Facilitating your process journey …

Managing Cultural Change
ASQ Presentation Henry Schneider Process and Product Quality Consulting, LLC September 4, 2007

Facilitating your process journey …

Agenda

Change Management Concepts

Roles and Responsibilities for Organizational Change

Key Elements That Affect Change

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Facilitating your process journey …

Change Management Concepts

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Change Happens
Despite our best efforts things will change

Sources of Change
•Audit/assessment/ appraisal findings •Lessons Learned •Improvement Suggestions •Benchmarking •Etc.

Change is disruptive, whether you see it as good or bad

Being prepared to manage change is half the battle won
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Plan for the Change

Identify strategies, approaches, and actions to address the identified change(s)

Establish team(s) to implement the action(s)

Document the plan(s)

Manage the change(s) to the plan(s)

To plan for change, you must first understand how to manage change
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A Change Model

Desired State
Transition State Present State • A need has been identified for an improvement • Disruption that WILL happen • Loss of productivity • Change has been implemented and business value returned

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Organizational Change Steps

Assess organizational readiness

Define desired state and determine strategy

Develop enduring sponsor-ship

Measure business value of the improvement

Establish sponsor-ship

Assess present capability and culture

Equip team and plan the improvement

Implement the capability improvement

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SEI IDEAL Model
A Process for Process Improvement

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The Journey to Alignment
Official Process
Process as Practiced

Perceived Process

Official Process Process Perceived as Process Practiced

Official Perceived, Practiced Process

Change Management enables RAPID alignment!

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Change Adoption Varies Among People

The Chasm

Time

Source: Moore, Crossing the Chasm, 1995

Managing change accelerates deployment
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Innovators
Definition
• aggressively pursue new technology, often before it is even tried by the company, regardless of applicability

Motivation Support for Change Process

• technology and newness • change for the sake of change: “New is always better” • unshakeable belief in linear progress

• since small, cannot influence adoption • have short-term commitment to any particular innovation • are not seen as “players”

Source: Definitions derived from Everett Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, 1983.
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Early Adopters
Definition
• seek solutions to problems • are visionaries • can understand new technology, but using something new is not their goal

Motivation Support for Change Process

• solving a problem • finding a match for their vision of a solution • “There is a better way” mentality

• willingness to try a solution makes them ideal target for pilots • can become change agents • might have problems dealing with pragmatists

Source: Definitions derived from Everett Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, 1983.
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Early Majority
Definition
• quite comfortable with technology • strong sense of practicality • unwilling to spend effort on an untried solution, not “their” problem

Motivation Support for Change Process

• real, immediate benefits • small personal investment • short time to return on investment • “Wait and see” mentality

• weak at best • they are the target of the major thrust of the effort • once they’ve bought in, success is near

Source: Definitions derived from Everett Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, 1983.
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Late Majority
Definition
• like early majority, with added element of discomfort with technology

Motivation Support for Change Process

• newness is gone and the innovation has become the standard • “I only work here” mentality

• none • they have to be considered because there is no institutionalization, much less internalization, without their participation

Source: Definitions derived from Everett Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, 1983.
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Laggards
Definition
• enemies of change • technology is feared and distrusted • there is one way of doing things and it is the traditional one

Motivation Support for Change Process

• none • they are by definition dragged into change, if at all, often left behind • “Tried and true” mentality

• none • they will not adopt change unless it occurs without them being aware of it

Source: Definitions derived from Everett Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, 1983.
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Managing the Transition

Changing behavior requires an appropriate approach to

• Providing skills • Providing resources • Aligning the reward system

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Dealing with Visionaries

Deal with resistance Sell the vision Raise awareness
•listen to grievances •be prepared to adjust the vision •be prepared to learn from their experience

Plan a pilot

Provide training in new skills

Procure resources to make the pilot successful

Messages about success don’t always cross the chasm, but messages about failure do!
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Strategy for Crossing the Chasm

Use previous experience to modify team vision

Assemble the team for the pilot Select a pilot project for the early majority
•use visionaries only if they can communicate with pragmatists •add external resources as necessary

Revise products to make the effort easier to digest
•simplify templates •simplify process •tailor as needed

Plan the pilot for success
•failure is unacceptable and unrecoverable •guaranteeing success is not cheating, this is not a game

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Attempting to Cross the Chasm
Things that don’t work
Formal training on a reference model (CMMI, ISO 9000) Half-day orientation training on the reference model Declaring the new processes as the standard that all must follow Expecting the reward structure to ensure compliance Trusting that the benefits will become evident on their own

Better ways
Just In Time training on the organization’s processes
Half-day orientation on the organization’s processes and improvement approach

