protection of natural and p"ysical resources are re7uired to o!tain consent from t"e
relevant aut"orities for t"e purpose of sustaina!le management.
Final Report Page 25
Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals
A.0.& T"e ot"er countries in t"is review "ave environmental impact assessment
re7uirements for applica!le tourism proposals and t"e 3$A re7uirements are !ased
on command and control !asis. Ooluntary and economic instruments were not found
for assessing t"e environmental aspects of tourism proposals.
&olicy Tools for %nvironmental "ssessment of Tourism &roposals
A.0.0 Apart from ,ingapore all countries in t"is review study "ave environmental impact
assessment re7uirements for applica!le tourism proposals.
A.0.A Two organisations Asian 4evelopment @ank and >orld @ank "ave t"eir own
environmental evaluation re7uirements for tourism pro6ects. T"e ;nited 8ations
3nvironment 2rogramme re7uires environmental impact assessment for pro6ects it
undertakes !ut it does not contain its own re7uirements.
A.0.. Following will discuss t"e environmental assessment mec"anisms for tourism
proposals in t"e eig"teen countries of t"is study )i.e. include t"e discussion of 8ew
9ealand* and two organisations )i.e. Asian 4evelopment @ank and >orld @ank*.
A.0.D All countries in t"is review are adopting statutory framework for evaluating t"e
environmental aspects of tourism proposals. 8evert"eless t"e frameworks are
different.
A.0.E $n Austria Finland =ermany ,wit:erland 'anada 'osta Rica <apan T"ailand and
,out" Africa designated statutory environmental assessment re7uirements are
esta!lis"ed.
A.0.F T"e environmental evaluation legislations in 8et"erlands and 8orway t"e 32@' Act in
Australia t"e 832A in t"e ;nited ,tates of America t"e 3$A (aw of '"ina are
applica!le to !ot" tourism proposals and tourism plans and programmes.
A.0.1- T"e 3$A re7uirements are integrated into t"e planning legislations in 4enmark and
t"e ;nited Kingdom. T"e legislation applica!le to environmental assessment in
Korea also covers t"e re7uirements for impact assessment on traffic and disaster.
T"e environmental assessment re7uirements of 8ew 9ealand are integrated into t"e
legislation managing t"e resources use of t"e country.
A.0.11 $n 4enmark t"e 3$A re7uirements are set out in t"e &lanning "ct and an
administrative order. T"e uni7ueness of t"e assessment tool for 4enmark is t"at t"e
existing permit system under ot"er legislation co/exists wit" t"e 3$A mec"anism in
w"ic" t"e approval of environmental assessment can !e granted under permit
system in ot"er legislations.
A.0.1# $n t"e ;nited Kingdom t"e re7uirements for environmental assessment are
integrated into t"e town planning legislation. ;nlike t"e practices in 4enmark t"ere is
a prescriptive procedure for environmental assessment stipulated in t"e legislation of
t"e ;nited Kingdom.
A.0.1& $n Korea t"e statutory framework provides t"e ma6or re7uirements for undertaking
an environmental assessment w"ile some specific re7uirements are provided in t"e
2residential 4ecree or ot"er statutory or administrative re7uirements.
Final Report Page 26
Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals
A.0.10 $n Australia t"e environmental evaluation mec"anism for tourism proposals is same
as t"e policies plans and programmes. $t is different from t"e ot"er countries
!ecause t"e environmental aut"ority )i.e. 4epartment of t"e 3nvironment and
Heritage* deals wit" t"e policy proponent directly in t"e evaluation and approval
process.
A.0.1A $n 8ew 9ealand t"e environmental evaluation process is incorporated into t"e
