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Academic Vocabulary in Use

Compulsory English
B. Ed. 1
st
Year
For: 15 Marks
By
Ramesh Prasad Adhikary
Unit: 1
WHAT IS SPECIAL ABOUT ACAE!IC E"#LISH
A. Everyday words academic use
z}lIfs k|of]usf nfuL k|of]u ul/g] English df klg ;fdfGo k|Tos lbg jf]nLg] $ord g}
k|of]u x'G5g\ t/ meaning eg] e%eryday use / a&ademi& use df km/s k5{ . !t}'
Word E%eryday !eaning A&ademi& !eaning
is&ipline A(ili)y )o &on)rol
onesel* or o)her
people "g'zf;g
+S)uden)s should (e
dis&iplined,-
Area o* s)udy. (ran&h o*
kno$ledge /zf!#$ %fgsf]
zf&f0 +So&iology is a kind
o* dis&ipline-
Underline ra$ a line under i)
/tn /]&f tfGg'0
/Underline )he righ)
ans$er *rom )he lis),0
#i%es emphasis )o /f]'
lbg'0 /The resear&h
underlines )he impor)an&e
o* in)erna)ional )rade
agreemen)0
Solid no) li1uid or gas
/(f]z j!t'0 /The lake
$as *ro2en Solid0
Cer)ain or sa*e. o* a good
s)andard /;l)s0 /We don3)
ha%e solid e%iden&e0
B. Vocabulary Academic style
n]&gdf z}lIfs *o+mLx,n] neu)ral $ord x, k|of]u u5{g\ / ltgLx, "ln jl- "f}k.//s
/*ormal0 z0b kgL k|of]u u5{g f] b}lgs k|of]udf Tolt 1]/} "f23b}gg\ . To;}n] Tof]
e4pression "f}k.//s /*ormal0 xf] ls neu)ral xf] 4fxf kf2g' k5{ . !t}'
"eu)ral !ore *ormal
In shor). (rie*ly.
(asi&ally
In sum. )o sum up
/5f])s/Ldf0
only Sole/ly0 /s]jn0
almos) 5 more o* less 6ir)ually /5df 5dL0
)ry A))emp) /k|of; 0
!ainly5 mos)ly Primarily /d'6otof0
)ypi&al o* Chara&)eris)i& o* /ljz]7ftf0
t/ sI8df le&)ure df spoken English df a&ademi& use e9kgL 1]/} in*ormal %o&a(ulary k|of]u
x'G5g\ . j':gsf] nfuL in*ormal language ;'g]klg "f}k.//s lgjG1 n]6bf / s'g}
assignmen) df *ormal language k|of]u ug{ ;;5 '
Ok' Ha%e a sho) a) doing )ask no, 7 8ormal' Try5a))emp) )o do,
There is no $ay s&hool &an (e held responsi(le *or *ailures o* go%ernmen) poli&y, 8ormal'
S&hool &an9) in any $ay (e held,
A&ademi& language nf<{ ;se/\ !k!) /&lear0 5f])f] /pre&ise0 jgf2g] k|oTg x'G5 . To;}n]
no)e(ook jgf9/ leGgtf ='e\mg "fj>os x'G5 .
!t}' Prime /2+d0 : e4ample +e4&ellen) in 1uali)y ; %alue-
Primary /d'6o0 : &on&ern +main5mos) impor)an)-
!. "oun #$rase
olb Head $ord /d'6o z0b0 sf] ,kdf noun "f9sf] 5 eg] Tof]
z0b ;d?xnf<{{ noun phrase elgG5 . A&ademi& language df noun phrase dfk{mt ;l)s
tl/sfn] fgsf/L lbg] k|of; ul/G5 . !t}'
Radia)ion $as a&&iden)ally released o%er <=>hours period. damaging )he $ide area *or a long )ime,
t/ a&ademi& n] o;nf<{{'
The a&&iden)al release o* radia)ion o%er a <=>hour period &aused $idespread long )erm
damage,
To;}n] $ord df ljleGg ,kjf/] fGg'k5{ .
"oun 6er( Ad?e&)i%e Ad%er(
A&&iden)
@uan)i)y5
@uan)i*i&a)io
n
@uan)i)y
A&&iden)al
@uan)i)a)i%e
@uan)i*ia(le
A&&iden)ally
@uan)i)a)i%ely
@uan)i*ia(ly
t/ =]nf=]nfdf bf]xf]l//xg] /*re1uen)ly0 9&hunks9 /z0bx,0 jf phrase sf] jf/]df ;.]t x'g'k5{ .
ltgLx,nf<{{ $hole uni) sf] ,kdf lng'k5{ . !t}'
In )erm o* /;Gbe{df0. in addi)ion /sf "ltl/+m0. *or )he mos) par) /k|fo0. in )he &ase o* /olb o;f]
e9df0
EXERCISE
1.1 Eac$ word in t$e bo% can be used in two ways& one an everyday way& t$e ot$er a ty'ical
academic way& com'lete eac$ 'air o( sentences usin) t$e same word (or bot$ sentences
makin) any necessary )rammatical c$an)es.
+=;;df lb<9sf k|Tos z0bnf<{{ b'< tl/sfn] k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5A 9s b}lgs k|of]usf] ,kdfA
"sf]{ ljz]7f If}lIfs ,kdf$ tnsf jf;osf k|To]s efunf<{ k'/f ug'{xf]; xf 92)f
z0bnf<{ b'j} sen)en&e df /f6g'xf]; / "fj>os gramma)i&al kl/jt{g ug'{xf]; .-
#enera)eBk}bf ug{'$ 2Tkfbg ug'{ /E0 )urnB"g'xf/ kmsf{2g'$ kmls{g' /E0
Blg5Tof2g'$ ;@gf ug'{ /A0 Bkfnf]$ lj7fo =bAg' /A0
SolidB(f]z /E0 Con*irmBlg>l.t /E0
B!k!) ;l)s /A0 Bk|d/Bft /A0
Iden)i)yBk+fnfCg' /E0 UnderlineBtn /]&f tfGg' /E0
Bbzf{2g'$ kl/l.t /A0 BdxDj lbg' /A0
Chara&)erBkf# /E0 PoseB"f;g$ zl/l/s "j!4f /E0
Bljz]7ftf /A0 BAof2g'$ sf/s /A0
"a)ureBk|s@lt /E0 8o&usBk|sfz kfg{' /E0
Bk|=@l+ /A0 Bf]' lbg' /A0
C, A' She lo%es )o pose *or pho)ographs in *ron) o* her *a(ulous house,
B' The e%en)s pose a )hrea) )o s)a(ili)y in )he region,
<, A' I) $as di**i&ul) )o *o&us )he &amera on )he *lo$er as i) $as so small,
B' We should *o&us our a))en)ion on )he mos) impor)an) issues,
7, A' I &alled )he airline ; &on*irmed my reser%a)ion,
B' The da)a &on*irmed my hypo)hesis )ha) animal lo%ers en?oy (e))er heal)h,
=, A' The po$er plan) genera)es ele&)ri&i)y *or )he $hole region,
B' The issue al$ays genera)es a grea) deal o* de(a)e among a&ademies,
D, A' The murder $as iden)i*ied *rom *inger prin)s dis&o%ered a) )he s&ene,
B' In )his )heory o* his)ory. progress is &losely iden)i*ied $i)h )e&hnology,
E, A' She (e&ame in)eres)ed in na)ure &onser%a)ion,
B' The *irs) le&)ure in )he series $as on )he na)ure o* human &ommuni&a)ion,
F, A' Gim is a %ery in)eres)ing &hara&)er, I hope you mee) him,
B' The (ook a))emp)s )o e4plain )he *undamen)al &hara&)er o* so&ial li*e,
H, A' I sa$ her )urn )o her hus(and ; $hisper some)hing in his ear,
B' Le) us no$ )urn )o )he su(?e&) o* )o$n planning,
I, A' He al$ays underlines e%ery ne$ $ord $hen he is reading,
B' The s)udy underlines )he *a&) )ha) %ery li))le resear&h e4is)s,
CJ, A' The li1uid (e&ame solid as )he )empera)ure $as lo$ered,
B' The s)udy la&ks solid e%iden&e ; )here*ore i)s &on&lusions are dou()*ul,
1.* Use more (ormal alternatives to t$e words in bold make any necessary )rammatical
c$an)es. +Bold "If/df lb<9sf $ord sf] "ln *ormal ljsAk n]6g'xf]; . "fj>os gramma)i&al
&hange klg ug'xf]; .
C, The (ook is mainly &on&erned $i)h )he pro(lem o* )he in)eres),
Primarily /d'6ot'0
<, Almos) e%ery s&hool in )he &oun)ry has repor)ed pro(lems $i)h )he ne$ sys)em,
6ir)ually /k|fo ;=}0
7, The $ork o* )he ins)i)u)e is no) only de%o)ed )o &an&er resear&h,
Solely /s]jn0
=, Basi&ally. $e (elie%e $e ha%e demons)ra)ed a signi*i&an) link (e)$een )he )$o e%en)s,
In sum /"1f/e?t ,kdf0
D, We )ried )o *ind a ne$ $ay o* unders)anding )he da)a,
A))emp)ed /k|of;0
E, The s)udy is really good e4ample o* )he $ay so&iologis)s &olle&) )heir da)a,
Prime /2Ts@7)$ 2l.t0
F, The rea&)ion is )ypi&al o* )he $ay large &orpora)ions keep &on)rol o* )heir marke)s,
Chara&)eris)i& /ljz]7f ljz]7ftf0
H, There is no $ay London &an (e &ompared )o Sydney as a pla&e )o li%e ; $ord,
In no $ay /s'g} tl/sfn] klg0
1., -ead t$e te%t answer t$e .uestions.
The produ&)ion o* plas)i&s depends hea%ily on pe)roleum. (u) a no%el $ay o* making plas)i&s
ou) o* sugar &ould redu&e our relian&e on oil, The dis&o%ery )ha) a &hemi&al in sugar &an (e
&on%er)ed rela)i%ely easily in)o su(s)an&e similar in s)ru&)ure )o )he ma)erial o()ained *rom
pe)roleum has led )o )he &laim )ha) plas)i&s &ould soon (e produ&ed &heaply using )he ne$ me)hod,
@ues)ions'
C, Underlines )$o %er(s $i)h ad%er(s a*)er )hem $hi&h i) $ould (e use*ul )o learn as pairs,
epends hea%ily. &on%er)ed easily. produ&ed &heaply,
<, Underline )$o ad%er(s ne4) )$o ea&h o)her $hi&h i) $ould (e use*ul )o learn )oge)her,
Rela)i%ely easily
7, Wha) are )he noun *orms o* )he %er(s produ&e. rely. dis&o%er ; &laimK
Produ&eB produ&)ion
RelyB relian&e
is&o%erB dis&o%ery
ClaimB &laim
Unit 2
LEM "OU"S
of] U"IT df a&ademi& English df =f/5=f/ / dxDjk?Bf{ noun sf] jf/]df *o&us ul/9sf]
5 .
A. /eneral nouns re(errin) to ideas
Idea gf2g] s]lx noun x, / ltgsf meaning x, lg5g "g';f/ 5g\ . ltgLx, ;3u "f9sf
preposi)ions x, nf<{ underline ul/9sf] 5 .
"oun E4ample !eaning
C, Su(?e&)
/lj7fo0
She $ro)e an ar)i&le on )he
su(?e&) o* &lass,
)hing (eing
dis&ussed,
<, Theme /d'6o
lj7foj!t'0
The )heme o* )he poem is
emigra)ion /=;f<;/f<0
main su(?e&) o*
a )alk,
7, Issue /;df!of0 There $as a grea) de(a)e on )he
issue o* glo(ali2a)ion,
su(?e&) or
pro(lem (eing
)alked,
=, Theory
/l;EfGt0
Eins)ein9s )heory o* gra%i)a)ion
has (een 1ues)ioned re&en)ly,
an opinion or
e4plana)ion,
D, !odel
/gd?gf0
The model o* &lima)e &hange is
%ery real,
Represen)a)ion
o* s)h,
E, "a)ure
/nIfBf0
The (ook is &alled )he na)ure o*
in)elligen&e,
Chara&)eris)i&
F, Prin&iple
/lgod0
Human (eha%ior is (ased on )he
prin&iple o* leas) e**or),
(asi& idea or
rule,
B. More s'eci(ic nouns connected wit$ t$e 0deas o( '$enomena
oxf3 Idea / phenomena j'emf2g] s]lx noun f] ljlz7) k|sf/sf 5g\ / ltlgx, ;3u "f2g]
preposi)ion sf] jf/]df 5 .
"oun !eaning E4ample
aspe&) /kIf0 one indi%idual par)
or si)ua)ion.
pro(lem. su(?e&).
e)&,
Repe)i)ion is an impJr)an) aspe&) o* spee&h de%elopmen)
in &hildren,
8ea)ure
/ljz]7ftf0
Typi&al 1uali)y o*
some)hing,
Au)oma)i& (a&k up is a ne$ *ea)ure o* )he so*)$are,
S&ope /If]#0 ranged su(?e&)
&o%ered
The poli)i&al mo)i%es *or )he go%ernmen)9s a&)ion are
(eyond )he s&ope o* )his essay,
Pa))ern /-f3.f0 regularly repea)ed
arrangemen)
The s)udy re%ealed )he pa))ern o* resul),
"um(er/df#f0 amoun) or le%el uring <JJD. )he num(er o* %iolen) a))a&k in&reased )o an
alarming degree,
!. "ouns re(errin) to ways o( t$inkin)& 'rocess activities.
;f].f<$ k|s@of / s@ofsnfk gf2g] s]lx noun x,
oL n]&xFsf / a&ademi& (ook sf lz7f{s k- / key noun / preposi)ion nf<{ no)e u/ .
Sen)en&e5Topi& /lz7f{s0 Ley /dG6o0
noun
!eaning /"4{0
C, !i&ro>organism in $a)er )heir signi*i&an&e ;
iden)i*i&a)ion,
signi*i&an&e impor)an&e /dxDj0
iden)i*i&a)ion iden)i*ying s)h /l.gf/L0
<, Rene$a(le energy' a &ri)i&al assessmen) o* re&en)
resear&h,
assessmen) e%alua)ion /d?AofHg0
7, The &ase in &hange. Re)hinking )ea&her edu,
)o$ards ne$ approa&h,
&ase argumen) /ts{0
approa&h $ay o* &onsidering s)h
/;f].0
=, Perspe&)i%e on e&ologi&al managemen) a s)udy *or
pu(li& a$areness o* ri%er pollu)ion,
perspe&)i%e indi%idual $ay o*
&onsidering s)h
/b@7)Lsf]Bf0
a$areness $ell in*ormed /;.]t0
D, Ci)i2en9s %ie$ on heal)h &are sys)em in )he
European Union,
%ie$ personal opinion
/*o+mLut lj.f/0
E, Epidemiologi&al resear&h in)o as)hma es)a(lishing
a s)andard me)hodology,
resear&h Sys)ema)i& s)udy o* s)h,
/"g';G1fg0
me)hodology a sys)em o* $ays o*
s)udying s)h, /lj1L0
"o)e' Resear&h nf<{{ un&oun)a(le d/gG5 . To;}n] some in)eres)ing resear&hes elgb}g .
plural jgf2g' k/] 9s)udies9 jf 9resear&h s)udies9. pie&es o* resear&h elgG5 .
EXERCISE
*.1 1ook at A. !$oose t$e most a''ro'riate noun to com'lete eac$ sentence.
/A nf<{{ x]g'{xf]; . k|Tos sen)en&e nf<{{ k'/fug{ 2l.t noun 5fGg'xf]; .0
C, En%ironmen)al )opi&s 5 issues /;jfn0 5 prin&iples should (e a) )he )op o* )oday9s poli)i&al
agenda,
<, In )he e4am s)uden)s has )o &hoose )hree *rom a &hoi&e o* )en essay su(?e&)s 5 )heories 5
)opi&s /zL7f{s0,
7, There are s)ill people $ho are relu&)an) )o a&&ep) ar$in9s model 5 )opi& 5 )heory /l;IfGt0
o* e%olu)ion,
=, The pro*essor de&ided )o )ake moral &ourage as )he issue 5 )heme /d'6o efj0 5 model *or his
inaugural le&)ure,
D, The London underground map is (es) unders)ood as a modal /gd'gf0 5 prin&iple 5 )opi&
sho$ing,,,,
E, The Pe)er issue 5 prin&iple /l;IfGt0 5 )heme s)a)es )ha) mem(er o* )he hierar&hal group $ill
usually end up (eing promo)ed )o )he poin) a) $hi&h )hey (e&ome in&ompe)en),
*.* 2$ere are si% '$rases containin) errors underlined in t$e 'ara)ra'$.
Can you &orre&) )hemK
S)rong &ase o* B S)rong &ase *or
a) an alarming degree B )o an alarming degree
I)9s me)hodologi&al B I)9s me)hodology
)heir %ie$s in B )heir %ie$s on
ou) o* )he s&ope o* B (eyond )he s&ope o*
raising a$areness )o B raising a$areness o*
*., 1ook at t$ese titles o( academic books 3A456. 2$en matc$ t$em to t$eir sub7ect areas 31.86
/A&ademi& (ook sf )i)le nf<{{ To;sf] lj7fo ;3u f]'f ldnf2g'xf]; .0
A, The "a)ure o* emo&ra&y B poli)i&s //flgltzf!#0
B, Signi*i&an&e o* ream Bpsy&ology /dgf]lj%fg
C, The *ea)ures o* #la&ia)ed Lands&apes B 2eography /e?uf]n0
, The Assessmen) o* Language SkillsB edu&a)ion /lzI80
E, The Iden)i*i&a)ion o* Bees Bgeology /k|fBfLzf!#0
8, Perspe&)i%es on modern Ta4a)ionB , e&onomi&s /"4{zf!#0
#, "e$ perspe&)i%es on Cleopa)ra Bhis)ory /<ltxf; 0
H, An approa&h )o 8ree %erse B li)era)ure /;/xTo0
*.9 Matc$ t$e be)innin) o( eac$ sentence wit$ t$e most a''ro'riate endin).
+k|To]s sen)en&e sf] ;'xf2g] "GTo ;3u 2l.t ;',"ftsf] f]'f ldnf2m-
C, The s)udy re%eled a regular B Pa))ern o* &hanges in )empera)ure,
<, The resear&h *o&uses on one par)i&ular B aspe&) o* modern so&ie)y,
7, The $ri)er makes a po$er*ul B &ase *or res)ru&)uring parliamen),
=, The $ri)ers )ake an original B approa&h )o )heir )heme,
D, Un)il re&en)ly )here $as a li))le B a$areness o* )he pro(lem,
E, I )hink you should (roaden )he B s&ope o* your resear&h,
F, To da)e. )here has (een li))le resear&h B in)o )he en%ironmen)al e**e&) o* nanopar)i&les,
H, There are many impor)an) B issues *a&ing )he $orld )oday,
Unit 3
LEM 6ERBS
A. Verbs (or structurin) academic assi)nments.
z}lIfs s@ofsnfksf nfuL k|of]u ul/g] s]lx %er( x, 'g k/LI8df 1ues)ion ;f]Jg k|of]u
ul/G5g\ .
Look a) )heses )asks $hi&h s)uden)s ha%e (een gi%en, "o)e )he key %er(s,
/Ley %er(s 5 d'6o s@ofx,0 '>
dis&uss /5nkmn0 B )o gi%e one9s opinion
in%ol%e /;5dLlnt0 B in&lude
in%es)iga)e /"g';G1fg0 B )ry )o *ind ou)
des&ri(e /jBf{g ug'{0 B )o say or men)ion
&ondu&) /;Kof]g0 B )o organi2e
&onsider /"jnf]sg0 B e4amine
assume /dfGg'0 B a&&ep) s)h, Wi)hou) proo*
*ind /k+fnuf2g'0 B dis&o%er
&al&ula)e /lx;fj ug'{0 B &ompu)e
illus)ra)e /jBf{g ug'{0 B dra$ s)h, in order )o e4plain s)h
demons)ra)e /b]&f2g'0 B sho$
iden)i*y /l.Gg'0 B re&ogni2e s( or s)h
analy2e /lj!n]7fBf0 B do di%ide in)o par)s
suppor)s /;d{4g0 B (a&k up
&hallenges /.'gf}lt0 B 1ues)ion o)her9s &on&lusion or opinion
e4amine /lj!t@t "jnf]sg0 B &onsider &are*ully
a**e&) /k|efj kfg'{0 B in*luen&e
pro%ide /bLg'0 B gi%e
in&lude /;dfj]z ug'{0 B in%ol%e
B. More key verbs:
A&ademi& English df k|of]u x'g] 4k key %er( x, lg5g 5g\ '
de%elop B ljs/;t kfg'{ B )o make more ad%an&e
&lassi*y B juL{s@t B di%ide )hings
es)a(lish B !4/kt B dis&o%er or ge) proo* o*
is seen B /passi%e0
a&&oun) *or /*of6of ug'{0 B e4plain
presen) /k|!t't ug'{0 B gi%e
sho$ /k|d/Bft ug'{0 B pro%e
a))emp) /k|oTg ug'{0 B )ry
!. Verbs w$ic$ combine wit$ noun (orms o( key verbs.
A&ademi& s)yle df %er( : )he noun *orm o* )he key %er( sf] k|of]u x'G5 .
:ey verb Verb ; noun (orm o(
key verb
E%am'le
C, E4plain gi%e 5 pro%ide 5 o**er ;
e4plana)ion /o* 5 *or0
The model pro%ides an e4plana)ion *or )he di**eren&es
(e)$een )he < se)s o* da)a,
<, E4plore Carry ou) an e4plora)ion
/o*0
Lumar &arried ou) an e4plora)ion o* musi& genius,
7, Emphasis pla&e 5 pu) emphasis
/on0
The hospi)al pu)s a lo) o* emphasis on )raining nurses,
=, es&ri(e gi%e 5 pro%ide a
des&rip)ion /o*0
The (ook gi%es a des&rip)ion o* modern Europe,
ERROR WAR"I"#'
E**e&) / E**e&) df leGgtf 5 .
e**e&) /"0 )o make s)h happen sf/s x'g\$
e**e&) /"0 resul) /kl/B8d0
a**e&) /60 in*luen&e /k|efj kfg'{0
EXERCISE
,.1 Matc$ eac$ verb (rom A in t$e bo% t$e le(t wit$ its synonym (rom t$e bo% on t$e ri)$t.
/A sf] (o4 sf %er( / B sf] (o4 sf %er( lj. synonym /;dfgf4{0 "f1f/df f]'f ldnf20
A B
a**e&) In*luen&e /k|efj0
&hallenge 1ues)ion /.'gf}lt0
in&lude in%ol%e /;dfj]z0
a))emp) )ry /k|of; 0
demons)ra)e sho$ /k|bz{g0
in%es)iga)e s)udy /"Joog0
&al&ula)e &ompu)e /lx;fj0
iden)i*y dis)inguish /kl/l.t0
pro%ide gi%e /2kn010
,.* !$oose t$e best verb& verb <B< or <!< to com'lete t$ese sentences 'ut t$e verb into correct
(orms.
/"u/' 9B9 jf 9C9 jf) %er( 5fg]/ 2l.t *orm /f6b} tnsf sen)en&e nf<{{ k'/f u/0
C, As &an (e seen *rom Ta(le II. par)i&ipa)ion *igures ha%e (een s)eadily *alling sin&e CIFJ9s,
<, i**eren) au)hors ha%e a&&oun)ed *or )he presiden)9s a&)ions in di**eren) $ays,
7, !endel a))emp)ed )o de%ise a sys)em *or &lassi*ying )he many di**eren) )ypes o* pea plan)
)ha) he gre$,
=, I) is o*)en mos) e**e&)i%e )o presen) your da)a in a &har) or )a(le,
D, The da)a $e ha%e &olle&)ed sho$ )ha) )here has (een a do$n$ard )rend $i)h regard )o ?o(
sa)is*a&)ion o%er )he las) DJ years,
E, The aim o* )he resear&h is )o de%elop a ne$ so*)$are appli&a)ion $hi&h $ill help a%ia)ion
engineers design more sophis)i&a)ed air&ra*),
F, The ar&heologis) should (e a(le )o use &ar(on da)ing )e&hni1ues )o es)a(lish e4a&)ly ho$
old )he (ones are,
H, Charles ar$in a))emp)ed )o e4plain )he e4is)en&e o* di**eren) )ypes o* spe&ies in )erms o*
e%olu)ion,
,., E%'lain t$e di((erence between t$ese sentences in eac$ 'air.
C, #reig9s ar)i&les suppor) Parks )heory B I) means #reig9s $ork (a&ks up )ha) o* park in o)her
$ords. i) &omes )o )he same &on&lusion,
N #reig9s ar)i&le &hallenges Park9s )heory B means )ha) #reig9s $ork 1ues)ions Park9s &on&lusion,
<, es&ri(e )he ne$ )a4 regula)ions B re1ues)s someone simply )o say $ha) )he ne$ )a4 regula)ions
are,
N is&uss )he ne$ )a4 regula)ions B re1uires someone )o gi%e )heir opinion $i)h regard )o )he ne$
)a4 regula)ions,
7, Lodhi pro%ides ne$ da)a B means Lodhi9s $ork is )he sour&e o* ne$ da)a,
N Lodhi &onsiders ne$ da)a B means Lodhi9s dis&uss ho$ da)a. gi%ing his opinion as )o )heir
appli&a)ion ; signi*i&an&e,
=, Ti)ora &on&luded *our se)s o* e4perimen)s B means )ha) Ti)ora did )he e4perimen) hersel*,
N Ti)ora e4amines *our se)s o* e4perimen)s means Ti)ora &onsider some e4perimen) $hi&h o)hers
had &arried ou),
D, Lee es)a(lished $hy su&h &hange o&&ur B means Lee $as a(le )o pro%e $hy su&h &hange o&&ur,
N Lee in%es)iga)es $hy su&h &hanges o&&ur B means Lee )ry )o *ind ou) $hy su&h &hanges o&&ur,
,.9 -ewrite eac$ sentence usin) t$e words in brackets makes any necessary c$an)es to
ot$er words.
