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C E N T R A L P U G E T S O U N D

R E G I O N A L O P E N S PA C E S T R AT E GY
ROSS
A ROBUST,
CONNECTED,
MULTI-FUNCTIONAL
REGIONAL
OPEN SPACE
SYSTEM
PRELIMINARY
COMPREHENSIVE
STRATEGY
University of Washington
Green Futures Research &
Design Lab
University of Washington
Northwest Center for
Livable Communites
Natonal Park Service:
Rivers, Trails, & Conservaton
Assistance Program
Pilot funding by The Bullit Foundaton
SEPTEMBER 2012

PAGE 3 PAGE 2
P U G E T S O U N D
R E G I O N A L O P E N S PA C E S T R AT E GY
ROSS
INTRODUCTION
The Central Puget Sound Regional Open Space Strategy
What Defnes Open Space
Antcipated Outcomes
PRELIMINARY COMPREHENSIVE STRATEGY
Executve Summary
Workplan
Vision + Values

Strategic Directons: Challenges, Goals + Opportunites
Analytcal Tools + Guiding Frameworks
Ecosystems Services: Developing a Model for Valuing Open Space
Communicatons + Stewardship
Watershed Open Space Strategies
Model Regional Mapping
Potental Near-term Actons
APPENDIX
A: Key Analytcal Challenge: Integratng Diferent Ecosystem
Characterizatons and Evaluaton Methods

