117 views

Uploaded by Jerry Scott

reif

- Huang Solutions- 7.3
- Solution Reif Cap6 7
- ReifCh6solns.pdf
- Assignments (1)
- Statistical Mechanics Homework 6 Prof. Yu
- 3 Hydrostatic Force Tutorial Solution
- Ch. 1, Reif Solutions
- ps6_soln
- Reif Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics
- Step Rate Test
- Reif solution
- solutions - reif.f - fundamentals of statistical and thermal physics.pdf
- Momentum Review Questions
- Physics Syllabus
- Statmech Reif Solutions
- Solutions - Reif.f - Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics
- SlatteryWhitaker_2010ms28.pdf
- Bizt_szelep-AD-2000-Merkblatt-A2
- Tutorial 07 Solutions
- FAQ

You are on page 1of 12

Solutions to Problem Set 2

David C. Tsang, Woosong Choi, Phil Kidd

2.1: Classical Particle in a 1-D Box

Reif 2.1: A particle of mass m is free to move in one dimension. Denote its

coordinate by x and its momentum by p. Suppose that this particle is conned

within a box so as to be located between x = 0 and x = L, and suppose that its

energy is known to lie between E and E + E. Draw the classical phase space

of this particle, indicating the regions of this space which are accessible to the

particle.

L

x

p

p(E)

p(E) + dP

-p(E)

-p(E) - dP

0

Figure 1: Solution to problem 2.1

Assuming the particle is conned classically to the box 0 x L, we have

E <

p

2

2m

< E +E

solving for p we dene

_

2m(E +D) (1)

linearizing we see

p(E) =

2mE p =

_

m

2E

E (2)

2

1

2.2: Two Particles in a Box

Reif 2.2: Consider a system consisting of two weakly interacting particles,

each of mass m and free to move in one dimension. Denote the respective position

coordinates of the two particles by x

1

and x

2

, their respective momenta by p

1

and

p

2

. The particles are conned within a box with end walls located at x = 0 and

x = L. The total energy of the system is known to lie between E and E + E.

Since it is dicult to draw in four-dimensional phase space, draw seperately the

part of phase space involving x

1

and x

2

, and that involving p

1

and p

2

. Indicate

on these diagrams the regions of phase space accessible to the system.

L

x

1

p

1

p

2

p(E)

p(E)+dP

Figure 2: Solution for problem 2.2

Again, the classical particles are bound to the region 0 < x < L. Due to the weak coupling

between the particles, the momenta must obey

E <

1

2m

(p

2

1

+p

2

2

) < E +E (3)

which bounds the solution between two circles in momentum space,

2mE < p

2

1

+p

2

2

< 2m(E +E) (4)

with radii

2mE and

_

2m(E +E) =

2mE +

_

m/2EE. 2

2

2.3: Ensemble of Harmonic Oscillators

Reif 2.3: Consider an ensemble of classical one-dimensional harmonic oscilla-

tors.

(a) Let the displacement x of an oscillator as a function of time t be given by

x = Acos(t+). Assume that the phase angel is equally likely to assume

any value in its range 0 < < 2. The probability w()d that lies in

the range between and +d is then simply w()d = (2)

1

d. For any

xed time t, nd the probability P(x)dx that x lies between x and x + dx

by summing w()d over all angles for which x lies in this range. Express

P(x) in terms of A and x.

(b) Consider the classical phase space for such an ensemble of oscillators, their

energy being known to lie in the small range between E and E+E. Calcu-

late P(x)dx by taking the ratio of that volume of phase space lying in this

energy range and in the range between x and x + dx to the total volume

of phase space lying in the energy range between E and E + E. Express

P(x) in terms of E and x. by relating E to the amplitude A, show that the

result is the same as that obtained in part (a).

(a) We have

p(x)dx =

w()

|dx/d|

d

= 2

dx

2Asin(t +)

=

dx

A

2

x

2

(b) We have the energy as a function of the amplitude:

E =

p

2

2m

+

kx

2

2

=

kA

2

2

The equal energy (equal amplitude) contour, in phase space is an ellipse (see Fig 2.3.1

in Reif). If we make the transformation p

2

= p

2

/(mk), we get a circle as the equal

energy (amplitude) contour. A

2

= x

2

+p

2

. Now, the phase space volume lying between

E and E + E is represented by the area of a shell between A and A + A where A

is a function of E.

W(A)A = 2AA.

In order to calculate which portion of this shell lies between x and dx, we need to move

polar coordinates

cos =

x

A

, d =

dx

Asin

=

dx

A

2

x

2

.