Coaching and mentoring on the new processes as projects start

Providing tools, training, and rewards as needed

Establishing relevant measures of progress and monitoring them publicly

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Propagating the Change

Communicate pilot successes
• sell the problem • use the early majority pilot as exemplar • be open and frank about tailoring to other projects

Change the teams, process, and training assets as needed

Closely monitor to ensure success
• put in place many early warning systems • do not let a project fail, rescue it

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Crossing the Gap to the Late Majority

Make constant adjustments to the Process Asset Library (PAL) as needed

Support individual projects until adoption is complete Communicate that the PAL is the only accepted standard Change rewards and punishments accordingly Put process goals into management objectives
•goal of 85% of all projects committed satisfied •compliance is NOT commitment

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Roles and Responsibilities for Organizational Change
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Change Roles

Authorizing Sponsor (AS)
• legitimizes change initiative • holds reinforcing sponsors accountable for change

Reinforcing Sponsor(s) (RS)
• allocate resources • remove barriers • express, model, and reinforce change

Champions (CH)
• believe things can be different and continuously act as advocates for the change

Change Agents (CA)
• implement the change • keep everyone informed • surface and handle resistance

Participants (P)
• use the process • adopt new behaviors, habits, and emotions

A person might change roles over the course of the change or have multiple roles at the same time

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Typical Positions of Change Roles
CEO/AS
VP/RS
Champions (CH) and Participants (P) can appear at any level

VP/CH

VP/RS
Mgr/CH

Mgr/RS

Mgr/CA

Mgr/RS

Lead/CA
Lead/P

CA
P

P
P

CH

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When Sponsorship Goes Awry

CEO/AS
“Black Holes” can appear at any level and in any change management role

VP/

VP/

VP/

Mgr/
Lead/P

Mgr/
P

Mgr/
P

Mgr/
P

Lead/P
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P

P
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Facilitating your process journey …

Change Mgmt Responsibilities

Sponsor
•Authorizes, legitimizes, and demonstrates leadership for the change •Expresses the need for the change •Models the desired change •Rewards and recognizes those who have arrived at the desired state

Authorizing Sponsor
•Legitimizes the change by asking the whole organization to support the change •Holds the Reinforcing Sponsors accountable •Communicates the change to all levels of the organization •Monitors the progress through the Reinforcing Sponsors •Rewards early adopters

Reinforcing Sponsor
•Establishes and communicates the change strategy •Creates an infrastructure to show commitment •Participates in goal setting •Provides resources and removes resistance and barriers •Monitors status and progress of change teams •Establishes a reward and recognition system

Champion
•Identifies the rationale and motivation for change - may be a “thought leader” in the organization •Advocates the change within the organization, by gaining peer commitment •Provides support throughout the change process •Provides guidance for change teams

Change Agent
•Plans and implements the roadmap •Identifies resources needed for the implementation and communicates with the RS •Builds support for the change throughout the organization •Assists participants in implementing the change •Reports progress •Identifies and deals with resistance

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Key Elements That Affect Change

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Resistance Happens
Characteristics of participant resistance • Can be passive • disinterested - it’ll pass, there will be another change coming along • stalling tactics, excuses • “I have too much real work to do” • “I agree with you in principle, but it will never work here” • Can be active • confrontational • subversive Resistance cannot be ignored – you must manage it • Understand concerns and issues • Explain the change from participant point of view • Resistance can provide learning opportunities for change agents

Whether the change is perceived as positive or negative, resistance is inevitable and disruptive
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Organizational Change Alignment
Unified Chaos

Tug of war

Full-scale war

Organizational visions, values, and behaviors need to be aligned with the change
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Institutionalizing Change
If no commitment If no ability
If no measurement If no verification
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Inertia toward change Ineffective performance Undetected problems Declining compliance
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Practices will decay if they are not institutionalized
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Summary
Plan and perform change management to ensure successful change Identify the people involved and their roles Clearly establish responsibilities and skills needed Recognize and deal with resistance
Align rewards and recognition with the desired behavior Change is difficult. It requires support and encouragement. Open communication enables people to understand what is expected of them and motivates them to participate in the change effort.

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Facilitating your process journey …

PPQC Offerings
Consulting
• CMMI • Software Engineering • Systems Engineering • Process Improvement

Appraising
• SCAMPI A, B, C • Gap Analysis

Training
• CMMI • Process Improvement • Action Planning Workshops • Measurement and Analysis • Process Area Specific Training
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PPQC Contact Information
Process and Product Quality Consulting, LLC Corporate Headquarters 2111 Heather Green Houston, TX USA 77062
281-218-6682

Address:

Phone:

E-mail:

henry@ppqc.net

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Thank you!
 Thank you very much for your attention!  Please feel free to contact me if you have any

questions or comments

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