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I nternational MSc Programme Sustainable Energy Engineering I nternational MSc Programme Sustainable Energy Engineering

Assist. Prof. Igor BALEN
Industrial applications
- many industrial buildings require large quantities of energy, both in
manufacturing and maintaining building environmental conditions.
- energy can be saved by proper use of insulation and ventilation, and by
recovery of waste heat.
- HVAC systems should control temperature and humidity, cleanliness,
have low noise levels, control health-threatening fumes, and provide spot
cooling to prevent heat stress.
- air-conditioned environment allows a worker to perform assigned duties
without fatigue from the effects of temperature and humidity results in
better continuous performance. It may also improve morale and reduce
Industrial applications
Temperatures and humidities for industrial HVAC (selected)
Industrial applications
Production requirements
- air temperature and cleanliness affect quality in manufacturing precision
instruments, lenses, and tools. When manufacturing tolerances are within
5 µm, close temperature control prevents expansion and contraction of the
material; high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) or ultralow- penetration air
(ULPA) filter may be required.
- manufacturing pharmaceutical tablets requires close control of humidity
for optimum tablet formation.
- air temperature and relative humidity influence production rate and
product mass, strength, appearance, and quality in manufacturing or
processing hygroscopic materials such as textiles, paper, wood, leather,
and tobacco.
Industrial applications
- fermentation requires both temperature and humidity control to regulate
the rate of biochemical reactions. Designing such spaces should take into
account gases and other by-products generated by fermentation (CO
- in manufacturing metal products, temperature and relative humidity need
to be kept sufficiently low to prevent hands fromsweating, thus protecting
the finished article from fingerprints and/or etching.
- application must be evaluated to determine the filtration needed to
counter the adverse effects on the product or process of dust particles,
airborne bacteria, smoke, spores, pollen, and radioactive particles.
- humidity can reduce static electricity in processing light materials such as
textile fibers and paper and where potentially explosive atmospheres or
materials are present. Static electricity is often detrimental to processing
and extremely dangerous in explosive atmospheres. Static electric charges
are minimized when relative humidity is above 35%.
Industrial applications
Employee requirements
- industrial plants are usually designed for an internal temperature of 16 to
32°C and a maximum of 60% rh. Tighter controls are often dictated by the
specific operations and processes located in the building.
- nearly sedentary workers prefer a winter temperature of 22°C and a
summer temperature of 26°C at a maximum of 60% rh. Workers at a high
rate of activity prefer 18°C; they are less sensitive to temperature changes
and can be cooled by increasing the air velocity.
- air-conditioning and ventilation systems must minimize exposure to toxic
and/or hazardous materials.
- concentrations of gaseous flammable substances must also be kept
below explosive limits. Acceptable concentrations of these substances are
a maximum of 25% of the lower explosive limit.
Industrial applications
Design considerations
- design criteria include the space-by-space environment in the facilities,
process heat loads and exhaust requirements, heat and cooling energy
recovery, load factors and equipment diversity, lighting, cleanliness, etc.
- consideration should be given to the method of separating dirty
processes from areas that require progressively cleaner air.
- air-conditioning and structural envelope must prevent unwanted
condensation and ensure a high-quality product. Condensation can be
prevented by eliminating thermal short circuits, installing proper insulation,
and using vapor barriers.
- HVAC systems can be located on the roof of the building. Air intakes
should not be located too close to loading docks or other sources of
contamination. Systeminstallation must be coordinated with other systems
and equipment that compete for space at the top of the building, such as
fire sprinklers, lighting, cranes, structural elements, etc.
Industrial applications
HVAC system and equiment selection
- basic system types:
•Heating-only in cool climates, where ventilation air provides comfort for
•Air washer systems, where high humidities are desired and where the
climate requires cooling.
•Heating and evaporative cooling, where the climate is dry.
•Heating and mechanical cooling, where temperature and humidity control
are required and other means of cooling are insufficient.
All systems include air filtration appropriate to the contaminant control
Industrial applications
- Floor heating. Floor heating is often desirable in industrial buildings,
particularly in large, high-bay buildings, garages, and assembly areas
where workers must be near the floor, or where large or fluctuating outside
air loads make maintaining ambient temperature difficult. Floors may be
tempered to 18 to 21°C by embedded hydronic systems or electrical
resistance cables.