process of applying permission for undertaking an activity.
A.0.1. T"e environmental evaluation re7uirements are set out in t"e operational manual in
t"e Asian 4evelopment @ank and >orld @ank.
Screening and Scoping
A.0.1D ,creening and scooping are re7uired in Austria 4enmark Finland 8et"erlands
8orway ;nited Kingdom Australia 'anada and 'osta Rica
A.0.1E ,creening and scoping are not re7uired in ,wit:erland 8ew 9ealand and ,out"
Africa.
A.0.1F $n =ermany t"e Asian 4evelopment @ank and t"e >orld @ank screening is re7uired
!ut not for scoping )i.e. scoping can !e undertaken in =ermany !ut it is not
mandated* and it is opposite in t"e ;nited ,tates of America '"ina <apan and
,out" Korea. ,ince t"ere a reform of t"e environmental evaluation mec"anism in
T"ailand it is not certain if screening and scoping are re7uired.
"ssessment +ethod
A.0.#- Apart from Australia and 'anada ot"er countries and organisations do not specify
t"e assessment met"ods in t"e re7uirements.
A.0.#1 $n Australia t"e 3nvironment %inister advises t"e assessment met"od )i.e.
preliminary information 23R 3$, $n7uiry* t"at s"ould !e taken for a pro6ect. T"e
assessment is varied in terms of t"e scope and extent of t"e assessment t"e
met"od and t"e level of pu!lic participation. 'anada is similar in w"ic" different
assessment met"ods are re7uired for different pro6ects w"ic" are stipulated in t"e
regulations and determined !y t"e %inister of t"e 3nvironment.
A.0.## $n Austria t"ere is a specification if t"e pro6ect s"all undertake a compre"ensive or
simplified assessment process.
A.0.#& $n Finland an assessment programme s"all !e prepared for approval !efore t"e
undertaking of an assessment and a preliminary study s"all !e undertaken to
determine if furt"er assessment is re7uired in ,wit:erland.
A.0.#0 T"e compre"ensiveness of t"e assessment varies wit" t"e categories of pro6ects in
'osta Rica '"ina and t"e Asian 4evelopment @ank.
%nvironmental 'eporting
A.0.#A Re7uirements for reporting on preliminary review findings and C or on compre"ensive
analysis of assessment results vary wit" different countries and organisations.
Final Report Page 27
Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals
A.0.#. Apart from ,wit:erland Australia and 'osta Rica re7uirement for preliminary review
reporting is not specified in ot"er countries. $n ,wit:erland preliminary study
reporting is re7uired to set out t"e likely environmental impacts of t"e pro6ect. $n
Australia t"e referral prepared !y t"e pro6ect proponent can !e understood as a
preliminary review reporting. $n 'osta Rica preliminary review reporting is divided
into two types for different categories of pro6ects and different compre"ensive
reporting is followed.
A.0.#D $n t"e ;nited ,tates of America preliminary review reporting is applica!le to some
pro6ects w"ile ot"ers re7uire compre"ensive reporting. $n '"ina preliminary
reporting is re7uired for certain types of pro6ects and t"ere are t"ree types of
reporting on assessment results.
A.0.#E T"e environmental reporting for descri!ing and analysing t"e assessment results is
re7uired in ot"er countries not mentioned a!ove )i.e. Austria 4enmark Finland
8et"erlands 8orway =ermany t"e ;nited Kingdom 8ew 9ealand 'anada <apan
,out" Korea T"ailand and ,out" Africa*. ;pon t"e preliminary study in ,wit:erland
and t"e results of t"e referral in Australia environmental reporting wit"
compre"ensive analysis is re7uired if furt"er assessment is re7uired.
A.0.#F 2reliminary review reporting is re7uired for category @ pro6ect in t"e Asian
4evelopment @ank. Reporting on assessment results are re7uired in t"e Asian
