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Unit 6.2 deals with runways constructed in accordance with British Standard 2853: l957. The
Design and Testing o Steel !"erhead #unway Bea$s. %t is i$&ortant that a &erson engaged in
testing and e'a$ining runways should (e a$iliar with the ull contents o the standard and (e
a(le to a&&ly his )nowledge.
The e'tent to which he $ay (e re*uired to do the calculations or the strength o (ea$s will
de&end on the &rocedures ado&ted (y his &articular co$&any. So$e co$&anies issue ta(les
others re*uire &articulars to (e ta)en. +hate"er the $ethod used (y a co$&any it is strongly
reco$$ended that &ersons engaged in testing runways should understand and (e a(le to a&&ly
the calculations gi"en in the standard.
BS 2853 is intended to a&&ly to runway (ea$s $anuactured ro$ standard rolled steel
sections. %t does not a&&ly to s&ecial sections or &ro&rietary trac) syste$s.
The Duty of the Tester and Examiner
,lthough the duty o the Tester and -'a$iner is to test only the actual runways. ne"ertheless
he $ust satisy hi$sel that the su&&orting steelwor) is sound and suita(le to carry the load to
(e a&&lied. /e should thereore see) assurance (y ta)ing sight o the conir$ation issued (y
the architect. consulting engineer or any other co$&etent authority. that the su&&orting
(uilding $e$(ers are ade*uate or the resultant loads and suita(le or the &ur&ose.
So!e of "S 2#$%
The British Standard s&eciies the $ini$u$ re*uire$ents or the design and testing o i'ed
o"erhead runway (ea$s $ade ro$ standard rolled steel sections. %t is howe"er a "ery old
standard and reers to steels co$&lying with the re*uire$ents o BS 05 and BS 968.
Both BS 05 and BS 968 are o(solete and were originally re&laced (y BS 1362. (ut this in turn
has (een withdrawn to (e re&laced (y a range o BS and BS-3 standards. The "ast $a4ority
o runways. cranes and structural constructions will still (e ound to (e o steels to these
standards. 5or reerence &ur&oses we should thereore note:
BS 05 co"ered general grade steel o welda(le *uality 6BS 1362 7rade 13 ,8 and BS 968
co"ered high yield steel 6BS 1362 7rade 52 B8.
Structures su&&orting the runway (ea$s should co$&ly with the rele"ant British Standards.
/ere too there are changes we should note. BS 119 9art 0 6i$&erial di$ensions8 is o(solete.
the current standard (eing BS 119 9art 2 which is the $etric "ersion. But this in turn is (eing
re&laced (y BS 5952. +hilst this does not aect our considerations or runways it does aect
gantry structures or cranes as dierent delections will (e o(tained due to the alternati"e
design $ethods used.
63ote: 5or crane gantry structures the allowa(le delections or each standard are gi"en in BS
The changeo"er ro$ i$&erial $easure$ent to $etric has caused certain &ro(le$s since the
Tester and -'a$iner will co$e across $any installations using the old i$&erial (ea$s 6#S:;s8
which do not ha"e a $etric e*ui"alent.
The Tester and -'a$iner $ust (e a(le to recognise the "arious (ea$ sections (y $easure$ent
to ena(le design chec)s to (e $ade i re*uired. 6See Ta(les o Di$ensions and 9ro&erties o
Bea$s. at the end o this unit8.
Run&ay Setions
Since this &art o the course deals with BS 2853 and its inter&retation we will discuss rolled
steel sections.
Ro''ed Stee' (oists
These 4oists which ha"e ta&ered langes were (eing rolled in li$ited si>es until *uite recently
and were s&eciied in BS 1:0982. #S:;s 5? ' 3? and a(o"e are now su&erseded (y uni"ersal
(ea$s. The @#S:; as it is )nown was ideal or runway (ea$s (ecause o its ta&ered lange 65ig.
08 which gi"es it greater thic)ness at the root than with other sections and thereore a $uch
greater strength to resist the trans"erse (ending due to the runners.
(oists &ith ta!ered f'an)es
*i)ure +
,s &roduction $ethods i$&ro"ed these sections ha"e gradually (een re&laced (y the uni"ersal
(ea$ section which as a structural (ea$ is stronger weight or weight.
Uni,ersa' "eams
9roduced to BS 1:0982 ha"e &arallel langes and or each no$inal si>e ha"e "arying weights.
This is achie"ed during rolling (y ad4usting the outer $ill rolls thus altering the lange
thic)ness. 6See 5ig 28. and we( thic)ness.
Note-. Uni"ersal (ea$s o an older ty&e were rolled with a ta&er o 4ust under 3°. %t is
i$&ortant to note this i riction gri& (olts are used.
Uni,ersa' "eams
*i)ure 2
,ccurate $easure$ent is re*uired (y the Tester and -'a$iner to esta(lish the (ea$ weight
and actual lange thic)ness.
The uni"ersal (ea$ i not &ro&erly designed or selected is "ery susce&ti(le to lange ailure and
distortion although satisying the delection criteria in BS 2853.