3

Therefore, the area of the two parts of the shell that lies between x and x +dx is

W(x, A)dxA = 2AdA =

2AdxA

A

2

x

2

.

and the probability of being in this interval is

p(x)dx =

W(x, A)dxA

W(A)A

=

dx

A

2

x

2

4

2.4: Magnetization of Spins

Reif 2.4: Consider an isolated system consisting of a large number N of very

weakly interacting localized particles of spin

1

2

. Each particle has a magnetic

moment which can point either parallel of antiparallel to an applied eld H.

The energy E of the system is then E = (n

1

n

2

)H, where n

1

is the number

of spins aligned parallel to H and n

2

the number of spins aligned antiparallel to

H.

(a) Consider the energy range between E and E + E where E is very small

compared to E but is microscopically large so that E H. What is the

total number of states (E) lying in this energy range?

(b) Write down an expression for ln (E) as a function of E. Simplify this

expression by applying Stirlings formula in its simplest form

ln n! nln n n.

(c) Assume that the energy E is in a region where (E) is appreciable, i.e., that

it is not close to the extreme possible values NH which it can assume.

In this case apply a Gaussian approximation to part (a) to obtain a simple

expression for (E) as a function of E.

(a) This problem is like counting the number of states in a binomial distribution. Note

this is only counting the number of states. There are two possible states for each

of the spins, i.e. parallel and antiparallel. E = (n

1

n

2

)H can be written as

E = (2n

1

N)H using N = n

1

+n

2

. Thus, by counting the number of states for a

specic value of n

1

, we can directly relate it to the number of states within the energy

range. The number of states for n

1

is

(n

1

) =

N!

n

1

!(N n

1

)!

Now, (E, E+E) can be found by counting the number of n

1

within the energy range

E, E + E. Since E 2H, we can approximate the number to be |

E

dE/dn

|. Since

E = (2n

1

N)H,

dE

dn

= 2H. Thus,

(E, E +E) = (n

1

)|

1

dE/dn

|E =

N!

n

1

!(N n

1

)!

E

2H

where we can substitute n

1

=

1

2

(N

E

H

) to get

(E, E +E) =

N!

(N/2 E/2H)!(N/2 +E/2H)!

E

2H

.

5

(b) Using the result of (a),

ln (E) = ln N! ln(N/2 E/2H)! ln(N/2 + E/2H)! ln 2H

apply Stirlings formula to this we get

ln (E) = N ln N N ln 2H

N E/H

2

ln

N E/H

2

+

N E/H

2

N +E/H

2

ln

N +E/H

2

+

N +E/H

2

.

= N ln N ln 2H

N E/H

2

ln

N E/H

2

N +E/H

2

ln

N +E/H

2

(c) Although this is not a random walk, the formula of the number of states is proportional

to the random walk probability with p = q =

1

2

. In particular, if we put a factor of

= 2

N

in front of the expression and cancel it by adding a factor of p

n

q

Nn

=

1

2

N

,

then our distribution is identical to the binomial distrbution with the additional factor

of . Thus, using the Gaussian approximation (1.6.4) on the result of (a),

(E)dE =

2

e

(E

E)

2

/2

2

dE

=

2

N

2NH

e

E

2

2N(H)

2

dE

E = (p q)Nl = 0, = 2

Npql = 2

_

N

1

4

H =

NH, and = 2

N

has been used.

We can also show this starting from the result of (b). Assuming E is not close to

NH, i.e.

E

H

N, we can use ln(1 x) x for x 1. Then,

ln

N E/H

2

= ln

N

2

(1

E

HN

)

= ln

N

2

+ ln(1

E

HN

)

ln

N

2

E

HN

Using this in the equation for ln (E),

ln (E) = N ln N ln 2H

N E/H

2

(ln

N

2

E

HN

)

N +E/H

2

(ln

N

2

+

E

HN

)

= N ln 2 ln 2H

1

2N

(

E

H

)

2

(5)

This yields the Gaussian approximation

(E) =

2

N

2H

e

E

2

2N(H)

2

.

6

(Note: Two results have constant factor dierence because we used a simple form of

Sterlings approximation, thereby dropping some terms in the logarithmic scale.) 2

7

2.5: Exact and Inexact dierentials

Reif 2.6: Consider the innitesimal quantity

(x

2

y)dx +xdy dF (6)

(a) Is this an exact dierential?