4evelopment @ank and t"e >orld @ank. T"ere are different reporting re7uirements
for different categories of pro6ects in Asian 4evelopment @ank.
A.0.&- 'ontent re7uirements are provided in t"e relevant statutory or administrative
re7uirements except in <apan and ,out" Korea.
(onsultation
A.0.&1 'onsultation wit" relevant aut"orities is re7uired in t"e assessment process in all of
t"e countries and it is not re7uired in t"e Asian 4evelopment @ank and t"e >orld
@ank.
A.0.&# 2u!lic consultation is stipulated in t"e evaluation framework of all countries except in
T"ailand w"ere t"e status is uncertain.
+onitoring
A.0.&& %onitoring or follow/up programmes are re7uired except in 4enmark =ermany
,wit:erland t"e ;nited Kingdom and t"e ;nited ,tates of America.
... "iscussion on the Enforce!ent for Sustainable +ouris! )roposals
A.A.1 Apart from 8ew 9ealand t"ere are no designated statutory or non/statutory
re7uirements for enforcing sustaina!le tourism proposals. 3nforcement mec"anisms
are specified in t"e Resources %anagement Act in 8ew 9ealand for ensuring t"e
implementation of t"e proposals is undertaken in a sustaina!le manner.
A.A.# For ot"er countries in t"is review environmental legislations in particular 3$A
re7uirements are adopted to enforce t"e tourism proposals are implemented in an
environmentally sustaina!le manner.
A.A.& A summary of t"e 'ertification Assessment and 3nforcement Tools for ,ustaina!le
Tourism 2roposals are depicted in Ta!le A.&.
Final Report Page 28
Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals
A.A.0 A summary of t"e 3nvironmental Assessment Re7uirement for ,ustaina!le Tourism
2roposals is presented in Ta!le A.0. T"e summary ta!le only covered t"e countries
and organisations wit" environmental assessment re7uirements for tourism
proposals.
Final Report Page 29
Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals
Table ..*u//ar0 of Certi4cation2 "ssess/ent and Enforce/ent Re3uire/ents for ustainable Touris/ 1ro5osals
Countr- . Organisation Certification Assess!ent Enforce!ent
Re7uirements ,tatutory 8on/,tatutory ,tatutory 8on/,tatutory ,tatutory 8on/,tatutory
Austria R R SSS R R R
4enmark R S SSS SSS R R
Finland R R SSS R R R
=ermany R SS SSS R R R
8et"erlands R R SSS R R R
8orway R R SSS R R R
,wit:erland R R SSS R R R
;nited Kingdom R R SSS R R R
Australia R S SSS R R R
8ew 9ealand R SS R R
'anada R R SSS R R R
;nited ,tates of America R S SSS R R R
'osta Rica R S SSS R R R
'"ina R R SSS R R R
<apan R R SSS R R R
,ingapore R R R R R R
,out" Korea R R SSS R R R
T"ailand R R SSS R R R
,out" Africa R R SSS R R R
Asian 4evelopment @ank R R R SSS R R
=reen =lo!e R R R R R
;nited 8ations 4evelopment 2rogramme R R R R R R
;nited 8ations 3nvironment 2rogramme R R R R R R
;83,'? >orld Heritage R R R R R R
;nited 8ations >orld Tourism ?rganisation R R R R R R
>orld @ank R R R SSS R R
Remarks+
HRH / re7uirements were not found in t"is review study.
GH / re7uirements were found in t"is review study.
GSH / voluntary certification programmes for destination attractions tourism industry
GSSH / in =ermany an environmental la!elling sc"eme was developed and an environmental accreditation programme is under development in 8ew 9ealand
GSSSH / environmental assessment re7uirements only
Final Report Page 30
Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals
Table ...u//ar0 of Environ/ental "ssess/ent Re3uire/ents for ustainable Touris/ 1ro5osals
'ountry ,creening and ,coping Assessment %et"od 3nvironmental Reporting 'onsultation %onitoring
Austria
Screening and Scoping are required.