Uni,ersa' /o'umns
!n hea"y duty runway installations the Tester and -'a$iner will oten encounter uni"ersal
colu$ns to BS 1 which although s*uare in section can (e &roduced with "ery thic) langes and
thereore suita(le or high trans"erse stresses due to the wheel loadings. 6See 5ig 38. Aolu$ns
used as runways. weight or weight are not "ery eecti"e as (ea$s and ta(les are not usually
a"aila(le to chec) &er$issi(le loadings as a runway. %t $ay thereore (e necessary to ta)e
accurate de&th. lange width and thic)ness and we( thic)ness or design chec)s.
Uni,ersa' /o'umns
*i)ure %
%t is essential that the Tester and -'a$iner can recognise this ty&e o section and esta(lish the
lange thic)ness since trans"erse (ending stress is a $a4or actor when co$&uting the ca&acity
o the runway.
N". #olled sections &roduced to BS 1 are &roduced in three grades. 13 ,. 52 B and 55.
7rades 52 and 55 are high yield steels and can thereore stand higher loadings than 13 , or
general grade steel. The $anuacturerBs &a&erwor) should state what grade o steel has (een
used. % this cannot (e esta(lished then the Tester and -'a$iner should assu$e the steelwor)
is to 7rade 13 ,.
*'an)e "endin)
The eect o a trolley sus&ended ro$ the lower lange o a runway is to create localised
(ending o this lange 6See 5ig.18. The a$ount o (ending can (e aected in two ways:
08 The a$ount o set in o trolley wheels
28 The distance a&art o the trolley wheel centres.
These di$ensions are $ost i$&ortant when calculating allowa(le stresses in the runway. 6See
BS 2853 Ta(les 3 and 18.
N". % a runway is 4oined and has no reinorcing o the lower lange at the 4oin then the lange
is considera(ly wea)ened and could cause local &er$anent set at the 4oint. BS 2853 Ta(le 5
allows or this and would ha"e the eect o reducing the sae wor)ing load. %t is i$&ortant
thereore that such inor$ation is noted to allow a correct design chec). % lange stress is
critical. end sto&s or the runway $ust (e set in to restrict the wheel centre to a (ea$s width
ro$ the (ea$ end.
*'an)e "endin)
*i)ure 0
Set in of Tro''ey Whee's
Trolley wheels are nor$ally one o two ty&es. Ty&e , 6See 5ig.58 is angled to suit the #S:
lange and thereore not suita(le or the uni"ersal (ea$. Ty&e B is radiused suita(le or (oth
#S: and UB langes and is thereore )nown as a uni"ersal runner. ,l$ost without e'ce&tion
trolleys $anuactured since the early 0982;s will (e ound to (e ty&e B. (ut a "ast a$ount o
older trolleys re$ain in ser"ice. +hen correctly itted it is nor$al or chec)ing &ur&oses to say
the wheels ha"e a C set in. 6BS 2853. Ta(le 18. /owe"er where considera(le use is $ade o
the runway an edge loading o 0 should (e used to allow or runner and (ea$ wear.
, trolley with ta&ered wheels should ne"er (e itted to a uni"ersal (ea$ since not only will
edge contact. (ut also &oint contact. will occur causing ra&id wear o (oth trac) and wheels
also an increase to the trans"erse (ending on the lange. leading to early or e"en sudden
Ty!es of Tro''ey Whee'
*i)ure $
"eam /'am!s
% (ea$ cla$&s are to (e used on a runway (ea$ or i'ed &osition liting. then the (ea$
should (e chec)ed or edge contact or in the worst case &oint contact. 6See 5ig.68 Bea$
cla$&s are oten $anuactured ro$ single thic)ness &late. #eerring to Ta(le 3 o BS 2853
where such a cla$& is used the "alue o A should (e the sa$e as or a two wheeled trolley. % a
wide cla$& is used you $ay assu$e the width to (e as or the wheel centres or "alue A.
Ed)e /ontat Set In
Ty!ia' "eam /'am!s
*i)ure 6
5or the &ur&ose o BS 2853 the ollowing deinitions shall a&&ly:
6a8 Run&ay.D The runway (ea$ and runway co$&onents.
6(8 Run&ay /om!onents. Those &arts o the runway i$$ediately attached to the runway
(ea$. eg. s&lices. end sto&s. cla$&s and switches.
6c8 Run&ay "eam. ,n o"erhead trac) su&&orting a liting a&&liance used or carrying
loads which are $o"ed along it.
6d8 Effeti,e S!an. The distance (etween the centres o two ad4acent su&&orts. due
allowance (eing $ade or end i'ity. continuous (ea$s and cantile"ers.
6e8 /a'u'ated Def'etion. The delections due to the sae wor)ing and &roo loads
co$&uted (y using the or$ula a&&lica(le to the &articular circu$stances.
68 1easured Def'etions. The delections $easured in such a $anner that they relate to
&recisely the sa$e conditions as those co"ering the calculated delection reerred to in
Alause 2e o BS 2853.
D%t should (e noted that this deinition is $ore li$ited in its sco&e than that contained in
Section 27 o the 5actories ,ct 0960E in the latter case the e'&ression @runway; is understood
to (e a rolling (ea$ and includes the trolley or the actual liting $achine. #eerence to trac)s
and rails in Section 27 in act co"ers what we )now as a runway. The eect o F!F-# will (e
to re$o"e s&eciic reerences. %n (oth the case o the Su&&ly o Gachinery 6Saety8
#egulations and o F!F-#. a runway only (eco$es an eecti"e liting a&&liance when it is
itted with a liting $achine.