(b) Evaluate the integrals

_

dF between the points (1, 1) and (2, 2) along the

straight line paths connecting the folllowing points:

(1, 1) (1, 2) (2, 2)

(1, 1) (2, 1) (2, 2)

(1, 1) (2, 2)

(c) Suppose that both sides of the dF equation are divided by x

2

. This yields

the quantity dG = dF/x

2

Is dG and exact dierential?

(d) Evaluate the integral

_

dG along the three pahts of part (b).

(a) For something to be an exact dierential it must be expressed as

dF = A(x, y)dx +B(x, y)dy =

F

x

dx +

F

y

dy

If this was the case then we would have

y

A

F

(x, y) =

2

F

xy

=

x

B

F

(x, y),

however we see instead that

A

F

y

=

y

(x

2

y)

= 1

B

F

x

=

x

x

= 1

A

F

y

=

B

F

x

hence dF cannot be an exact dierential.

(b) Evaluating

_

dF we see

F[(1, 1) (1, 2) (2, 2)] = 0 +

_

2

1

1dy +

_

2

1

(x

2

2)dx + 0 =

4

3

F[(1, 1) (2, 1) (2, 2)] =

_

2

1

(x

2

1)dx + 0 +

_

2

1

2dy =

10

3

F[(1, 1) (2, 2)] =

_

2

1

(x

2

x)dx +

_

2

1

ydy =

7

3

8

(c) We have

dG = (1

y

x

2

)dx +

1

x

dy

giving

A

G

y

=

y

(1

y

x

2

)

=

1

x

2

B

G

x

=

x

1

x

=

1

x

2

A

G

y

=

B

G

x

Hence dG is an exact dierential.

(d) Using the denition of dG,

G[(1, 1) (1, 2) (2, 2)] = 0 +

_

2

1

dy +

_

2

1

(1 2/x

2

)dx + 0 = 1

G[(1, 1) (2, 1) (2, 2)] =

_

2

1

(1 1/x

2

)dx + 0 +

_

2

1

dy/2 = 1

G[(1, 1) (2, 2)] =

_

2

1

(1 x/x

2

)dx +

_

2

1

dy/y = 1

The integral

_

dG does not vary between the three paths.

9

2.6: Quantum Particle in a Box

Reif 2.7: Consider a particle conned within a box in the shape of a cube of

edges L

x

= L

y

= L

z

. The possible energy levels of this particle are then given by

E =

2

2m

2

_

n

2

x

L

2

x

+

n

2

y

L

2

y

+

n

2

z

L

2

z

_

.

(a) Suppose that the particle is in a given state specied by particular values

of the three integers n

x

, n

y

, n

z

. By considering how the energy of this state

must change when the length L

x

of the box is changed quasistaticallly by a

small amount dL

x

, show that the force exerted by the particle in this state

on a wall perpendicular to the x-axis is given by F

x

= E/L

x

.

(b) Calculate explicitly the force per unit area (or pressure on this wall. By

averaging over all possible states, nd an expression for the mean pressure

on this wall. (Exploit the property that the average values n

2

x

= n

2

y

= n

2

z

must be equal by symmetry). Show that this mean pressure can be very

simply expressed in terms of the mean energy

E of the particle and the

volume V = L

x

L

y

L

z

of the box.

(a) We have

E =

2

2

2m

_

n

2

x

L

2

x

+

n

2

y

L

2

y

+

n

2

z

L

2

z

_

For a small change in distance L

x

, we have the change in energy

E =

E

L

x

L

x

= 2

m

n

2

x

L

3

x

L

x

. (7)

Which corresponds to work F

x

L

x

= W = E. Hence we have

F

x

=

E

L

x

= 2

m

n

2

x

L

3

x

. (8)

(b) To calculate the mean value of the pressure we rst see pressure is dened as

P =

F

x

A

x

=

F

x

L

y

L

z

the mean value is then

P =

F

x

L

y

L

z

=

2

2

m

n

2

x

L

3

x

1

L

y

L

z

To nd an expression for n

2

x

we notice

E =

2

2

2m

_

n

2

x

L

2

+

n

2

y

L

2

+

n

2

z

L

2

_

10

with L = L

x

= L

y

= L

z

. Noting that by symmetry n

2

x

= n

2

y

= n

2

z

,

n

2

x

=

2mL

2

E

3

2

2

(9)

Hence we have

P =

2

3

E

V

. (10)

where V = L

3

. 2

11

2.7: Wire Under Tension

Reif 2.9: The tension in a wire is increased quasi-statically from F

1

to F

2

. If

the wire has length L, cross-sectional area A, and Youngs modulus Y, calculate

the work done.