C, Eri&kson9s )heory pro%ides an e4plana)ion *or )he *lu&)ua)ions in )he *igures in )his period,
/PRO6IES0
<, Be%an &arried ou) an e4plora)ion o* 5 in)o )he rela)ionship (e)$een *amily (a&kground ;
poli)i&al am(i)ion, /E4plora)ion0
7, The (ook gi%es 5 pro%ides a des&rip)ion o* )he li*e ; )imes o* A(raham Lin&oln,
/ESCRIPTIO"0
=, Cheng9s )heory pu)s 5 pla&es emphasis on )he impor)an&e o* e4)ensi%e reading in language
a&1uisi)ion, /PUTS0
,.5 0n academic style& noun '$rase can o(ten be used instead o( some o( t$e key verbs.
!om'lete eac$ '$rase wit$ t$e a''ro'riate noun. Use a dictionary i( necessary.
C, in%es)iga)e B &ondu&) &arry ou) an in%es)iga)ion in)o 5 o*
<, illus)ra)e B pro%ide an illus)ra)ion o*
7, analyse B pro%ide. &arry ou) an analysis o*
=, a**e&) B ha%e an e**e&) on
D, a))emp) B make an a))emp) )o 5 a)
E, &lassi*y B make. pro%ide a &lassi*i&a)ion o*
Unit 4
LEM AGECTI6ES
o; kf(df lgl>.t preposi)ion ;3u "f2g] ad?e&)i%e / an)onym jf synonym x'g] ad?e&)i%e sf]
jf/]df 2An]& 5 .
A. Ad7ective #re'osition 3ljz]if0f / gfdf]u! 6
lg5g Ad?e&)i%e sf k5f'L )o nfC5 '
rela)i%e )o /;3u ;fk]lIft0. appropria)e )o
rele%an) )o /;3u ;fGble{s0
&ommon )o /sf] ;femf0
spe&i*i& )o /df ;Lldt x'g]0
lg5g ad?e&)i%e sf k5f'L o* nfC5 '
Chara&)eris)i& o* /ljz]7ftf0
)ypi&al o* /ljz]7f0
t/ df4Lsf ad?e&)i%e sf] k5f'L s'g} klg preposi)ion g"f2g klg ;;5 t/ "f9df df4Lsf )o / o* g}
"f235g\ .
B. Ad7ectives t$eir o''osites 3ljz]if0f / ltg"f ljkl/#f$%" 6
a(s)ra&) /efjfTds0 B &on&re)e /d?t{0
simple /;f1f/Bf0 B &omple4 /)Ln0
1uan)i)a)i%e /df#fTds0 B 1uali)a)i%e /u'B8Tds0
a&&ura)e /l(s0 B ina&&ura)e /j]l(s0
signi*i&an) /dxDjk?Bf{0 B insigni*i&an) /dxDjlxg0
rough /df])f df])L ,kdf0 B pre&ise /l(;s0
!. =t$er im'ortant& (re.uent ad7ectives ty'ical combinations wit$ nouns.
Ad?e&)i%es Typi&al &om(ina)ions
apparen) B o(%iously seen
/!k!)0
apparen)ly dis&repan&y
po)en)ial B possi(le /;5e/=t0 po)en)ial pro(lem
prin&ipal B main /d'6o0 prin&ipal &ause
rigorous B )o)al /k?Bf{0 rigorous me)hodology
Error >ritin)
2y'ical o( ? @(or
EXERCISE
9.1 1ook at A. !orrect t$e 're'osition errors in t$ese sentences.
C, A leng)hy dis&ussion o* )he ad%an)ages o* solar po$ers is no) rele%an) $i)h an essay )ha) re1uired
you )o *o&us on $ind )ur(ines,
rele%an) )o
<, I) is )ypi&al )o )he disease *or i) )o s)ar) $i)h an i)&hy rash,
)ypi&al o*
7, The me)hodology is no) appropria)e a(ou) )he kind o* resear&h you are planning,
appropria)e )o
=, The use o* original me)aphors is &hara&)eris)i&s *rom )he $ri)er9s s)yle,
&hara&)eris)i&s o*
D, Rela)i%e $i)h pre%ious a))emp) )o e4plain )he phenomena. )his in)erpre)a)ion is 1ui)e persuasi%e,
Rela)i%e )o
E, The ane hair ; eyes are &ommon *or all people *rom )he region,
Common )o
9.* -ewrite eac$ sentence usin) t$e o''osite o( t$e ad7ective in 0talics.
C, Larlsson &he&ked )he *igures ; agreed $i)h me )ha) )hey $ere accurate,
Ina&&ura)e
<, The solu)ion )o )he pro(lem is simple one,
Comple4
7, !ake rough &al&ula)ion (e*ore you (egin )o $ri)e up your resul),
pre&ise
=, The army played a significant role in e%en),
Insigni*i&an)
D, Herander pre*ers )o dis&uss ideas in abstract )erms,
Con&re)e
9., Matc$ t$e ad7ective on t$e le(t wit$ t$e noun it a(ter combines wit$ on t$e ri)$ts.
C, apparen) /!k!)0 B dis&repan&y
<, rigorous /k?Bf{0 B me)hodology
7, Prin&ipal /d?6o0 B &ause
=, Po)en)ial /;5e/jt0 B pro(lem
9.9 "ow use one o( t$e combinations (rom 9., to com'lete t$ese sentences.
C, There is an apparen) dis&repan&y in your *igures,
<, !anagemen)9s re*usal )o lis)en )o )he $orker9s demand $as )he prin&ipal &ause o* )he rio)s,
7, Lama1ue de%ised a rigorous me)hodology $hi&h has sin&e (een used su&&ess*ully (y many
o)her resear&hers in )he *ield,
=, We spo))ed a po)en)ial pro(lem $i)h o%er pro&edures ; so $e &hanged i) in )$o areas,
9.5 !$oose t$e best ad7ectives (rom t$e bo% to com'lete t$ese sentences.
1uali)a)i%e B u'B8Tds$ &omple4 B l)n$ po)en)ial B ;5e/=t$ rigorous B k?Bf{$ spe&i*i& B
ljz]7f
C, The plan) is di**i&ul) )o gro$ ; needs %ery spe&i*i& &ondi)ion )o sur%i%e,
<, His )u)or $as &ri)i&al o* his $ork or no) (eing rigorous enough,
7, In )he pas) )he nor)hern )ri(es looked )o )he )ri(es o* sou)h as po)en)ial enemies,
=, We &hoose a 1uali)a)i%e approa&h )o our resear&h ; in)er%ie$ed indi%iduals personally,
D, A &omple4 se) o* &ir&ums)an&es led )o &i%il $ar in CHIF,
Unit &
LMN 056MOP;
of] uni) df a&ademi& English df =f/5=f/ "f</xg] ad%er( /l#mo/jz]7fBf0 sf] jf/]df 5 .
A: Adverbs t$at com'ares. 't'ngf ug% k(f]u ul/g] adverb x) *
Ad%er( !eaning E4ample
C, Compara)i%ely
5 rela)i%ely
In &omparison $i)h
s)h, else /t'ngfTds
,kdf0
Our sample $as
rela)i%ely 5
&ompara)i%ely small,
<, Espe&ially 5
par)i&ularly
more )han usual /&f;
u/]/0
The pro&ess $as no)
espe&ially 5
par)i&ularly small,
7, Spe&ially more )han usual
/spoken df df#0 8or
a spe&i*i& purpose
/ljz]7f u/]/0
The e4am $as
espe&ially hard )his
year,
=, Some$ha)
/opp,
&onsidera(ly0
a li))le. sligh)ly
/sligh)ly *ormal0
/s]lx xb;5d0
When $e )es)ed
younger (oys. $e
o()ained some$ha)
di**eren) resul),
D, Primarily mainly /d'6ot' 0 Ram is primarily
in)eres)ed in (io>
physi&s,
E,!os)ly 5 largely almos) &omple)ely
/(u) no) )o)ally0
/nueu ;j}0
The resear&h $as
largely 5 mos)ly
su&&ess*ul,
F, ire&)ly /opp,
indire&)ly0
$i)hou) any)hing else
(eing in%ol%ed
/l;1}0
The illness is /in0
dire&)ly linked )o
poor housing,
B. Adverbs t$at related to numbers or time
/;K6of / ;do;3u ;5jlG1t s@of ljz]7fBfx, 0
Appro4ima)ely B roughly. a(ou) /sl/j0
Pre&isely B e4a&)ly /(\of;s}0
8re1uen)ly B o*)en /=f/5=f/0
E%en)ually B )o )he end. a*)er some)ime /"GTodf$ To;kl50
Ul)ima)ely B *inally /"Gtdf0
!. Adverbs t$at relate to $ow t$in)s are stated.
D,7Change )he sen)en&e using opposi)e o* )he underline ones,
Essen)ially B re*erring )o I)3s man &hara&)eris)i&s' /;f/e?t Fkd}Q
E4pli&i)ly B openly /!k!)}0
#enerally B usually /;fdfGot0
Impli&i)ly B no) dire&)ly / R'df2/f] kf/fn]0
Spe&i*i&ally B in a spe&i*i& $ay /ljlz7) Fkdf0
, Ad%er( )ha) res)ri&) or limi),
/l;ldt of jlG.t ug{] s@o/jz]7fBf0
!erely B e4a&)ly ; no)hing more /df#}0
C, simply Bplainly /;f1f/Bf tl/sfn] 0
<, simply Beasy /;lnf] =Gg ;;g] tl/sf0
7, simply B a(solu)ely . $i)hou) dou() /lgzGb]x0
=, hardly e%er B almos) e%er /emG'} slxAo} klg0
Error >ritin)
E%en)ually sf] "4{{ in )he end x'G5 . perhaps 5 possi(ly x'b}g .
E%en)ually. $e $ere a(le )o in)er%ie$ all <J &hildren in%ol%ed in )he )es),
5.* !$oose t$e a''ro'riate adverb (rom t$e o'tions.
Wha) you are saying is essentilally )rue, To pu) i) simply. )here is basically no signi*i&an)
di**eren&e (e)$een )$o $ri)ers3 )heories, Ho$e%er. one o* )hem $ri)es in simply dread*ul s)yle
$hile )he o)her has possibly a more impressi%e s)yle )han any o)her &on)emporary s&ien)is),
5., !$an)e t$e sentences usin) t$e adverbs w$ic$ mean t$e o''osite o( t$e underlined ones.
C, There $ere roughly 7DJ people li%ing in )he %illage in CIDH,
pre&isely 5 e4a&)ly
<, Paren)s seldom &omplained )ha) )he s&hool au)hori)ies *ailed )o in*orm )hem o* &hanges,
*re1uen)ly 5 o*)en 5 regularly
7, We in%es)iga)ed )he pro(lem ; ini)ially *ound some small errors in )he &al&ula)ions,
e%en)ually
=, The )empera)ure $as e4a&)ly hal* o* degree lo$er )han a%erage,
appro4ima)ely 5 roughly 5 a(ou) 5 around
D, Singh /CIIH0 is e4pli&i)ly &ri)i&al o* e4is)ing )heories o* e&onomi& gro$)h,
Impli&i)ly
E, Soil erosion is spe&ially &aused (y $a)er o* $ind,
generally. )ypi&ally
F, The senior &i)i2ens almos) al$ays use )he in)erne) )o &ommuni&a)e $i)h one ano)her,
hardly e%er
H, The disease is dire&)ly linked )o en%ironmen)al *a&)or,
Indire&)ly

Underline )he ad%er(s in )his )e4), Then ans$er )he 1ues)ions,
!any &onser%a)ionis)s are &urren)ly a))emp)ing )o sa%e )he $orld9s &oral ree*s, One plan is )o
li)erally glue )he damaged ree* (a&k )oge)her using Coral ar)i*i&ially reused i) under$a)er la(s,
Ree*s are in&reasingly under a))a&k *rom human a&)i%i)y as $ell as *rom e%en)s o&&urring na)urally.
su&h as hurri&anes ; )sunamis, A re&en) U" repor) $arns )ha) 7J O o* )he $orld9s &oral ree* ha%e
(een &omple)ely des)royed or are se%erally damaged,
S&ien)is)s ha%e re&en)ly dis&o%ered )ha) an)s &an remem(er ho$ many s)eps )hey ha%e )aken,
By &are*ully shor)ening ; leng)hening )he legs o* an)s )he )eam o(ser%ed )ha) shor) legged an)s
apparen)ly (e&ame los) ; &ould no) easily *ind )heir $ay home )o )he nes), Similarly an)s $i)h
longer legs )ypi&ally )ra%eled DJ O *ur)her )han )hey need )o and $ere also )emporarily una(le )o
*ind )he nes), I) seems an)s &an de*ini)ely &oun) )heir s)eps,
Auestions:
C, Whi&h ad%er( means Pin )he same $ayPK
Similarly
<, 8ind )$o pair o* ad%er(s )ha) mean )he opposi)e o* ea&h o)her,
Ar)i*i&ially B na)urallyA apparen)ly B de*ini)ely,
7, Whi&h ad%er( means )he opposi)e o* Pa long )ime agoPK
Curren)ly 5 re&en)ly
=, Whi&h ad%er( means more ; moreK
In&reasingly
D, Whi&h ad%er( &ould (e su(s)i)u)ed (y PseriouslyPK
Se%erely
E, Whi&h ad%er( means P*or a limi)ed )imePK
Temporarily
Unit +
PHRASAL 6ERBS I" ACAE!IC E"#LISH
x'gt Phrasal %er( x, k|fo ;f] "gf}k.//s English df "f2g] u5{g\ . t}kgL a&ademi&
&on)e4) df klg To!tf %er( "f235g\ . sI8 sf](fsf] k-f< b]&L k#kl#sf/x,df ;d]t Phrase
x, x'G5g\ . of] uni) df k|of]u ul/9sf go 5 look (a&k o%er ; $ork ou) sf] k|of]u in*ormal
$ri)hing sf nfuL k|of]u x'G5g\ .
A. #$rasal verbs one4word Bynonyms
Phrasal %er( Synonym E4ample
C, Pu) *or$ard
/in idea %ie$ 5
opinion 5 plan0
presen) /k|!t't
ug'{0
ar$in pu) *or$ard his
&on)ro%ersial )heory origin o*
spe&ies,
<, Cary ou) /an
e4perimen) 5
resear&h0
Condu&) /;
K.fng ug'{0
I in)end )o &arry ou) a series
o* e4perimen)s,
7, !ake up Cons)i)u)e /k'/f
x'g'$ "f]u)g'0
Children under )he age o* CD
make up nearly hal* o* )he
popula)ion,
=, (e made up Consis) o* /n]
jGg'0
Parliamen) is made up o* )$o
houses,
D, Poin) ou) O(ser%e
/b]&f2g'0
The resear&h poin)s ou) )he
pro(lems o* so&ial uni)y,
E, Se) ou) /)o
do s)h,0
aim /2E]>o
/f6g'0
In his ar)i&le Ram se) ou) )o
pro%e )ha),
F,poin) up highligh) /2O.
dxDj lbg'0
The s)udy poin)s up )he
$eakness o* &urren)
edu&a)ion sys)em,
H, se) ou) des&ri(e /jBf{g
ug'{0
The do&umen)s se) ou) )he
)erms o* )he )rea)y,
I, go in)o dis&uss
/5nkmn0
In )his (ook sergean) goes
in)o )he &ause o* &i%il $ar in
some dep)h,
CJ, go 5 look
(a&k o%er
re%ise 5 re%ie$
/bf]x/o9/
k-\g'0
Please go 5 look (a&k o%er
)his )erms no)e,
CC, go )hrough &he&k /f3Og'0 #o )hrough your &al&ula)ion
&are*ully,
B. !arryin) out -esearc$
o;df s]lx a&ademi& phrasal %er(s x, lb9sf] 5 !t}'
C, Wen) on )o /do s)h,0 B &on)inue )o do s)h, a*)er &omple)ing s)h else, /9s sfd kl5 "sf]
{ sfd ug'{0
<, se) up B prepare. arrange /tof/ kfg'{0
7, $ork on B s)udy. $ork in )he *ield o* /s'g} If]#df "Joog ug'{0
=, $ork ou) B &ome )o a &on&lusion a(ou) s)h, /lg>s7f{df k'Cg'0
D, go agains) B no) )o agree $i)h /lj,Edf fg'0
E, $ri)e up B $ri)e in a *inal *orm /"lGtd ,k lbg'0
EXERCISE
C.1 -ewrite t$e sentences re'lacin) t$e underlined word in eac$ sentence wit$ a '$rasal verb
(rom A. "ote t$at bot$ versions o( eac$ sentence are e.ually a''ro'riate.
/lg5g jf;onf<{{ k?g{ n]&g ug'{xf];A k|Tos sen)en&e df underlined ul/9sf $ord nf<{{ 9A9
jf) phrase nu]/ x)f<lbg'xf]; . Jofg lbg'xf]; b'j} sen)en&e sf ,kx, 2ko'+m 5g\0
C, We &ondu&) a series o* e4perimen)s )o )es) ou) our hypo)hesis,
Carried ou)
<, Be*ore )he )es) you should re%ise &hap)er F ; H o* your )e4) (ooks,
go 5 look (a&k o%er
7, In his ar)i&le on )he Ameri&an Ci%il War Lings)on dis&usses )he reasons $hy )he si)ua)ion
de%eloped in )he $ay i) did,
goes in)o
=, Cole presen)s some *as&ina)ing )heories on )he de%elopmen) o* language in la)es) (ook,
pu)s *or$ard
D, The psy&hologis) o(ser%ed )ha) i) $as %ery unusual *or a young &hild )o (eha%e in )his $ay,
Poin)ed ou)
E, Please &he&k your $ork again &are*ully (e*ore handing i) in,
go )hrough
F, In )his ar)i&le Simpson aims )o pro%e )ha) )he Chinese rea&hed Ameri&a long (e*ore )he 6iking,
se)s ou)
H, Women no$ &ons)i)u)e o%er hal* )he s)uden) popula)ion. in mos) uni%ersi)ies in )his Coun)ry,
!ake up
C.* Fill t$e missin) words in t$is 'ara)ra'$.
As par) o* my !A. I3%e (een doing some resear&h on language a&1uisi)ion, I9%e (een
$orking /C0 on ho$ young &hildren learn )heir mo)her )ongue, I ha%e (een &arrying /<0 ou) some
e4perimen)s )o see ho$ mu&h reading )o young &hildren a**e&)s )heir language de%elopmen), I ha%e
had a grea) super%isor $ho has helped me se) /70 up my e4perimen)s ; she is also poin)ed /=0 ou)
lo)s o* in)eres)ing )hings in my da)a )ha) I hadn9) no)i&e mysel*, I9m (usy $ri)hing my $ork /D0 up
no$ ; I )hink I should (e a(le )o pu) /E0 *or$ard some use*ul Ideas, I) has (een really *as&ina)ion ;
I hope I may (e a(le )o go /F0 on )o do a do&)ora)e in )he same *ield al)hough I &er)ainly ne%er se)
/H0 ou) )o do a PH,
C., Matc$ t$e be)innin) o( eac$ sentence wit$ t$e most a''ro'riate endin).
C, 8eudal so&ie)y $as made B up o* &learly de*ined &lass o* people,
<, Carlson $as )he *irs) )o pu) B *or$ard a &on%in&ing )heory $i)h regards )o )his 1ues)ion,
7, Her resul)s appear )o go B agains) $ha) she had *ound in her earlier s)udy,
=, The in%es)iga)ion poin)ed B up )he *lo$s in )he s&hool9s )es)ing me)hods,
D, I) )ook him a long )ime )o $ork B ou) )he si)ua)ion )o )he alge(rai& pro(lem,
E, The geography (ook se)s B ou) a lo) o* (asi& in*orma)ion a(ou) all )he $orld9s &oun)ries,
C.9 Answer t$ese Auestions:
C, Wha) sor)s o* )hings migh) a s&ien)is) &arry ou)K
A s&ien)is) migh) &arry ou) resear&h or e4perimen)s,
<, I* you $an) )o s)udy some)hing in more dep)h. $ha) migh) you go on )o do a*)er ge))ing a *irs)
degreeK
I* you $an) )o s)udy some)hing in more dep)h you migh) go on )o do a pos)gradua)e degree
a*)er ge))ing your *irs) degree,
7, Wha) do pos)gradua)e s)uden)s )ypi&ally ha%e )o $ri)e up a) )he end o* )heir s)udyK
Pos) gradua)e s)uden)s )ypi&ally ha%e )o $ri)e up a disser)a)ion or )hesis a) )he end o* )heir
s)udy,
=, Wha) sor) o* )hings do good s)uden)s regularly look (a&k o%erK
#ood s)uden)s regularly look (a&k o%er )heir le&)ure no)es,
D, Why is i) sensi(le )o go )hrough any ma)h9s &al&ula)ion )ha) you dra$ any &on&lusionK
I) is sensi(le )o go )hrough any ma)h &al&ula)ions )ha) $e had )o make as par) o* a resear&h
s)udy in &ase $e made any &areless mis)akes,
Uni) F' Ley @uan)i*ying E4pressions
In )his uni) )he 1uan)i*ying e4pressions are used )o sho$ )he *igures and )rend,
A. "umber Amount
"um(er / amoun) ;3u "f2g] 1uan)i*ying e4pressions x, lg5g s)ru&)ure df use x?G5g\ .
C, a grea) deal o* : un&oun)a(le noun /in)eres)0
<, a large 5 grea) amoun) o* : un&oun)a(le noun /money0
7, a large num(er o* : plural noun /$ords0
deal ;3u large "f23b}g$ num(er ;3u grea) "f23b}g .
num(er ; amoun) b'j};3u large. small. &onsidera(le. su(s)an)ial. signi*i&an). enormous. )o)al.
surprising. e4&essi%e. *air / reasona(le !tf $ord x, "f2g ;;5g\ !t}'
a small num(er o* ,,,. a small amoun) o* ,,,.
a &onsidera(le num(er o* ,,,. a &onsidera(le amoun) o* ,,,.
a su(s)an)ial num(er o* ,,,. a su(s)an)ial amoun) o* ,,,.
B. =t$er "ouns -elatin) Auantity
df#f gf2g] ", noun x, lg5g 5g\'
s)h, in )o)al B in all /5df 5dL0. &ouple B )$o or )hree. a *e$ /4f]/}0
(ulk B )he ma?ori)y /jx'dt0. as a $hole B as a group /;du|0
!. !om'arin) "umbers Auantities
s'g} j!t'sf] ;K6of / kl/B8d gf2g lg5g df#f j'emf2g] "le*ol+m k|of]u x'G5g\ .
E4&eeding B higher )han /df4L ug]{0.
In e4&ess o* B o%er /eGbf =-L0.
*e$er ; *e$er 5 less ; less B de&reasingly /1)\bf] #md0.
more ; more B in&reasingly /jb\bf] ;K6ofdf0.
more or less B sligh)ly /s]lx xb ;5d0.
no *e$er )han B une4pe&)ed large num(er /eGbf sd0
"eg, 8e$ people B no) many people. li))le money B no) mu&h money
Pos,B a *e$ people B some people. a li))le money B some money
EXERCISE
D.1 !om'lete t$ese sentences usin) correct (orms o( t$e words in 0talics.
/5'\s] "If/df n]l&9sf $ord nf<{ /f&L oL sen)en&e x,nf<{{ &orre&) u/ .0
C, In a surprising num(er o* &ases. )here $as no rea&)ion a) all )o )he drug,
Surprise
<, The analysis demanded an excessive amoun) o* &ompu)er )ime,
E4&eed
7, Considerable num(er o* (irds inha(i)s )he lake during )he $in)er,
Consider
=, The &ourse re1uires a reasonable amoun) o* prior kno$ledge o* &ompu)ers,
Reason
D, The sur%ey )ook a substantial amoun) o* resear&h )ime ; &os)s $ere high,
Su(s)an&e,
E, The )$o dam &an hold in excess o* )$o &u(i& km o* $a)er,
E4&eed
F, In total. C< areas o* Sou)hern Indian O&ean are no$ &lose )o deep sea *ishing,
To)ali)y
H, #roup exceeding *our people $ere &onsidered )o large *or )he e4perimen),
E4&eed
I, "o fewer )han <.JJJ ne$ &ompu)er %irus are &rea)ed e%ery year,
8e$
CJ, In a significant num(er o* &ases. sur*a&e damaged $as no)i&ed,
Signi*y
D.* 2$e sentences below are ty'ical o( s'oken En)lis$. -e'lace t$e underlined words to make
t$em sound more a''ro'riate (or a written assi)nment.
C, The (ulk o* our $ork is &on&erned $i)h &ar(on emissions,
!os) 5 The ma?ori)y 5 The larger par)
<, We ha%e no)i&ed )ha) *e$er ; *e$er are ?oining )he &ourse,
S)eadily de&lining num(er o*
7, Our )eam spen) a *air amoun) o* )ime ge))ing *unding *or our resear&h,
Signi*i&an) 5 su(s)an)ial
=, In a &ouple o* &ases. $e &ould no) *ind any reason *or )he ou)(reak,
O&&asional 5 )$o or )hree 5 a 8e$ &ases
D, We spen) a grea) deal o* )ime on )he pro?e&),
Considera(le amoun)
E, As you repea) )he e4perimen). use less ; less $a)er ea&h )ime,
In&reasingly small amoun) o*
D., -ead t$e te%t answer t$e .uestions.