1"ere are co!pre"ensi%e assess!ent and
si!pli#ied assess!ent procedures (ut t"e
!et"ods are not speci#ied.

Reporting on assess!ent results is required and


preli!inar$ re%ie& reporting is not required.

'ontent require!ents #or reporting are pro%ided

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.

Pu(lic consultation is required.


)onitoring is required.
4enmark
Screening and Scoping are required.

ssess!ent !et"od is not speci#ied.

Reporting on assess!ent results is required and
preli!inar$ re%ie& reporting is not required.

'ontent require!ents #or reporting are pro%ided

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.

Pu(lic consultation is required.


)onitoring require!ents &ere not
#ound.
Finland
Screening and Scoping are required.

ssess!ent !et"od is not speci#ied.

ssess!ent progra!!e is required #or


appro%al prior to t"e underta,ing o# t"e
assess!ent.

Reporting on assess!ent results is required and


preli!inar$ re%ie& reporting is not required.

'ontent require!ents #or reporting are pro%ided.

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.

Pu(lic consultation is required.


)onitoring is required.
=ermany
Screening is required.

Scoping can (e underta,en.

ssess!ent !et"od is not speci#ied (ut can (e


deter!ined in t"e scoping process.

Reporting on assess!ent results is required and


preli!inar$ re%ie& reporting is not required.

'ontent require!ents #or reporting are pro%ided.

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.

Pu(lic consultation is required.


)onitoring require!ents &ere not
#ound.
8et"erlands
Screening and Scoping are required.

ssess!ent !et"od is not speci#ied.

Reporting on assess!ent results is required and
preli!inar$ re%ie& reporting is not required.

'ontent require!ents #or reporting are pro%ided

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.

Pu(lic consultation is required.


)onitoring is required.
8orway
Screening and Scoping are required.

ssess!ent !et"od is not speci#ied.

Reporting on assess!ent results is required and
preli!inar$ re%ie& reporting is not required.

'ontent require!ents #or reporting are pro%ided

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.

Pu(lic consultation is required.


)onitoring is required.
,wit:erland
Screening and scoping are not required.

Preli!inar$ stud$ is required and #urt"er
assess!ent is required i# signi#icant
en%iron!ental i!pacts are e2pected

Reporting on preli!inar$ stud$ is required

3# #urt"er assess!ent is required+ reporting is

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.

Pu(lic consultation is required.


)onitoring require!ents &ere not
#ound.
Final Report Page 31
Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals

ssess!ent !et"od is not speci#ied


required.

'ontent require!ents #or reporting are pro%ided.


;nited Kingdom
Screening and scoping are required.

ssess!ent !et"od is not speci#ied.

Reporting on assess!ent results is required and
preli!inar$ re%ie& reporting is not required.

'ontent require!ents #or reporting are pro%ided.

'onsultation &it" consultation (odies is required.

Pu(lic consultation is required.


)onitoring require!ents &ere not
#ound.
Australia
Screening and scoping are required

ssess!ent !et"od is speci#ied ($ t"e
-n%iron!ent )inister.

Reporting on preli!inar$ re%ie& is required in t"e


process o# !a,ing re#erral and assess!ent on
preli!inar$ in#or!ation.

Reporting on assess!ent results is required i# #urt"er


assess!ent is required.

'ontent require!ents #or reporting are pro%ided.

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.

Pu(lic consultation is required.


)onitoring is required.
8ew 9ealand
Screening and scoping are not required.

ssess!ent !et"od is not speci#ied

Reporting on assess!ent results is required and
preli!inar$ re%ie& reporting is not required.

'ontent require!ents #or reporting are pro%ided.

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.

Pu(lic consultation is required.


)onitoring is required.
'anada
Screening and scoping are required

ssess!ent !et"od is stipulated in t"e
regulations or deter!ined ($ t"e )inister o#
t"e -n%iron!ent

Reporting on assess!ent results is required and


preli!inar$ re%ie& reporting is not required.

'ontent require!ents #or reporting are pro%ided.

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.

Pu(lic consultation is required.


)onitoring is required.
;nited ,tates of
America

Screening is not required.

Scoping is required.

ssess!ent !et"od is not speci#ied.



So!e pro.ects require reporting on preli!inar$
re%ie& /en%iron!ental assess!ent docu!ent0 and
so!e pro.ects require reporting on assess!ent
results /en%iron!ental i!pact state!ent0

'ontent require!ent #or reporting are pro%ided

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.

Pu(lic consultation is required.


)onitoring require!ents &ere not
#ound.
'osta Rica
Screening and scooping are required.

ssess!ent !et"od is not speci#ied (ut
assess!ents %ar$ &it" di##erent categories

Preli!inar$ reporting and reporting on assess!ent


results are required+ and t"e reporting

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.

)onitoring is required.
Final Report Page 32
Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals
o# pro.ects. require!ents %ar$ &it" di##erent categories o#
pro.ects

'ontent require!ents #or reporting are pro%ided.


Pu(lic consultation is required.
'"ina
Screening is not required.

Scoping is required.

ssess!ent !et"od is not speci#ied (ut is


reco!!ended in t"e guidelines.

Preli!inar$ reporting is required #or certain


categories o# pro.ects and t"ere are t"ree t$pes o#
en%iron!ental reporting.

'ontent require!ents #or reporting are pro%ided.

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.

Pu(lic consultation is required.


)onitoring is required.
<apan
Screening is required /not applica(le to touris!0

Scoping is required.

ssess!ent !et"od is not speci#ied (ut


deter!ined in scoping.

