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Summary of Chemistry Textbook – Section 1.

1: The Atom
- Niels Bohr working with Rutherford in 1913, proposed a model of the atom where electrons
moved around the nucleus in shells, which were regions of space with fixed energies.
Comparing subatomic particles
Subatomic
particle
Symbol Relative mass Relative charge Position in the
atom
Proton p 1 +1 In the nucleus
Neutron n 1 0 In the nucleus
Electron e
-
1/1836 -1 Orbiting the
nucleus

- Electrons do not contribute significantly to the overall mass of the atom
- Neutral (uncharged) atom’s number of protons is equal to the number of electrons
- Protons + neutrons = nucleus
- Electrons orbit nucleus  electron shells
Atomic number, mass number and isotopes
- Atomic number (symbol Z) = number of protons in the nucleus  this number distinguishes
one element from another
- Mass number (symbol A) = number of protons + number of neutrons
- Mass spectrometer invented by Francis Aston (1919) allowed accurate measurements of
mass which suggested that sometimes atoms of the same element had more than one mass
- Many atoms come in more than one form these different forms are called isotopes
- Isotopes = atoms of the same element with the same number of protons but different
numbers of neutrons  same atomic number, different mass number
- Nuclide notation  combines mass number, atomic number and the symbol for the element
- Ions = atoms that have lost or gained electrons therefore have a charge
- Cation = positive ion  fewer electrons than the corresponding neutral atom
- Anion = negative ion  more electron than the corresponding neutral atom
- Number of protons and neutrons for an ion same as the neutral atom
Properties of isotopes
- Chemical property of an atom determined by electronic structure
- Physical properties depend on their nuclei
- Chemical properties are the same for two isotopes of the same element, physical properties
can vary e.g. differing masses of isotopes allow mass spectrometer to separate the isotopes
of an element
- Density may also vary e.g. heavy water (
2
H
2
O) is denser and takes up about 11% less volume
than ordinary water (
1
H
2
O)
- Other physical properties which can vary  boiling point, melting point and rate of diffusion
- Spectroscopy rely on the unique properties of specific isotopes with nuclear magnetic
resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can be used only for isotopes with a non-zero nuclear spin.
- Many isotopes are radioactive (radioisotopes) but prove useful
- Isotope of carbon-14 exists in a set ratio with carbon-12  when an organism dies carbon-
14 decays but carbon-12 does not, the percentage of carbon-14 decreases as the age of the
dead organism increase therefore this percentage can beused to estimate the age of the
organism  process called radiocarbon dating.

Radioisotope Use
Carbon-14 Radiocarbon dating  ratio of carbon-12
to carbon-14 is calculated to determine the
age of an object
Iodine-131 Medical tracer: treatment of thyroid
disorders  radioactive iodine is taken up
by the thyroid gland and then the radiation
kills part of it
Iodine-125 Medical tracer: treatment of prostate
cancer and brain tumours  taken up by
thyroid gland
Cobalt-60 Radiotherapy, levelling devices, to sterilize
foods and spices
Americium-241 Smoke detectors  emits a beam of alpha
particles which if interrupted by smoke, will
set the device off
Technetium-99 Radiotherapy: cancer, studying metabolic
processes  emits low energy radiation, so
small doses can be administered

- Medical tracers, radioactive forms of atoms, can be attached to molecules that target
specific tissues in the body
- The radioisotope allows the location of the tumour to be determined
- Radiation poisoning  generally used to refer to acute problems caused by a large dosage of
radiation from radioisotopes in a short period.
- Large amounts of radiation  interfere with cell division  results in many of the symptoms
of radiation poisoning
Section 1.1 Exercises
1. The major subatomic particles are protons, neutrons and electrons. The protons and
neutrons are found in the nucleus, while the electrons move at great speed around the
nucleus.
2. Compare the mass of a proton to that of a neutron. A neutron has a slightly larger mass
than a proton, however, they have an equal relative mass of 1.
3. Compare the mass and charge of an electron and a proton. An electron is negatively
charged with a mass 1/1836 of the mass of a proton which is positively charged.
4. Define the term isotopes of an element. Include an example in your answer. Isotopes are
atoms of the same element with the same number of protons, but different numbers of
neutrons. For example there are two isotopes of silver: silver-107 and silver-109.
5. A) State the chemical names for the quantities represented by the numbers in nitrogen.
7 = protons  atomic number
15 = protons + neutrons  mass number
B) Explain how you can use the information represented to make an electron shell diagram
of a nitrogen atom. As this nitrogen atom is neutral (uncharged) there must be an equal
number of protons and electrons and therefore there are 7 electrons and from this an
electron shell diagram can be made.
6. Determine the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in each of the following.
A)
62
30
Zn
Protons – 30
Neutrons – 32
Electrons – 30
B)
81
36
Kr
Protons – 36
Neutrons – 45
Electrons – 36
C)
24
12
Mg
2+

Protons – 12
Neutrons – 12
Electrons – 10
D)
81
35
Br
-

Protons – 35
Neutrons – 46
Electrons – 36
7. Identify isotopes of the same element from the following list. Explain your choices.
90
45
X and
95
45
X are isotopes of the same element as both isotopes have 45 protons as the
atomic number is 45 and both have 45 electrons because they are neutral atoms. However,
the first isotope has 90 – 45 = 45 neutrons and the second has 95 – 45 = 40 neutrons.
92
43
X and
90
43
X are isotopes of the same element as both isotopes have 43 protons as the
atomic number is 43 and both have 43 electrons because they are neutral atoms. However,
the first isotope has 92 – 43 = 49 neutrons and the second has 90 – 43 = 47 neutrons.
8. Describe two ways in which isotopes of the same element may differ from each other.
Mass, density, boiling point, melting point and rate of diffusion.
9. Explain how radioisotopes can be used in modern medicine. Medical tracers, radioactive
forms of atoms (radioisotopes) can be attached to molecules that target specific tissues in
the body. The radioisotope allows the location of the tumour to be determined.
10. Describe how radiocarbon dating is used to determine the age of a dead organism. A set
ratio of carbon-12 and carbon-14 exists in living things. When the organism dies carbon-14
decays while carbon-12 does not. The percentage of carbon-14 decreases as the age of the
dead organism increases. Using this percentage scientists can estimate the age of the dead
organism.