C, Whi&h e4pression e4plains ho$ long s&ien)is)s ha%e (een using )his ma&hineK
8or some years /no$0
<, Whi&h e4pression )ells us ho$ many (urs)s o* ma))er ; energy )he ma&hine genera)esK
a massi%e num(er o*
7, Whi&h )ime period does )he ma&hine s)imula)eK
The *irs) *e$ mi&ro>se&onds o* )he (eginning o* )he uni%erse,
=, Whi&h e4pression s)a)es ho$ long i) $as (e*ore )he par)i&les o* ma))er ?oined )oge)herK
no more )han )en mi&rose&onds
D, Whi&h e4pression in )he las) sen)en&e means appro4ima)elyK
more or less
D.9 -ewrite t$e 'ara)ra'$s usin) t$e o''osite /ljkl/t0 o( t$e underlined words or e%'ressions:
Ans$er'
small B large
none o* B All o*
large>s&ale B small s&ale
older B more re&en)
more ; more B *e$er ; *e$er
in e4&ess o* B less )han
su(s)an)ial B small
a lo) more *re1uen)ly B a li))le less *re1uen)ly
Unit ,
WORS WITH SE6ERAL !EA"I"#S
A. Bet
"Ku|]Ldf 1]/} $ord x,n] 9seGbf jl- "4{ lbG5g\ . To!tf $ord nf<{{ polysemous
$ord /jx'"4L{ z0b0 elgG5 . 2bfx/Bfsf nfuL 9Se)9 n] a&ademi& English df lg5g "4{ lbG5 .
/a0 ge)s s)h, ready so i) &an (e opera)ed /l(;s kfg'{0 B se)s )he ins)rumen) )o 2ero,
/(0 )o es)a(lish /!4fkgf0, BI $ould like )o se) some rules,
/&0 )o (e )he &ause o* s)h, /sf/s jGg'0, B The de&ision se)s a num(er o* &hanged is
mo)ion,
/d0 arrange /ldnf2g'0' B We mus) se) a )ime *or our ne4) mee)ing,
/e0 (e&ome solid /5g'0BCon&re)e se)s as i) &ools,
/*0 s)ar) /;', ug'{0 BThe s)uden)s se) )o $ork,
/g0 group /;d?x0B These are )he par)i&ular se)s o* symp)oms,
/h0 pres&ri(ed or *i4ed /lg>l.t0B We ha%e some se)s o* (ooks,
B. More Academic meanin) (or (amiliar words.
k|.lnt z0bsf] a&ademi& meaning,
C, a&&ommoda)e B &hange )o allo$ s)h )o *i) in /<O5f "g';f/ jbAg'0
<, &on)ra&) B shor)en /&'5.g'0
7, o&&ur B e4is) //xg'0
=, re*eren&e B men)ioned (ook or au)hor /;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L0
D, re%olu)ion B &omple)e )urn /k'/} 9s kmGsf] R'df<0
E, s)ru&)ure B $ay o* organi2a)ion /jgf})0
!. >ords wit$ several di((erent Academic meanin)s
Word sf] dis&ipline /%fgsf] zf&f 5 lj7fo0 "g';f/ "4{ x'G5g\ . o;nf<{ )e&hni&al
"4{ elgG5 . !t} &hannel sf] ele&)roni&. linguis)re. (iology. physi&s / geography df ljleGg
"4{ x'G5 .
!t}' issue B edi)ion /;K!s/Bf0
)ake issue $i)h B raise argumen) agains) /ts{0
Poin) B opinion. idea. in*orma)ion. poin) B mos) signi*i&an) pas)
EXERCISE
8.1 >$ic$ meanin) )iven in <A< does <set< $ave t$ese e%am'les.
/C0 8 > s)ar) $ork
/<0 a > ge) s)h, ready so i) &an (e opera)ed
/70 d > arrange
/=0 e > (e&ome solid
/D0 & > Caused )o (e in )he s)ar)ed &ondi)ion,
/E0 ( > es)a(lished
/F0 h > )ha) mus) (e s)udied
/H0 g >group
8.* !$oose t$e word (rom B to com'lete eac$ sentence c$an)e t$e (orm i( necessary.
C, When you are doing resear&h. i) is sensi(le )o keep good re&ords o* all your re*eren&es as i)
&an (e di**i&ul) )o lo&a)e sour&es la)er,
<, The medi&al &ondi)ion is mos) likely )o o&&ur in *air>skinned people,
7, In *irs) gear )he engine makes )en re%olu)ions *or e%ery re%olu)ion o* )he $heel,
=, Weal)h )he )heme o* )he an)hology is general enough )o a&&ommoda)e a $ide %arie)y o*
approa&hes,
D, The s)ru&)ure o* so&ie)y in An&ien) Rome &an (e said )o resem(le )ha) o* )he modern USA,
E, They &arried ou) an e4perimen) )o &he&k $he)her a good es)a(lished or e4panded under a
range o* di**eren) &ondi)ions,
8., >$ic$ word could (it in eac$ set o( t$e '$rasesE
C, is&uss )he *ollo$ing poin)s
Underline )he key poin)s
make some )hough)*ul poin)s
<, )o se) a pre&eden)
a se) o* e4er&ise
a se) o* (ook
7, )ake issue $i)h
)he la)es) issue o* "S
a &on)ro%ersial issue
=, a &hannel o* &ommuni&a)ion
)he English &hannel
)o &hannel one9s energies in)o
8.9 -ead t$is te%t about new medical so(tware (or eac$ underlined words )ive t$e meanin) in
t$e te%t one ot$er meanin).
Underlined
Word
!eaning in )e4) O)her meaning
Con)ain
!ain)ain
!oni)or
O&&ur
!easure
&on)rol
say. &laim
$a)&h. o(ser%e
happen
me)hods o*
dealing $i)h
si)ua)ions
hold
keep a) a spe&i*i& le%el.
preser%e. pro%ide *or
s)ore sounds ; pi&)ure
ele&)ri&ally
e4is)
Si2es. amoun)s. $ays o*
?udging s)h,
8.5 Fokes are o(ten based on words $avin) several meanin)s. E%'lain t$is 7oke.
PA neu)ron goes in)o a (ar. order a drink ; ask ho$ mu&h i) $ill (e, The (arman replies. 98or
you sir no &harge9P,
/92)f Go?)Sf]g /f] "eu)ral x'G50 jf/df uof] / /;;L dfCof] / k]};f ;f]Jof] . jf/d]gn] 2!sf
nfuL s'g} .f{ gnfCg] eGof] .0
Here. &harge has dou(le meaning, In general $ord. &harge means &os), Bu) in Physi&s 9Charge9 is
ele&)ri& sym(ol, "eu)ron is )he ar) o* a)om $i)hou) posi)i%e ; nega)i%e &harge (e&ause neu)ron has
neu)ral &harge,
Unit -
!ETAPHORS ; IIO!S
!e)aphor eg]sf] s'g} l.nf<{ "sf]{ unusual l. ;3u t'ngf ug'{ jf ;dfgtf b]&f2g'
xf] . ljz]7ftf ;dfg e9sf] l.lj. "k|ToIf t'ngf me)aphor xf] . = "To/1s ,kdf Tof] me)aphor
/,kssf]0 k|of]u kl5 original *or&e x/f25 / Idiom =G5 .
A. Meta'$ors 0dioms re(errin) to li)$t darkness.
/C0 Shed /ne$0 ligh) on B )o pro%ide an e4plana)ion *or s)h, /5Kn{u0
/<0 in /)he0 ligh) o* B (e&ause o* /sf] sf/Bfn]0
/70 illumina)e B sho$ more &learly /k|!) kfg'{0
/=0 elu&ida)e B e4plain or make &lear /*of6of ug'{0
/D0 glaring B s)h, (ad )ha) is 1ui)e o(%ious /k|!)} b]l&g] g/fd|f] s'/f0
/E0 highligh) B )o emphasis s)h, imp /dxDjk?Bf{ s'/fnf<{ f]' lbg'0
/F0 shine a ligh) on B )o *o&us on /df f]' lbg'0
/H0 remain in )he dark B no) kno$ing s)h, /fgsf/L j/x/0
/I0 In )he shado$ o* B in a si)ua)ion $herer s)h, (ad has happened, /s'g} g/fd|f] "j!4fdf0
B. Meta'$ors 0dioms re(errin) to t$e >ar !on(licts.
a))a&k B jlnof] ts{ /s)rong argumen)0
(a))le B a&)i%i)y agains) s)h, pro(lema)i& /o'E !t/df ;df1fg0
re)rea) B )o go (a&k /kl5 x)\g'0
onslaugh) B a %ery po$er*ul a))a&k /bx|f] "f#mdBf0
main)aining a uni)ed *ron)' remain uni)ed /j}.//s ;xdlt0
(om(arded $i)h B *or&ed )o e4perien&e /nfb\g'0
EXERCISE
G.1 !$oose a word (rom t$e bo% to com'lete eac$ sentence
C, Shine <,remainedA shed 7,ligh) =,shado$ D,highligh)s E,Illumina)e F,elu&ida)e H,glaring
G.* -ewrite t$ese sentences usin) meta'$ors o( con(lict instead o( t$e underlined words.
C, S&ien)is)s $ho don9) agree $i)h )his )heory ha%e re&en)ly a))a&ked i)s (asi& assump)ions,
B $ho are opposed )o
<, #o%ernmen)s need )o remain in &omple)e agreemen) on )he issue o* e&onomi& migran)s,
B main)ain a uni)ed *ron)
7, "o$adays. $e ge) a huge num(er o* ad%er)isemen)s e%ery )ime $e $a)&h T6 or open a
maga2ine,
B are (om(arded $i)h
=, #, G, 8ranking has re&en)ly mo%ed a$ay *rom )he %ie$ )ha) e&onomi& pro&esses &an9) (e aler)ed,
B re)rea)ed
D, The e**or)s agains) &rime $ill *ail $i)hou) poli&e ; Communi)y Corpora)ion,
B (a))le 5 s)ruggle 5 *igh) 5 $ar 5 $ill (e los)
E, The pro)es)s $ere response )o )he de%as)a)ing sudden large num(er o* )rade res)ri&)ions an small
produ&ers,
B onslaugh)
G., 1ook at t$is te%t underline key word '$rase w$ic$ construct t$e main meta'$or
H2$e $uman brain is !om'uterH.
Pro&essing ; s)oring )his in*orma)ion. (i)s. erasure o* a hard dri%e, mos) re&en) *iles. re(oo). reload
)he *iles ; programs. erase in*orma)ion. hard$are
Unit 10
"OU"S ; WORS THEM CO!BI"E WITH
A. Ad7ective ; "oun
"oun x, k|fo u/]/ lg>l.t ad? / %er( ;3u "f235g\ . !t}'
"oun ad?e&)i%es )ha) o*)en &om(ine $i)h i)
Con)a&) /;5ks{0 use*ul. %alua(le. personal. &ons)an). &lose.
*re1uen). in)ermi))en)
de(a)e /ljjfb0 &onsidera(le. hea)ed. in)ense. pu(li&
anima)ed
elemen) /tTj0
/*a&)or0
&ru&ial. de&isi%e. *undamen)al
elemen) /par)s0 &on*li&)ing. &on)ras)ing. &ons)i)uen)
energy>*or&e e4&ess. su**i&ien). nu&lear
phenomenon
/R)gf0
&ommon. isola)ed. na)ural. re&en). uni%ersal
resul) /kl/B8d0 &on*li&)ing. &on&lusi%ely. un*oreseen.
preliminary
role /e?ldsf0 de&isi%e. &hallenging. &on*li&)ing. key.
pi%o)al
sample /gd?gf0 random. represen)a)i%e
in ,,, )erms
/z0bdf0
a(solu)e. (roard. rela)i%e. general pra&)i&al.
e&onomi&
$ay /tl/sf0 al)erna)i%ely. e**i&ien)ly. *air pra&)i&al.
&on%enien). proper. a&&ep)a(le
B. "oun ; Verb
&ome in)o &on)a&) ;5ks{df "f2g'
es)a(lish &on)a&) ;5ks{ !4fkgf ug'{-
main)ain &on)a&) ;5ks{ o4fjt /f6g'
(reak o** &on)a&) ;5ks{ ljO5]b ug'{
engage in de(a)e /ljjfbdf ;xefuL x'g0
&on)ri(u)e )o a de(a)e /ljjfbdf e?ldsf0
de(a)e surrounding s)h, /df s]lGbSt ljjfb0
&om(ine )he elemen) /tTj f]'Lg'0
di**eren)ia)e )he elemen) /tTj 5'Tf2g'0
dis&ern )he elemen) B tTj l.Gg'
&onsume energy B z+mL 2kof]u ug'{
genera)e energy B z+mL k}bf ug'{
sa%e energy B z+mL ;K.o ug'{
$as)e energy B z+mL &]/ fg'
phenomenon emerges B R)gf R)\5
phenomenon o&&urs B R)gf x'G5
o(ser%e )he phenomena B R)gfsf] "jnf]sg ug'{
in%es)iga)e )he phenomena B R)gf "g';G1fg ug'{
e4plain )he phenomena B R)gfsf] *of6of ug'{
EXERCISE
1I.1 Answer t$ese .uestions about t$e ad7ectives ; noun combinations in t$e table in A.
C, Pu) )hese )ypes o* &on)a&) in order o* *re1uen&y>*re1uen) &ons)an). in)ermi))en),
Cons)an). *re1uen). in)ermi))en) /going *rom mos) *re1uen) )o leas) *re1uen)0
<, Whi&h o* )hese is a repressi%e sample ; $hi&h is a random sampleK
A sample &hosen (y &han&e is a random sample $here as sample &hosen a )ypi&al o*
popula)ion as a $hole is a represen)a)i%e sample,
7, Whi&h ad?e&)i%e des&ri(e )he opposi)e o* a &ommon phenomenonK
an isola)ed phenomena
=, Wha) ad?e&)i%es o)her )han key &an (e used $i)h role )o gi%e a similar meaningK
A role &an also (e pi%o)al or de&isi%e,
D, I* )$o o* *our &ons)i)uen) elemen)s o* mos) language e4ams are reading ; speaking. $ha) are )he
o)her )$oK
Lis)ening ; $ri)ing
1I.* Fill in t$e )a's in t$ese sentences wit$ a verb (rom B.
!$an)e t$e (orm w$ere necessary.
Came
&onsumes. genera)e
played
in%es)iga)ed
in%alida)e
&om(ines
CJ,7 !a)&h )he (eginning o* ea&h sen)en&e $i)h )he mos) appropria)e ending,
Ans$er' /see las) $ord o* side A and *irs) $ord o* side B. $hi&h makes a phrase,0
To de%ise a $ay )o
Break o** &on)a&)
e(a)e surrounding )he issue
Take on )he role
To &olla)e )he resul) o*
Pro%ide a (lood sample
Con)ri(u)ed )o )he de(a)e
Phenomenon seems )o (e
i**eren)ia)e )he key
1I.9 !$oose t$e best word (rom t$e bo% to (ill eac$ t$e )a's.
/C0 She o()ained her resul)s (y )aking a random sample o* )he popula)ion,
/<0 Be*ore $e go any *ur)her. $e mus) de*ine ea&h o* our roles more pre&isely,
/70 We mus) de&ide $ha) is )he proper $ay )o pro&eed. in pra&)i&al )erm,
/=0 The group su&&eeded in main)aining &on)a&) long a*)er )hey had all le*) &ollege,
D0 !y )rip )o A*ri&a $as )he &ru&ial elemen) in my de&ision )o $ork in &onser%a)ion,
E0 Spe&ialis)s in )he *ield o* (io>engineering ha%e (een engaging in hea)ed de(a)e on )his issue
*or some )ime,
F0 I am )old )ha) Smy)he is a(ou) )o pu(lish some in)erim resul)s,
H0 Pro*essor Po$ell $as a(le )o dis&ern some &on*li&)ing elemen)s in di**eren) a&&oun)s o* )he
in&iden),
Unit 11
AGECTI6ES ; "OU" CO!I"ATIO"S
of] U"IT df a&ademi& English df =f/5=f/ "f</xg] Ad?e&)i%e : noun sf] &om(ina)ion sf]
jf/]df eGg' k5{ .
A. Ad7ectives Bu))estin) 0m'ortance
/dxDj gf2g] ljz]7fBfx,0
Ad?e&)i%e "ouns $hi&h &om(ines $i)h
Impor)an&e 5 signi*i&an)
/dxDjk?Bf{0
aspe&). &on)ri(u)ion.
di**eren&e. impli&a)ion. poin).
1ues)ion. reason. elemen)
Signi*i&an) /"fsf/df (?nf]0 amoun). in&rease. redu&)ion.
num(er. propor)ion
!a?or 5 minor /dxDjk?Bf{ 5
uf}Bf0
role. &hange. pro(lem. *a&)or.
issue. &on&ern. di**eren&e.
)heme. &on)ri(u)ion. poin)
enormous 5 &onsidera(le /1]/}
(?nf] 5 (?nf] jf dxDjk?Bf{0
amoun). e4pansion. num(er.
range. di%ersi)y. di**eren&e.
%aria)ion. e4)en). degree.
impa&). in)eres)
par)i&ular /ljlz7(0 in)eres). a))en)ion. signi*i&an&e.
impor)an&e. &on&ern
"o)e' A&ademi& $ri)ing df impor)an&e *o+m ug{ ad?e&)i%e sf] k|of]u eGbf ad?e&)i%e : noun
sf] k|of]u ul/G5 .
B. Ad7ective Bu))estin) Fre.uency
=f/5=f/tf gf2g] ljz]7fBf / ltlgx, ;3u "f2g] noun x,'
/C0 Widespread /*ofks0' (elie*. suppor). opposi)ion. assump)ion. use
/<0 Common /=f/5=f/0' *re1uen). &ommon e4perien&e. &ommon pra&)i&e. &ommon use.
&ommon &on&ern
/70 Common /;femf shared0' kno$ledge. ground. *ea)ure. in)eres)
/=0 Spe&i*i& /ljlz7)0' spe&i*i& &on)e4). spe&i*i& in*orma)ion. &ase. )ype. purpose. &ondi)ion
!. =t$er Use(ul Ad7ectives "oun combinations
/C0 Ine%i)a(le /"kl/xfo{0' Conse1uen&e. ou)&ome. &ollapse. de&line. e**e&). &on*li&).
de%elopmen)
/<0 E4pli&i) /k|7)0' re*eren&e. s)a)emen). &omparison. a&&oun). men)ion
/70 Rele%an) /;fGble{s0' da)a. do&umen)s. in*orma)ion. de)ails. *a&)ors
EXERCISE
11.1 1ook at t$ese statements about some academics. !om'lete eac$ sentence wit$ an
a''ro'riate ad7ective or noun. 2$ere may be more t$an one answer.
/tnsf sen)en&e df 2l.t ljz]7fBf jf gfd eg'{xf];0
/C0 a%ison did a &onsidera(le amoun) o* resear&h in)o ear)h1uake predi&)ion,
/<0 Ra$linson dre$ par)i&ular a))en)ion )o )he pro(lem o* energy &onsump)ion,
/70 Werner9s $ork had an enormous impa&) on )he $ay $e design (ridges )oday,
/=0 A ma?or propor)ion o* Thoma29s $ork $as de%o)ed )o in)erna)ional la$, Three o* her *i%e
(ooks $ere on )he su(?e&),
/D0 Pres)yn made only a minor &on)ri(u)ion )o modern psy&hology (u) i) $as an in)eres)ing
one. none)heless,
/E0 Baklo%9s $ork has some e4)remely impor)an) impli&a)ions *or our $ork )oday,
11.* -ewrite t$ese sentences usin) ad7ectives (rom t$e o''osite 'a)e instead o( t$e words in
bold.
C, There is a opposi)ion among s)uden)s in many 'laces )o )he idea o* longer s)a)emen)s,
$idespread
<, The des)ru&)ion o* )he ri%er (ank $ill &ause a de&line w$ic$ is bound )o happen in )he mem(ers
o* small mammals,
an ine%i)a(le
7, S&hool s)andards are &on&ern w$ic$ occurs (re.uently among paren)s no$ a days,
&ommon
=, "o$here in )he ar)i&le does )he au)hor make men)ion in a direct clear e%act way o* )he <J
&ases $hi&h $e ne%er resol%ed,
e4pli&i)
D, There is %ery li))le ground w$ic$ is s$ared (e)$een )$o $ays o* addressing )he pro(lems,
&ommon
E, The paper is )oo general ; la&ks e4amples w$ic$ relate only to individual t$in)s ,
spe&i*i&
11.9 2$e sentence below came (rom lectures. Ado't t$em (or use in academic article re'lacin)
t$e '$rase in bold. 0n eac$ case use t$e ad7ectives (rom t$e bo% combine wit$ a noun (rom
11., to make a '$rase like )reat interest.
huge. high. enormous. grea).
&onsidera(le
C, Gohnson9s $ork is very relevant *or any s)uden) o* medi&al engineering,
o* grea) 5 &onsidera(le rele%an&e
<, The resear&h $ill (e very valuable )o anyone in)eres)ed in e&onomi& planning,
o* grea) 5 &onsidera(le %alue
7, I) $as an e%en) $hi&h $as terribly im'ortant in )he his)ory o* La)in Ameri&an poli)i&s o* huge 5
enormous impor)an)
=, Par)i&h9s (ook is an e%tremely broad $ork,
a $ork o* grea) (read)h
D, Sorlan9s (ook $as a very si)ni(icant $ork in )he de%elopmen) o* poli)i&al )heory,
a $ork o* grea) 5 huge 5 enormous signi*i&an&e
E, The so*)$are $ill (e .uite use(ul in )he analysis o* large amoun) o* numeri&al da)a,
o* &onsidera(le use
F, The me)hod she ou)lines is very interestin) )o anyone in%es)iga)ing sleeplessness,
o* grea) in)eres)
H, 9Mou kno$9 is an e4pression $hi&h is very (re.uent in in*ormal spoken English,
o* high *re1uen&y
11., Make sure you know t$e noun (rom t$ese ad7ectives. >rite t$em in t$e table.
Ad?e&)i%e "oun Ad?e&)i%e "oun
Signi*i&an)
rele%an)
in)eres)ing
*re1uen)
signi*i&an&e
rele%an&e
in)eres)
*re1uen&y
impor)an)
%alua(le
use*ul
(road
impor)an&e
%alue
use
(read)h
Unit 12
6ERBS ; THE WORS THEM CO!BI"E WITH
A. 5ow verbs combine wit$ ot$er words.
A&ademi& &on)e4) df lg5g s'/f fGg' k5{'>
U%V s'g} klg %er( ;3u lgl>.t noun x, "f235g\ / %er( eGbf "uf'L / k5f'L "f2g]
noun km/s>km/s x'G5g\ . !t} )he resear&h 5 )heory is (ased on. )o pose a pro(lem 5
1ues)ion 5 )hrea),
UEV s'g} klg %er( ;3u k|fo lgl>.t ad%er( "f235g\ . !t}' mainly 5 par)ly 5 loosely
(ased,
URV s'g} klg %er( sf] k5f'L lgl>.t preposi)ion x, "f235g\ . !t} )o (ase s)h, on
s)h else,
UIV lgl>.t %er( x, k|fo passi%e s)ru&)ure df use x'G5g\ . (e (ased on. (e asso&ia)ed
$i)h
%er( x, / ltlgx,;3u "f2g] noun / ad%er( x, lb<9sf] 5 .
6er( "oun Ad%er(
C, (ase /on0 df "f1//t resear&h. )heory. s)ory. hypo)hesis mainly. par)ly. loosely
<, asso&ia)e /$i)h0 ;3u
;5jG1Lt
$ord. idea. )heory. )erm generally. &ommonly.
ine%i)a(ly
7, dis&uss /5nkmn ug'{0 Idea. pro(lem. issue. 1ues)ion.
)opi& )heme
a) leng)h. (rie*ly. )horoughly
=, es)a(lish /!4fkgf ug'{0 rela)ionship. &onne&)ion *irmly. &learly &on&lusi%ely
D, e4amine /lgl/IfBf0 *a&)s. e%iden&e. e**e&). aspe&) (rie*ly. &ri)i&ally. )horoughly
E, demons)ra)e /k|bz{g0 e4is)en&e. *a&)or. issue.
impor)an&e. e**e&)
&learly. &on%enien)ly
F, Iden)i*y $i)h l.Gg'
/passi%e df0
&auses. *a&)ors. issues. proper)ies.
need. origin
&orre&)ly. &learly. &losely
B. More verbs in combination wit$ noun& adverbs 're'ositions.
pose B &rea)e /sf/s =Gg'$ lg5Tof2g'0
sugges) B re&ommend /l;kml/; ug'{0
lis) B ;'.L jgf2g' /)o make a lis) o*0
re*er B )o make re*eren&e o* /"f}Aof2g'0
o(ser%e B poin) ou) /b]&f2g'0
Error >arnin):
Righ)' (ased on dis&uss a pro(lem
Wrong' (ased in dis&uss a(ou) a pro(lem
E@E-!0BE
1*.1 !$oose t$e most a''ro'riate adverb (or t$e verb in bold add it to sentence. "ote t$e
word order used on t$e o''osite 'a)e.
/C0 demons)ra)ed B &on%in&ingly demons)ra)ed
/<0 o(ser%ed B o(ser%ed earlier
/70 re*ers B spe&i*i&ally re*ers
/=0 Iden)i*ied B is &losely iden)i*ied
/D0 dis&uss B (rie*ly dis&usses
/E0 es)a(lishes B *irmly es)a(lished
/F0 (ased B loosely (ased
/H0 e4amine B &ri)i&ally e4amine
1*.* !om'lete eac$ sentence wit$ a suitable noun. 2$ere may be more t$an one answer.
/C0 Here $e lis) again )he main hypo)hesis o* presen) s)udy,
/<0 The graph ena(les us )o o(ser%e re&en) (road )rends 5 &hanges in mor)ali)y ra)es,
/70 The resear&hers &on&luded )ha) i) is s)ill di**i&ul) )o iden)i*y )he &auses 5 origins 5 na)ures o*
)he )ime rela)ed &hanges in human,
/=0 A seminar $as held )o dis&uss )he issue 5 1ues)ion o* &hildren9s righ),
/D0 We demons)ra)ed )he need *or a &omprehensi%e plan in prepara)ion *or a pandemi&,
1*., !om'lete eac$ sentences wit$ t$ree 'ossible nouns.