B: Resources
C: Technical Advisory Commitee Members
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PRELIMINARY COMPREHENSIVE STRATEGY
WORKING DRAFT
EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
Ron Sims (Chair), Puget Sound Partnership Leadership Council
Thatcher Bailey, Seatle Parks Foundaton
BrIan Boyle, University of Washington School of Forest Resources
Dennis Canty, American Farmland Trust
Executve Dow Constantne, King County
Kaleen Cotngham, Washington Recreaton & Conservaton Ofce
Barb Culp, Bicycle Alliance of Washington
Mike Deller, The Trust for Public Land
Bob Drewel, Puget Sound Regional Council
Gene Duvernoy, Forterra
Dr. David Fleming, Public Health Seatle-King County
Dean Howie Frumkin, University of Washington School of Public Health
Commissioner Charlote Garrido, Kitsap County
Commissioner Peter Goldmark, Washington State Department of Natural Resources
Joanna Grist, Washington Wildlife & Recreaton Coaliton
Joe Kane, Washington Associaton of Land Trusts
Terry Lavender, King County Conservaton Futures Citzen Advisory Commitee
Michael Linde, Natonal Park Service Rivers, Trails, & Conservaton Assistance Program
Kjristne Lund, King County Flood Control District
Rod Mace, United States Forest Service Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie Forest
Kelly Mann, Urban Land Insttute Seatle
Executve Pat McCarthy, Pierce County
Scot Miller, The Russell Family Foundaton
Gerry OKeefe, Puget Sound Partnership
Ron Shultz, Washington State Conservaton Commission
Jeannie Summerhays, Washington State Department of Ecology
Doug Walker, Seatle Parks Foundaton
Cynthia Welt, Mountains to Sound Greenway
Scot Wyat, The Nature Conservancy
TECHNICAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE CO-LEADS
ECOSYSTEMS
Bob Fuerstenberg, King County DNRP Retred
Criter Thompson, University of Washington
Decision Commons
RECREATION & TRAILS
Jennifer Knauer, Hook Knauer LLC
Amy Shumann, Public Health - Seatle & King County
RURAL & RESOURCE LANDS
Lauren Smith, King County Executves Ofce
Skip Swenson, Forterra
URBAN & COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
Ben Bakkenta, Puget Sound Regional Council
Joe Tovar, Inova Planning, Communicatons & Design LLC
ROSS PROJECT TEAM
LEADS
John Owen, Makers Architecture & Urban Design
Nancy Rotle, Green Futures Research & Design Lab, Director
Fritz Wagner, Northwest Center for Livable Communites
PARTNERS
Steve Whitney, The Bullit Foundaton
Bryan Bowden, Natonal Park Service
Rivers, Trails, & Conservaton Assistance Program
STAFF
Jefrey W. Raker, Green Futures Research & Design Lab
ROSS Lead Planner
Ginger Daniel, Green Futures Research & Design Lab
ROSS Assistant Planner
Ryan Ulsberger, Puget Sound Insttute
GIS Intern, Summer 2012
ROSS LEADERSHIP
PAGE 5 PAGE 4
THE CENTRAL PUGET SOUND
REGIONAL OPEN SPACE STRATEGY
(ROSS)
A ROBUST,
CONNECTED,
MULTI-FUNCTIONAL
REGIONAL
OPEN SPACE
SYSTEM
The Central Puget Sound Regional Open Space Strategy (ROSS) is an efort to conserve and enhance open space systems
that contribute to the ecological, economic, recreatonal, and aesthetc vitality of our region. It will sttch together
and foster more efectve collaboraton among the many actvites underway to conserve and enhance open space.
Collectvely, these eforts can contribute to creatng a robust, diverse, accessible, and connected regional open space
system. While numerous ongoing open space and environmental protecton projects exist, their efectveness can be
greatly enhanced by identfying opportunites to make essental connectons, directng resources to the most critcal
priorites, and supportng individual eforts through cooperatve approaches to shared challenges.
With leadership at the University of Washington and an esteemed regionally-representatve Executve Commitee,
this strategic work facilitates and directs an alliance between a broad spectrum of agencies and nonproft and private
organizatons that will achieve a mult-dimensional, integrated set of priorites and provide tools for regional open space
planning and stewardship in the Central Puget Sound.
The Puget Sound basin is facing signifcant ecological and economic pressures, which are predicted to be further
exacerbated by the increasing intensity of climate change impacts. These stresses afect water quality and supply,
fsh, farm and forest producton, food and other environmental hazard vulnerability, health of the regions unique
biodiversity, natural resource access and allocaton, economic opportunites, and overall quality of life. Additonally,
not all of the regions citzens beneft equitably from the health, recreatonal, and aesthetc assets open space resources
provide. Human wellbeing depends on an equitable society as well as a healthy ecosystem and regional open space
resources play an important role in both.
To successfully address these challenges, actons must be coordinated at the regional level. Ecological systems, in
partcular, must be considered at the watershed scale, and protectng threatened rural and resource lands, public health,
and community development require inter-jurisdictonal solutons. By utlizing ecosystem services valuaton analysis as
a tool for regional green infrastructure planning, this project ofers an opportunity to beter understand and exhibit the
costs and benefts associated with proposed land management practces and conservaton eforts.
There is vital momentum and mandate for this work, notably the Puget Sound Regional Councils (PSRC) Vision 2040,
which calls for the development of a Regional Open Space Strategy. The ROSS is in direct partnership with PSRC and
other organizatons working on major initatves that can be leveraged to support open space planning in the region:
market-based conservaton strategies embodied in Forterras Cascade Agenda; mult-jurisdictonal approaches to
watershed planning led by the Washington State Department of Ecology and Puget Sound Partnership (PSP); model
actons for cooperatve success by the Mountains to Sound Greenway; large-scale community development initatves
like PSRCs Growing Transit Communites; as well as county health districts eforts to use land use planning as a means
to confront health disparites and social equity. At the moment these eforts are largely independently led or technically
specifc in scope.
Developing strategies and alliances that efectvely integrate multple objectves is a crucial task to make the regions
initatves more robust, economically vibrant, and ecologically sound, and to provide a framework for long-term
stewardship. The ROSS strives to create a vision for regional open space that will enhance the ecological, economic, and
social vitality of the region and equip our communites to implement and steward that dream.
PAGE 7 PAGE 6
The Regional Open Space Strategy (ROSS) incorporates four primary phases of work: Phase 1 Scoping; Phase 2 Preliminary
Comprehensive Strategy (PCS); Phase 3 Watershed Open Space Strategies (WOSS); and Phase 4 Regional Open Space
Strategy (ROSS). To initate project planning, a scoping process was conducted to identfy the interorganizatonal collaboraton,
technical methods, tme and resources necessary to complete the ROSS (Phase 1). To initate Phase 2, an Executve Commitee
was formed along with four Technical Advisory Commitees (TACs) focused on: Ecosystems, Rural and Resource Lands, Urban
and Community Development, and Recreaton and Trails. Their leadership has been essental in creatng a shared vision, goals,
and potental near term actons.
This Preliminary Comprehensive Strategy represents the culminaton of Phase 2. It will guide the development of the ROSS
through seven Watershed Open Space Strategies (Phase 3) and ultmately the establishment of an integrated Regional Open
