You are on page 1of 6

2

nd
Law of Thermodynamics
Entropy (part I)
Basic Physical Chemistry - Thermodynamics 1
■ Stated by Rudolph Clausius in 1854.
2 Basic Physical Chemistry - Thermodynamics
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
■ Heat can never pass from a colder to a warmer
body without some other change, connected
therewith, occurring at the same time.
DS = q
rev
/ T [10]
■ Lead to the definition of a new state function,
entropy, S. Entropy can be thought of as a
measure of disorder of a system. It is defined
as:
3 Basic Physical Chemistry - Thermodynamics
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
DS = q
rev
/ T [10]
T = 25 °C
T = 323 °C
596 J of heat pass from the hot copper bar to the copper bar at room temperature.
DS
HOT
= q
rev
/ T
DS
HOT
= –596 J / 596 K
DS
HOT
= –1 J K
–1
DS
RT
= q
rev
/ T
DS
RT
= +596 J / 298 K
DS
RT
= +2 J K
–1
DS = –1+2 J K
–1
= +1 J K
–1
4 Basic Physical Chemistry - Thermodynamics
Entropy
■ The entropy of an isolated system always
increases.
■ Calculate the probability of a 1% contraction of
one mole of a gas for just 1 ms over the entire
lifetime of the Universe.
The probability for one atom to be found in 99% of
its original volume = 99% = 0.99
The probability for one mole of atoms to be found
in 99% of their original volume = 0.99
N
A
5 Basic Physical Chemistry - Thermodynamics
Entropy
P = (0.99)
6.022×10
23
= 10
–2,628,400,000,000,000,000,000

t = 13.75 ± 0.11 billion years
t = 4.336 × 10
23
ms
P = 10
–2,628,400,000,000,000,000,000
× 4.336 × 10
23

P = 4.336 × 10
(23 – 2,628,400,000,000,000,000,000)

P = 4.336 × 10
–2,628,400,000,000,000,000,977
≈ 0
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International
(CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)
You are free:
• to Share - to copy, distribute and transmit the work
• to Remix - to adapt the work
Under the following conditions:
• Attribution
You must attribute the work in the manner specifed by the author or licensor (but not in any way
that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work).
• Noncommercial
You may not use this work for commercial purposes.
• Share Alike
If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under the
same or similar license to this one.
For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. The best way
to do this is with a link to this web page: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/
Any of the above conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyright holder.
Nothing in this license impairs or restricts the author’s moral rights.