/C0 Theses *igures lead me )o sugges) on al)erna)i%e /C0 In)erpre)a)ion /<0 Solu)ion /70
!e)hodology,
/<0 I) is &lear )ha) )hese de%elopmen)s pose a ne$ /C0 Challenge /<0 Pro(lem /70 ilemma,
/70 Be*ore $e rea&h only &on&lusion. i) is impor)an) )o e4amine )he /C0 8a&)s /<0 Causes /70
Issues,
1*.9 Underline use(ul verb ; adverb combinations in t$is te%t.
s)eadily in&reased *o&us a li))le seriously &onsider
gro$n rapidly narro$ly on
o&&ur periodi&ally )ypi&ally op)
dire&)ly address 1ui&kly implemen)ed
1*.5 Use one o( t$e combinations you underlined in 1*.9 to com'lete eac$ sentence.
/C0 6arious measures $ere in)rodu&ed las) year )o dire&)ly address )he issue o* iden)i)y )he*),
/<0 The ?us)i&e sys)em needs )o &onsider seriously )he impa&) o* a prison sen)en&e on o**enders,
/70 The num(er o* Uni%ersi)y appli&a)ion has (een s)eadily in&reasing o%er )he las) DJ years,
/=0 The ar)i&le *o&uses narro$ly on one angle o* )he pro(lem ra)her )han )aking a (road %ie$,
/D0 The sugges)ed measures should (e 1ui&kly implemen)ed )o a%oid *ur)her pro(lems,
Unit 13
PREPOSITI"AL PHRASE
A. A Book -eview
k'!ts ;ldI8df k|of]u e9sf s]lx preposi)ional phrase x,'>
In &on?un&)ion $i)h B $orking )oge)her $i)h /;xsfo{df0
In &omparison $i)h B in &on)ras) )o /sf] bf3f]df0
In addi)ion )o B apar) *rom /sf "ltl/+m0
)o some e4)en) B )o some degree /s]lx xb;5d0
in line $i)h B *ollo$ing /sf] "g';f/0
in spi)e o* B despi)e /sf jfj't klg0
in par)i&ular B par)i&ularly /ljz]7f u/]/0
$i)h )he e4&ep)ion o* B no) in&luding /jfx]s0
on )he $hole B generally /;du|df0
B. A talk to )enealo)y club
9s jKzfjnL ;nj ;3usf] s'/fsfgL lg5g preposi)ional phrase x, k|of]u 5g\'>
a) )his s)age B no$ /"lxn] 0
on )he (ehal* o* B represen)ing /sf] tk{mjf)0
as a resul) o* B as a &onse1uen&e o* /kl/B8d !j,k0
(y &han&e B a&&iden)ally /efCon]$ df}sfn]0
(y *ar B %ery mu&h /1]/}n]0
*or )he mos) par) B generally /;fdfGotf0
*rom )hen on B *rom )ha) )ime /To;j]nf b]&L0
in o)her $ords B )o e4press s)h di**eren)ly /"sf]{ z0bdf0
in )ern B one a*)er ano)her /To;k5L0
in )erms o* B as *ar as s)h is &on&erned /sf] ;Gbe{df0
in mos) respe&)s B &onsidering mos) respe&)s o* )he e4perien&e /;du|df0
Error >arnin):
+On )he one hand. on )he o)her hand-
b'<)f ljk/Lt b@7)Lsf]Bf *o+m u5{g0
EXERCISE
1,.1 !om'lete t$e 're'ositional '$rases as used in t$ese 'ress announcements.
/C0 Pro*essor Sol)ero said )ha) in line $i)h go%ernmen) guidelines. )he resear&hers had
&onsul)ed lo&al people,
/<0 A spokesperson *or )he drug &ompany said )ha). a) )his s)age. i) is )oo early )o make s)rong
&laims a(ou) )he drug,
70 e Leiman said )ha) $hile on )he one hand )he go%ernmen) $an)ed )o en&ourage resear&h.
on )he o)her hand )hey $ere redu&ing *unding *or uni%ersi)ies,
=0 In addi)ion )o a ne$ (uilding on )he Campus. )he )eam $ill re&ei%e a %ery generous gran) )o
&ondu&) )heir resear&h,
D0 Wi)h )he e4&ep)ion o* one s)udy in CIHE. no ma?or resear&h had (een &arried ou) )ill ne$.
r Pe)ers s)a)ed,
E0 Pro*essors Laspal said )ha). on )he (asis o* her s)udies so *ar. she $as op)imis)i& )ha) a &ure
*or )he disease $ould (e *ound,
F0 Lauren Charles said )ha). on )he $hole. so&ial &ondi)ions had impro%ed sin&e )he repor).
espe&ially in )erm o* ?o(s ; housing *or )he poorer se&)ors,
H0 The pro*essor said )ha) he $as deligh)ed )o a&&ep) )he a$ard on (ehal* o* )he uni%ersi)y,
1,.* Matc$in) t$e be)innin) o( eac$ sentence wit$ t$e most a''ro'riate endin).
C, The &on&lusions are *air in mos) respe&)s. )hough some are 1ues)iona(le,
<, r, Carr9s )erm go) )he gran) in spi)e o* (eing )he smalles) )eam )o apply,
7, We had li))le money )o spareA in o)her $ords. $e $ere under *unded,
=, We need people9s personal da)a. in par)i&ular )heir paren)s9 his)ory o* illness
D, We made an impor)an) dis&o%ery. in some $ays i) $as sheer lu&k
E, This la)es) paper is 1ui)e shor) in &omparison $i)h o)her ar)i&les in )he series,
F, The Indian s)udy $as &arried ou) in &on?un&)ions $i)h an Ameri&an pro?e&)
1,., -ead t$e 'ara)ra'$ about t$e discovery o( dinosaurs. 0n eac$ sentence t$ere is one error
in t$e use o( 're'ositional '$rase. !orrect eac$ error.
Corre&)ion'
on &han&e B (y &han&e
8rom )hen in B 8rom )hen on
In a&&ordan&e )o B in a&&ordan&e $i)h
on )he pro&ess B in )he pro&ess
on )urn B in )urn
a) a grea)er or less e4)en) B )o a grea)er or lesser e4)en)
8or *ar B By 8ar
To )he mos) par) B 8or )he mos) par)
A) mos) respe&)s B in mos) respe&)s
On some e4)en) B )o some e4)en)
Unit 14
6er(s ; preposi)ions
A. Verbs wit$ HonH4sentences (rom academic articles.
k5f'L on "f2g] %er( x,'>
*o&us on /df f]' lbg'A s]lGbSt x'g'0
dra$ on /"f1f/sf] ,kdf k|of]u ug'{0 B )o use in suppor) o* s)h
&ommen) on /sf] "fnf].gf ug'{0
&on&en)ra)e on /Jofg s]lGbSt ug'{0
Based on /df "f1//t x'g'0
rely on 5 res) on /df e/ kg'{0
B. Verbs wit$ <to<4teac$ers talk to students.
k5f'L )o "f2g] %er( x,'
assign )o B s;}nf<{ L5d]jf/L lbg'
a))end )o B Jofg lbg'
rea&) )o B k|ltsf/ ug'{
amoun) )o B 2!t} x'g'
(e e4posed )o B k|e/jt x'g'
re*er )o B "f}Aof2g'
(e a))ri(u)ed )o B sf/Bf x'g'
(e )ra&ed )o B 2b\ud ljGb' ;5d k'Cg'
)urn )o B lt/ fg' 5 2Gd?& x'g'
respond )o B 2+/ lbg'
&onsen) )o B ;xdt x'g'
!. =t$er 're'ositions
asso&ia)ed $i)h B R'nldn x'g'
pro%ide $i)h B 2kn01 u/f2g'
&ouple $i)h B ;3u "f2g'
argue *or B sf] kIfdf ts{ug'{
depar) *rom B 5'TLg'
(ene*i) *rom B jf) kmf<bf lng'
e4&lude *rom B x)f2g'
$ri)e 5 speak o* B sf] jf/] n]6g' 5 jf]Ag'
&on%in&e o* B dgf2g'
dispose o* B jf) 5')sf/f kf2g'
a&&oun) *or B l5d]jf/ x'g'
sear&h *or B &f]L ug'{
&all *or B "g'/f]1 ug'{
e1uip $i)h B ;3u "f2g'
EXERCISE
19.1 #ut t$e words in t$e ri)$t order to make sentences. Use t$e 'unctuation to $el' you.
/Ans$ers0
/C0 The ar)i&le *o&uses on )he &hanges in )he US e&onomy in )he pas) $ar period,
/<0 The pro*essor &ommen)ed on a num(er o* in&onsis)en&ies in )he s)uden)9s essay,
/70 The )heory is (ased on a series o* e4perimen)s &ondu&)ed o%er )he las) *i%e years,
/=0 The pro*essor9s $ork relies on e4perimen)s &ondu&)ed (y his resear&h assis)an)s,
/D0 I) is %ery impor)an) )o &on&en)ra)e on your s)udies un)il your e4ams are o%er,
/E0 The $ri)er $as a(le )o dra$ on primary sour&es $hi&h ha%e only re&en)ly (e&ome
a%aila(le,
19.* #ut t$ese verbs in t$e ri)$t bo%.
,,, 8or ,,, 8rom ,,, o* ,,, )o ,,, $i)h
a&&oun)
argue
&all
sear&h
(ene*i)
depar)
e4&lude
&on%in&e
dispose
$ri)e
assign
a))ri(u)e
&onsen)
rea&)
re*er
asso&ia)e
e1uip
pro%ide
19., "ow c$oose one o( t$e word ; 're'osition combinations (rom 19.* to com'lete eac$
sentence. !$an)e t$e (orm o( t$e verb i( necessary.
/C0 re*erred us )o
/<0 a&&oun) *or
/70 asso&ia)ed $i)h
/=0 dispose &are*ully o*
/D0 (ene*i) enormously *rom
/E0 &on%in&e me o*
/F0 sear&hing *or
/H0 pro%ided us $i)h
/I0 &onsen)ed )o
/CJ0 $ri)es 5 $ro)e %ery mo%ingly o*
19.9 !orrect t$e sentences. All o( t$em $ave errors connected wit$ 're'ositions.
/C0 The &ourse leader di%ided her s)uden)s in)o *i%e groups,
/<0 They had )o )ra&e e%ery one $ho had (een e4posed )o )he in*e&)ion,
/70 A) )he momen) $e ha%e )oo *e$ nurses a))endan) )o )oo many par)ies,
/=0 E4&ellen) )ea&hings &oupled $i)h *irs)>&lass resear&h ha%e made )his a su&&ess*ul
&ollege,
/D0 The &oun)ry emerged *orm )he &risis as a mu&h s)ronger po$er,
/E0 Goe go) an in)eres) in poli)i&s *rom his un&le $ho o*)en spoke o* his days as a sena)or,
/F0 The go%ernmen) &alled *or an in%es)iga)ion in)o )he e4plosion a) )he nu&lear rea&)or,
/H0 In your spee&h don9) *orge) )o emphasis )he ad%an)age o* s)udying here, /no
preposi)ion0
Unit 1&
"OU" ; PREPOSITIO"S
A. /rou's o( related nouns s$arin) 're'ositions
"4{ut ;dfg noun ;3u 92)} jf ;dfg preposi)ion sf] k|of]u x'G5'>
"ouns Preposi)ion/s0
C, (ook. ar)i&le. essay. le&)ure.
disser)a)ion. pro?e&). assignmen)
a(ou). on
<, resear&h. in%es)iga)ion. in1uiry in)o
7, analysis. e4amina)ion. e4plora)ion.
s)udy
o*
=, pro(lem. di**i&ul)y o*. $i)h
D, reason. mo)i%a)ion. ra)ionale *or
B. "ouns commonly associated wit$ t$e 'articular 're'ositions
s]lx "4{ut ;5jG1 ge9sf noun x, klg k|fo lgl>.t preposi)ion ;3u use x'G5g\ .
"ouns preposi)ion
C, look. a))emp). poin). age
<, &hanges. di**eren&es. in&rease. de&rease
7, insigh). in1uiry. resear&h. in%es)iga)ion
=, $ork. resear&h. in*luen&e. emphasis.
e**e&)
D, (asis. idea. par). la&k. e4plora)ion. e**e&)
E, need. reason. (asis. &ase. pre*eren&e
F, rela)ion. approa&h. response. a))en)ion
H, a))i)ude. )enden&y. mo%e. progress
I, prin&iple. ra)ionale. assump)ion. logi&
CJ, di**eren&e. rela)ionship. dis)in&)ion
a)
in
in)o
on
o*
*or
)o
)o 5 )o$ard
(ehind
(e)$een
EXERCISE
15.1 Fill in t$e missin) 're'ositions. 0n Auestion no. 9 5& more t$an one answer is 'ossible.
/C0 One di**i&ul)y $i)h )he &lass 1ues)ionnaire $as )ha) some s)uden) had already le*) )he &ourse
; &ould no) (e &on)a&)ed,
/<0 She $ro)e a disser)a)ion on5 a(ou) $ild *lo$er &on%ersa)ion in 8inland in CIIJs,
/70 The (ook is an e4plora)ion o* )he origins o* )he e&onomi& &risis o* CIIF,
/=0 The ra)ionale *or 5 (ehind )he presen) resear&h is )he need )o (e))er unders)and )he pro&ess
o* agreemen) in in)erna)ional la$,
/D0 Resear&h in)o 5 on spoken language has (een &onsidera(ly assis)ed in re&en) years (y )he
a%aila(ili)y o* &ompu)eri2ed da)a(ases or PCorporaP,
/E0 Prippen9s /CIH=0 (ook $as an in1uiry in)o )he *ounda)ion o* na)ionalism,
/F0 Wha) is La2uo !a)sui9s (ook a(ou)K Ha%e you read i)K
/H0 He did a s)udy o* )he pro(lem o* side>impa&) au)omo(ile &ollisions,
15.* !orrect t$e mistakes in t$e use o( 're'ositions in t$ese sentences. 2$ere may be more
t$an one mistake 'er4sentence
/C0 The disser)a)ion produ&es some in)eres)ing insigh) in)o ho$ young &hildren de%elop a
%isual sense o* )he $orld ; )he age a) $hi&h de%elopmen) is mos) no)i&ea(le,
/<0 The reason *or )he un$illingness o* )he people in%ol%ed in )he demons)ra)ion )o (e
in)er%ie$ed $as )he *ear o* (eing arres)ed la)er,
/70 Hiers)ar9s approa&h )o )he analysis o* solar phenomena is di**i&ul) one,
/=0 Changes in )he ra)e o* gro$)h o* )he &ells $ere o(ser%ed (y )he )ime,
/D0 A la&k o* *unding led )o )he &an&ella)ion o* )he pro?e&). so&ial s&ien)is)s (lamed )he nega)i%e
a))i)ude )o$ards )he go%ernmen) on so&ial s&ien&e resear&h,
/E0 Ga$il9s ar)i&le pu)s grea) emphasis on )he need *or more resear&h ; argues )he &ase o*
grea)er a))en)ion )o )he &ause o* po%er)y ra)her )han )he symp)oms,
/F0
15., Usin) a dictionary i( necessary& matc$ eac$ noun wit$ t$e 're'osition t$at usually
(ollows it.
"ouns Preposi)ion
prin&iple. ra)ionale
di**eren&e. rela)ionship
pre*eren&e. reason
insigh)
e**e&). emphasis
a))i)ude. )enden&y
(ehind
(e)$een
*or
in)o
on
)o 5 )o$ards
15.9 Underline t$e ty'ical academic noun ; 're'ositions like t$ese on t$e o''osite 'a)e.
/C0 e**e&)s o*
/<0 $ork on
/70 area $i)h
/=0 &onse1uen&e o*
D0 *a&)or in
/E0 de&line o*
Unit 1+
8IQE EQPRESSIO"
n]6bf jf jf]Abf =f/5=f/ bf]xl//xg] z0b ;d?x nf<{{ *i4ed e4pression elgG5 .
A. "umber& Auantity& Je)ree
"um(er. 1uan)i)y / degree ;3u ;5jlG1t s]lx *i4ed e4pression x,'
C, a grea) deal o* /s)h0 B k|;!t
<, a $ide range o* /s)h0 B 1]/} lj7fo / If]# "f]u)\g]
7, To $ha) e4)en) B /s'g xb ;5d0
=, In a %arie)y o* $ays B /ljleGg tl/sfn] 5 k|sf/n]
D, )o some e4)en) B s]lx xb;5d
E, in e4&ess o* B eGbf =l-
B. /eneraliKin) B'eci(yin)
;fdfGoLs/Bf / ljlz7)Ls/Bf ug{ use ul/g] *i4ed e4pression x,'
on )he $hole B ;fdfGot' in general
$i)h respe&) )o B in respe&) o* sf] ;Gbe{df
in )he &ase o* B sf] ;Gbe{df
*or )he purpose o* B 2b]>osf nfuL
in general B ;fdfGot'
as a rule B lgodfg';f/
as *ar as s)h, is &on&erned /xf ;5d0
$i)h )he e4&ep)ion o* /"kjfbnf<{{ 5f']/0
as regard B sf] ;Gbe{df
in )erms o* B sf] jf/]df
*or )he mos) par) B jl- "j!4df
in more de)ail B "em lj!t@t ,kdf
*rom )he poin) o* %ie$ o* B sf] b@7)Lsf]Bf jf)
!. 1inkin) 'oints ar)uments
due )o )he same *a&) )ha) B o; sf/Bfn] sL
a) )he same )ime B o;sf ;f4}
(y means o* $hi&h B ;sf] dfJodWf/f
in )he sense )ha) B of] "4{df sL
(e )ha) as i) may B dfgf} Tof] ;f3.f] xf] tfkgL
8or )his reason B of] sf/Bfn]
In addi)ion )o B sf "ltl/+m
As apposed )o B "sf]{ kTL
EXERCISE
1C.1 !$oose one o( t$e e%'ressions in A (ill in t$e missin) words in t$is (eedback to student
(rom one o( t$e teac$er.
Mou had a %ery good )erm /C0 in %arie)y o* $ays, Mou ha%e done /<0 a grea) deal o* $ork ;
ha%e also )aken par) in /70 a $ide range o* so&ial a&)i%i)ies, Mour suppor)ing a&)i%i)ies may ha%e
in)er*ered $i)h your s)udies /=0 )o some e4)en) (u) you s)ill manage )o $ri)e /D0 in e4&ess o* D.JJJ
$orks *or your end>o*>)erm assignmen). $hi&h. I am pleased )o repor). $as o* high s)andard,
1C.* Use t$e words in t$e bo% to (orm ei)$t di((erent '$rases t$at are use(ul (or academic
discussions.
as a rule. in general.
(e )ha) as i) may. *or )his reason.
on )he $hole. *or )he mos) par).
a) )he same )ime. in )erms o*.
1C., (rom t$e 'oint o( view o( meanin)& w$ic$ e%'ression in eac$ set doesnLt belon)& w$yE
/C0 In general. (y means o* $hi&h. as a rule. on )he $hole.
PBy means o* $hi&hP B I) doesn9) (elong )he se), The o)her all means generally, Bu) i) means
me)hod,
/<0 Wi)h )he e4&ep)ion o* Q B I) doesn9) (elong )he se), The o)hers *o&us on ho$ Q is a**e&)s (y s)h,
(u) )his means Q is *o&us using o)her )hings,
/70 In addi)ion )o B I) doesn9) ma)&h, The o)hers are all &on&erned $i)h )rying )o me more spe&i*i& in
$ha) )hey are )alking a(ou), Bu) )his means )he e4)ra adding )o $ha) is (eing said,
1C.9 !$oose t$e best e%'ression to com'lete eac$ sentence.
/C0 8or )he purpose o* our dis&ussion. I9d like )o *o&us on )he US &on)e4),
/<0 There is some e%iden&e o* an impro%emen) in )he e&onomy (u). (e )ha) as i) may. )here is
unlikely )o (e mu&h &hange (e*ore ne4) year,
/70 I9d like )o &onsider edu&a)ion *rom )he poin) o* %ie$ o* Indus)ry,
/=0 I9m no) sure )o $ha) e4)en) you agree $i)h @ian9s )heory,
/D0 We $ill no$ dis&uss )he de%elopmen) o* surrealis) mo%emen) in more de)ail,
1C.5 !om'lete t$ese sentences in any lo)ical way.
C, 8oo)(all
<, They do no) spend enough )ime )oge)her,
7, Reading English )e4)(ooks in my o$n language,
=, Wri)ing a =.JJJ>$ord essay,
D, I learn) an enormous amoun) *rom i),
Unit 1.
APPLICATIO"S A" APPLICATIO" 8OR!S
ljz]7fu/L j]nfotsf lj>jlj1fno / sn]df appply ug]{ k|s@of / apply ubf{ "fj>os kg]{
$ord l;sf2g of] &hap)er lb9sf] 5 .
A. /ettin) 0n(ormation
Pos) gradua)e "Jofgsf nfuL appli&a)ion tof/ kfg{sf] nfuL "fj>os in*orma)ion ;3u
;5jG1Lt %o&a(ulary o; k|sf/ 5g'
Career B Go( or series o* ?o( during your $orking li*e /j@l+0
@uali*i&a)ion B )raining. e4perien&e /of]Cotf0
is re1uired B is a mus) /"fj>os k5{0
en)ry re1uiremen)s B k|j]zsf nfuL "fj>os s'/f
&lari*i&a)ion B de)ail in*orma)ion lj!t@@t fgsf/L
(e sough) B (e looked *or &f]Xg ;lsG5
pro*ile B o%erall &hara&)er o* s)h, /ljj/Bf0
su(mi) B )o gi%e s)h, /k]z ug'{0
)rans&rip) B o**i&ial do&umen) sho$ &ourse &omple)e /k|dfBf0
English medium B "Ku]|L dfJod
B. 2$e A''lication 'rocess
oxf 92)f Tania ;n] Wans)o$ uni%ersi)y df s)udy sf nfuL lgj]bg u5{ . Lima
nf<{{ k(f9sf] Email 5$ %o&a(ulary xf]'
8ill in B eg'{
re*eree B dJo!4tf
*inan&ial guaran)ee B "/4{s dfgt
personal s)a)emen) B *ol+mut ljj/Bf
deadline B "lGtd 5ofb
pro&ess B k|s@of
a&kno$ledge B k|fLt e9sf] fgsf/L lbg'
&all *or B 2k!4Lltsf nfuL jf]nf2g'
re*eren&e B tf]s jf ;'emfj
ma)ure s)uden)s B kl/k;s lj1f4L{
)o o**er a pla&e B df}sf lbg'
e1ual oppor)uni)y poli&y B ;dfg "j;/sf nfuL
*ee B z'As
s)uden) loan B "Jofog /LBf
ge) in B k|j]z
EXERCISE
1D.1 -ead t$e te%t in A answer a 'otential student<s .uestions about t$e university.
C, Is i) possi(le )o do a pos) gradua)e degree $i)hou) ha%ing (een )o uni%ersi)y (e*oreK
"o. I) isn9) one has )o ha%e a *irs) uni%ersi)y degree,
<, Where &an I ge) more in*orma)ion a(ou) $ha) 1uali*i&a)ion I need *or a spe&i*i& &ourseK
8rom )he o)her pages on )he $e(si)e or (y asking )he rele%an) depar)men),
7, Will )hey $an) )o kno$ a(ou) my uni%ersi)y gradesK
Mes. )hey need a )rans&rip). )ransla)ed. o* your uni%ersi)y &ourses ; grades,
=, When is an IELTS or TO8EL s&ore no) neededK
I* )he appli&an) has spen) a) leas) one year in English medium edu&a)ion. )hen. i) is no)
ne&essary,
D, Wha) IELTS s&ore should appli&an)s ha%eK
A) leas) E,D
1D.* Matc$ t$e (irst $al( o( t$e word combination on t$e le(t t$e second $al( on t$e ri)$t.
Personal s)a)emen)
*inan&ial guaran)ee
seek &lari*i&a)ion
s)uden) loan
e1ual oppor)uni)ies
ma)ure s)uden)
appli&a)ion *orm
*irs) degree
minimum s&ore
)ough &ompe)i)ion
1D., >$y does t$e university want eac$ o( t$ese t$in)sE
C, The name o* )he )$o re*erees B )he uni%ersi)y $an)s )he name o* )$o re*erees )o make sure )ha)
)he s)uden) is making a&&ura)e &laim a(ou) him 5 her on )he appli&a)ion *orm,
<, 8inan&ial guaran)ee'
The uni%ersi)y $an)s *inan&ial guaran)ees )o make sure )ha) )he s)uden) $ill (e a(le )o pay )he
)ui)ion *ees,
7, A personal S)a)emen)
The uni%ersi)y $an)s personal s)a)emen) )o gain an impression o* $ha) kind o* person )he
s)uden) is,
=, The )rans&rip) o* &ourses )aken ; grades'
The uni%ersi)y $an)s a )rans&rip) o* &ourses )aken. $i)h grades. )o make sure )ha) )he s)uden)
has an appropria)e a&ademi& (a&kground *or )he &ourse applied *or,
D, A minimum TOE8L or IELTS s&ore'
The uni%ersi)y $an)s ; IELTS s&ore o* E,D or a TOE8L s&ore o* a) leas) DHJ )o make sure
)ha) )he s)uden)s le%el o* English is good enough )o &ope $i)h English>medium ins)ru&)ion,
1D.9 "umber o( t$e actions to s$ow t$e order in w$ic$ t$ey usually $a''en (or a 'ros'ective
student.