Reporting on assess!ent results is required and


preli!inar$ re%ie& reporting is not required.

'ontent require!ents #or reporting &ere not #ound.

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.

Pu(lic consultation is required.


)onitoring is required.
,out" Korea
Screening is not required

Scoping is required

ssess!ent !et"od is not speci#ied.



Reporting on assess!ent results is required and
preli!inar$ re%ie& reporting is not required.

'ontent require!ents #or reporting &ere not #ound.

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.

Pu(lic consultation is required.


)onitoring is required.
T"ailand
require!ent #or screening and scoping is not
uncertain.

ssess!ent !et"od is not speci#ied.



Reporting on assess!ent results is required and
preli!inar$ re%ie& reporting is not required.

'ontent require!ents #or reporting are pro%ided.

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.

Require!ent on pu(lic consultation is uncertain.


)onitoring is required.
,out" Africa
Screening and scoping are not required.

ssess!ent !et"od is not speci#ied.

Reporting on assess!ent results is required and
preli!inar$ re%ie& reporting is not required.

'ontent require!ents #or reporting are pro%ided.

'onsultation &it" rele%ant aut"orities is required.

Pu(lic consultation is required.


)onitoring is required.
Asian
4evelopment
@ank

Screening is required.

Scoping is not required.

ssess!ent !et"od is not speci#ied (ut %ar$


&it" categories o# pro.ects

Reporting on assess!ent results is required and


preli!inar$ re%ie& reporting is not required #or
categor$ pro.ect.

Preli!inar$ re%ie& reporting is required #or categor$


4 pro.ect and t"e require!ent #or #urt"er reporting

Pu(lic consultation is required.


)onitoring is required.
Final Report Page 33
Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals
&ill depend on t"e assess!ent results.

'ontent require!ents #or reporting are pro%ided.


>orld @ank
Screening is required.

Scoping is not required.

*i##erent assess!ent instru!ents are


suggested (ut no details are pro%ided.

Reporting on assess!ent results is required and


preli!inar$ re%ie& reporting is not required.

'ontent require!ents #or reporting are pro%ided.

Pu(lic consultation is required.