The force F required to stretch by L a wire with initial length L, cross-sectional area

A, and Youngs modulus Y is given by

F

A

= Y

L

L

(11)

The work done in increasing the force from F

1

to F

2

is

W =

_

pdV =

_

Fdx (12)

So, changing variables so that the integral runs from L

1

to L

2

, with L

i

=

L

Y A

F

i

, we

have

_

L

2

L

1

Y A

L

ldl =

Y A

2L

(L

2

2

L

2

1

) =

L

2Y A

(F

2

2

F

2

1

) (13)

12

- Huang Solutions- 7.3Uploaded byArooj Mukarram
- Solution Reif Cap6 7Uploaded byMarcio Particheli
- ReifCh6solns.pdfUploaded byMatt Culler
- Assignments (1)Uploaded byDQZ
- Statistical Mechanics Homework 6 Prof. YuUploaded bypalison
- 3 Hydrostatic Force Tutorial SolutionUploaded byGerold Molina
- Ch. 1, Reif SolutionsUploaded byKhant Minn
- ps6_solnUploaded byyasindeep
- Reif Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal PhysicsUploaded byjasmon
- Step Rate TestUploaded byBBA730
- Reif solutionUploaded byDouglas DaSilva
- solutions - reif.f - fundamentals of statistical and thermal physics.pdfUploaded byjhonferd
- Momentum Review QuestionsUploaded bysomeguy01123
- Physics SyllabusUploaded byChristine Casio
- Statmech Reif SolutionsUploaded byDan Edward
- Solutions - Reif.f - Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal PhysicsUploaded byAvi Vaisman
- SlatteryWhitaker_2010ms28.pdfUploaded byOscar A. Luévano
- Bizt_szelep-AD-2000-Merkblatt-A2Uploaded bysola5
- Tutorial 07 SolutionsUploaded bycynthia
- FAQUploaded byTopRankers
- Google Tradutor Medidas de PressaoUploaded byrailson carvalho
- 06 - dynamics of a system of particlesUploaded byapi-229838196
- 1-s2.0-S0032591015001321-mainUploaded byธีรสิทธิ์ กุศลส่งทวี
- 9178-1Uploaded bygovimano
- fluid mechanicUploaded byteknokolik
- Rectangular Tank Design ROARKS FORMULAUploaded byNavasOT
- PH600 Ch 9 Problems.pdfUploaded byMike Gao
- 2025 summer editionUploaded byapi-439201700
- 7. p and JUploaded bybevinj

- kawasaki z 750 07- 08- 09Uploaded byAris Flou
- EVALUATION ocddsUploaded byPraneeth Reddy
- Troubleshooting_3128411_04-05-07_ANSI_English.pdfUploaded byDaniel Varvara
- Flight Dynamics ManualUploaded byedwardsilva
- GPS WAAS Standards CopyUploaded bySunil Sadashivpeth
- Cardiac DrugsUploaded bynoelkiddo
- Maranao PeopleUploaded byJoel Ramos
- Adverse Drug ReactionsUploaded bywjraffle2
- Lecture Ppt 1 - CopyUploaded byRangga Mandela
- ucm_492225Uploaded bypopov357
- An Interesting Case of Bishop-Koop Stoma ProlapseUploaded byMuhammad Bilal Mirza
- FccuUploaded byRavi Kumar Bandarulanka
- FDA Blood Bank & Blood TranfusionUploaded byDrSyedRashidAli
- 2584575_6115_ENG_B_W 2584575_6115_ENG_B_WUploaded byJeenuMariaGeorge
- EE413Uploaded bybravotolits
- Kode-ICD-10-THTUploaded byFegi Nugraha
- 45-Vibrating Screens.pdfUploaded bypraveenkumaurravutla
- Pre Historic Ages Stone Age.docxUploaded byNo Name
- NNZ Fitness Testing Guidelines Protocols 2014 FinalUploaded bygmpaffetti
- How to Use a MicrometerUploaded byboris
- The Future of Comminution (1)Uploaded byFreddy Orlando
- Android Cpu GovernorsUploaded byYura Medvid
- Self drainage of viscous fluids through pipes.pdfUploaded byRavi Tripathi
- Overview of ACMV Design.pdfUploaded byJojo Tangalin
- Backcountryguide EnUploaded bywolfgangl70
- Gawin 1991Uploaded byAlexisAA
- AstronomyUpdates PDFUploaded byDave Cercado Bugador
- [Theodore Sider] Four-Dimensionalism an Ontology (B-ok.org)Uploaded bynyaa
- Embryonic Development.pdfUploaded bymicabiologist
- Lecture 1.1Uploaded byNa Ru To