F, $ai) *or )he appli&a)ion )o (e pro&eed,
<, *ind an appropria)e &ourse,
I, a))end an in)er%ie$,
E, a))a&h a personal s)a)emen) )o )he *orm,
C, de&ide on $ha) &areer )hey $ould like )o do,
CJ, (e o**ered a pla&e,
H, (e &alled *or an in)er%ie$,
=, ask re*erees i* i) is all righ) )o pu) ,,,
7, &he&k )ha) )hey *ul*ill )he ne&essary ,,,
D, *ill in )he appli&a)ion *orm,
1D.5 !om'lete t$e missin) words in t$is email wit$ words (rom o''osite 'a)e. 2$e (irst letter
o( eac$ word is )iven to $el' you.
C,Career <,ge) 7,pos)gradua)e =,*illed
D,pro*ile E,en)ry re1uiremen)s F,)rans&rip) H,grades
I,deadline CJ, &all
Unit 1,
COLLE#E ; U"I6ERSITM' THE UL SMSTE!
A. #laces
Hall o* residen&e B a &ollege (uilding $here s)uden)s li%e
Adminis)ra)i%e B )he main o**i&e o* uni%ersi)y
8a&ul)y B group o* depar)men) in a &ollege $i)h spe&iali2es in a su(
#rea) Hall B a large hall holding some &eremonies ; e%en)s
S)uden) union B a (uilding used (y s)uden)s )o mee) so&ially,
S&hool B par) o* &ollege or uni%ersi)y. depar)men)
Le&)ure )hea)re B a large hall *or holding le&)ures
B. #eo'le& Btructures activities
pro*essor B mos) senior a&ademi& person
seminar B dis&ussion mee)ing o* )ea&hers ; s)uden)s
le&)ure B a *ormal e%en) $here large group o* s)uden)s lis)en
)u)orial B a small group dis&uss $i)h )heir )ea&her
Senior le&)ure B a )i)le o* )he a&ademi& person
le&)urer B rank (elo$ senior le&)urer
resear&h s)uden) B s)uden) $ho is &arrying ou) a resear&h
)u)or B )ea&her
o**i&e hour B o**i&e )ime
superior B )ea&her $i)h responsi(ly )o a person
semes)er B one hal* o* )he uni%ersi)y )ea&hing
%a&a)ion B holiday
s)uden) &ounselor B a person $ho is )rained )o lis)en )o s)uden) ; gi%e )hem ad%i&e a(ou)
)heir pro(lems,
Pos) grad rep B pos)gradua)e represen)a)i%e
E@E-!0BE
18.1 1ook at A. >$ic$ buildin) must students )o to i( t$ey want to.
/Ans$ers0
C, Speak )o le&)ure in )he his)ory depar)men),
The Ar)s 8a&ul)y Building
<, 8ind in*orma)ion a(ou) s)uden) &lu(K
The S)uden) union
7, 6isi) someone $ho is li%ing in )he s)uden) a&&ommoda)ionK
The hall o* residen&e
=, En1uire a(ou) paymen) o* *eed
)he Adminis)ra)i%e Building
D, A))end a gradua)ion &eremonyK
)he #rea) Hall
E, )o )alk a(ou) English li)era)ureK
The Ar)s Le&)ure Thea)re
F, See a do&)orK
The uni%ersi)y Heal)h Cen)re,
H, Borro$ a (ookK
The uni%ersi)y Li(rary
18.* -ead t$e te%t in B answer t$e .uestions.
C, Are )here likely )o (e more people in a seminar or a )u)orialK
more people in a seminar
<, Who is )he a&ademi& $ho guides a pos)gradua)e s)uden) )hrough )heir disser)a)ionK
Super%isor
7, Wha) $ord is used *or )he holiday period (e)$een uni%ersi)y )erms or semes)ersK
%a&a)ion
=, Wha) is )he di**eren&e (e)$een a personal )u)or ; s)uden) &ounselorsK
Personal )u)or deals $i)h a&ademi& mas)ers ; a s)uden) &ounselor deals $i)h more personal
pro(lem,
D, Wha) is )he di**eren&e (e)$een a pos) grad rep ; a s)uden) &ounselorK
A pos) grad rep is someone *rom )he pos)gradua)e s)uden) (ody $ho represen)s )he s)uden)9s
poin) o* %ie$ ; a s)uden) &ounselor is a mem(er o* s)a** $hose lo( is )o suppose )he s)uden)s,
18., Fill in t$e missin) words& in t$is email& wit$ words (rom t$e o''osite 'a)e.
C,residen&e
<,le&)ure
7,le&)ure
=,depar)men)
D,)u)orial
E,Semes)er
F,disser)a)ion
H,super%isor
I,hours
18.9 #ut t$e words in t$e bo% into t$e correct cate)ory.
People Pla&e E%en)
&ounselor. li(rarian
pos)grad rep
resear&h assis)an)
resear&h s)uden)
)u)or. le&)ure
pro*essor
Ca*e)eria
spor)s ground
li(rary
spor)s &en)re
le&)ure )hea)re
le&)ure
seminar
)u)orial
Unit 1-
SMSTE! CO!PARE' THE US ; UL
A. 2erms wit$ di((erent meanin)s in UB U: University system.
Word US meaning UL meaning
8a&ul)y a mem(er o* a&ademi&
s)a**
a group o* depar)men)s $i)h
similar in)eres),
Ru(ri& making s&heme ins)ru&)ion on e4am paper )o ho$
a )ask mus) (e done
College Uni%ersi)y or par) o*
one gran)ing under
gradua)e degree only
an independen) ins)i)u)es )hen
$i)h in a &er)ain uni%ersi)y
S&hool College or Uni%ersi)y primary ; se&ondary edu&a)ionA
uni%ersi)y or depar)men)
B. Ji((erent UB terms
Ph, Commi))ee B lj1fj//1L ug]{ s)uden) nf<{{ guide ug]{ )ea&her x,
Ad%isor B lgl/Ifs
Comps B ulx/f] lgl/IfBf
Commons B lj1f4L{ &fgf &fg] xn
@ui2 B 5f])f] kl/IfBf
8resh man B klxnf] j7f{sf] ljPf4L{
8inals B "lGtd kl/I8
sophomore B bf]Yf] j7f{sf] lj1/4{
Gunior B t]Yf] j7f{sf] lj1/4{
Senior B .f}4f] j7f{sf] lj1/4{
8ra)erni)y B 5f#x,sf] ;fd/s ;3u(g
Sorori)y B 5f#fx,sf] ;fd/s ;3u(g
EXERCISE
1G.1 1ook at A. >$o is more likely to be s'eakin)4a Britis$ 'erson or an AmericanE >$yE
C, Only *a&ul)y &an ea) here,
An Ameri&an > *a&ul)y o(%iously re*ers )o people ra)her )han a&ademi& depar)men)s
<, All pro*essors use )he same ru(ri& *or grading )erm papers,
An Ameri&an > )he use ru(ri& makes )his &lear
7, I $en) )o s&hool a) !illing)on. $here I go) my mas)ers ; Ph
An Ameri&an > #oing )o s&hool in )he UL means going )o primary or se&ondary s&hool. ne)
&ollege or uni%ersi)y,
=, The depar)men) is $i)hin )he *a&ul)y o* Engineering,
A Bri)ish person > a *a&ul)y here means a group o* depar)men)s &on&erned $i)h similar
a&ademi& dis&ipline,
D, The ru(ri& re1uired s)uden)s )o ans$er all )hree 1ues)ions on )he e4am paper,
A Bri)ish person > a ru(ri& is a Se) o* ins)ru&)ions as )o ho$ a )ask mus) (e done,
1G.* #ut t$ese levels o( students in an American university order o( seniority& startin) wit$ t$e
(irst year student. E%'lain w$at kind o( students eac$ term re(ers to.
8reshmen > 8irs) year s)uden)s
Sophomore > se&ond>year s)uden)s
Gunior s)uden) > )hird year s)uden)s
Senior s)uden) > *our)h>year s)uden)s
#radua)e s)uden) > s)uden) $ho has already &omple)ed an undergradua)e degree
1G., Are t$e (ollowin) statements true (alseE 0( (alse e%'lain w$y t$ey are incorrect.
All )he sen)en&es are *alse,
C, An ad%isor is someone. $ho helps Ameri&an s)uden)s $i)h )heir a&ademi& s)udies,
<, Women ?oin a Sorori)y. a *ra)erni)y is *or men,
7, 8inals re*er )o *inal e4ams a) )he end o* semes)er a) a Uni%ersi)y or College,
=, A Ph, Commi))ee is a group o* uni%ersi)y )ea&hers $ho &oa&h a do&)oral s)uden),
1G.9. Use t$e clues to com'lete t$e cross4word.
1. sc$ool
*. .uiK
,. com'ass
9. sorority
5. senior
C. so'$omore
D. (aculty
Unit 20
ACAE!IC COURSES
A. !ourse Jescri'tion
diploma > a 1uali*i&a)ion (e)$een a (a&helor9s degree ; mas)er9s degree
dura)ion > )he period o* a&ademi& session
&redi) > uni) represen)ing a su&&ess*ul &omple)ed par) a &ourse
ele&)i&al > op)ional $hi&h are &hosen
module > uni)
disser)a)ion > )hesis
o(liga)ory > &ompulsory
op) *or > /f]Xg'$ 5fGg'
enroll > egf{ ug'{
pro&ess > "uf'L j-\g'
le&)ures > kf(
)u)orial > 5nkmn
$ork shop > sfo{zfnf
seminar > uf]7(L pro?e&) > "g';G1fg sfo{
assessmen) > n]6fgsf] ;fgf] kf(
$ord limi) > z0b l;df
op)ional R 9]]lO5s
eligi(le > "fj>s ;t{ k?/f ug{
dis)in&)ion > ljlz7)
B. =t$er As'ects o( courses
e*er B l-nf ug'{$ kl5 k]z ug'{
*a&e>)o *a&e super%ision B k|ToIf e])Rf) 5 "jnf]sg
In>session &ourse B d'6o ;]d]!)/df k-f< x'g] k-f<
Pre>session B d'6o ;]d]!)/d eGbf "uf'Lsf] k-f<
Sign up *or B egf{ ug'{
EAP B k|/%s 2E]>osf nfuL "Ku|]L
Upgrade B =-'jf
EXERCISE
*I.1 Answer t$e .uestions about t$e te%t in A.
Ans$ers'
C,One year
<,EJ
7,All )he s)uden)s on )he &ourse ha%e )o )ake )hem
=,!A s)uden)s $ri)e a disser)a)ions as $ell as dory )he )augh) &ourses
D, A) leas) )en
E, 7.JJJ $ords
F, They ha%e )o se&ure an a%erage mark o* o%er FJ O *or all modules,
*I.* !om'lete t$e missin) words in t$is email (rom students to a (riend.
C,Pro?e&) <,!odule
7,isser)a)ion =,iploma
D,!A E,Sign up
F,Ph, , H,In>sessional
*I., !$oose t$e correct word to com'lete eac$ sentence.
C,upgrade
<,Pre>session
7,enrolled
=,pro&eed
D,o(liga)ory
E,super%ision
F,de*er
H,Assessmen)
*I.9 !om'lete t$e table below. Use a dictionary to $el' you i( necessary.
6er( "oun Ad?e&)i%e
op)
o(lige
super%ise
asses
>
op)ion
o(liga)ion
Super%isor. super%ision
assessor .assessmen)
eligi(ili)y
op)ional
o(liga)ory
super%isory
>
eligi(le
Unit 21
STUM HABIT ; SLILLS
A. 2ime mana)ement
Wes) Pres)on uni%ersi)y n] "fZgf] $e( si)e df /f&]sf] 1ues)ionnaires df k|of]u s]lx $ord
/ ltgsf] "4{'
end>o* semes)er B ;]d]!)/sf] "GTodf ug'{kg]{
mee) dead lines B 5ofble# sfd ;;g' kg]{
re1ues) an e4)ension B 5ofb 4ksf nfuL "g'/f]1
&ramming B k/LIfsf] gLs "f9kl5 df#} k-\g] sfd
make a )o do lis) B ug'{kg]{ sfdsf] lis) tof/ kfg'{
e4)ra>&urri&ular a&)i%i)y B "ltl/+m s@ofsnfk
B. Btudy $abits 'roblem studyin)
k-\g] jfgL / k-\bf x'g] ;d!of
priori)ies B k|f4ldstf lbg'
reading speed B k-f<sf] ult
re%ise B bf]x/of9/ k-\g'
my mind s)ar) )o $ander B lstfj eGbf j/x/ Jofg
re%ie$ B k?g' bf]x/of9/ k-\g'
le&)ure no)e B k-\bf &lass df jgf9sf] skL
no)e>)aking B j'bf l)kf])
memories B ;5emg'
mnemoni& B 5f])f] ofbug'{ kg]{ sljtf
%isuali2ing B dfgl;s t!jL/ lgdf{Bf
(rains)orm B 1]/} s'/f 9s} .f])L ;5emLg nfCg'
mind maps B lbdfudf jgf9sf] leGgtf
dra*) B &];|f
ro)e learning B Rf]sGt] l;sf<
(y hear) B sB( kf/]/
s)udy plan B k-\g] ;do t/nsf
long )erm loan B nfdf ;do /f6g kf2g] sf{
rough B &]Yf
go (lank B lbdfudf s]xL gx'g'
*1.1 Matc$ t$e (irst 'art o( t$e word combination on t$e le(t wit$ t$e second 'art o( t$e ri)$t.
!a)&hing'
mee) deadlines.
)o do lis).
e4)ra>&urri&ular a&)i%i)ies.
s)udy plan.
)ime managemen).
long )erm loan.
le&)ure no)es.
no)e>)aking.
re1ues) an e4)ension.
*irs) dra*).
ro)e learning.
dra$ mind maps
*1.* !om'lete eac$ sentences wit$ a word combination (rom *1.1.
C,mee) deadline.
re1ues) an e4)ension.
s)udy plan
<,irs) dra*)
7,le&)ure no)es
=,mind maps
D,long )erm loan
E,)ime managemen)
F,e4)ra>&urri&ular a&)i%i)ies
H,)o>do lis)
I,Ro)e learning
CJ,"o)e )aking
*1., Answer t$ese .uestions about study $abits.
C, Can you )hink o* an e4ample o* mnemoni&K
6IBE#OR B is )he se%en &olors o* Rain(o$,
<, I* you $ere (rain s)ormyA $ha) $ould you $ri)e do$nK
I $ould $ri)e do$n any random ideas )ha) &ome in my mind a(ou) any )opi&,
7, In your opinion. $ha) sor) o* )hings is use*ul )o learn (y hear)K
6o&a(ulary. ma)h )a(le. *ormula. poe)ry. e)& should (e learn) (y hear),
=, When do you s)ar) &ramming (e*ore an e4amK
"ormally. I s)ar) &ramming (e*ore a $eek,
D, Ha%e you e%er e4perien&ed your mind going (lank during e4amK
"o. I don9) )hink I ha%e,
*1.9 5ere are some use(ul words relatin) to study $abit. Bay in your own words. >$at eac$
e%'ression in bold meansE
Ans$ers'
on loan B $hi&h ha%e (een (orro$ed
re)urned B (rough) (a&k
o%er dueB no) re)urned on )ime
in&ur B a ra)her *ormal $ord B resul) in
(orro$ing righ)s B permission )o )ake (ook ou) o* li(rary,
in)er>li(rary loans B (ook (orro$ed *ro o)her li(raries )hrough a spe&ial arrangemen) $i)h
)hem,
li(rarian B person $ho $orks in a li(rary,
Unit 22
O"LI"E LEAR"I"#
A. >$at is online learnin)E
online learning B <G)/g]) jf) k|ToIf l;sf<
*a&e )o *a&e s)udy B "gnf<{g ljkl/t k|ToIf 2k!4Lt e< k-\g] .
means o* &ommuni&a)ion B ;K.f/ dfJod
%ir)ual learning en%ironmen) /6LE0 B 9s k|sf/sf] so*)$are
link B f]'Lg'
readings B k-\g] ;f1g
resour&es B Yf]t ;fdfu|L
)o summi) assignmen) ele&)roni&ally B <G)/g])jf) ma)erial k(f2g]
1ui2 B k|lt!k|1f
&olla(ora)i%e B ;xsfo{d?&L
pos)ing message B k(f2g] sfd
&ons)ru&) kno$ledge B %fgsf] eB'f/
%ir)ual &lassroom B online sI8 sf](f
dis)an) &ourse B b?/ lzI8 kf(\o#md
online )u)orials B lzIfs
B. :ey 2erms
hy(rid 5 (lended &ourse B ldYLt kf(\o#md
a /mailing0 lis) B online df efulng] ;b!osf] gfd lis)
dis&ussion *orum B 5nkmn ;d?x
username B "fZgf] gfd
a )hread B &ommen) sf] ;d?x
!. "eti.uette
/Rules *or e**e&)i%e online &ommuni&a)ion0
"e)i1ue))e B ne)$ork : e)i1ue))e
In)erne) : rules
(e*ore hi))ing send B send df &li&k ug'{ "uf'L
su(?e&) header B )i)le
kiss B keep i) shor) ; simple
*lame B (e rude
EXERCISE
**.1 1ook at A (ill in t$e )a's in t$is email (rom a student on an online course.
C,6ir)ual
<,means
7,&ommuni)y
=,resour&es
D,link
E,)asks
F,*eed(a&k
H,1ui2
I,Su(mi)
**.* Matc$ t$e (irst 'art o( t$e e%'ressin) (rom t$e le(t $and bo% wit$ t$e second 'art o( t$e
ri)$t.
Ans$ers'
&ons)ru&) kno$ledge pos) messages
enroll on a hy(rid &ourse s)ar) a ne$ )hread
en)er your surname su(s&ri(e )o mailing lis)
hi) )he se&ond (u))on )ake par) in dis&ussion group
!odera)e dis&ussion unsu(s&ri(e *rom a mailing
lis)
**., "ow c$oose t$e word combination (rom **.* to com'lete t$ese sentences. !$an)e t$e
verb i( necessary.
/C0 en)er your user name
/<0 su(s&ri(ed )o mailing lis). unsu(s&ri(e *rom i)
/70 )aking par) in dis&ussion group
/=0 enroll on a hy(rid &ourse
/D0 hi))ing )he se&ond (u))on ; pos)ing your message
/E0 !odera)ing dis&ussion. &ons)ru&) kno$ledge,
**.9 Answer t$ese .uestions:
/C0 I $ould (e angry ; upse) (e&ause i)9s em(arrassing,
/<0 Mes. )hey are,
/70 Liss prin&iple is impor)an) (e&ause in)erne) needs shor) ; sharp in*orma)ion,
Unit 23
SOURCES
A. -e(errin) to Bource materials
Yf]t ;fdfu|L 2An]& ubf{ ./xg] "fj>os $ord x,'
Sour&e ma)erials B Yf]t ;fdfu|L
a re%ie$ o* li)era)ure B ;/xTo k'g{jfnf]sg
The medi&al li)era)ure B "f}7f1L ;fxLTo
dra$ da)a *rom B s'g} Yf]tjf) da)a lng'
primary sour&e B k|f4lds Yf]t
se&ondary sour&e B dfJolds Yf]t
make re*eren&e )o B "f}Aof2g'
&onsul) B ;5ks{ ug'{
%alua(le resour&e B dxDjk?Bf{ ;fdfu|L
sur%ey )he li)era)ure on B ;/xTo k?gf{jnf]sg
&i)e B 2I1/Bf
&a)aloged B /]s' ul/9sf]
as no)ed in B df lb9 "g';f/
is dis)ri(u)ed )o B ; lb<g'
do&umen)ed B lnl&t
B. More >ays o( re(errin) Bources
Seminal $ork B d'6o lstL{
Lay )he *ounda)ion B usf] sfd ug'{
Se) ou) B *of6of ug'{
Else$here B "sf]{ lstfjdf
)o deal) $i)h B jBf{g
appendi4 B "g';'.L
main (ody B d'6o "Kz
EXERCISE
*,.1 Matc$ t$e be)innin) o( eac$ sentence wit$ t$e most a''ro'riated endin).
Ans$ers'
/C0 The le))ers pro%ided )o (e %alua(le B resour&es *or )he s)udy o* )he poe)9s li*e
/<0 An e4)ensi%e (ody o* li)era)ure B e4is) on human )o animal &ommuni&a)ion,
/70 The "e$spaper are good primary B Sour&e *or )he period /CIHJ>CIHD0
/=0 The da)a are no) gi%en in )he main B (ody o* )he (a&k. $hi&h *o&uses on me)al only
/D0 Plas)i&s are no) deal) $i)h )he presen) B S)udy. $hi&h *o&uses on me)al only
/E0 The )hesis (egins $i)h a re%ie$ o* B )he li)era)ure on in)elle&)ual poe)ry righ)s
*,.,!om'lete t$e table. Use a dictionary i( necessary. Jo not (ill in t$e B$aded bo%es.
"oun 6er( Ad?e&)i%e Ad%er(
a))ri(u)e.
a))ri(u)ion
do&umen)
&onsul)a)ion.
&onsul)an)
/person0
Ca)alogue
*ounda)ion
no)e
sugges)ion
e4)ension
&i)a)ion
a))ri(u)e
do&umen)
&onsul)
Ca)alogue
*ound
no)e
sugges)
e4)end
&i)e
&onsul)a)i%e
primary
no)a(le
sugges)i%e
e4)ensi%e
primarily
no)a(ly
sugges)i%ely
e4)ensi%ely
*,.*
Ans'
C,Paraphrase
<,Common kno$ledge
7,a&kno$ledging
=,1uo)a)ions
D,gi%e &redi)
Unit 24
8ACTS. E6IE"CE ; ATA
Repe)i)ion sd ug{'
A. !ountable uncountable nouns
8a&) B &oun)a(le noun
E%iden&e B un&oun)a(le noun
da)a B &oun)a(le 5 un&oun)a(le *or (o)h use
t/ "fsfn da)a nf<{{ un&oun)a(le sf nfuL k|of]u x'G5 .
B. >ords o(ten used wit$ (acts& evidence data.
8a&)s'
es)a(lish B !4fkgf
(ear ou) B k|e/jt
suppor) B ;d4{g
hypo)hesis B kl/sAkgf
(a&k B fK.
presen) B k|!t't
in)eres)ing B /f].s
rele%an) B ;GbeL{s
undenia(le B "!jLsfo{
li))le>kno$n B "Ak kl/l.t
a&&oun) *or )he *a&) )ha) B jBf{g
dra$ )he a))en)ion B Jofg s]Gb|Lt u/f2g'
Evidence:
look *or B &f]L ug'{
&olle&) B ;Ksng ug'{
e4amine B kl/IfBf ug'{
&onsider B lj.f/ ug'{
poin) )o B b]&f2g'
gro$ing B km}ln9sf]
pro%ide B lbg'
hard e%iden&e B e/kbf]{ k|dfBf
o**er B lbg'
&on%in&ing B kTo//nf]
po$er*ul B jlnof]
*limsy B lkmtnf]
&ome )o ligh) B fgsf/Ldf "f2g'
emerge B j/x/ "f2g'
a(undan) B k|;!t
Jata
Relia(le B lj>j/;nf]
&omprehensi%e B k'Bf{
a&&ura)e B l(s
empiri&al B j}%/gs
o()ain B k|fLt ug'{
organi2e B ;3ul(t
analysis B "4{ nuf2g'
re&ord B /]s'{
EXERCISE
*9.1 Fill t$e )a's in t$is e%tract (rom t$e university seminar on (orest conversation.
Ans$ers' e B es)a(lished
Arden' u B undenia(le
o B o**er
* B *limsy
& B &on%in&ing
& B &olle&)
Sandra' h B hard
d B demons)ra)ion
r, ' I B In)erne)
*9.* 2$ese sentences below are correct. Vary t$em substitutin) t$e correct words in bold (or
words or e%'ression wit$ similar meanin)s.
Sho$ B demons)ra)e
Comple)e B &omprehensi%e
pie&e B i)em
&lear B s)riking
(ear ou) B suppor)
e4plain B a&&oun) *or
Aries B s)ems
gi%es B pro%ide
emerges B &ome )o ligh)
e4amine B &onsider
plen)i*ul B a(undan)
amoun) B (ody
o(ser%e B empiri&al
e4ample B ins)an&e
*9., =ne word in eac$ sentence does not (it t$e sentence. >$ic$ is itE
Ans$ers'
C,(ear ou)
<,emerge
7,re*le&)ed
=,gro$ing
D,%i%id
Unit 2&
"U!BERS
A. 2y'es o( "umbers:
series 5 se) o* num(ers B Y]BfL ;d?x
se1uen&e o* num(ers B #mdjI Y]BfL
odd num(er B ljf]/ "Ks
e%en num(er B f]/ "Ks
prime num(er B ,) ;K6of
ma4imum num(er B ;j}eGbf ;fgf] "Ks
appro4ima)e num(er B nueu 5 "GbfL
e4a&) num(er B ;lx "Ks
aggrega)e B 5df
a%erage B "f};t
dis&re)e num(er B 5'T} ;K6of
&ons)an) num(er B "./ ;K6of
random num(er B "lgoldt
B. >orkin) wit$ "umbers:
*igure B "Ks
es)ima)e B "Gbf ug'{
)o)al B f]'\g'
)ally B f]'f ldnf2g'
magni)ude B ;fgf]>(?nf] ;3u ;5jlG1t
in order o* magni)ude B ;fgf b]&L (?nf]>;fgf] #md
es)ima)e B "Gbf
(e in )he righ) area B ;lx Tof]
)o arri%e a) one9s ans$er B 2+/ ;5d k'Cg'
&al&ula)e B lx;fj u/]/ k+f nuf2g'
round a num(er up 5 do$n B gLs sf] "Ks nLg'
%alue B ;K6ofTds dfg
%aria(le B ./
EXERCISE
*5.1 Answer t$ese .uestions:
C, Wha) is *i%e s1uaredK
<D
<, Wha) is )he ne4) prime num(er a*)er CIK
<7
7, Ho$ is )his se1uen&e o* num(er &rea)edK 7. I. <F. HCK
Ea&h is mul)iplied (y 7
=, Wha) is )he aggrega)e o* )his se)K E.H.I.D.E.FK
=C
D, I* you round up E,EE. $ha) num(er do you ha%eK
F
E,
F
5I ; =, Whi&h is a $hole num(er ; *ra&)ionK
F
5I B is *ra&)ion ; = B is $hole num(er
F, In your &oun)ry is )a4 au)oma)i&ally dedu&ed *rom employees earningK
Go( salary is au)oma)i&ally dedu&ed,
*5.* !om'lete t$e conversation. 2$e (irst letter is )iven.
r, Syal' C B Cal&ula)e
a B appro4ima)e
& B &on)inue
d B dis&re)e
r B round
d B do$n
!elissa' p B pre&ise
r, Syal' e B es)ima)e
) B )ally
& B &ons)an)
*5., -ewrite t$ese s'oken sentences so t$at t$ey are none a''ro'riate (or writin).