)onitoring is required.
Final Report Page 34
Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals
..6 "iscussion on the Sustainable +ouris! )rojects
A...1 As mentioned in section # sustaina!le tourism pro6ects are wide ranging. $n t"is
review examples of sustaina!le tourism pro6ects are presented for eac" country and
t"e types of t"em are wide ranging including nature !ased pro6ects regional
development pro6ects !iodiversity or ecotourism development national parks
conservation country wide development or planning cultural tourism and etc.
..7 Co!parison of the Countries in this Stu%- to 0ong 1ong
A.D.1 As discussed in section # considerations on environmental implications for new ma6or
government policies are re7uired in Hong Kong as an administrative re7uirement.
T"ere are also statutory )i.e. 3$A?* re7uirements in Hong Kong to evaluate
environmental impacts of designated pro6ects w"ic" include some specified tourism
pro6ects. 'onsiderations of environmental implications are t"erefore re7uired during
t"e decision/making process of tourism policies as well as in ma6or tourism
development proposals.
A.D.# T"e environmental protection scrutiny system in Hong Kong is considered compara!le
to some ot"er countries covered in t"is study.
A.D.& For example t"e re7uirements for environmental evaluation of tourism policies in
Austria 4enmark and 'anada are also !ased on administrative framework. ,imilar
to t"e practices of all countries in t"is study Hong Kong "as statutory re7uirements
to conduct 3$A on certain tourism proposals. T"e evaluation framework
nevert"eless are different suc" as evaluation process reporting re7uirements
consultation and etc.
A.D.0 T"is review was to identify t"e policy tools of t"e environmental evaluation of tourism
policies plans and programmes and proposals adopted !y t"e countries and
organisations identified in t"is study. $t was found t"at t"e tools and processes of
t"em are different !ecause of t"e differences in t"e institutional set/up of t"e
government aut"orities. $n view of t"e differences it could not !e possi!le to report
t"e advantages and disadvantages of t"ose policy tools wit" reference to Hong
Kongs situation.
A.D.A >it" regard to t"e certification assessment and enforcement for sustaina!le tourism
proposals t"e practices of Hong Kong are compara!le to t"e countries in t"is study.
A.D.. ,imilar to t"e countries in t"is study Hong Kong "as no certification system for
sustaina!le tourism proposals operated !y t"e government and t"ere are no
assessment and enforcement re7uirements for sustaina!le tourism proposals.
3nvironmental performance is t"e primary concern under t"e 3$A re7uirements and
t"e 3$A? provides statutory re7uirements for assessing and enforcing certain tourism
proposals in an environmentally accepta!le manner.
A.D.D ,ince t"ere is no certification assessment and enforcement re7uirement for
sustaina!le tourism proposals in most of t"e countries in t"is study as well as Hong
Kong it is not possi!le to report t"e advantages and disadvantages of t"em wit"
reference to Hong Kong situations.
Final Report Page 35
Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals
..8 2i!itation
A.E.1 Buestionnaires were sent to t"e countries and organisations identified for t"is study.
,ix countries returned t"e 7uestionnaires and 1- countries and organisations "ave
provided information or we! pages.
A.E.# %ost of t"e returned 7uestionnaires were not completed and a lot of information
presented in t"is report was !ased on t"e information pu!lis"ed in t"e we!site.
References are made in t"is report for t"e sources of information.
A.E.& ,ome of t"e statutory or administrative re7uirements are known to exist !ut t"ey are
not availa!le in t"e pu!lic domain and could not !e o!tained from t"e relevant
aut"orities during t"is review study.
Final Report Page 36
Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals
6. CONC(UION
6.1 Conclusion
..1.1 $n t"is study t"e environmental evaluation mec"anisms for tourism policies plans and
programmes and t"e certification assessment and enforcement re7uirements for
sustaina!le tourism proposals of nineteen countries and seven organisations were
studied.
..1.# 3nvironmental evaluation for tourism policies is availa!le in eig"t countries and
environmental protection scrutiny re7uirements for tourism plans and programmes
are adopted in twelve countries. $n t"e environmental evaluation process
environmental implications are considered systematically during t"e decision/making
process. 'onsultation wit" relevant aut"orities and pu!lic participation are re7uired
in t"e assessment process to ensure t"eir opinions are incorporated into t"e
proposed tourism policies plans and programmes.
..1.& Two organisations were found to "ave environmental evaluation re7uirements for
tourism policies plans and programmes !ut t"e re7uirements are not specified.
..1.0 'ertification system operated !y t"e government for sustaina!le tourism proposals
was not found in most of t"e countries except 'osta Rica. 'ertification programmes
operated !y t"e industry or non/profit organisations for destinations attractions and
tourism operators were found in 4enmark Australia and t"e ;nited ,tates of
America. 3nvironmental la!eling sc"eme was found in =ermany and an
environmental accreditation programme is under development in 8ew 9ealand.
=reen =lo!e is t"e only organisation operates certification system and it can
!enc"mark and certify tourism company community eco/tourism and precinct
planning and design.
..1.A Assessment and enforcement re7uirements for sustaina!le tourism proposals were
found in 8ew 9ealand and t"e ot"er countries adopt environmental impact
assessment approac" for tourism proposals.
..1.. ?nly two organisations "ave t"eir own environmental assessment re7uirements on
tourism proposals. ?t"er organisations promote environmental evaluation in t"e
decision/making process !ut do not "ave t"eir own environmental evaluation
re7uirements.
Final Report Page 37
Review of the Latest Practices on
Environmental Evaluation of Tourism Policies and Proposals
(eferences
=lo!al 4evelopment Researc" 'entre
"ttp+CCwww.gdrc.orgC
=reen =lo!e
"ttp+CCwww.greenglo!e.orgC
Hong Kong Tourist @oard
"ttp+CCwww.discover"ongkong.comC
%inistry for t"e 3nvironment 8ew 9ealand
"ttp+CCwww.mfe.govt.n:C
Tourism 'ommission
"ttp+CCwww.tourism.gov."kC
;nited 8ations 3ducational ,cientific and 'ultural ?rganisation );83,'?*
"ttp+CCw"c.unesco.orgC
>orld Tourism ?rganisation );8>T?*
www.world/tourism.orgC
Final Report