Industrial applications
- Unit heaters. Gas, oil, electric, hot-water, or steam-fired unit heaters with
propeller fans or blowers are used for spot heating areas or are arranged
in multiples for heating an entire building. Temperatures can be varied by
individual thermostatic control. Unit heaters should be located so that the
discharge (throw) will reach the floor adjacent to and parallel with the
outside wall, and spaced to produce a ring of warm air moving peripherally
around the building.
Industrial applications
- Infrared heaters. High-intensity gas, oil, or electric infrared heaters
transfer heat directly to the occupants, equipment, and floor in the space
without appreciably warming the air, though some air heating occurs by
convection from objects heated by the infrared heaters. Heaters are
usually mounted 3 to 9 mabove the floor, along outside walls, and tilted to
direct maximumradiation to the floor. If the building is poorly insulated, the
controlling thermostat should be shielded to avoid influence from the
radiant effect of the walls.
Industrial applications
- Refrigerated cooling systems. Most commonly used are roof-mounted
direct-expansion packaged units. Larger systems may use chilled water
distributed to air-handling units. Equipment commonly uses positive
displacement (reciprocating, scroll, or screw) compressors with air-cooled
condensers. For processes that require dew points below 10°C (e.g.,
pharmaceutical processing), desiccant-based systems should be
Industrial applications
- Evaporative cooling systems. Direct or indirect evaporative coolers or
air washers. Water atomized in the air stream evaporates, cooling the air.
Refrigerated water simultaneously cools and dehumidifies the air.
Evaporative cooling conserves energy, particularly in mild weather.
Temperature and humidity of the exit air stream may be controlled by
varying the temperature of the chilled water and reheat coil and by varying
the quantity of air passing through the heat coil with a dew point
thermostat. It may be necessary to filter air entering the evaporative cooler.
Chemical treatment of the water may be necessary to prevent mineral
build-up or biological growth on the pads or in the pans.
Industrial applications
- Air filtration systems. Remove contaminants from the building supply or
exhaust air stream. Supply air filtration at the equipment intake removes
particulate contamination that may foul heat exchange surfaces,
contaminant products, or present a health hazard to people, animals, or
plants. Exhaust systems remove air from spaces or capture aerosols, heat,
or gases at specific locations in a room and transport them so they can be
collected, inactivated, and safely discharged to the atmosphere.
Industrial applications
- Heat recovery. Process industry presents unique opportunities to
recover heat from the exhaust air stream for use in preconditioning
makeup air. Extreme care must be taken to ensure compatibility of heat
exchanger components and materials with contaminants often found in
exhaust streams.
Industrial applications
- Maintenance. All designs should allow ample room to clean, service, and
replace any component quickly so that design conditions are affected as
little as possible. Maintenance of refrigeration and heat rejection
equipment is essential for proper performance without energy waste.
Maintenance includes changing system filters periodically. Fan and motor
bearings require lubrication, and fan belts need periodic inspection. Direct-
and indirect-fired heaters should be inspected annually. Steam and hot-
water heaters have fewer maintenance requirements than comparable
equipment with gas or oil burners. For system compatibility, water
treatment is essential. Air washers and cooling towers should not be
operated unless the water is properly treated.
Ventilation of the industrial environment
- localized ventilation systems:
- conditioned air is supplied
toward the breathing zone of the
occupants to create comfortable
conditions and/or to reduce the
concentration of pollutants.
These zones may have air 5 to
10 times cleaner than the
surrounding air.
- primary objective in the design of HVAC systems for laboratories is
providing a safe environment for all personnel.
- labs frequently use 100% outside air, which broadens the range of
conditions to which the systems must respond.
- systems seldom operate at maximum design conditions →attention to
partial load operations that are continually changing due to variations in
loads and requirements.
- modifications at some time are possible →must consider to what extent
laboratory systems should be adaptable for other needs.
- nature and quantity of the contaminant, types of operations, and degree
of hazard dictate the types of sytems and local exhaust devices.
Design considerations
- internal heat gains of 50 to 270 W/m
or more are common for
laboratories with high concentrations of equipment.
- often stringent requirements for the control of temperature, humidity,
relative static pressure, and background particle count →require
architectural features to allow the HVAC systems to perform properly.
- equipment rooms and their air intakes and exhaust stacks must be
located to avoid intake of fumes into the building. As with other buildings,
air intake locations must be chosen to minimize fumes from loading docks,
cooling tower discharge, vehicular traffic, etc.
Laboratory fume hood
- ventilated enclosed work space intended to capture, contain, and exhaust
fumes, vapors, and particulate matter generated inside the enclosure.
- work opening has operable glass sash
for observation and shielding.
