By: Dr. Shadia Y.

Banjar

http://www.kau.edu.sa/SBANJAR http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.com

Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

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1. Almost no English words end in "v" and none in "j".
Exception:
spiv.

Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

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2. "q" is always written as "qu". It never stands by itself.
Examples:

quick, queen, quarrel.

Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

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3. A. "i" comes before "e" when it is pronounced " ee". B. "i" before "e" except after " c “, C. or when sounding like "a" as in "neighbour, or weigh".

Examples:

Exceptions:

A.
brief, field, priest.

B.
receive, deceive, ceiling.

neither, foreign, sovereign, seized, counterfeit, forfeited, leisure.
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Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

Rule for -ie and -ei
The rule is summarized as:

The rule for ie and ei is in three parts: Usually spell the combination -ie, as in believe. However, spell -ei when the combination follows the letter -c, as in receive. Also, spell -ei when the combination has the sound of a long -a, as in weigh (wa). Exceptions to this rule include words in which the combination should be spelled -ie but is spelled -ei: caffeine, either, foreign, height, leisure, neither, protein, their, and weird. There are also words in which the combination follows -c and should be spelled -ei but is spelled -ie. In these words, -c is pronounced -sh: ancient, conscience, deficient, efficient, proficient, and sufficient. Remember to spell -ie rather than -ei after c when c spells the sound of -sh.

Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

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4."able" or "ible" endings.
Use "able":
After root words. e.g. available, dependable. After root words ending in "e". e.g. desirable, believable, usable (drop the "e"). After "i". e.g. reliable, sociable. When other forms of the root word have a dominant "a" vowel. e.g. irritable, durable, abominable. After a hard "c" or "g". e.g. educable, practicable, navigable. Exceptions: formidable, inevitable, memorable, probable, portable, indomitable, insuperable.
Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 6

Use "ible"
After non-root words. e.g. audible, horrible, possible. When the root has an immediate "ion“ form. e.g. digestible, suggestible, convertible. After a root ending in "ns" or "miss". e.g. responsible, comprehensible, permissible. After a soft "c" or "g". e.g. legible, negligible, forcible, invincible. Exceptions: contemptible, resistible, collapsible, flexible.
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5. "ceed", "sede" and "cede".
Three "ceed" words; succeed, exceed, proceed. One "sede" word; supersede. All others "cede“ e.g. intercede, antecede, precede.

Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

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6.We double "l, f, and s" after a single short vowel at the end of a word. Examples: Exceptions:
call, tall, toss, miss, stiff, stuff.
us, bus, gas, if, of, this, yes, plus, nil, pal.
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Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

7. For words ending in a single "l" after a single vowel, double the "l" before adding a suffix, regardless of accent.

Examples:
cancelled, traveller, signalling, metallic.

Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

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8. "all" and "well" followed by another syllable only have one "l".

Examples:
also, already, although, welcome, welfare.

Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

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9. The Word + Word Rule
The Word + Word Rule explains how to join words to form compound words such as fireworks. Usually join two words without changing their spellings.

Examples:
book + keeper = bookkeeper room + mate = roommate fire + arms = firearms

Exceptions: almost, already, although, altogether, always, oneself, pastime, and wherever.
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Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

10. The Prefix + Word Rule Join a prefix and a word without changing the spelling of the prefix or the word.

Examples:
mis + spell = misspell un + necessary = unnecessary dis + appear = disappear There are to the Prefix + Word Rule.

Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

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11. The Word + Suffix Rule Usually join a word and a suffix without changing the spelling of the word or the suffix.

Examples:
usual + ly = usual clean + ness = cleanness poison + ous = poisonous

Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

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Final -e Rule
1. The Word + Suffix Rule is not used when adding suffixes to words that end in silent e. 2. When a word ends in silent -e, usually drop the -e if you are adding a suffix that begins with a vowel, but retain the -e when you are adding a suffix that begins with a consonant.

Examples:
Silent -e is an -e such as the one in love, which you do not hear when love is pronounced. Since love ends in silent e and the suffix -able begins with a vowel, drop -e when joining love and -able: love + able = lovable However, since the suffix -less begins with a consonant, retain the -e in love when joining love and -less: love + less = loveless
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Exceptions to this rule include words in which -e should be retained but is dropped: acknowledgment, argument, awful, duly, judgment, ninth, truly, wholly, and wisdom.
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include words ending in -ce or -ge in which -e is not dropped when you add able or -ous: courageous, manageable, noticeable, outrageous, peaceable, serviceable, and traceable.

Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

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•We have to understanding why -e is not dropped from words
ending in -ce or -ge when adding the suffixes -able and -ous. • The letters -c and -g are usually pronounced -s and -j before the letters -e and -i, but -k and -g before the letters -a and -o. •The incorrect spelling noticable would mean that you would pronounce the -c as a -k rather than as an -s (you would say notikable rather than notisable). •Similarly, the incorrect spelling couragous would mean that you would pronounce the -g as a -g rather than as a -j (you would say couragous rather than courajous). •The -e is retained to preserve the -s and -j pronunciations of -c and -g.

Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

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Final -y Rule
1. The Word + Suffix Rule is not used when adding suffixes to words that end in -y. 2. When a word ends in -y, usually change the -y to -i when you are adding a suffix if the -y is preceded by a consonant, but do not change it if the -y is preceded by a vowel or if you are adding the suffix -ing.

Examples:
study+ -ed = studied destroy + -ed = destroyed study+ -ing = studying destroy + -ing = destroying

Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

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Final Consonant Rules
A. The Word + Suffix Rule is not used to join suffixes to words that end in
one consonant preceded by one vowel. B. Final Consonant Rule No. 1 explains how to join suffixes to one-syllable words that end in the cvc combination. C. When a one-syllable word ends in the cvc combination, usually double the final consonant when adding a suffix that begins with a vowel but do not double it when adding a suffix that begins with a consonant.

Examples:

Ship is a one-syllable word that ends in the cvc combination.
ship + -ing = shipping
(a suffix begins with a vowel)

ship + -ment = shipment
(a suffix that begins with a consonant)

Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

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Rule No. 2
A. Final Consonant Rule No. 2 explains how to join suffixes to words of
more than one syllable that end in the cvc combination. B. When a word of more than one-syllable ends in the cvc combination and it is accented on the last syllable, usually double the final consonant when adding a suffix that begins with a vowel but do not double it when adding a suffix that begins with a consonant.

Examples:
Commit is accented on the last syllable and ends in the cvc
combination. commit+ -ing = comitting
(a suffix begins with a vowel)

commit+ -ment = commitment
(a suffix that begins with a consonant)

Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

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Works Cited Eight Essential Spelling Rules http://academic.cuesta.edu/acasupp/AS/803.htm Some Spelling Rules: http://www.amity.org.uk/Training/Spelling%20Rules/Spelling%20Rules.htm Reading from Scratch, Spelling Rules: http://www.dyslexia.org/spelling_rules.shtml Rules for Irregular Plural Formation of Nouns http://www.gsu.edu/~wwwesl/egw/pluralsl.htm

Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

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