Space Strategy that can be used to advance and coordinate regional-scale implementaton mechanisms (Phase 4).
VISIONS + VALUES
The PCS envisions creatng an integrated regional open space system celebrated and stewarded by current and future
generatons. A set of more detailed visions for open space are presented to specifcally outline objectves among four technical
areas: ecosystems, rural and resource lands, urban and community development, and recreaton and trails.
STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS
The PCS outlines goals, opportunites and near-term actons to pursue in response to a set of challenges that are shared across
the four technical areas, providing guidance on incorporatng and supportng existng actvites and tools, preparing data and
informaton for analysis, and formulatng spatal and functonal visions for the regional open space system.
ANALYTICAL TOOLS + GUIDING FRAMEWORKS
A diverse range of analytcal tools and guiding frameworks will be used as the project advances. Each will provide a unique
frame from which to identfy key opportunites and establish priorites for land management, acquisiton and other actons
associated with the ROSS.
DEVELOPING AN ECOSYSTEM SERVICES VALUATION MODEL
The PCS guides the region to establish a model for valuing open space by engaging experts in identfying resources from
multple disciplines, highlightng the limitatons, and outlining a replicable framework that can be used to facilitate the
applicaton of ecosystem service valuaton.
COMMUNICATION + STEWARDSHIP
An additonal set of opportunites and near term actons are established that will assist the region in constructng a
stewardship strategy and linking conservaton eforts at a regional scale.
WATERSHED OPEN SPACE STRATEGIES (WOSS)
General programmatc strategies and guidance for work to be conducted in the regions watersheds is provided to ensure
that the ROSS incorporates local knowledge through a strong partcipatory process, links priorites and coordinates existng
conservaton actons, and builds local capacity to inform and implement the vision for a regional open space system.
MODEL REGIONAL MAPPING
The spatal vision developed as part of the PCS will incorporate existng data and informaton, identfy regional-scale project
priorites, and outline a strategy to form spatal linkages that support multple layers of interest represented by the four
technical areas. This vision will be tested and refned against local knowledge in each watershed.
The Preliminary Comprehensive Strategy outlines how to create a robust, diverse, accessible, and connected regional open
space system for the Central Puget Sound.
THE CENTRAL PUGET SOUND REGIONAL OPEN SPACE
PRELIMINARY COMPREHENSIVE STRATEGY (PCS)
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Central Puget Sound ROSS will serve as a crucial piece in regional planning eforts. This mult-year
efort intends to yield:
A set of strategies to achieve an interconnected open space system linking seven watersheds,
including visual representatons of spatal and other linkages between green infrastructure systems
to fulfll open space conservaton, amenity, and ecosystem service objectves for the region.
GIS analysis on the watershed and regional scale.
A strategic list of priority projects and actons that provide mutual and regionally scaled benefts
across ecological, economic and community development, recreaton/health, and resource land
conservaton goals that spans the seven critcal watersheds within the region.
A methodology for evaluatng the value of ecosystem services performed by open space systems. A
toolkit will be developed that can be used to analyze the economic and social benefts of open space
investments ranging from improved water quality and climate mitgaton/adaptaton to increased
recreaton access and economic development.
An engaged, collaboratve and mobilized consttuency for open space enhancements across each
watershed and regional leadership.
ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES
Open space is an embracing term for a diverse spectrum of lands across a rural and urban contnuum on large and small
scales. Traditonally open space may be imagined as wilderness lands or public parks, but it also encompasses resource
lands for agricultural and tmber producton, wetlands and water bodies, local and regional recreatonal trail systems, as
well as urban green spaces like parkways, rain gardens, and green roofs.
Together these open space lands and water bodies provide a vast number of critcal services and life-enhancing benefts
on which the region depends. Many ecosystem services that we take for granted are provided by open space, such as
water quality, food control, air quality, carbon sequestraton, wildlife habitat, and biodiversity. The economic vitality
of our region depends on our tmber, agricultural and fsheries productvity, recreatonal tourism and the ability to
atract anchor businesses thanks to our quality of life and stunning landscape. Open space improves health, plays a role
in reducing obesity, reduces stress, and provides accessible recreatonal benefts for all. Together these lands create a
unique regional identty and sense of place, celebrate our cultural and geological history and provide vital educatonal
resources for future generatons to come. Open space is the keystone for life as we know it in the Puget Sound region.
WHAT DEFINES OPEN SPACE?
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PHASE 3 PHASE 4
STRATEGIC LIST OF PRIORITY PROJECTS
AND ACTIONS THAT PROVIDE MUTUAL +
REGIONALLY SCALED BENEFITS
METHODOLOGY FOR EVALUATING
VALUE OF ECOSYSTEM SERVICES
PERFORMED BY OPEN SPACE SYSTEMS
ENGAGED, COLLABORATIVE, AND
MOBILIZED CONSTITUENCY FOR OPEN
SPACE ENHANCEMENTS ACROSS
EACH WATERSHED AND REGIONAL
LEADERSHIP
A SET OF STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE
INTERCONNECTED OPEN SPACE LINKING
SEVEN WATERSHEDS, INCLUDING
VISUAL REPRESENTATIONS
GIS ANALYSIS ON REGIONAL +
WATERSHED SCALE
WATERSHED
OPEN SPACE
STRATEGIES
(WOSS)
REGIONAL
OPEN
SPACE
STRATEGY
STILLAGUAMISH
SNOHOMISH
CEDAR/SAMMAMISH
DUWAMISH/GREEN
PUYALLUP/WHITE
NISQUALLY
KITSAP
WATERSHED TASK FORCES: A taskforce associated with each
WOSS will be formed to help guide open space strategy
development in each watershed.
GOVERNANCE + FINANCE SUB-COMMITTEE: An EC sub-commitee will explore governance, coordinaton, and funding optons.
ECOSYSTEMS TASK FORCE: A taskforce of expertse from the UW, the Natural Capital Project, and the Cascadia Ecosystem Services Partnership
will explore opportunites to integrate ecosystem services evaluaton into ROSS.
OUTREACH + COMMUNICATIONS SUB-COMMITTEE: An EC sub-commitee will establish a communicatons strategy.
PHASE 1 PHASE 2
ROSS WORKPLAN
SCOPING
To initate ROSS
planning, the Green
Futures Lab (GFL)
and Northwest
Center for Livable
Communites (NWCLC)
of the University of
Washington, with
grants from the Bullit
Foundaton, conducted
a scoping process in
2010 to identfy the
interorganizatonal
collaboraton, technical
methods, tme, and
resources necessary to
complete the ROSS.
EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE (EC): In early 2012 an esteemed Executve
Commitee was formed.
TECHNICAL ADVISORY COMMITTESS: Ecosystems, Rural + Resource
Lands, Urban + Community Development, and Recreaton + Trails.
They developed sub-visions, challenges and opportunites, resources,
and strategic directons to inform the PCS.
PRELIMINARY
COMPREHENSIVE
STRATEGY
(PCS)
VISION + VALUES
STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS:
Challenges, Goals + Opportunites
ANALYTICAL TOOLS +
GUIDING FRAMEWORKS
COMMUNICATION +
STEWARDSHIP
ECOSYSTEM SERVICES:
Developing a Model for Valuing
Open Space
WATERSHED OPEN SPACE
STRATEGIES
(WOSS)
MODEL REGIONAL MAPPING
NEAR-TERM ACTIONS
L
E
A
D
E
R
S
H
I
P
K
E
Y