/C0 The in&iden&e o* &ar a&&iden)s de&lined las) year,
/<0 We es)ima)ed )he *inal *igure,
/70 The graph sho$s )he resul) in order o* magni)ude,
/=0 A &ompu)er program helped us &al&ula)e )he signi*i&an&e o* )he dis)an) %aria(le,
/D0 Su()ra&)ing Q *rom M $ill help you arri%e a) )he &orre&) ans$er,
/E0 The resul) *rom )he *irs) e4perimen) did no) )ally $i)h )hose *rom )he repea) e4perimen),
*5.9 Fill t$e )a's in t$is advice a mat$ lectures is )ivin) $er students.
In )he e4am. don9) *orge) )o sho$ all you /C0 $orkings as $e $an) )o see ho$ you /<0 arri%ed
a) your resul), !ake your /70 &al&ula)ions %ery &are*ully > you9d (e ama2ed a) ho$ many people
su(mi) ans$ers )ha) are hardly e%en in )he righ) /=0 area, And please $ri)e legi(ly > $e mus) (e a(le
)o dis)inguish all you /D0 *iguresS When doing graphs. pu) your /E0 %alues &are*ully ; i* asked )o
des&ri(e an e4perimen) don9) *orge) )o )ake all signi*i&an) /F0 %aria(les in)o a&&oun), #ood Lu&kS
Unit 2+
STATISTICS
A. Basic statistical 2erms
"f1f/e?t tNofHLo z0bx,'
"ormal dis)ri(u)ion o* da)a B ;fdfGo ljj/Bf
Se) o* da)a B tNofHsf] ;d?x
(ell &ur%e B j]n "fsf/sf] /]&f
de%ia)e B km/s x'g'
median B dJofH
e4)remes B 2O. jf lg5g d?Ao
&orrela)ion B ;5jG1
%alid B j]]}]1
relia(le B lj>jf;lgo
sho$ 5 indi&a)e B b]&f2g'
signi*i&an)ly B 2An]&lgo ,kdf
)he norm B "f};t
s)andard de%ia)ion B "f};tdf eLGgtf
a%erage B "f};t
sum B f]' jf 5df
mode B /Lt
hal* $ay poin) B dJo ljGb'
range B 2O. / lg5g lj. leGgtf
&orrela)e $i)h B ;5jG1Lt x'g'
sample B gd?gf
&onsis)en) B 9s} ,ksf]
a )enden&y B k|s@lt
B. A 'robability 'roblem
;5ef0otf ;d!of
pro(a(ili)y B ;5ef0otf
%aria(le B ";/ kfg]{ tTj 5 ;K6of
ou)&ome B kl/B8d
a) random B efCoj; /(y &han&e0
diagram B l.#
pro(a(ili)y dis)ri(u)ion B ;5ef0otf ljj/Bf
!. =t$er use(ul "ouns (or talkin) about statistics.
propor)ion B &B' jf efu
ra)ion B "g'kft
)rend B e'msfj
%olume B df#f 5 "fotg
Ex/0#i"/
*C.1 !om'lete t$ese sentences.
/C0 The E su(?e&)s $ho )ook )he )es) s&ore <=. <<.CE.CE.CE ; C= poin)s ou) o* 7J, The mode
$as CE, The s&ore $as CI ; )he median s&ore $as CI ; )he a%erage s&ore $as CH,
/<0 The sum o* all dona)ions )o )he &hari)y in <JJ7 $as TC7J. mos) $ere around )he hal*$ay
poin) o* TEJ,
/70 Ea&h 1ues)ionnaire i)em asked responden)s )o &hoose one o* a range o* EF op)ions. $i)h )he
)$o e4)remes (eing 9%ery dissa)is*ied indeed9 ; &omple)ely sa)is*ied,
*C.* Use t$e correct (orm o( t$e words in t$e bo% to com'lete t$is te%t.
dis)ri(u)e. )rend. signi*i&an). pro(a(le. random. &orrela)i%e.
ou)&ome. %ary
Li*e insuran&e &ompanies (ase )heir &al&ula)ion on )he lo$ o* pro(a(ili)y )ha) is )hey assess
)he likely ou)&omes. gi%en )he di**eren) %aria(les su&h as age. se4. and li*es)yle' The premiums are
)here*ore no) &hosen a) random (u) are &are*ully &al&ula)ed, The dis)ri(u)ion o* ages a) $hi&h dea)h
o&&urs ; &auses o* dea)h are s)udied )o see i* )hey &orrela)e $i)h o)her *a&)ors )o (e )aken in)o
a&&oun) in se))ing )he premium, "a)urally )he &ompanies also moni)or so&ial )rends and rea&) )o
&hanges $hi&h migh) signi*i&an)ly a**e&) mor)ali)y ra)es,
*C., Answer t$e .uestions.
Ans$ers'
C,<,C /)$o )o one0. )$o )hirds
<,8ind more se&ond>year undergradua)es )o )ake par) my s)udy,
7,o*)en
=,"o )o (e relia(le. my resul)s mus) (e similar ea&h )ime I use )he same me)hod,
D,CJO /or )en per &en)0
E,CH
F,The )o)al num(er o* &ases
H,&
I,pro(a(ly no)
CJ,The s&ores are normally dis)ri(u)ed ; )he graph is (ell &ur%e,
Unit 2.
#RAPHS ; IA#RA!S
A. 2y'es o( Jia)rams
diagram B l.#
presen) B k|!t't ug'{
*igure B l.#
la(eled *igure B]Kgfd/st l.#
(ar &har) B !t5e l.#
his)ogram B 9s k|sf/sf] !t5e l.#
&ross>se&)ion B b]&Lg'
*lo$&har) B k|s@of b]&f2g] l.#
pie &har) B j@t l.#
segmen)s B &B'x,
key 5 legend B ;Ks]t
represen) B k|ltlgl1Tj gf2g'
%ary B km/s x'g'
)a(le B t/nsf
layer B tx
B. /ra'$
graph B /]&/.#
random sample B "lgoldt ,kdf 5/gosf] gd?gf
sur%ey B ;j]{IfBf
plo) B "Klst ug'{
de&line B tn emg'{
de&rease B R)\g'
dou(le B bf]*j/
e4&eed B eGbf df4L x'g'
a4is B "If
Q > a4is B lt;f]{ "If
M > a4is B (f'f] "If
soar B "fs/;g'
mul)iply B u'BfTds j@l[
*all do$n B tn emg'{
ad?a&en) B glssf]
&ross 5 in)erse&) B 9s "sf{df s/)g'
run parallel B ;fdfGt/
in&rease B j-\g'
appre&ia)e B d?Ao jb\g'
EXERCISE
*D.1 1ook at t$e c$art. !om'lete t$e commentary wit$ words (orm t$e o''osite 'a)e.
C,Sho$ 5 indi&a)es 5 plo)s
<,%er)i&al
7,legend
=,%aried
D,rea&hed peak
E,de&line 5 *all5 drop
F,e4plained
H,*a&)
I,graphi&
+The num(ers are in &hronologi&al order-
*D.* Answer t$e .uestions.
C,Ans$ers'
Pie> &har)
<,&ross se&)ion
7,&olumn run %er)i&ally. ro$s run hori2on)ally
=,A *lo$ &har)
D,8our
D,,"e4) )o ea&h o)her
E,,A key
F,A random sample
a,)hey &ross ea&h o)her
(,)hey run alongside o)her ea&h o)her $i)h an e1ual in)er%al (e)$een )hem
*D., Make t$e rat$er in(ormal word in bold sound more 'recise academic.
Ans$ers'
C,,,Segmen)s
<, ,plo))ing
7 ,peak
= s)ages
D in)erse&)
E Ad?a&en)
F de&line
H ro$
*D.9 !$an)e t$e sentences usin) words wit$ t$e same meanin)s as t$e words as bold.
Ans$ers'
C, plumme)ed. in&iden&e. risen
<, *ell (elo$
7, depre&ia)es. more )han hal%ed
=, appre&ia)e. s&ared
D, mul)iplied. *allen 5 de&reased
E, e4&eeded
F, gro$ 5 rose. dou(led
H, de&lining 5 *alling
Unit 2,
!O"EM ; EUCATIO"
(e eligi(le *or B "fj>os of]Cotf k?Bf{
s&holarship 5 a$ard B 5f#j@+L
e4pendi)ure B &.{
)ui)ion *ee B lzIfBf z'As
de*er paymen) B kl5 ltg]{ *oj!4f
8inan&ial suppor) B "/4{s ;xof]u
&os) *or li%ing B &fg j!g &.{
managing de() B \Bf *oj!4fkg
a&&umula)e B j-\g'
gran) B "g'bfg
ins)allmen) B ls!tf
non>repaya(le B ltg{ gkg]{
(alan&e a&&oun) B &ftf
in)eres) *ree o%er dra*) B ljgf0of
s)uden) loan B lj1f4L{ l/]Bf
make ends mee) B "f4L{s ;d!of ;df1fg
in&ome B "fo
soar B "fs/;g'
B. !on(erence )rants (or )raduates in t$e UB.
a&&oun)a(le e4penses B ljn k]; u/]/ b/j ul/g] &.{
original B ;;sn
re&eip)s B /l;b jf jLn
reim(ursed B j]xf]g'{
lodging B jf; j!g] (f32
regis)ra)ion *ee B btf{ z'As
resume B *ol+mut ljj/Bf
EXERCISE
*8.1 Use t$e words (rom t$e bo% to (ill t$e )a's in t$e te%t.
8e$ s)uden)s ge) a gran) )o help )hem s)udy ; so many )ake ou) loans $hile )hey are a)
uni%ersi)y, This is (e&ause )hey ha%e )o pay )ui)ion *ees, They also &an no) a%oid &onsidera(le
e4pendi)ure on e%eryday li*e, This is hand *or s)uden)s in London $here )he &os) o* li%ing is higher,
S)uden)s do no) need )o s)ar) )o repay )heir loan un)il )hey are earning, Bu) s)ar)ing $orking li*e is a
large de(a)e makes i) mu&h order *or young people )o make ends mee) e%en on&e )hey s)ar) earning,
*8.* -ewrite t$ese sentences usin) t$e words in brackets.
C, are eligi(le *or s)uden) gran),
<, a &urren) a&&oun)
7, )o make ends mee)
ha%ing a&&umula)ed large de()s,
=, &hildren *inan&ial suppor) > pro%ide )heir &hildren > $i)h *inan&ial suppor),
D, on )heir in&ome
E, )o de*er paymen) o* your
F, $e reim(urse you la)er
*8., !orrect t$ese vocabulary errors in eac$ o( t$ese sentences.
Corre&)ions'
/C0 The &os) o* li%ing is so high here )ha) s)uden) has )o li%e in )he mos) e&onomi&al $ay )hey
&an,
/<0 As s)uden) de()s ha%e s&ared o%er )he las) *e$ years. *ar more s)uden)s no$ lea%e
uni%ersi)y $i)h a huge o%erdra*),
/70 Our s)uden) loans o**er $ill le) you kno$ i* you ha%e any en)i)lemen) )o a loan ,,,,,, ou),
/=0 Mou mus) ha%e original re&eip)s i* you $an) )o &laim your e4penses,
/D0 I* you run ou) o* money (e*ore )he ne4) ins)allmen) o* your grand is )ha) you &an ge) an
in)eres)>*ree loan,
Unit 2-
TI!E
A. #eriods o( 2ime
a &en)ury B ;tfLbL
a de&ade B bzs
era B sfn 5 o'u
ini)ial B ;',sf]
*inal B "GTosf]
&urren) B xfn;fn} x'g]
)ransi)ional B kl/jt{gsf] #md
annual B j/7f{s
1uar)erly ?ournal B #}d/;s
a phase B ./Bf
in)ermedia)e B lj.sf]
pre&eding B "uf'L x'g]
&ri)i&al B dxDjk?Bf{
B. Ad7ectives relatin) to time
&urren) B 92)} ;dodf x'g]
&on)emporary B ;dsf lng
simul)aneous B ;3u;3u} x'g]
su(se1uen) B 92)f R)gfsf] kl/Bfd !j,k
su&&essi%e B 9sl5g kl5 nuTt} "f2g]
e%en)ual B "GtLd
*or)h&oming B l5T} "f2g]
on going B jt{dfg ;dodf R)Lt
)emporary B "!4f<{
!. 5ow time c$an)e
in re&en) )imes B xfn ;fn}sf j7f{x,df
go )hrough a period B s'g} "j1L kf/ u/]/ fg'
prior )o B eGbf "uf'L
&oin&ide $i)h B 92)f df4L "sf]{ R)gf
emergen&e B b]&Lg] jf "!tLTjdf "f2g] sfd
a) )he momen) B 92)f ./Bfdf
e%ol%ing B kl/jt{glzn
o%er )he ne4) *e$ years B "f2bf j7f{x,df
in )he near *u)ure B lgs) elj7odf
in )he dis)an) *u)ure B ;'b/ elj7odf
no$ a days B "fsfn
EXERCISE
*G.1 -ead t$ese emails sent to sta(( 'ost)raduate students (rom t$e university. !om'lete
t$e time e%'ression. 2$e (irst letter is )iven.
C, Ini)ial phase
)emporary
permanen)
*inal
<, ongoing
)ransi)ional
&ri)i&al
7, &urren)
*or)h&oming
annual
pre&eding
=, &en)ury
de&ade
ne4) *e$
erg
*G.* !$oose t$e correct words in 0talics to com'lete t$ese sentences.
C,a)
<,a). in)ermedia)e
7,emergen&e
=,gone. las)
D,dis)an)
E,a pro(lem no$ a days
F,series. su(se1uen&e &on&urren)
H,)o. re&en)
I,$i)h. &on)emporary. e%en)ual
*G., Fill in t$e missin) (orms. Jo not (ill t$e s$aded bo%es. Use dictionary i( necessary.
"oun 6er( Ad?e&)i%e Ad%er(
e%en)ually
su&&ession
e%olu)ion
emergen&e
&oin&iden&e
period
su&&eed
e%ol%e
emerge
&oin&ide
e%en)ually
su&&essi%e
e%ol%ing 5
e%olu)ion
emergen) 5
emerging
&oin&iden)al
periodi&
e%en)ually
su&&essi%ely
&oin&iden)ally
periodi&ally
Unit 30
CAUSE ; E88ECT
A. Verbs -elatin) to cause e((ect
make B jgf2g'
do B jgf2g tof/
In*luen&e B s'g} sfd ug]{ jgf2g'
mo)i%a)e B k|]/B8 lbg'
pro%oke B sf/s tTj jGg'
a&&oun) *or B lsg / s;/L eGg] k|>gsf] 2+/ lbg'
gi%e rise )o s)h B s'g} l.sf] sf/Bf jJg'
&on)ri(u)e )o B k|efjkfg]{ tTj
inhi(i) B k|ltjG1
&ause B sf/Bf lbg'
produ&e B 2Tkfbg ug'{
largely de)ermine B jl- k|efj kfg'{
*a&ili)a)e B ;Lnf] =gf< lbg'
)rigger B ;',jft ug'{
indu&e B sf/g jGg'
s)imula)e B k|/]ssf] sfd ug'{
(e deri%ed B k|fLt ul/9sf]
&rea)e B ;@7)L ug'{
*or&e B jfJo kfg'{
B. "ouns relatin) to cause e((ect
&hain rea&)ion B Y]BfLjE k|lts@of
&onse1uen&e B kl/B8d
e**e&) 5 impa&) B k|efj
end B 2E]>o
origin B ;',"ft
ou)&ome B R)gfsf] kl/B8d
doing )he same B To!t} R)gf
reason B sf/Bf
EXERCISE
,I.1 -e'lace t$e underlined words wit$ a more 'recise verb o( cause or e((ect. "ote t$at all
t$e sentences below are a''ro'riate (or essays a 'art '$rases (rom wit$ its use o( <)ot<.
C,)riggers 5 indu&es
<,genera)ed
7,indu&ed 5 )riggers
=,mo)i%a)es
D,,&on)ri(u)ed
E,pro%oked
F,de)ermined
H,inhi(i)s
I,a&&oun) *or
CJ,*a&ili)a)e
CC,s)imula)e
C<,deri%ed
,I.* Matc$ be be)innin) o( eac$ sentence wit$ t$e most a''ro'riate endin).
The ar)i&le e4plores )he origins o* )he &on&ep) o* demo&ra&y,
One small e4plosion se) o** a &hain rea&)ion. &ausing massi%e damage,
The &on*usion pro(a(ly s)emmed *rom a la&k o* &ommuni&a)ion,
The pro(a(ly ne$ )a4 &ould ha%e ma?or &onse1uen&es *or large *amilies,
The disas)rous e%en)s o* <JJD gi%e rise )o a $idespread sense o* disillusionmen),
The ?udge e4plained )ha) )here $ere pre&eden)s *or his degree,
,I., !$oose t$e correct word in 0talics to com'lete t$e sentences.
C,no preposi)ion a*)er )he %er(
<,e**e&)
7,)o
=,*or
D,an
E,end
,I.9 >$at are t$e nouns (rom t$e same root as t$ese verbsE Use a dictionary i( necessary.
mo)i%a)e B mo)i%a)ion
*a&ili)a)e B *a&ili)a)ion
in*luen&e B in*luen&e
pro%oke B pro%o&a)ion
s)imula)e B s)imula)ion
indu&e B indu&)ion
deri%e B deri%a)ion
Unit 31
TALL"I"# ABOUT IEAS
A. #ost modernism /2+/ "f1'lgsjfb 0
C, mo%emen) B "fGbf]ng
<, dis&ipline B lj7fo
7, emphasis B f]' lbg'
=, generali2e B ;fdlGos/Bf
D, %alid B ;'xf2bf]
E, )hough) B lj.f/
F, rea&)ion B k|lts@of
H, essen&e B zf/tTj
I, in)erpre) B "4{ nuf2g'
plural B &ri)erion B &ra)erial
hypo)hesis B hypo)heses
analysis B analyses
)hesis B )heses
B. Bome use(ul nouns relatin) to 0deas:
%. &on&ep) B ;f1f/Bf
E. model B gd?gf
R. per&ep)ion B 1f/B8
I. %ie$ poin) B lj.f/
5. *rame $ork B -f3.f
). no)ion B lj.f/
(. s)an&e B lj.f/
Error WarningN "f}k.//s n]&gdf In my opinion eGbf i) &an (e argues )ha) jf mos)
/people0 $ould agree )ha) n]6g 2Ts@7) d/gG5 .
EXERCISE
,1.1 -e'lace t$e word in bold wit$ words (rom A wit$ similar meanin)s.
a&&ep)a(le B %alid
su(?e&)s B dis&ipline
group $i)h shared aim B mo%emen)
mos) impor)an) 1uali)y B essen&e
unders)and )he meaning o* B in)erpre)
dire&) response B rea&)ion
said )o (e al$ays )rue B emphasis
$ays o* )hinking B )hough) $as
,1.* !$an)e t$e word in bold sin)ular to 'lural or vice versa.
As ins)ru&)ed. make any o)her ne&essary &hanges )o ea&h sen)en&es,
Ans$ers'
/C0 There are some in)eres)ing Ph, )heses on $a)er resour&es in )he li(rary,
/<0 Wha) $as your main &ri)erion in designing your sur%eyK
/70 She $as in)eres)ed in a s)range phenomenon &onne&)ed $i)h &ome)s,
/=0 The hypo)heses $ere ne%er pro%ed. as )he da)a $ere in&omple)e,
,1., Matc$ t$e be)innin) o( eac$ sentence wit$ t$e most a''ro'riate endin).
/C0 We mus) ne%er a&&ep) )he no)ion B )ha) in)elligen&e is &onne&)ed )o ra&e,
/<0 The )ask o* &hoosing an analy)i&al B *rame$ork is an impor)an) s)age in any resear&h,
/70 The (ook e4press B his %ie$ poin) on )he role o* Uni)ed "a)ions in )imes o* $ar,
/=0 Tanners has al$ays made her s)an&e on gender ; language use %ery>&lear,
/D0 Consumers ha%e di**eren) per&ep)ions B o* $ha) lo$ pri&e ; $hi&h 1uali)y mean,
/E0 The repor) laid ou) a ne$ model o* *amily heal)h &are $hi&h &hanged e%ery)hing,
/F0 Physi&is)s de%eloped )he &on&ep) o* dark ma))er )o e4plain &er)ain o(ser%a)ion,
,1.9 -ead t$e te%t answer t$e .uestions.
Ans$ers'
C,au)onomy =,)he humani)ies
<,pro*ound D,pro*ound
7,moral E,grounding
Unit 32
REPORTI"# WHAT OTHERS SAM
A. -e'ortin) verbs
E4plain B *of6of ug'{
Sugges) B eGg &f]Xg'
Claim B b/j ug'{
argue B ts{ ug'{
o(ser%e B "jnf]sg ug'{
pro%e B k|d/Bft ug'{
Pin poin) B "f}Aof2g'
&as) dou() on B s'g} s'/f df4L ;Ksf ug'{
des&ri(e B jBf{g ug'{
s)a)e B k|ToIf ,kdf eGg'
Imply B gf2g'
emphasis B f]/ lbg'
demons)ra)e B b]&f2g'
men)ion B jtf2g'
ad%an&e B k|!tfj /f6g'
1ues)ion B k|>g 2(f2g'
B. -e'ortin) "ouns
pro%ides an e4plana)ion o*
gi%es a des&rip)ion o*
&laim )he &ause
emphasis on
s)a)emen)s )ha)
E@E-!0BE
,*.1 Fill t$e missin) verbs nouns.
"oun 6er( "oun 6er(
impli&a)ion
o(ser%a)ion
argumen)
asser)ion
&on)en)ion
imply
o(ser%e
argue
asser)
&on)end
des&rip)ion
s)a)emen)
emphasis
e4plana)ion
demons)ra)ion
des&ri(e
s)a)e
emphasi2e
e4plain
demons)ra)e
,*., 0n eac$ sentence two o( t$e o'tions in italics are 'ossible one is not. >$ic$ is notE
Ans$ers'
Pin poin)s pro%es &laims asser)s ad%an&e
es&rip)ion &as)e dou()
,*.9 2$ere is one mistake in eac$ o( t$e sentences. Find correct it.
A&&ording )o me B In my %ie$ 5 opinion
proo* B pro%ed
emphasis B emphasi2es
men)ion )o B re*ers )o 5 men)ions
sugges) B sugges)ions
dou() *or B dou() on
Unit 33
A"ALMSIS
A. 0n Academic 2ests
&ome )o 5 rea&h a &on&lusion B lg7s7f{df k'Cg'
ad%an)ages B kmf<bf
&ause o* a&)ion B sfdug]{ lgl>.t tl/sf
(o)h sides o* an argumen) B ts{sf] kIf / ljkIf
)ake in)o a&&oun) B Jofg lb9/ sfd ug'{
rele%an) aspe&)s B ;5jlG1t kIfx,
poin) B s'/f$ j'bf3
)ake a&&oun) o* B uBfgf ug'{
dedu&e B ts{ u/]/ k+fnuf2g'
soundly B k?Bf{ ,kdf
disad%an)ages B j]kmf<bf
ou) $eigh) B 5=l- xg'
$eighing up B ulxl/o/ ;f]Og] sfd
B. >ei)$in) u' results
$eighing up resul)s B 9s me)aphor xf] /tf}ng'90
$eighing up ideas B df4ug'{ 5jl- x'g'
ou) $eigh) B jl-x'g'
Argumen)s are pla&ed on ea&h side o* )he sides B 9stkm{ ts{
k|!t't ug'{
!. Bentences relatin) to analysis
insigh) B "Gt/b@7)L
poin) )o B b]&f2g'
on )he (asis o* B sf] "f1f/df
predi&) B k?jf{g'dfg
&ons)i)u)e B "f]u)\g'
&ri)i&al re%ie$ B ;dLI8
&ri)i&al o* B "fnf].s
&ri)i&al period B dxDjk?Bf{ "j1L
&ri)i&al &ondi)ion B l;ls!t "fj!4f
deeply &ri)i&al B 9sbd} gs/fTds
a(solu)ely &ri)i&al B 9sbd} dxDjk?Bf{
EXERCISE
,,.1 !om'lete t$e e%'ressions wit$ a word w$ic$ can combine wit$ t$e words )iven.
C, Cri)i&al <, Con&lusion 7, Side/s0 o* an argumen)
!o%emen) &ome )o &ome do$n on one
re%ie$ dra$ (e in *a%or o* one
&ommen)s rea&h see (o)h
,,.* "ow com'lete t$ese sentences wit$ a word (rom ,,.1.
C, Mou should $ri)e a &ri)i&al re%ie$ o* li)era)ure,
<, I) is di**i&ul) )o rea&h a &on&lusion $i)hou) a lo) more da)a,
7, A good essay presen)s (o)h sides o* an argumen)s,
,,., !om'lete t$ese e%tracts usin) t$e words (rom o''osite 'a)e. 2$e (irst letter is )iven.