W
O
R
K

P
R
O
D
U
C
T
S
STAFF + CONSULTATIVE
GUIDANCE: Green Futures
Lab, Northwest Center for
Livable Communites, The
Bullit Foundaton, and
Natonal Park Service work
together as the ROSS Project
Team.
HEALTH + EQUITY TASK FORCE: A taskforce of public health leadership will explore opportunites to integrate health and social equity
consideratons into the ROSS and ecosystem services analysis.
ROBUST +
CONNECTED DIVERSE
+ MULTI- STEWARDED EQUI-
TABLE + COORDINATEDNATED INTERDEPENCE IUIN
A wide representaton of key expertse and interests have been engaged to form a vision for specifc components of the
regional open space system to support ecosystems, rural and resource lands, urban and community development, and
recreaton and trails. A list of Technical Advisory Commitee members is included in Appendix C. A more detailed report
on TAC fndings is available at: www.rossgf.wordpress.com.
F
O
S
T
E
R
I
N
G

R
E
G
I
O
N
A
L

C
O
M
M
U
N
I
T
Y
ROBUST +
CONNECTED DIVERSE
+ MULTI- STEWARDED EQUITABLE
+ COORDINATEDNATED INTERDEPENCE IUIN
The ROSS Vision and Values will guide the region in conserving open space and creatng an integrated regional open space
system that is celebrated and stewarded by current and future generatons.
PAGE 11 PAGE 10
TACS
ENVISION
ECOSYSTEMS RURAL + RESOURCE LANDS
URBAN + COMMUNITY
DEVELOPMENT
RECREATION + TRAILS
An interconnected network of public and
private lands that represents the full suite
of natural ecosystems and habitats of a size
and character that maintains and enhances
biodiversity; provides the essental benefts
of nature and ecosystem services; and
sustains the crucial ecological processes,
structures, and functons upon which healthy
ecosystems depend.
A diverse and resilient landscape of rural
and resource lands owned and operated by
those that live in or are connected to the
region. This landscape provides the food,
resources, and ecosystem services we need;
supports actve resource-based economies;
fosters rural communites; contributes to the
identty and health of the region;
and preserves our legacy for
future generatons.
A complete, connected, diverse,
fnancially viable, publicly embraced, and
well managed open space system
of appropriately scaled spaces that
accommodates the needs of the environment
and assures community health, personal well-
being, and provides access for all members
of the community regardless of their exact
geographic locaton or income level.
A complete, context-sensitve,
well managed, and maintained system
of land and water resources that promotes
the full spectrum of human recreatonal
actvity, ofering opportunites for all people,
and contributng to the health and vitality
of current and future generatons. This
system provides for the full contnuum of
communites urban to rural, alpine
to marine, land and water.
TECHNICAL AREA VISIONS ROSS VISION AND VALUES
A
CELEBRATED
REGIONAL OPEN
SPACE SYSTEM
THAT IS
R
E
S
ILIENT C
O
N
T
E
X
T
U
A
L



















A C C E S S
I B
L
E
F
U
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C
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I
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N
A
L


D
E
P
E
N
D
E
N
T
R
O
B
U
ST + CONN
EC
T
E
D



D
I
V
E
R
S
E

+








C
O
O
R
D
I
N
A
T
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S
T
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W
A
R D E D E Q U I T A
B
L
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+
M
U
L
T
I
-


















I
N
T
E
R
-
Conserves,
enhances and manages
regional open space assets
and systems that are resilient
to disturbances and
can evolve over tme
Recognizes the mutual
interdependence of wilderness,
rural and urban lands and the
interface between people and the
regions land resources
and waterways
Improves cross-jurisdicton
insttutonal coordinaton of
open space eforts to address
landscape scale objectves and
upgrade the efectveness
of the system
Improves access
for all citzens without
degrading resources
Connects and integrates
open space assets in terms of
physical access to landscape and
habitat types, ecological
relatonships, rural to urban
geographies, and human
to natural realms
Provides a variety of
precious open spaces, marine
and terrestrial landscape and
ecosystem types, and
functonal systems tailored
to diferent scales and
community needs
Layers objectves to address
ecological integrity, ecosystem
services, human health and well-
being, resource conservaton, and
community vitality. Incorporates
the benefts of regional open
space systems into other
eforts such as transportaton,
economic development,
and infrastructure
planning
Fosters a culture of
stewardship with an
appreciaton of the value of
regional open space
The Technical Advisory Commitees
identfed opportunites, challenges, and
other guidance specifc to each technical
area. A shared set of challenges, goals,
and opportunites were drawn from
these fndings. These Strategic Directons
provide guidance on incorporatng
and supportng existng actvites and
tools, preparing data and informaton
for analysis, and formulatng a spatal
and functonal vision for the regional
open space system that can be tested
against local knowledge by engaging
communites as the Watershed Open
Space Strategies are developed.
PAGE 13 PAGE 12
Identfy linear systems and other
spatal features that can serve
as an organizing framework in
connectng important regional open
space assets, coordinatng open
space investments, and forming
an interconnected hierarchy of
open spaces with multple layers of
connecton to the community.
Identfy gaps and opportunites to
create habitat corridors within and
between watersheds and through
urbanized areas.
Outline how to link all public
lands, accessible shoreline,
existng natural lands, and more
marginalized lands into a regional
open space system that provides
the optmum ecosystem services
beneft.
FORMULATE AN INTEGRATED
SPATIAL VISION TO CREATE A
CONNECTED REGIONAL OPEN
SPACE SYSTEM
Evaluate where existng tools have
become inefectve in preventng
land fragmentaton and provide
guidance to improve growth
management and environmental
regulaton to be more responsive
to critcal ecological functons that
span between urban, suburban,
rural, and natural areas.
Facilitate greater consistency
for jurisdictons use of urban
ecology tools regarding regulatory
frameworks, methods of analysis,
land management approaches, and
project implementaton.
Explore the ecosystem service
benefts to developing common
agricultural areas and community
forests and other innovatve tools
to improve land management and
ensure future resource producton.
COALESCE AND ENHANCE EXISTING
CONSERVATION TOOLS, LAND
MANAGEMENT PRACTICES, AND
REGULATORY APPROACHES
Enhance guidance regarding
appropriate gradients of public
access.
Ensure that recreatonal
investments recognize the
complexity and fragility of
ecological systems and plan for
intentonal points of access and
restricton.
Enhance insttutonal capacites and
planning for water trails and outline
strategies to support water-based
recreaton.
Utlize research on smart growth
and low impact development to
inform how the regional open
space system can support large
scale redevelopment eforts.
CONSERVE OR RECLAIM ECOLOGICAL
FUNCTION, USE OPEN SPACE
TO REINFORCE COMMUNITY
DEVELOPMENT, AND IMPROVE
PUBLIC ACCESS TO OPEN SPACE
Existng policies and regulatory
frameworks have resulted in
unintended consequences that
threaten the integrity of the regional
open space system and existng
conservaton tools are isolated and
incomplete.
The value and functon of urban
ecological systems and degraded
natural habitat in developed areas
are too ofen neglected and many
communites are unable to enjoy
parks and open space.
The piecemeal implementaton of
regional open space planning and
development fails to respond to
diverse contextual needs and form
strong geographic and functonal
linkages across all landscapes.
REGIONAL OPEN SPACE SYSTEM OBJECTIVES, OPPORTUNITIES + ACTIONS
CENTRAL
PUGET SOUND
REGIONAL
OPEN SPACE
SYSTEM
ECOSYSTEMS
RURAL + RESOURCE LANDS
RECREATION + TRAILS
URBAN + COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
OPPORTUNITIES
STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS
GOALS
Outline gaps in research,
monitoring, and protecton
strategies.
Highlight key fndings by diferent
analyses to identfy where
priorites for open space intersect.
Apply an ecosystem services
valuaton framework to evaluate
relatve benefts and identfy
priorites.
INCORPORATE, SUPPLEMENT, AND
LINK EXISTING DATA ANALYSES TO
IDENTIFY KEY OPEN SPACE VALUES
AND PRIORITIES
CHALLENGES
Methods of analysis vary
dramatcally across jurisdictons
and disciplines. Consequently a
consistent and robust method
of prioritzing investments and
exhibitng the benefts of a regional
open space system has not been
established.
In constructng a comprehensive strategy that represents the multple functons of open space it will be essental to use a diverse
range of analyses and valuaton approaches. These analytcal tools and guiding frameworks provide the project with a unique lens
from which to identfy key opportunites and establish priorites for land management, acquisiton, and other actons associated with
the Regional Open Space Strategy. Each of these tools will help reinforce previously identfed goals.
Utlize tools that assess the relatve ecological integrity of diferent lands and apply a landscape ecology principle to develop
ecological corridors and inform how the regional open space system is developed. Assess the full spectrum of benefts using
ecosystem service analysis. See Appendix A for more informaton on this process.
Conduct a GIS analysis that links priorites for ecological habitat with open space priorites that support other key interests to
synthesize needs and identfy where actons to support open space might intersect. Establish a spatal vision for the regional open
space system based on this assessment.
PAGE 15 PAGE 14
CONNECTED SYSTEMS
important
regional open
space assets
connectvity
smaller,
community-based
systems
conserving + enhancing key
regional resources
connectng assets to create
landscape scale systems +
provide access (arteries)
ensuring that systems
are connected to local
communites (capillaries)
Identfy linear systems and other spatal features that can serve as an organizing framework in connectng important regional open
space assets, coordinate open space investments, and help form multple layers of connecton to the community.
Utlize research on smart growth and low impact development to inform how the regional open space system can help reclaim
ecological functon in areas with degraded natural habitat and reinforce growth and development through investments in urban
green space and green infrastructure.
GREY TO GREEN + GREEN TO GREY
=
natural habitat
rural
developed
urban
can densifying urban areas preserve
ecological functon elsewhere?
can urban greenspace and green
infrastructure reinforce growth and
development?
can disturbed areas be restored to reclaim
ecological functon?
ECOSYSTEM BASED LAND ANALYSIS + VALUATION
L
E
V
E
L
O
F
IM
P
O
R
T
A
N
C
E
LEVEL OF DEGRADATION
HIGH
HIGH
LOW
PROTECT RESTORE
CONSERVE DEVELOP
LAND MANAGEMENT
APPROACH
+
LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY
PRINCIPLES
WATERSHED
CHARACTERIZAION
ECOSYSTEM
SERVICES
+
$
+
values
2
regional climate + air
quality regulaton
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CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES CONCEPTUAL TOOLS FOR ANALYSIS + PRIORITIZATION ANALYSIS + PRIORITIZATION TOOLS
LAYERING + OPTIMIZING FUNCTIONS + VALUES
Regional growth centers and developed corridors
Open space deserts + access inequites
Ecosystems services + climate adaptaton/mitgaton
Resource lands
Trail systems + recreaton linkages
MULTIPLE BENEFITS = ROSS OPPORTUNITY
+ Additonal layers
ANALYTICAL TOOLS AND GUIDING FRAMEWORKS
PAGE 17 PAGE 16
CENTRAL
PUGET SOUND
REGIONAL
OPEN SPACE
SYSTEM
ECOSYSTEMS
RURAL + RESOURCE
LANDS
RECREATION
+ TRAILS
URBAN +
COMMUNITY
DEVELOPMENT
OPPORTUNITIES
Coordinate eforts to support
community-driven open space
conservaton that enhance the
regions ability to integrate parks
and open space into communites,
guide growth and revitalize
neighborhoods and cites, fulfll
ecological and economic interests,
as well as addressing community
needs such as health disparites and
other inequites.
Use the open space system to
enhance regional identty and build
an ethic of stewardship, ownership
and a sense of place.
Incorporate and elevate a regional
open space framework into
environmental and citzenship
educaton eforts, reaching the
general public, young people, land
owners, land managers, and elected
ofcials.
UTILIZE THE REGIONAL OPEN SPACE
SYSTEM AS A PLATFORM TO INSPIRE
STEWARDSHIP, ENCOURAGE DIVERSE
COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT,
AND PROMOTE A SUSTAINABLE
AND EQUITABLE COMMUNITY
GOALS
Establish a region-wide plan for
open space and then fund projects
in stages to elevate the value of a
regional approach.
Develop a governing structure
that operates on a regional scale,
efectvely overcoming traditonal
silos and barriers of technical
and jurisdictonal boundaries,
that manages complex ecological
challenges, and oversees ROSS
implementaton.
Establish ongoing, coordinated
management and monitoring that
responds to specifc contextual
needs, geographic and functonal
linkages, and adapts to changing
conditons.
DEVELOP A SUSTAINABLE SOURCE
OF REGION-WIDE STEWARDSHIP,
MAINTENANCE, AND FUNDING
CHALLENGES
There is no comprehensive efort
to build an understanding of the
link between open space and
community development at a
regional scale.
Uncoordinated investment and
insufent communicaton of best
practces in open space planning and
development at a regional scale.
COMMUNICATIONS + STEWARDSHIP
$
$
+
values
2
regional climate + air
quality regulaton
f
o
o
d
p
r
o
d
u
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a
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o
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t
p
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o
d
u
c
t
o
n
preserving habitats +
biodiversity
w
a
t
e
r