Ans$ers in Con)inuous order'
$ B $eighing & B &on&lusion
o B ou) $eigh) d B dra$(a&k
I B Insigh) % B %aria(les
TB )ake & B &ons)i)u)e
) B )ake in)o r B rele%an)
& B &ourse d B dedu&e
( B (asis p B predi&)
,,.9 >$at does critical4or one o( list related (orm mean in eac$ sentenceE
/C0 The hospi)al announ&ed presiden) remains seriously ill,
/<0 i4on $as asked )o $ri)e a re%ie$ gi%ing her opinions on &omplemporey Irish Poe)ry,
/70 The $ri)er $as imprisoned *or his openly nega)i%e %ie$s on )he go%ernmen),
Unit 34
TALLI"# ABOUT MOU
A. 2$e 0m'ortance o( Meanin)
)erms B z0b
glossary B z0b / "4{sf] ;'l.
)erminology B ljz]7f z0bfjnL
)ransparen) B !k!) "4{ e9sf]
am(iguous B bf]xf]/f] "4{ e9sf]
&lari*y B !k!) kfg'{
&ommuni&a)e B *o+m ug'{
su()le dis)in&)ions B ;fg/tgf leGgtf
dis)inguish (e)$een B km/s "4{ b]&f2g'
de*ining B kl/e/7ft ug]{ sfd
misin)erpre) B unt "4{ nuf2g'
de*ini)ion B kl/e]8
&oheren) B o?+mL ;3ut 2ko'+m
B. 2$e 'ower o( words
e4press ideas B lj.f/ *o+m ug'{
&on%ey a message B ;Gb]z lbg'
e%oke B "fe]f u/f2g'
a)mosphere B efjgf
dis&ourse B n]& / s'/fsfgL
&omprehend B ='e\mg'
&onno)a)ion B ;KR)sx,
deno)e B gf2g'
in*er B "g'dfg ug'{
perspe&)i%e B b@7)Lsf]Bf
nuan&es o* meaning ^ ;G_d "4{df leGgtf
EXERCISE
,9.1 Jr. Babayan is advisin) 2omako& one o( $is students w$o is about to start writ$in) u' $er
dissertation. !om'lete t$eir conversation wit$ words (rom t$e o''osite 'a)e.
de*ine you )erm
)erminology
)ransplan)
glossary
senses
dis)inguish
su()le dis)in&)ion
&ommuni&a)ion
&oheren)
am(iguous
misin)erpre)
&lari*y
,9.* Add ne)ative 're(i%es to t$e words in bold. Use dictionary i( necessary.
C, )ransla)ed B mis)ransla)ed
<, unders)ood B misunders)ood
7, am(iguous B unam(iguous
=, &al&ula)ed B mis&al&ula)ed
D, &oheren) B in&oheren)
E, pronoun&es B mispronoun&es
,9., Use t$e words (rom t$e bo% in an a''ro'riate (rom to com'lete t$e te%t.
Ans$er in respe&)i%ely'
e4pressed &on%eyed
nuan&es deno)e
&onno)a)ions in*er
dis&ourse e%okes
perspe&)i%es &omprehend
Unit 3&
RESEARCH ; STUM AI!S
A. E%'ressin) Aims
eli(era)e BB fgffg u/]sf] sfd
goal B nIo
in)en)ion B "lek|fo 5 "]fo
purpose B 2E]>o
)arge) B uGt*o
mo)i%e B sf/Bf
o(?e&)i%e B 2E]>o
priori)y B k|f4ldstf
s)ra)egy B s}f]zntf
B. An E%am'le o( a mission Btatement
S)a)emen) BB s4g
)o *ur)her B "uf'L j-f2g'
)o es)a(lish B "uf'L 2Tk|]B8 lbg'
)o &hallenge B k|>g l.Gx nuf2g'
resear&h me)hodology B "g';G1fg ljl1
ins)iga)e B 2sf!g'
dis&iplines B lj7fox,
pra&)i&e>led B k|of]ufTds5kIf xfjL e9sf]
e%alua)ion B d?AofHg
&rea)i%e B /.gfTds
&on)ri(u)e )o ^ of]ubfg lbg'
unders)anding B ;dembf/L
appli&a)ion B k|of]g
kno$ledge (ases B "f1f/e?t %fg
hypo)hesis (ased B k/LsAkgf "f1//t
&ri)i&al mass B k|efjsf/L ;K6of
in*orm B %fgsf/L
in*ras)ru&)ure B k?Bf{1f/
&ri)eria B u'Bfx,
na)ional de(a)e ^ //7)So ljjfb
pra&)i&e>as>resear&h B "g';G1fg "Mof;
in)er*a&e B ;3ud
EXERCISE
,5.1 -ewrite t$e sentences usin) words e%'ressions (rom t$e o''osite 'a)e be)innin) as
s$own.
C, We mus) gi%e )op priori)y )o pro)e&)ing )he pri%a&y o* our su(?e&)s,
<, We designed )he 1ues)ionnaire $i)h )he in)en)ion o* making i) as simple as possi(le )o
ans$er,
7, We had our goal )he de*ini)ion ; e%alua)ion o* a ne$ approa&h )o ur(an planning,
=, I had no in)en)ion o* (e&oming a s&ien)is) $hen I (egan my S)udies,
D, A hypo)hesis>(ased me)hodology does no) $ork in some &lasses,
). Our pro?e&) is lo&a)ed a) )he in)er*a&e (e)$een so&iology as psy&hology,
,5.* -ead t$eses descri'tions o( t$eir researc$ by academic t$en answer t$e .uestions.
Ans$ers'
C, Pro*, Li9s )eam
<, Pro*, Simons
7, r, Tadeus
=, Pro*, Hor2a
D, r, Andreas
E, r, Gane?a
F, r, 8ins)ein
,5., Answer t$e .uestions about t$e vocabulary in t$is unit.
Ans$ers'
C, In*ras)ru&)ure
<, na)ional de(a)e
7, /a&ademi&0 dis&ipline
=, The kno$ledge (ase
D, The kno$ledge (ase
E, mee) 5 a&hie%e an o(?e&)i%e. rea&h
F, mo)i%e. mo)i%a)ion
H, pra&)i&e>led resear&h
Unit 3+
TALLI"# ABOUT POI"T O8 6IEW
A. !ommentin) on ot$er<s views
o(?e&)i%e B j!t'ut
su(?e&)i%ely B "fTdut ,kn]
impar)ial B *o+mLut lj.f/jf)
ra)ional B jf}lIs
radi&al B "fd?n kl/jt{g
philosophy B bz{g
(ased in *a%our o* B s;}sf] kIfdf
(ased agains) B s;}sf] ljkIfdf
pre?udi&ed agains) B k?jf{u|x
s)and poin) B lj.f/sf] 1/ftn
rea&)ionary B k|lts@ofjfbL
imma)ure B "bIf /bIftf ge9sf]
&onser%a)i%e B ,l-jfbL
B. >ord combination relatin) to 'oints o( view
)o hold %ie$s B lj.f/ /f6g'
)o adop). )ake a s)an&e B j}.//s "'fg lng'
)o &hange B lj.f/ kl/jt{g ug'{
ha%e e)hi&al o(?e&)ions )o B g}lts ";xdlt gf2g'
)he prin&iple underlying B k5/' n's]sf] d?6o l;EfGt
)o en&oun)er pre?udi&es B gs/fTds *ojxf/ "g'ej ug'{
deep>roo)ed pre?udi&es B u']sf] kjf{u|x
E@E-!0BE
,C.1 !$oose t$e words in bold to words w$ic$ mean t$e o''osite.
ra)ional B irra)ional
agains) B in suppor) o*
o(?e&)i%e B su(?e&)i%e
in *a%or o* B agains)
ma)ure B imma)ure
radi&al B &onser%a)i%e
radi&al Brea&)ionary
(iased B an impar)ial
,C.* Use t$e word in t$e bo% in an a''ro'riate (orm to com'lete t$e sentences.
C, Underlying. philosophy
<, )o adop)
7, held
=, e)hi&al
D, res)ed. en&oun)er
E, shi*)ed
,C., Answer t$e .uestions.
C, &hanged
<, )ake
7, in my poin) o* %ie$
=, An ideology sugges)s )he (elie*s are rigid ; more res)ri&)ing,
D, S)and poin)
,C.9 Vary t$ese sentences by rewritin) t$em usin) t$e word in brackets.
C, The people o* )he area hold some unusual %ie$s a(ou) na)ure,
<, !os) young people seem )o ha%e o(?e&)ions )o )he proposals on s)and *ees,
7, E4aminers )end )o (e (iased in *a%or o* &andida)e $i)h &lear hand $ri)ing,
=, #irls look a) )heir &areers *rom a di**eren) s)and poin)s )hen )heir me)hods,
D, Le) us kno$ dis&uss )he prin&iples underlying )his approa&h,
Unit 3.
E#REE O8 CERTAI"TM
A. Bein) 2entative
I) may no) (e )he &ase )ha) B o!tf] gx'g ;;5 ls
I) $ould seem. appear )ha) B o!tf] nfC5 ls
We &an presume )ha) B xfdL of] dfGg ;;5f} ls
There appears B b]l&9sf] efg x@'G5
Some e%iden&es )ha)
)en)a)i%e
B. 0t is true or almost certainly true
undou()edlyB lg;Gb]x
o* &ourse B jf!tjdf
e%iden)B k|dfBf !j,k
)end )o B "led'& x'g'
apparen)ly B !k!) ,kdf
presuma(ly B "g'dfgn]
is likely )o B ;5ej
lia(le )o B x'g of]Co
!. >riter is unsure
allegedly B nfCg'
are &onsidered B dfGg] ul/G5
per&ep)ion B b]6bf
repor)edly B elg9sf] 5
EXERCISE
,D.1 Matc$ t$e be)innin) o( eac$ sentence wit$ most a''ro'riate endin).
C, We may B $ill dis&o%er )ha) )he pro(lem $as &aused,,,
<, I) $ould seem B )o appear *rom all *inding )ha),,,
7, O* &ourse i) B is )rue )ha) all *a&)ories &ause,,,
=, We &an &er)ainly B assume )ha) )he e4&hange ra)e,,,
D, I) may $ell )urn ou) B no) )o (e )he &ase )ha) all,,,
E, I) &ould (e B argued )ha) &on*li&) $as ine%i)a(le,,,
,D.* 0nsert adverbs based on t$e words in 0talics.
C, allegedly
<, repor)edly
7, apparen)ly
=, presuma(ly
D, )en)a)i%ely
E, e%iden)ly
,D., !om'lete t$e missin) (orms in t$e bo%.
"oun 6er( Ad?e&)i%e Ad%er(
)enden&y )end
e%iden&e
likelihood
per&ep)ion
seem
per&ei%e
e%iden)
likely
per&ep)i(le
e%iden)ly
seemingly
per&ep)i(le
,D.9 !$an)e t$e sentences. Use di((erent (orms o( t$e words in bold an instructed.
C, likelihood B I) is no) %ery likely 5 unlikely
<, )end B ha%e a )enden&y
7, e%iden&e B i) $as e%iden)
=, per&ei%e B )here is a &ommon per&ep)ion
D, seems B is seemingly
,D.5 Make t$ese sentences more (ormal.
C, Ra)s are generally &onsidered )o (e &arrier o* diseases,
<, There is limi)ed e%iden&e )o suppor) )he opinion )ha) diesel &ars &ause more pollu)ion )han
pe)rol &ars,
7, There is e%ery likelihood )ha) rail passengers3 num(ers $ill &on)inue )o de&line,
=, In )he a(sen&e o* e%iden&e )o )he &oun)ry. $e mus) like )o in)elligen&e in any $ay,
D, I) is undou()edly )rue )ha) engineering gradua)es are in in&reasing damage,
E, The area near )he ri%er is lia(le )o *lood in $in)er,
Unit 3,
PRESE"TI"# A" AR#U!E"T
A. Jevelo'in) an ar)ument: >$at it is aboutE
(e (ased on B df "f1//t x'g'
pu) *or$ard B lj.f/ *o+m ug'{
(e rele%an) )o B ;fGble{s x'g'
8or )he purpose o* B sf] 2E]>osf nfuL
s&ru)ini2e B kl/IfBf ug'{
re*er )o B "f}Aof2g'
Respe&)i%ely B #md;
on )he su(?e&) o* B sf] lj7fodf
(eyond )he s&ople o* B If]# j/x/
$i)h re*eren&e B l.Gx;3u ;5jlG1t
B. Addin) 'oint to an ar)ument
as $ell as B / klg
on )op o* $hi&h B dJo ;j}eGbf k|d'&
in addi)ion )o B sf "f1f/df
*ur)her B ", "uf'L
moreo%er B "em jl-
*or e4ample B 2bfx/Bfsf nfuL
!. Auali(yin): 1imitin) B'eci(yin) an ar)ument
To $ha) e4)en) B s'g xb ;5d
)he pros ; &ons B kmf<bf j]kmf<bf
in )he sense )ha) B of] "4{df sL
pro%ided )ha) B s'g} ;t{df
al(ei) B x'gt
par)ial agreemen) B t/
say B 2bfx/Bfsf nfuL
e%en so B To;f] x'bf klg
apar) *rom B jfx]s
; so on B "/b
)he degree 5 e4)en) B xb
(u) a) )he same )ime B To;} =]nf
despi)e )he *a&) B o!tf] e9tf klg
ne%er)heless B o`kL 5 e9klg
E@E-!0BE
,8.1 Fill in t$e 're'ositions in t$e te%ts about t$e (irst wi(e o( 5enry V00 o( En)land.
Respe&)i%ely in )he (lanks' on. )o. *or. o*. (eyond. o*. on. o*. $i)h. )o. on. )o
,8.* >$ic$ words come ne%t in t$e '$rasesE
C, The pros ; )he &ons
<, A) )he same )ime
7, And so on ; so *or)h
=, Harry said )ha)
5. )ha)9s all %ery $ell (u)
). )he e4)en) )o $hi&h
(. in addi)ion )o
'. as $ell as
,8.9 !$oose t$e correct word or '$rase to com'lete eac$ sentence.
C, /(0 al(ei)
<, /C0 *ur)her
7, /A0 in )he sense )ha)
=, /(0 respe&)i%ely
D, /&0 ha%ing said )ha)
E, /B0 Apar) *rom
Unit 3-
OR#A"IUI"# MOUR WRITI"#
A. ='enin)
address B ;5jf]1g ug'{
(e &on&erned $i)h B ;5jlG1t x'g'
purpose B 2E]>o
di%ided in)o B df lje/t x'g'
)he aim o* B 2E]>osf nfuL
$i)h a *o&us on B f]' lbg'
&onsis)s o* B n] jGg'
de%o)ed )o B ;dlk{t
B. =r)aniKin) t$e main 'oint<s
C, I)ems used $hen $orking )hrough a lis) o* di**eren) )hings,
*irs)ly. se&ondly. ne4). *irs). *inally,
<, I)ems used $hen &hanging )opi&s,
We no$. le) us )urn. a) )his poin)
7, I)ems re*erring *or$ard )he )e4),
(elo$. in )he ne4) se&)ion. la)er
=, I)ems used re*erring (a&k,
a(o%e. in )he pre&eding se&)ion. earlier. as $e sa$ in
E@E-!0BE
,G.1 !$oose t$e word (rom <A< (ill t$e missin) words.
/C0 purpose 5 aim
/<0 &on&erned
/70 aim 5 purpose
/=0 &onsis)s
/D0 address
/E0 de%o)ed
/F0 di%ided
/H0 *o&us
,G.* -ead t$e sentences answer t$e .uestions.
Ans$ers'
%. War ; pea&e <, A*)er 7, "o =, a) D,Be*ore
,G., !$oose t$e correct word in 0talics to com'lete eac$ sentences.
C, Take
<, *irs)ly
7, addresses
=, (elo$
D, *ollo$ing
E, see
F, &onsider
H, la)er
,G.9 -ewrite t$e 'arts in bold usin) a '$rase.
C, As &an (e seen in Ta(le 6 )here has (een an in&rease in )he num(ers o* s)uden)s in,
<, In se&)ion 7 $e )ake up again some o* )he argumen)s *rom )he pre&eding se&)ion,
7, A) )his poin) le) us )urn our a))en)ion )o de%elopmen) in Cons)an)inople,
=, The &oun)ry is di%ided in)o si4 pro%in&es,
D, Le) us no$ )urn )o )he issues o* )he reuni*i&a)ion o* #ermany,
Unit 40
!ALI"# A PRESE"TATIO"
A. 0ntroducin) t$e 'resenter
Announ&er 2b\Rf];sn] presen)er k|!tf]tfnf<{{ l.gf2g s)age df jf]nf2g k|of]u x'g] $ord,
Le)s $el&ome B !jfut u/f}
on )he su(?e&) o* B sf] jf/]df
ok B 92)fsf] e]fBf ;ls9 kl5 dis&ourse maker
presen) B k|!t't
Call on nf<{{ s)age df jf]nf2g'
make 5 gi%e presen)a)ion B k|!t't ugG{
I9d like )o in)rodu&ed B d nf<{{ dK.df jf]nf2g .fxG5'
address )he )opi& o* B sf] jf/]df jf]Ag'
B. /ettin) started
*o&us on B f]' lbg'
allo$ )ime *or B sf nfuL ;do lbg'
gi%ing permission 5 *eel *ree B "gdlt lbgG 5 ;lnf] dx;G; ugG{
make &ommen) B "fnf].gf 5 u'gf;f] ug'{
gi%e a (rie* o%er%ie$ B 5f)f] / ;fdfGo fgsf/L
$i)h regard )o B sf ;Gbe{df
I9d like )o (egin (y : 6= B o;/L ;',jft ug{ .fxG5'
a hand ou) going around
Spare &opies B ", sfkL
Presen) )he resul) o* B sf kl/B8dx,
I did B 'g d}n] u/]
go o%er)ime B k'/} ;do lng'
Leep )o B jf3sL /f6g'
!. Jurin) t$e 'resentation M closin) t$e 'resentation
)urn )o B s'g} s'/fsf] jf/]df fgsf/L lbg'
ge))ing (a&k )o B k5f'L lt/ kmls{g'
go (a&k )o B k5f'L kms{g'
in more de)ail B lj!t@t ,kdf
Tha)9s all I ha%e )o say B d]/f] eGg' ol+ xf]
Thank you *or lis)ening B ;'lglbg' eosf]df 1Gojfb
I ha%e run ou) o* )ime B ;do ;lsosf] 5
To sum up B 5f])s/Ldf
Skip B 5f]'Llbg'
Ha%ing said )ha) B t}klg
E@E-!0BE
9I.1 Fill t$e missin) words in t$ese introductions to 'resentations.
C, presen)
< &all on. make 5 gi%e
7, Wel&ome
I on )he su(?e&) o*
D in)rodu&e 5 address
9I., Fill in t$e missin) 're'ositions.
C, I9d like )o *o&us on $a)er(orne diseases,
<, The si)ua)ion $i)h regard )o e4por)s has (een %ery good in re&en) years,
7, I9d no$ like )o )urn )o a di**eren) pro(lem,
=, I al$ays *ind i) di**i&ul) )o keep )o ?us) so,
D, I9d like )o (egin o* asking you )o do a small )ask,
9I.9 >rite C sentences you mi)$t $ear durin) 'resentation.
C, I shall presen) )he resul) o* )he e4am,
<, r, 8onse&a $ill no$ )ake 1ues)ion,
7, I $an) )o raise ano)her issue o* )his poin),
=, I9d ?us) like )o make a &ommen). I* I may.
D, I $ill (egin (y gi%ing an o%er%ie$ o* )he )opi&,
E, This is )he *irs) )ime I9%e gi%en a presen)a)ion. so I9m a (i) ner%ous,
Unit 41
ESCRIBI"# RESEARCH !ETHOS
A. Use(ul word !ombination
&arry ou) a pro&edure B sfo{ljl1 k'/fug{
&arry ou) on e4perimen) B kl/IfBf ug'{
&arry ou) a pilo) s)udy B k|f/5eLs "Jofog ug'{
use 5 employ a me)hod B 92)f k|ljl1 k|of]u ug'{
use 5 employ a )e&hni1ue B 92)f k|lj1L k|of]u ug'{
use 5 employ an approa&h B 92)f ;}b/Gts sf] k|of]u ug'{
use 5 employ a ins)rumen) B 92)f 2ks/Bfsf] k|of]u ug'{
use 5 employ a de%i&e B 92)f ;f1gsf] k|of]u ug'{
use 5 employ any par)i&ular )ype o* resear&h me)hodology B s'g} lgl>.t k|sf/sf] "g';G1fg
ljl1sf] k|of]u ug'{
+use eGbf employ jlb "f}k.//s d/gG5 .-
pie&e o* appara)us B 2ks/Bfsf] 9s efu
assem(le appara)us B 2ks/Bfdf *i) ug'{
&he&k appara)us B 2ks/Bf .]s ug'{
B. 2y'es o( -esearc$ met$od
manipula)e B kl/jt{g ug'{
&on)rolled &ondi)ion B lgoG#Bf "j!4fx,
se))ing B kl/j]7f
la(ora)ory B k|of]uzfnf
ar)i*i&ial B s@ltd
repli&a)e B g;sn ug'{
de)ermine B k+f nuf2g'
ma)hema)i&al )e&hni1ue B ulB/to tl/sf
dispro%e B unt tl/sfn] k|d/Bft
o(ser%e B "jnf]sg
re&ord B n]&f
general>popula)ion B ;fdfGo ;6Kof
E@E-!0BE
91.1 !om'lete t$e sentences in t$ese two te%ts wit$ words (rom t$e o''osite 'a)e.
TEQT A
C, e4perimen)al s)udy
<, la(ora)ory &ondi)ions
7, manipula)e )he %aria(les
=, &on)rolled &ondi)ions
D, repli&a)e
TEQT B
C, de)ermine
<, ar)i*i&ial
7, re*le&)
=, empiri&al o(ser%a)ion
D, *ield se))ing
E, &ase
F, na)ural
H, in>dep)h
I, &olle&)ed
CJ, in)er*ering
CC, )ime>&onsuming
C<, represen)a)i%e
C7, popula)ion
91.* Use t$e words in t$e bo% to com'lete t$e dia)ram. Add a M an anyt$in) else needed to
com'lete t$e '$rase.
Carry ou)
Employ 5 use
Appara)us
91., "ow com'lete t$e sentences usin) '$rase (rom 91.*.
C, pie&e. assem(led
<, pilo) s)udy. e4perimen). me)hodology
7, )e&hni1ue. de%i&e
91.9 !orrect t$e ei)$t s'ellin)s ot$er vocabulary mistakes in t$ese sentences.
Corre&)ed Ans$ers'
C, In*eren&es
<, phenomenon. sys)ema)i&
7, dispro%ed
=, ina&&ura&ies. su(?e&)s
D, ou)line 5 e4)ernal. disrup)
a pilo) s)udy
an
e4perimen)
a pro&edure
a )e&hni1ue
a de%i&e
a
me)hodology
a pie&e o*
)o assem(le
&heese
Unit 42
CLASSI8MI"#
A. Use(ul "ouns w$en classi(yin)
&a)egory B ;d?x
&omponen) B &B'
e4is)en&es B "!4LTjdf
*ea)ure B ljz]7ftf$ nIfBf
hierar&hy B txut Y]BfL
na)ure B k|/s@lts !jefj
s)ru&)ure B jgfj)
)ype B lsl;d
B. =ne e%am'le o( classi(ication system
%arie)y 5 di%ersi)y B k|sf/ jf ljlj1tf
de%ise B ;f]Og'
a&&ording )o B sf] "g';f/
similari)y B ;dfgtf
di**eren&es B ljlj1tf
dis)in&) *rom B eGbf km/s
*rom general )o spe&i*i& B ;fdfGojf) ljlz7(lt/
(elong )o B le# kg'{
&onsis)s o* B n] jGg'
o* )he same )ype B Tolx k|sf/sf]
allo&a)e B /f6g'
!. !ate)oriKin) 'eo'le
age B 25d]/
so&ial &lass B ;fd/s ju{
o&&upa)ion B k]zf
mari)al s)a)us B j}j/xs "j!4f
(lue &ollar people B sfdbf/
$hi)e &ollar people B dJod jlu{o
house $i*eB u@lxBfL
employmen) B /f]uf/
headlines B lz7f{s
e)hni& (a&kground B /to "f1f/
genera)ion B lkK-L
&hara&)eris)i&s B ljz]7ftf
&an (e desor(ed B 2An]& ug'{
deno)e B "4{ nfCg'
senior &i)i2en B j@[ gful/s
su(sumed B ;dfj]z
o&&upa)ional (a&kground B k]zfut !4LtL
E@E-!0BE
9*.1 !$oose t$e words to com'lete t$e e%tract (rom 316 a decline 3*6 a class.
C, Compu)er programming language usually *all in)o one o* *our &a)egories' impera)i%e. *un&)ional.
o(?e&)>orien)ed ; logi&, These languages are dis)in&) *rom one ano)her in ho$ )hey opera)e, The
s)ru&)ure o* impera)i%e language is (ased on &ommand, Language su&h COBOL (elong )o )his )ype,
8un&)ional language &onsis)s o* ma)hema)i&al *un&)ions, The &omponen)s o* o(?e&) orien)ed
language are &ommands $i)h are &om(ined, The main *ea)ures o* logi& languages are )ha), Human
language. di%ersi)y is &onsidered a good )hing,
<,C de%ise <, gender 7, &lass =, generali2a)ion
D, senior E, o&&upa)ions F, (lue &ollar H, employmen)
I, homemakers CJ, e)hni&
9*.* !om'lete t$e table.
"oun 6er( Ad?e&)i%e Ad%er(
similari)y
di**eren&e
allo&a)ion
des&rip)ion
di**er 5
di**eren)
allo&a)e
des&ri(e
similar
di**eren)
des&rip)i%e
similarly
di**eren)ly
des&rip)i%ely
9*., "ow c$oose t$e word (rom 3*6 to com'lete t$ese sentences.