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o
w

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g
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a
t
o
n
w
a
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Ecosystem services valuaton is a tool that has become
increasingly used in identfying the ways in which open space
produces dividends in the community and to outline why such
investments have value. The ROSS initatve will support more
integrated research and enhance our understanding of how
to conserve lands and open space linkages to maximize the
provision of ecosystem services. As work proceeds, the ROSS
will:
Explore the most appropriate methods to undertake an
ecosystem services assessment that informs regional
leaders and the general public about the values of a
regional open space system.
Highlight resources, tools, and expertse from multple
disciplines that can help broaden the discussion regarding
ecosystem services to include public health and other less
traditonally associated values.
Outline a framework for staf to utlize in conductng
watershed scale analysis regarding open space to facilitate
the applicaton of such ecosystem service valuaton.
Explore how this model could be shared among other
natonal and internatonal regional conservaton eforts.
DEVELOPING AN ECOSYSTEM SERVICES VALUATION
MODEL FOR REGIONAL OPEN SPACE
Utlize the full range of analytcal
tools to assess the varying
contributons of open space
landscape types to the ecosystem
services that nature provides in the
region.
Build support and justfy
investments in open space by
clarifying the direct value it
provides for people in securing
clean air and water, preventng food
damage, and safeguarding farm and
forest resources.
Positon expenditures on regional
conservaton as investments with
dividends in the community.
Improve on an understanding
that even when open space is not
physically accessible its presence
stll has value.
EVALUATE AND BETTER
COMMUNICATE THE VALUE OF OPEN
SPACE AND THE BENEFITS THAT
PEOPLE GET FROM ECOSYSTEMS
The region is unable to reinforce
existng support for open space
because of a limited understanding
of the full range of benefts that
nature provides and an inability
to communicate the value of
conservaton to society, human
well-being, and our economy.
ECOSYSTEM
SERVICES
PAGE 19 PAGE 18
PUYALLUP-
WHITE
WOSS
EXAMPLE
Inital steps underway in the Puyallup-White Watershed (WRIA 10) serve as an illustraton of a model WOSS.
Early inquiry and conversatons have identfed key partners, opportunites, and gaps. While stll in its
nascent stages, GIS data is being identfed to refect ROSS technical areas and explore gaps, overlaps, and
multfunctonal benefts. This analysis will align with an integrated vision for the watershed and highlight
priority actons to improve and further connect the open space system. Each WOSS will be tailored to
respond to eforts highlighted by leaders of organizatons in the studied watershed to ensure the work
builds on previous actvites.
EMPLOY
ANALYTICAL TOOLS +
GUIDING FRAMEWORKS:
PUBLIC
ENGAGEMENT:
Conduct
partcipatory
workshops
working with local
municipalites and
NGOs to identfy
opportunites and
gaps, co-envision
the WOSS and
inspire future
stewardship
VISIONING CHARETTE
Establish vision, goals +
objectves
WATERSHED REGIONAL OPEN SPACE STRATEGIES (WOSS)
The success of the fnal ROSS is dependent on the completon of seven Watershed Open Space Strategies (WOSS) that
will roll up into a fnal integrated strategy. Each WOSS will embrace a strong partcipatory process, utlizing existng
watershed level leadership, and linking eforts between key interests in order synthesize needs and identfy the nexus
of identfed priorites. A corresponding GIS analysis will identfy current open space conditons and opportunites for
investment in projects of multple and mutual beneft. Funds designated for local on-the-ground stewardship groups will
enable contnuity of public engagement to promote shared ownership and stewardship, while also building capacity for
those organizatons. Educatonal materials will be developed to foster greater appreciaton and actvism for open space.
GATHER DATA
Identfy existng planning actvites, existng GIS data
across ROSS technical areas
DEVELOP WOSS TASK FORCE
Convene key watershed leaders representng all ROSS
Technical Areas across government, NGOs, tribes, etc.
ANALYZE + ASSESS DATA
Prepare maps for public meetng
PREPARE ALTERNATE STRATEGIES
Review with WOSS Taskforce and other critcal players
PREPARE DRAFT WOSS
for Public and Executve Commitee
SYNTHESIZE + KNIT WITH OTHER WOSS
LAUNCH PROJECT
Gather additonal informaton
IDENTIFY OPPORTUNITIES AND GAPS
based on ROSS PCS values and objectves, prepare for public charete
EVALUATE STRATEGIES
+ ENGAGE BUY-IN
PRESENT +
CELEBRATE!
ECOSYSTEMS
RURAL + RESOURCE
LANDS
RECREATION
+ TRAILS
URBAN + COMMUNITY
DEVELOPMENT
Pierce County Open Space Taskforce 10 Year
Biodiversity Priorites
Pierce County Open Space Taskforce 10 Year
Agriculture and Forest priorites
PSRC centers, regional transit staton areas,
and other land use data
Pierce County Regional Trails Plan, Pierce
County Open Space Taskforce 10 Year parks
and trails priorites
KEY PARTNERS FOR WOSS TASK FORCE
Puyallup River Watershed Council
Pierce County Ofce of Sustainability
Pierce County Surface Water Management Division
King + Pierce Conservaton District
Watershed Coordinaton Group
Tacoma-Pierce County Health Department
King County Water + Land Resources Division
IDENTIFIED OPPORTUNITIES + GAPS
GIS DATA GATHERING (see note below)
Additonal data will be added to represent technical areas, goals, and values. For example: Ecosystems - Key lands for biodiversity and high integrity ecological
lands (e.g. Pierce County Biodiversity Management Plan, salmon recovery eforts); Rural + Resource Lands - Additonal data identfying agricultural and forest
priorites (e.g. Pierce County Agricultural Strategic Plan, Forterra, American Farmland Trust); Urban + Community Development - Additonal data on open space
deserts and health/equity consideratons (e.g. Regional Opportunity Mapping, Tacoma-Pierce County Health Department data); Recreaton + Trails - Updated
trail network inventories, proposed trails, and identfed gaps (e.g. PSRC Bicycle Network, WTA data, water access data, county level recreaton trail data).
This list is not exhaustve.
Assess susceptbility to land conversion and evaluate the cost
of development proposals
Evaluate ecosystem services provided by current open space
Identfy best-value projects that achieve multple benefts
Enhance advocacy and public educaton
PAGE 21 PAGE 20
anorton w:\gis\projects\andy\psrcprojects\parkos.mxd 04-19-06 11:00 Legend
Base Layers
Natural Resource Land
Rural Land
Agriculture
Parks and Open Space
Urban Center
Transformational Strategies
Protect threatened rural areas
Transform industrial floodplains
Create green fingers
Provide open space for corridors
Connect urban neighborhoods to
regional open space resources and
enhance urban elements that also
serve as open space and green
infrastructure resources (e.g. urban
forests, bike routes, complete
streets etc.)
Integrate ecological enhancements
into appropriate redevelopment
and recreatonal projects to upgrade
industrial estuaries and food plains.
Target new parks and mult-functonal
use of streets or other public
propertes to relieve open space
deserts.
Integrate PSRCs transportaton
oriented trail plan with countes
recreaton trail planning to identfy the
most benefcial improvements
Ensure fair access to resources for all
communites and populatons.
Support healthy communites
programs by prioritzing recreaton and
actvity improvements.
Identfy at-risk resource lands and
strategies to sustain them (e.g. purchase of
development rights, agricultural economy
programs, sustainable forestry practces, etc.)
Use ecosystem services analysis to identfy
key green infrastructure resources.
CONCEPTUAL MAP HIGHLIGHTING REGIONAL OPEN SPACE SYSTEM PRIORITES
The diagrammatc map below is adapted from PSRCs VISION 2040 Regional Design Strategy. It does not represent accurate data but
does illustrate how the ROSS Vision and Values will be translated into specifc priorites within the region. The completed ROSS will
include a similar picture but with extensive detail and specifc priorites based on watershed scaled analysis.
OPEN SPACE BENEFITS WITHIN A TYPICAL PUGET SOUND WATERSHED
A full range of wilderness ecosystems,
including prairies and forested lowlands,
are essental for retaining the regions
biodiversity.
Aquatc systems are essental
for the regions ecological health
which, in turn, is critcal for the
viability of human communites.
Walkable neighborhoods with parks and
recreaton opportunites are necessary for
human health.
Open space elements
including parks,
walkable streets,
trees, and green
belts enhance the
livability of urban
communites,
provide important
green infrastructure
functons, and
encourage positve
development.
The health of aquatc systems requires
contnuity along the whole length and
breadth of the watershed, including urban
waterfronts.
Puget Sounds iconic natural features
and intmacy between natural and
human setngs establish the regions
core identty and are important
economic assets.
Besides providing food, wood
products, and jobs, resource
lands supply a wealth of
ecosystem services such
as food reducton, air and
water purifcaton, carbon
sequestraton, and recreaton.
Industrial estuaries provide
substantal opportunites
for ecological restoraton
along with more efcient
shoreline use.
Regional trails, if connected
to local neigborhoods and
regional atractons, provide
transportaton, recreaton,
and human health functons
as well as incentves for
atractng new businesses.
The illustraton below is adapted from PSRCs Vision 2040. It indicates how the viability of the Puget Sounds ecology and human
communites depends on a robust, connected, and mult-functonal open space system extending through the regions watersheds.
MODEL REGIONAL MAPPING
Connect ecologically linked open space
systems (especially aquatc systems)
for greater resilience.
PAGE 23 PAGE 22
Partner with other University
of Washington departments,
the Natural Capital project
and the Cascadia Ecosystem
Services Partnership to form
a taskforce of ecosystem
services analysis expertse
from multple disciplines
to explore opportunites to
integrate ecosystem services
evaluaton into the Regional
Open Space Strategy.
Incorporate analysis that
illuminates the full cost
of infrastructure and
development expansions
to tax payers and begin to
highlight the value open
spaces provide in terms of
ecosystem services in each
Watershed Open Space
Strategy.
Work with ROSS partners to
establish a communicaton
strategy that exhibits
the direct value of open
space landscapes and
the investment that is
needed to secure these
ecosystem services for future
generatons.
EVALUATE AND BETTER
COMMUNICATE THE VALUE
OF OPEN SPACE AND THE
BENEFITS THAT PEOPLE GET
FROM ECOSYSTEMS
Form an executve
level outreach and
communicatons commitee
to identfy strategies to
ensure the ROSS is embraced
and celebrated in the region.
Work with ROSS partners
to build a coaliton across
sectors traditonally not
engaged in conservaton
eforts (i.e. health, faith
communites, manufacturing
frms, energy frms, cultural
organizatons, historic
preservaton groups,
teachers, etc.).
Partner with County
Conservaton Districts to
educate the public about
working lands within their
watershed utlizing eco/
agrotourism and events that
get people out onto forests
and farms.
UTILIZE THE REGIONAL
OPEN SPACE SYSTEM AS
A PLATFORM TO INSPIRE
STEWARDSHIP, ENCOURAGE
DIVERSE COMMUNITY
ENGAGEMENT AND
PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE AND
EQUITABLE COMMUNITY
DEVELOPMENT.
Form an executve level
commitee to explore
governance, inter-
organizatonal coordinaton,
and long-term funding
optons for open space at a
regional scale.
Partner with Natonal
Park Service to introduce
key federal agencies to
the ROSS project, identfy
shared programmatc
objectves, and generate
interest and commitment to
support the project.
Work with partners to
explore how to integrate
adaptve management into
the ROSS.
DEVELOP A SUSTAINABLE
SOURCE OF REGION-
WIDE STEWARDSHIP,
MAINTENANCE, AND
FUNDING
$
Utlize the Watershed Open
Space Strategies to begin
to establish a spatal vision
for the regional open space
system based on the layering
and optmizaton of functons
and values across multple
disciplines and interests.
Partner with PSRCs Growing
Transit Communites project
to identfy underutlized
propertes and opportunity
sites for open space as a
means to alleviate health
disparites and support
equitable development
objectves in confrontng
open space deserts along
the proposed regional transit
corridor system.
FORMULATE AN
INTEGRATED SPATIAL
VISION TO CREATE A
CONNECTED REGIONAL
OPEN SPACE SYSTEM.
Utlize the Watershed Open
Space Strategies as a means
to build capacity and further
align local eforts to address
open space.
Partner with Forterra to
establish guidance on
best practces and inter-
jurisdictonal alignment for
urban tree canopy strategies
as a regional demonstraton
project for the ROSS.
Disseminate inital fndings
from the ROSS and the
WOSS to inform local
updates to comprehensive
plans and the next Vision
2040 update in 2014.
COALESCE AND ENHANCE
EXISTING CONSERVATION
TOOLS, LAND MANAGEMENT
PRACTICES, AND
REGULATORY APPROACHES
Identfy opportunites
to restore ecological
functons in developed
areas and reinforce
community development
as a component of each
Watershed Open Space
Strategy.
Partner with PSRC and
County health districts to
utlize existng analyses
in identfying how open
space can best address key
inequites/health disparites,
accessibility/connectvity of
the system and community
development.
Develop waterfront access
on shoreline street ends in
urban areas, expanding the
reach of Friends of Street
Ends.
Partner with the Regional
Food Policy Council
and other local food
organizatons to identfy
how open space can further
contribute to regional food
security eforts while also
addressing healthy food
access and equity.
CONSERVE OR RECLAIM
ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION,
USE OPEN SPACE TO
REINFORCE COMMUNITY
DEVELOPMENT, AND
IMPROVE PUBLIC ACCESS
TO OPEN SPACE
Partner with Puget Sound
Insttute to incorporate
and link current ecological
assessments and priorites
to analyses and priority
setng associated with
other key interests as part of
the Watershed Open Space
Strategies.
Partner with PSRC
to integrate regional
transportaton-oriented trail
inventories and proposed
networks with county
level recreaton-oriented
trail planning to create
a centralized, accessible
database that can be used
to ensure regional trails
help form connectons that
support the regional open
space system.
Partner with Forterra,
American Farmland Trust,
conservaton organizatons,
conservaton districts, and
state agencies to identfy key
lands that need protecton
by mapping rural land use,
resource lands and current
trends to highlight key
conditons and threats.
INCORPORATE,
SUPPLEMENT, AND LINK
EXISTING DATA ANALYSES
TO IDENTIFY KEY OPEN
SPACE VALUES AND
PRIORITIES
POTENTIAL NEAR-TERM ACTIONS
A ROBUST,
CONNECTED,
MULTI-FUNCTIONAL
REGIONAL
OPEN SPACE
SYSTEM
These potental near-term actons support regional stewardship, opportunites for shared analysis, or specifc demonstraton
projects that exhibit the value of approaching open space conservaton and development at a regional scale. While this is not a
comprehensive list and there are many other worthwhile projects and programs that the ROSS will need to be aligned with, these
initatves represent key opportunites for collaboratve efort.
PAGE 25 PAGE 24
APPENDIX A
During the Ecosystem TAC discussions, commitee members noted that there are at least 3 diferent approaches to characterizing
ecosystems and evaluatng their importance: the watershed characterizaton process developed by the WA Dept of Ecology,
various landscape ecology methodologies and the evaluaton of the services provided by the natural environment (ecosystems
services valuaton).
The Department of Ecologys watershed characterizaton approach examines the physical and chemical processes, such as delivery
and transport of water, sediment, nutrients, etc within an aquatc ecosystem. Through this analysis, ecologists can pinpoint
those geographic areas and conditons in which key processes are impaired to the extent that the ecosystem is degraded. The
landscape ecology approach examines the interactons between the biological components of an ecosystem, such as plant and
animal communites, as well as its physical characteristcs across a given geographic area. One way to think of the diference is
to note that the watershed characterizaton approach focuses on the physical foundatons of an aquatc ecosystem and assumes
that if those processes are within a natural range, generally they can produce the structure and ecological functons (e.g.: creaton
of suitable habitat) necessary to support the ecosystem, while the landscape ecology method looks at a larger range of indicators
and relatonships to assess the level of functon within a given area. Both methods can be used to assess an ecosystems vitality,
identfy areas or conditons especially important to its proper functoning and suggest actons to enhance its health. The two
methods are compatble, and the TAC members advised using both methods in the WOSS analyses. Fortunately, much ecosystem
characterizaton has already been done as part of the Department of Ecologys work and SMP updates, the WRIA analysis now
being used by the Puget Sound Partnership, and the Nature Conservancys Biodiversity Portolio, not to menton the assessments
accomplished by the countes. To interpret this work it will be necessary to involve key experts in identfying gaps and translatng
the fndings into recommended actons.
Ecosystem services analysis evaluates more specifcally those human benefts that the ecosystem provides directly. These are
generally grouped into four broad categories: provisioning services, such as the producton of food and water; regulatng services,
such as the control of climate and fooding and the purifcaton of air and water; supportng services, such as nutrient cycles and
crop pollinaton; and cultural services, such as spiritual and recreatonal benefts. This concept has received much atenton in
recent years and there are a number of models that can be used to quantfy the economic benefts of the natural environment
(including areas such as agricultural foodplains which reduce food damage and elements such as street trees that help regulate
temperatures and storm water, clean the air and sequester carbon). Identfcaton of ecosystem service benefts will be one of the
cornerstones of the WOSS analyses and the ROSS team will identfy suitable evaluaton methodologies to support this work. The
results of this analysis will 1) contribute to the identfcaton of priority open space protecton and enhancement actons and 2)
stress the importance and value of ecosystem services.
Key Analytcal Challenge: Integratng Diferent Ecosystem
Characterizatons and Evaluaton Methods
L
E
V
E
L
O
F
IM
P
O
R
T
A
N
C
E
LEVEL OF DEGRADATION
HIGH
HIGH
LOW
PROTECT RESTORE
CONSERVE DEVELOP
LAND MANAGEMENT
APPROACH
+
LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY
PRINCIPLES
WATERSHED
CHARACTERIZAION
ECOSYSTEM
SERVICES
+
$
+
values
2
regional climate + air
quality regulaton
fo
o
d
p
ro
d
u
c
t
o
n
c
a
rb
o
n
s
e
q
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e
s
tra
t
o
n
fo
re
s
t p
ro
d
u
c
t
o
n
preserving habitats +
biodiversity
w
a
t
e
r
f
o
w
r
e
g
u
la
t
o
n
w
ate
r q
u
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g
u
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o
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h
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+
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PAGE 27 PAGE 26
APPENDIX B
Resources Noted to Date
DATA + ANALYSES
Ecosystem Mapping:
Mapping has been conducted by a number of organizatons to identfy key habitat for conservaton including
The Nature Conservancy, local land trusts, and the EPA, as well as the Washington State Department of Natural
Resources, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington State Department of Ecology. Each county