/C0 I) is hard )o di**eren)ia)e (e)$een )hese )$o similar plan)s, They hardly di**er,
/<0 The pro*essors persuaded )he uni%ersi)y )o allo&a)e more resour&es )o his depar)men),
/70 There are some magni*i&en) des&rip)i%e passages in )he $ri)er9s la)er no%el,
/=0 In your essay &ommen) on )he similari)ies ; )he di**eren&es (e)$een )$o poems,
*9.9 Vary t$e statements by usin) t$e word o( similar meanin) instead o( t$e word in bold.
C, &a)egori2e B &lassi*y
<, in&lude B su(sumed
7, allo&a)e B assign
=, &onsis)s B made up
D, &oun)ry B rural
E, married or single B mari)al s)a)us
F, aspe&) B dimension
H, &i)y B ur(an
Unit 43
!ALI"# CO""ECTIO"S
&omplemen)ed B jl- 2kof]uL jgf<9sf]
re%eal links (e)$een B ;5jG1 2fu/ ug'{
&om(ina)ion B ;Kof]g
pie&e )oge)her B "Kznf<{ f]'g'
&orrela)i%e $i)h B ;x ;5jG1 b]&f2g'
(ring )oge)her B 9s} (f2df 5df ug'{
rela)ed B ;5jlG1t
B. E%'ressin) links connections between 'eo'le t$in)s.
ha&ker B "sf{sf] &ompu)er ne)$ork df k!g] "k/f1L
synonymous $i)h B ;dfg "4{
re*er )o B "4{ x'g'
asso&ia)ed $i)h B ;3u f]l'9sf]
in)erplay B bf]xf]/f] "4{
in)errela)ed B "Gt/ ;5jlG1t
in)era&)ion B bf]xf]/f] s'/fsfgL
in )ha) B &f]]sf]
re%erse B ljkl/t
&orrespond )o B j/fj/ x'g'
rela)i%e )o B ;5jlG1t x'g'
sugges) B b]&f2g'
)aken )oge)her B ;du|df
a&&ompanied (y B ;f4 lb<g]
(ond B glssf] ;5jG1
E@E-!0BE
9,.1 Matc$ t$e be)innin) o( eac$ sentence wit$ t$e most im'ortant M a''ro'riate endin)
add t$e missin) 're'ositions.
Ans$ers'
C, The s)udy *ound links (e)$een use o* )he drug ; hear) pro(lems,
<, Gill9s )horoughness is &omplemen)ed (y her &o>resear&hers originali)y,
7, The musi&al )alen) &o>rela)e $i)h ma)hema)i&al a(ili)y,
=, The s&ulp)ure is an usual &om(ina)ion o* gen)le &ur%es ; sharp angles,
D, The &on*eren&e has (rough) )oge)her s&holars *rom all o%er )he $orld,
E, The resear&h is )rying )o pie&e )oge)her in*orma)ion *rom a range o* sour&es,
F, Pe)er9s s)udy is &losely rela)ed )o his pre%ious resear&h,
H, The )erm 9ha&ker9 used )o re*er )o a &ompu)er programmer,
9,.* !orrect t$e errors in t$eses sentences.
C, (ind B (ond
<, rela)ing B rela)i%e
7, asso&ia)ing B asso&ia)ed
=, re%ersal B re%erse
D, synonym B synonymous
E, in)errela)ionship B in)errela)ed
F, )ook B )aken
H, )his B )ha)
I, in)erplaying B in)erplay
9,., !$oose t$e words (rom t$e bo% (ill t$e missin) words.
Ans$ers'
C, In)era&)ion
<, rela)ionship
7, re%eals
=, re*le&)s
D, mu)ual
E, e%iden&e
F, sugges)
H, &orresponds
I, e1ui%alen)
CJ, asso&ia)ed
Unit 44
CO!PARI"# ; CO"TRASTI"#
A. #re'ositional e%'ression
a &omparison (e)$een B a "f])f km/s l.sf] t'ngf
a &omparison o* B 92)} l.sf km/s k|sf/sf] t'ngf
&omparison $i)h 5 &omparison )o B &ompare $i)h 5 )o B ;3u t'ngf
as &ompared )o B jf!tjd} leGgtf 5 eGg] gf2g
analogies (e)$een B ;dfgfGt/ ljz]7ftf e9df
di**eren&e (e)$een B j]Cnfj]Cn} ;d?x jL. t'ngf
di**eren&e in B 92)} l.sf km/sf kIf
dis)in&)ion (e)$een B 92)} similar l.sf leGgtf b]&f2g
di**eren&e *rom B eGbf km/s
B. Usual linkin) e%'ressions (or com'arison contrast
similarly 5 like$ise B To!t}
&on)ras) (e)$een B sf] jL. leGgtf
&on%ersely B 2;sf] ljkl/t
unlike B eGbf km/s
$here as B jsL
ra)her )han B Tof] eGbf
on )he one hand B 9sftk{m
E@E-!0BE
99.1 !om'lete t$ese sentences about com'arin) constrictin).
C, as &ompared
<, di**eren)ia)e
7, &ompared
=, &omparison
D, *rom 5 )o
E, &omparison
F, analogy
H, in &on)ras)
99.* -ewrite t$e sentence usin) an e%'ression w$ic$ includes t$e words in brackets instead o(
t$e underlined used.
Ans$ers'
C, The )$o groups $ere di**eren) *rom 5 )o ea&h o)her,
<, There $as a &on)ras) (e)$een )he )$o groups o* &hildren,
7, The )hree li1uids $ere similar )o one ano)her,
=, The da)a re%ealed di**eren&e in 5 among )he in*orman)9s responses,
D, The )i)le o* her paper $as Pmale a))i)ude )o$ards prison sen)en&ing &ompared $i)h 5 )o
*emale a))i)udesP,
E, The e&onomy o* )he nor)h is (ooming. )he sou)h is similarly en?oying an e&onomi& up)urn,
99., Are t$ese statements true o( (alseE
C, I* )$o )hings are mu)ually e4&lusi%e. one makes )he o)her impossi(le, B True
<, I* )$o me)hods o* doing some)hing is &ompa)i(le )hey &an9) (o)h (e used, B 8alse
7, I* )$o )hings are e1ua)ed. )hey are said )o (e similar or )he same, B True
=, I* )hey are parallel (e)$een. )hey are %ery di**eren) *rom ea&h o)her, B 8alse
D, I* )here is an o%erlap (e)$een )$o )hings. )hey share some proper)ies, B True
Unit 4&
ESCRIBI"# PROBLE!
A. 0ntroducin) #roblem
)o arise )he pro(lem o* s)h, B s'g} l.sf] ;d!of "f2g'
)o e4perien&e di**i&ul)ies $i)h B sl(gf< "g'ej ug'{
&on)ro%ersy surrounding s)h, B ljjfbLt s'/f
&on)radi&)ion in )erms B zf!bLs ,kdf ljjfb
pose a &hallenge B .'gf}lt lbg'
errors are apparen) B t@l)x, k|;!t 5g\
)o raise )he issue o* B ;jfn 2(f2g'
shor) &oming B sdf]/L
&on)ain in &ons)an&y B 9s,kdf gx'g'
B. -es'ondin) a #roblem
rea&) k|lts@of B noun B rea&)ion
respond k|lts@of B noun B response
media)e dJo!4tf B media)ion
deal $i)h B ;df1fgsf] sbd 2(f2g'
)a&kle B ;df1fgsf] nfuL k|of; ug'{
address B ;5jf]1g
!. Bolvin) A 'roblem
sol%e B ;df1fg
&ome up $i)h B ;df1fg k+f nuf2g'
o%er &ome )he pro(lem B ;d!ofsf] lgsf; k+f nuf2g'
resol%e B ;df1fg ug'{
ans$er )o )he pro(lem B ;d!ofsf] ;df1fg
&on*li&) resolu)ion B WGE ;df1fg
95.1 Matc$ t$e be)innin) o( eac$ sentence wit$ t$e 'ost a''ro'riate endin).
C, In remem(ering )his *ormula
<, a num(er o* in&onsis)en&ies
7, &onsidera(le &hallenges o* s&ien)is)s
=, surrounding )he presiden)s
D, apparen)
E, many di**i&ul)ies
F, some impor)an) 1ues)ions *or )he par)y
H, arouse *airly re&en)ly
95.* 2$ere is t$e 're'osition missin) in eac$ o( t$e sentence. Add in t$e ri)$t 'lace.
C, media)ing (e)$een unions
<, deal $i)h )he la)er
7, pro(lems in lies in soil
=, &ome up $i)h
D, &on)radi&)ion in )erms
E, rea&)ion )o )he ar)i&le
F, di**i&ul)ies $i)h )he &ompu)er
H, solu)ion )o )he pro(lems
95., !om'lete t$e tables.
"oun 6er(
solu)ion
rea&)ion
&on)en)s
error
resolu)ion
response
&on)radi&)ion
media)ion
sol%e
rea&)
&on)ain
err
resol%e
respond
&on)radi&)
media)e
95.9 !$oose one o( t$e words (rom t$e table com'lete t$e sentences.
C, &on)radi&)ed
<, err
7, solu)ion
=, media)e
D, &on)ains
E, response
F, resol%e
H, rea&)ed
Unit 4+
ESCRIBI"# SITUATIO"S
A. E%istence 1ocation
E4is)en&e o* B "!4LTj
In*ras)ru&)ure B k?jf{1f/
Cir&ums)an&es B k/L!4Llt
minimum B Go?gtd
minimal B Go?g
res)ri&) B jGb]
in)egral B "&B'
s)a(le B !4L/ /uns)a(le0
&ondi)ion B !4Llt
a(sen&e o* B "efj
res)rain) B j@lE
ma4imum B "l1std
&on*ine )o B ;Lldt
in)rinsi& B "fGtl/s /e4)rinsi&0
*ini)e B lgl>.t
E@E-!0BE
9C.1 !$oose one o( t$e words in bold in A to com'lete eac$ sentences.
C, en%ironmen)
<, s)a)us
7, e4is)en&e
=, &ir&ums)an&es
D, a(sen&e
E, in*ras)ru&)ure
F, &on)e4)
H, &ondi)ion
9C.* !$an)e t$e words in bold to o''osite meanin).
C, s)a(ili)y B ins)a(ili)y
<, s)a(le B uns)a(le
7, *ini)e B in*ini)e
=, presen&e B a(sen&e
D, minimum B ma4imum
9C., !$oose t$e best word in italics to com'lete eac$.
C, res)ri&)
<, in)rinsi&
7, res)rain
=, in)egral
D, minimum
E, imposed
F, &ir&ums)an&es
H, res)rain)
Unit 4.
PROCESS ; PROCEURES
s)age 5 s)ep B ./Bf
appli&a)ion B *ojx//s
simula)ion B gd?g
design B jgfj)
uni)y B ;3u(Lt
%eri*y B k|d/Bt
pro&edure B ./BfjE ,kdf ug'{ kg]{ sfdsf] ;'.L
(eha%ior B "/gjfgL
sele&) B 5gf})
u)ili2e B ;b'kof]u
supplemen) B k'/s
B. Bocial M 'olitical& economic 'rocesses
emergen&e B k|fb'efj
&onsump)ion B 2kef]u
ad%en) B "l!jsf/
ra)i*i&a)ion B sfg'lg,k lbg' /s'g} ;xdltnf<{{0
se&uri)y o* Bk|fLtug]{ sfd
de%elop 5 in%en) B "/=!sf/
!. 2ec$nolo)ical 'rocess 'rocedures
au)oma)e B !j.fnLt
display B b]&f2g'
e4por) B da)a k(f2g'
E@E-!0BE
9D.1 !$oose t$e best word to com'lete t$e sentences.
C, %eri*y
<, pro&edure
7, supplemen)
=, simula)ion
D, s)ep
E, design
9D.* -ewrite t$e sentence by re'lacin) underlined word.
C, use B &onsume
<, arri%al B ad%en)
7, presen) B display
=, appeared B emerged
D, add B inser)
E, &rea)e B in%en)
F, pu) in B inpu)
H, gain B se&ure
9D., !om'lete t$ese stable add t$e 're'osition wit$ usually (ollows u' t$e verb or noun
w$ere you see 3;6
6er( "oun
apply )o
(eha%e
s)imula)e
sele&) *rom
design
ra)i*y
:
%eri*y
u)ili2e
emerge *rom
&onsume
se&ure
inpu) in)o
display
appli&a)ion o*
(eha%ior o*
simul)aneous o*
sele&)ion o*
design o*
ra)i*i&a)ion o*
inser)ion
%eri*i&a)ion o*
u)ili2a)ion o*
emergen&e o*
&onsump)ion o*
se&uri)y o*
inpu)
display
9D.9 !$oose a word (rom t$e table to com'lete eac$ sentence.
C, emergen&e
<, &onsump)ion
7, inser)
=, ra)i*y
D, appli&a)ion
E, inpu)
F, (eha%ior
H, design
Unit 4,
ESCRIBI"# CHA"#E
A. 5istorical c$an)es t$eir e((ects
)ransi)ion *rom B kl/jt{g x'g] "j!4f
s)a)us 1uo B o4f!4Llt
a(andon B gkmls{g] u/L 5f]']/ fg'
shi*) B kl/jt{
ad?us) B R'nldn
mo%e B .fn
*undamen)al B "f1f/e?t
main)ain B o4fjt /f6g'
in&reasingly B j-\bf]#md
elimina)ion B 2Gd?ng
)rans*ormed B "fd?n jbnL
enlarge B !t/ j@lE ug'{
e4pansion B lj!tf/
impa&) B k|efj
al)er B kl/jt{g Aof2g'
sus)aina(le de%elopmen) B lbuf] ljsf;
B. More verbs (or describin) c$an)e
*lu&)ua)e B tndf4L e</xg'
modi*y B ;'1f/ ug'{
amend B ;K;f1g
&on%er) B nIfg kl/jt{g
)rans*er B !4fgfGt/Bf
re&o%er B k?kf{"j!4fdf k'Cg'
diminish B R)\g'
re*ine B k|zf]1g
a&1uire B k|fLt
rela4 B lkmtnf]
res)ore B k?jf{j!4fdf
E@E-!0BE
98.1 Fill t$e missin) words in eac$ sentences wit$ t$e word (ormed t$e root as t$e word in
bracket.
C, e4pansion
<, sus)aina(le
7, per&ep)i(le
=, in&reasingly
D, de%elopmen)
E, elimina)ion
F, modi*i&a)ion
H, ad?us)men)
I, a&1uisi)ion
CJ, rela4a)ion
98.* !$oose t$e best word in 0talics to com'lete sentence.
C, re&o%ering
<, &on%er)ing
7, re*ine
=, a(andon
D, ad?us)
E, s)a)us 1uo
F, main)ain
H, res)ore
98., >$ic$ 're'osition is needed to com'lete eac$ '$raseE
C, in
<, )o
7, a$ay *rom
=, on
D, on
E, s)a)us 1uo
F, *rom
H, )o
Unit 4-
E6ALUATIO" ; E!PHASIS
A. Ad7ectives (or Evaluation : o'enin) sentences (rom science articles
&omprehensi%e B j@xt
*undamen)al B "f1f/e?t
ground (reaking B txnsf dO.f2g] &fnsf]
impor)an) B dxDjk?Bf{
in)ense B jl- jlnof]
&ru&ial B dxDjk?Bf{
misguided B unt tl/sfn] lgb]{lzt
uni1ue B "lElto
signi*i&an) B "4{k?Bf{
inade1ua)e B "k|ofLt
B. 2eac$er<s evaluation o( students assi)nment
&ri)i&ism B "fnf].gf
no)a(le B 2An]&lgo
key B dxDjk?Bf{
gi%e &redi) B dxDj bzf{2g'
in%alid B "j}1
%alid B j}1
signi*i&an)ly B ljz]7f u/]/
limi)ed B ;Lldt
hard e%iden&e B !k!) k|dfBf
solid B (f]z
&on)radi&)ory B ljkl/t
&ould (e %ie$ed B dfGg ;lsG5
&ompa)i(le B ;x "l!4Tj
!.
&hallenging B k|>g 2(f2g'
seminal B k|efjsf/L
(orn ou) (y B lgl>.t x'g'
$or)h re&alling B ;5emg' kg]{
no)e$or)hy B 2An]&lgo
J.
underline 5 highligh) B dxDjlbg'
By no means
in no &ir&ums)an&e
seldom 5 rarely
E@E-!0BE
9G.1 1ook at A answer t$e (ollowin) .uestions.
Ans$ers'
C, !isguided. inade1ua)e
<, groomer '> (reaking
7, impor)an). signi*i&an)
=, &ru&ial
D, uni1ue
9G.* !$oose t$e best word (rom t$e bo% to com'lete eac$ t$ese sentences.
C, &redi). a&kno$ledge. &ru&ial
<, (orne. mis)aken. e%iden&e. *la$s
7, &hallenge. %alidi)y. *la$ed. limi)ed
=, %ie$ed. seminal 5 ground>(reaking
9G., -earran)e t$e letters to make t$e word t$at (it t$e sentences.
C, highligh)s
<, solid
7, &ompa)i(le
=, &omprehensi%e
D, $or)h re&alling. limi)ed
E, underlines
Unit &0
SU!!ARM A" CO"CLUSIO"
A. !onclusions summaries : ty'ical 'ara)ra'$ starts
As $e ha%e seen B xfdLn] b]l&;s]sf] 5f}
)o &on&lude 5 in &on&lusion B lg>s7f{df eGg'kbf{
)o re&al&ula)e B d'6o j3'bfx, bf]x/of2g'
dra$ )he &on&lusion B lg>s7f{df k'Cg'
)o sum up 5 )o summari2e 5 in summary B ;f/Kzdf
B. =t$er use(ul words e%'ressions (or summariKin)
In *e$ $ords B 5f])s/Ldf
*inal B "lGtd
)o pu) some)hing (rie*ly 5 s)a)ed (rie*ly B ;KlIfLt eGg'kbf{
)o prin&iple 5 gi%e a (rie* summary B ;f/fKzdf eGg'kbf{
a(s)ra&) B lstfjsf] ;f/fKz
pre&ise B 5f])f] ;f/fKz
a))emp) B sf]l;7f
&on&isely B ;KlIfLt ,kdf
on (alan&e B tNonf<{ Jofgdf /f&]/
E@E-!0BE
5I.1 1ook at A. -ewrite eac$ sentence& usin) t$e word in brackets.
C, In &on&lusion. )he )es)s sugges) )he drug has no dangerous side e**e&)s,
<, To summari2e. losing )he $ar $as a humilia)ing de*ea) *or )he &oun)ry on a num(er o*
di**i&ul) le%el,
7, In summary. i) is impossi(le )o (lame )he disas)er on one person alone,
=, 8rom )he sur%ey $e &an dra$ )he &on&lusion )ha) ad%er)ising has s)ronger e**e&) on )een age
girls )hen on o)her groups o* )he popula)ion,
D, To re&api)ula)e. )here $ere a num(er o* di**eren) reasons $hy )he e4perimen) $as less
su&&ess*ul )han had (een hoped,
5I.* !$oose a word (rom t$e bo% to com'lete eac$ sentence.
C, (alan&e
<, a(s)ra&)
7, pu). e%en)ually
=, pro%ide
D, analysis
E, $ords
F, poin)s
H, &lose
5I., !$oose eit$er lastly or at last to com'lete eac$ o( t$e sentences.
C, A*)er se%eral mon)hs o* nego)ia)ions. )he sides ha%e a) leas) rea&hed agreemen),
<, 8irs). $e shall &onsider )he &ause o* $ork. )hen $e shall look a) )he e%en)s o* $ar. ;. las)ly
$e shall dis&uss )he &onse1uen)s o* $ar,
7, She de&ided no) )o apply !el(ourne uni%ersi)y, Las)ly none o* her *riends $ere &onsidering
going )here,
=, !y (ro)her $as %ery relie%ed $hen. a) las) he *inished $ri)ing her disser)a)ion,
D, !y &ongra)ula)ions on ha%ing rea&hed )he *inal uni) o* )his (ook a) las),
5I.9 !orrect t$e C errors in t$is 'ara)ra'$.
Corre&)ion'
This paragraph is pre&ise o* A&ademi& 6o&a(ulary in use, To sum up 5 in sum. )he (ook
pro%ides DJ uni)s &o%ering key aspe&)s o* a&ademi& %o&a(ulary, S)a)ed (rie*ly. ea&h uni) has
)emp)ed )o presen) ; pra&)i&e )he $ords )ha) all s)uden)s need, The o%erall aim o* )he (ook is )o
help s)uden)s no) only )o unders)and (u) also )o use a&ademi& %o&a(ulary,. In (ringing )he (ook )o
&losure. $e hope $e ha%e helped you ; $i)h you su&&ess in your *u)ure a&ademi& s)udies,
REAI"# ; 6OCABULARM C
Psy&hologis) B dgf]j}%/gs
Prolong B n5*of2g'
resear&her B "g';G1fg stf{
long e%i)y B bLR{ Ljg
spe&ula)e B sAkgf ug'{
in%es)iga)or B "Gj]7fs
a&1uain)an&es B l.g]fg]sf
so&ioe&onomi& B ;fd/s "/4{s
depression B lg,T;fx
&hallenge B .'gf}lt
1. >$ic$ words e%'ression in t$e (irst 'ara)ra'$ could t$e (ollowin) substitute (orE
C, Cherished. &ompanion
<, Cru&ial
7, Prolonged
=, Ini)ia)ed
D, &on&en)ra)ed
E, s)udy par)i&ipan)9s
*. Find in t$e te%t a word w$ic$:
C, person
<, underlines
7, (eha%iors
=, &alami)y
,. Use words (rom t$e te%t to com'lete t$e table.
"oun 6er( Ad?e&)i%e
&on%en)ion
help
e4pe&)an&y
pleasure
help
e4pe&)
please
&on%en)ional
help*ul
e4pe&)an)
pleasura(le
REAI"# ; 6OCABULARM <
arid B ;'6&f
landmassB ldgsf] efu
&oas) B t)
in hospi)a(le B j;f]jf;sf nfuL "of]Co
seismi& B e?s5k ;5jG1L
geologi&al B e' > ue{ ;5jG1L
&on)inen) B dfxfb]z
)opography B !4n jBf{g
persis) B nuftf/ e</xg'
uphea%al B (?nf] kl/jt{g
)heori2e B l;bfGt k|ltkfbg
1. 2rue o( False
/C0 8alse
/<0 True
/70 8alse
/=0 8alse
/D0 8alse
*. Underline in t$e te%t word combinations w$ic$ mean:
/C0 roughly e1ual
/<0 massi%e uphea%als
/70 )he end resul)
/=0 &ommon mis&on&ep)ion
/D0 seemingly un&hanged
,. >$ic$ word in t$e te%t means.
a, lush
(, inhospi)a(le
&, a $indo$
d, )heori2e
REAI"# ; 6OCABULARM 7
$$$ B $orld $ide $e( B lj>j*ofkL ;Kfn
remo%e B x/f2g'
au)oma)i&ally B !j.fnLt
huge B (?nf]
&lien) B u|fxs
)ransmi) B k(f2g'
s)ore B ;3u|x
1. From memory i( you can& (ill in t$e missin) 're'osition.
Ans$ers'
/C0 Un)il )he appearan&e o* )he $$$,
/<0 The me)hod (y $hi&h da)a &ould (e s)ored,
/70 The da)a &ould (e s)ored on or remo%ed *rom a ser%er,
/=0 Re*eren&es )o o)her do&umen)s,
/D0 The ser%er )ransmi)s )he do&umen) along $i)h e4)ra in*orma)ion,
/E0 The in*orma)ion is &omposed o* )$o par)s,
/F0 The e4)ra in*orma)ion pro%ide slinks )o o)her do&umen)s,
REAI"# ; 6OCABULARM =
1. !$oose t$e correct word to com'lete eac$ sentences.
/C0 The skin is )he larges) organ in )he human (ody,
/<0 Psy&hologis)s disagree as )o ho$ e4a&)ly memories are s)ore su&h as gorillas,
/70 Human share almos) all o* )heir genes $i)h o)her grea) apes su&h as gorillas,
/=0 As &hildren (e&ome young adul)s )hey ha%e (urs)s o* gro$)h,
/D0 I) is impor)an) )ha) animals in &ap)i%i)y one gi%en )he righ) die),
/E0 People ha%e approa&hed )he pro(lem in a %arie)y o* $ays,
*. Find t$e word in t$e te%t w$ic$ $ave an o''osite meanin)s.
simple B &omple4
&on%erge B spread ou)
s&ar&e B numerous
are *e$er )han B ou)num(er
diminish B ampli*y
$holly B par)ially
ini)ial B *inal
general B spe&i*i&
res)ri&) B spread
REAI"# ; 6OCABULARM D
nano)e&hnology B z'Id j!t'sf] "Joog ug]{ )e&hnology
manipula)ion B lgoG#Bf
un$i))ingly B xf]l;of/L ljgf
1. Answer t$ese .uestions.
/C0 )iny
/<0 display
/70 use
/=0 e4perimen)al
/D0 &omple)ely
/E0 grea)es)
REAI"# ; 6OCABULARM E
1. Find out t$e '$rases in t$e (irst #ara)ra'$ w$ic$ could substitute t$e (ollowin):
Ans$ers'
C, &onsis)s o*
<, go%ern
7, &on&ern i)sel* $i)h
=, in &on)ras)
D, &on)ro%ersies
E, arising ou) o*
F, &ondu&)
H, par)ies
I, assign
*. #ara'$rase t$ese words:
Ans$ers'
C, 8undamen)al <, Tradi)ional
7, is (ased on =has i)s origins in
D $i)h regard )o E, goes agains)
F, (eha%ior H, signa)ories
I, gi%e