has established its own maps of key habitat areas and Trust for Public Lands work on the Greenprint for King County
provides a detailed look at priority investments in open space beyond solely ecological demands.
The Puget Sound Watershed Characterizaton Project, organized by the Puget Sound Partnership and Washington
State Department of Ecology, highlights the most important areas to protect, and restore, and those most suitable for
development.
Ecosystem Services Valuaton:
Earth Economics has conducted mapping of ecosystem services explicit to certain communites in the region as well
as conductng an assessment for the Puget Sound Basin. Departments at the University of Washington and Cascadia
Ecosystem Services Partnership will be queried for complementary research eforts.
Health + Equity Mapping:
Regional Opportunity Mapping at PSRC and analysis among county health agencies and other departments will ensure
that the regional open space system can address health disparites and inequity.
Resource Land Risk Assessment + Prioritzaton:
County level assessments of land ownership in rural and resource lands (Greenprint for King County)
Agriculture and rural land surveys (Conservaton Districts and countes - Kitsap County, Strategic Plan for
Agriculture (2011))
USDA report prioritzing agricultural zoned lands, evaluatng level of risk to loss
Inventory of Trail Facilites:
PSRC has established a shared regional typology for bicycle facilites, completed an inventory of regional bicycle
facilites and some pedestrian facilites, and initated the development of a Draf Regional Bicycle Network as part
of an upcoming Regional Actve Transportaton Plan. Additonal resources such as reports from bicycle & pedestrian
advocacy organizatons (e.g. Cascade Bicycle Club Lef By The Side of the Road) will need to be reviewed alongside
city, county, and state trails and parks/recreaton plans.
The advisory commitees in each technical area engaged in an early exercise to identfy key resources: Data and
Analysis, Plans and Programs, and Organizatons and People that could be incorporated into the project. The following
list is not a comprehensive list of assets and informaton that is needed, but it refects a sampling of the resources
necessary to support specifc analyses and link up with eforts underway in the region that can support the ROSS
project.
PAGE 29 PAGE 28
ORGANIZATIONS + PEOPLE
Research insttutons
Funding community and corporatons
Tribal Governments
Military planners
Developers and business interests
Ecosystems:
Puget Sound Partnership
Natonal Marine Fisheries Service
People for Puget Sound
Washington Biodiversity Council
Washington Wildlife Habitat Connectvity Working Group
Rural + Resource Lands
Forterra
American Farmland Trust
United States Department of Agriculture
Washington State Department of Natural Resources
County governments
County conservaton districts
Land & farmland trusts
Other key farm and forestry interests
Recreaton + Trails
PSRC Bicycle & Pedestrian Advisory Commitee
Bicycle Alliance of Washington
Cascade Bicycle Club
Feet First
Private recreaton groups and companies
Private/community (HOA) owned parks and plazas
Local trails associatons
County level health agencies and recreaton departments
Railroads and water/sewer/utlity districts (e.g. BNSF, PUD, PSE, BPA)
Washington Water Trails
Urban and Community Development
PSRC, County, and City planners
Sound Transit and local transit agencies
Home ownerships associatons, and key property owners
PLANS + PROGRAMS
Ecosystem Planning:
Salmon recovery plans have been developed for each watershed and groups have already organized themselves
around ecological consideratons regarding the protecton of Puget Sound. ROSS will support implementaton of the
Puget Sound Partnership Acton Agenda and Local Integratng Organizaton (LIO) objectves by closely working with
Salmon & Ecosystem Recovery Coordinators and supplementng rather than replicatng actvites underway as part of
the PSP Biennial Science Workplan.
Rural + Resource Lands Planning:
Regional TDR Alliance (DOC, PSRC, Forterra)
Landscape Conservaton and Local Infrastructure Program (Forterra)
Tailored conservaton approaches by landscape type (Forterra)
Communicatng alternatves (UW Decision Commons)
Recreaton + Trails Planning:
PSRC Bicycle & Pedestrian Advisory Commitee regional bicycle network, county trail plans, transit service level maps,
Feet First Walking Maps & Safe Routes to School data will help inform how safe connectons can be made between
open space and community destnatons, partcularly among undeserved communites.
Collectve groupings of local jurisdictons such as the Suburban Cites Associaton, AWC, and Forterras Green Cites
Partnership will be important contacts in assessing existng eforts to link projects and investments for recreaton
and trails across politcal boundaries. The Natonal Park Service, the Natonal Parks Conservaton Associaton, and
the Washington Recreaton and Parks Associaton can help link regional scale investments in recreaton to broader
systems and it will be important to clarify the role of the Trust for Public Land.
As the ROSS assesses how to improve public access to recreaton it will be important to work with the Washington
State Department of Natural Resources as well as other large public land owners. Lessons from the Mountains to
Sound Greenway and its strategic plan will help set out approaches to public access on the regions lands. It will also
be important to contact the Washington Water Trails Associaton and partners in other countes (e.g. San Juan and
Orcas water trail groups) to evaluate how to improve access to the regions waterways.
Urban + Community Planning:
The Green Cites Partnership and community advocacy work at Forterra will help identfy how to engage and
empower communites to support open space. Additonal county level data (Greenprint for King County, Kitsap County
Greenways Plan (1995), Pierce County Open Space Taskforce, water/food management mapping) will ensure that the
ROSS can identfy the intersects among a varied grouping of interests. In additon, there may be an opportunity to
coordinate between groups working on urban watersheds (e.g. Thornton Creek Alliance).
PSRCs Growing Transit Communites Program is evaluatng underutlized propertes and opportunity sites along
proposed high capacity transit corridors. Agreements are being established for afordable housing and the ROSS will
link with these eforts to identfy opportunites to address open space deserts along these corridors
PAGE 31 PAGE 30
ECOSYSTEMS TAC CO-LEADS
Bob Fuerstenberg, King County DNRP Retred
Criter Thompson, UW Decision Commons
TAC PARTICIPANTS
George Blomberg, Port of Seatle
Gordon Bradley, UW School of Forest Resources
Taylor Carroll, Forterra
Dave Cook, Geoengineers
Nicole Faghin, Faghin Consultng
Keith Folkerts, Kitsap County Natural Resources Division
Abby Hook, Hook Knauer LLP
Peter Hummel, Anchor QEA
Mark Isaacson, King County Water & Land Resources Division
Gino Luschet, King County DNRP
Tom Murdoch, Adopt-A-Stream Foundaton
Susan Oneil, Puget Sound Partnership
Doug Osterman, Puget Sound Partnership
James Rasmussen, Duwamish River Cleanup Coaliton
Elaine Somers, USEPA Region 10
Kari Stles, Puget Sound Insttute
Jennifer Thomas, Parametrix
Chris Townsend, Puget Sound Partnership
RURAL + RESOURCE LANDS TAC CO-LEADS
Lauren Smith, King County Executves Ofce
Skip Swenson, Forterra
TAC PARTICIPANTS
Melissa Campbell, PCC Farmland Trust
Ryan Dicks, Pierce County
Mary Embledon, Cascade Harvest Coaliton
Leif Fixen, Snohomish Conservaton District
Joy Garitone, Kitsap Conservaton District
Brock Howell, Futurewise
Joe Kane, Nisqually Land Trust
Kirk Kirkland, Pierce County Open Space Taskforce
Joan Lee, King County Rural & Regional Services Secton
Bobbi Lindemulder, Snohomish Conservaton District
Doug McClelland, Washington State Department of
Natural Resources & Mountains to Sound Greenway
Jay Mirro, King Conservaton District
Linda Neunzig, Snohomish County Agricultural Services
Rene Skaggs, Pierce Conservaton District
Sandra Staples-Bortne, Great Peninsula Conservancy
Dan Stonington, Northwest Natural Resource Group
APPENDIX C
Technical Advisory Commitee Members
RECREATION + TRAILS TAC CO-LEADS
Amy Shumann, Public Health - Seatle & King County
Jennifer Knauer, Hook Knauer LLC
TAC PARTICIPANTS
Don Benson, URS Corporaton
Amy Brockhaus, Mountains to Sound Greenway
Kevin Brown, King County Parks Division
Karen Daubert, Washington Trails Associaton
Martha Droge, Natonal Park Service Pacifc West Region
Jessica Emerson, King County DNRP
Robert Foxworthy, King County DNRP
Deborah Hinchey, UW School of Public Health
John Hoey, Trust for Public Land
Amalia Leighton, SVR Design
Ian Macek, Washington State Department of Transportaton
Josh Miller, Bicycle Alliance of Washington
Jane Moore, WA Coaliton for Promotng Physical Actvity
Thomas OKeefe, American Whitewater
Dennis Oost, Kitsap County
Chris Overdorf, Elm
Lisa Quinn, Feet First
Kimberley Scrivner, Puget Sound Regional Council
Tom Teigen, Snohomish County Parks Director
Diane Wiatr, City of Tacoma
Don Willot, North Kitsap Trails Associaton
James Yap, Snohomish County Parks & Recreaton
URBAN + COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
TAC CO-LEADS
Ben Bakkenta, Puget Sound Regional Council
Joe Tovar, Inova Planning, Communicatons, & Design LLC
TAC PARTICIPANTS
Gordon Bradley, UW School of Envir. & Forest Resources
Vicky Clarke, Kitsap Regional Coordinatng Council
Amalia Leighton, SVR Design
Dan Dewald, City of Bellevue
Leif Fixen, Snohomish Conservaton District
Eric Hanson, Port of Seatle
Gwendolyn High, Washington Wildlife & Recreaton Coaliton
John Hoey, Trust for Public Land
Mark Hoppen, Snohomish Health District
Mark Mead, City of Seatle Department of Parks & Recreaton
Joshua Monaghan, King Conservaton District
Chip Nevins, City of Seatle Parks Division
Rocky Piro, Puget Sound Regional Council
Andrea Plat-Dwyer, Seatle Tilth
Lauren Smith, King County Executves Ofce
Sean Sykes, NAIOP Sustainable Development Commitee
Chris Townsend, Puget Sound Partnership
Tim Trohimovich, Futurewise
Alison VanGorp, Forterra
PAGE 32
A ROBUST,
CONNECTED,
MULTI-FUNCTIONAL
REGIONAL
OPEN SPACE
SYSTEM
P U G E T S O U N D
R E G I O N A L O P E N S PA C E S T R AT E GY
ROSS