- different types: with constant or variable
air flow, constant or variable face velocity,
with or without auxiliary air
- example with bypass for approximately
constant air flow and face velocity:
Biological safety cabinet
- also called a laminar flow cabinet, categorized into 3 classes and 6
- example of some cabinet types:
- important for the HVAC design are the proper placement of the biological
safety cabinet in the laboratory and the room’s air distribution.
Biological safety cabinet
- Rake (1978):
A general rule of thumb should be that, if the cross draft or other disruptive
room airflow exceeds the velocity of the air curtain at the unit’s face, then
problems do exist. Unfortunately, in most laboratories such disruptive room
airflows are present to various extents. Drafts from open windows and
doors are the most hazardous sources because they can be far in excess
of 1 m/s and accompanied by substantial turbulence. Heating and air-
conditioning vents perhaps pose the greatest threat to the safety cabinet
because they are much less obvious and therefore seldom considered... It
is imperative then that all room airflow sources and patterns be considered
before laboratory installation of a safety cabinet.
- should be located away from drafts, active walkways, and doors.
- exhaust systems for biological safety cabinets must be designed with
consideration of varying static pressure resistance requirements for
different groups.
- total airflow rate for a laboratory is dictated by one of the following:
•Total amount of exhaust from containment and exhaust devices
•Cooling required to offset internal heat gains
•Minimum ventilation rate requirements
- minimumairflow rates are generally in the range of 6 to 10 air changes
per hour when the space is occupied by people; 15 air changes per hour
for animal housing and treatment areas.
- can be arranged for either constant-volume or variable-volume airflow
that incorporate either single-duct reheat or dual-duct configurations.
- labs in which chemicals and compressed gases are used generally
require nonrecirculating or 100% outside air supply systems.
- filtration for the air supply depends on the requirements of the laboratory
(from fine filters to HEPA).
- temperature in laboratories with a constant-volume air supply is generally
regulated with a thermostat that controls the position of a control valve on
a reheat coil in the supply air.
- for the laboratory to act as a secondary containment barrier, the air
pressure in the laboratory must be maintained slightly negative with
respect to adjoining areas. Exceptions are sterile facilities or clean spaces
that may need to be maintained at a positive pressure with respect to
adjoining spaces.
- criteria for fume hood control differ depending on the type of hood. The
exhaust volumetric flow is kept constant for standard, auxiliary air, and air-
bypass fume hoods. In variable-volume fume hoods, the exhaust flow is
varied to maintain a constant face velocity.
Clean spaces
Clean spaces
- following major industries use clean spaces for their products:
Pharmaceuticals/Biotechnology; Microelectronics/Semiconductor (most
newer semiconductor clean rooms being ISO 14644-1 Class 5 or cleaner);
Aerospace (large-volume spaces with cleanliness levels of ISO 14644-1
Class 8 or cleaner); Aseptic food processing and packaging; Automotive
paint booths; Crystal; Laser/optic industries;...
Clean spaces
Particle control
- airborne particles vary from 0.001 µm to several hundred micrometers.
Particles larger than 5 µm tend to settle by gravity. In many manufacturing
processes, these airborne particles are viewed as a source of
- external particle sources are controlled primarily by air filtration, room
pressurization, and sealing space penetrations.
- people, clean room surface shedding, process equipment, and the
manufacturing process itself generate particles in the clean space. Internal
particle generation may not be controlled completely, but designer may
anticipate internal sources and design control mechanisms and airflow
patterns to limit their effect on the product.
- proper air filtration prevents most externally generated particles from
entering the clean room(using high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters
and ultralow- penetration air (ULPA) filters).
Clean spaces
Airflow patterns
- two general categories:
- Nonunidirectional aiflow. Has either multiple-pass circulating
characteristics or nonparallel flow. May provide satisfactory contamination
control for cleanliness levels of ISO 14644-1 Classes 6 through 8.
Presupposes that the major space contamination is frommakeup air and
that contamination is removed in air-handler or ductwork filter housings or
through HEPA filter supply devices.
- Unidirectional aiflow. Not truly laminar, it is characterized as air flowing
in a single pass in a single direction through a clean room with generally
parallel streamlines. Removes contamination generated in the space and
minimizes cross-contamination perpendicular to the airflow. Air is typically
introduced through the ceiling HEPA or ULPA filters.
Clean spaces
Clean spaces
Design parameters
- unidirectional airflow with average air velocities from 0.3 to 0.45 m/s,
typically at 0.45 m/s, is widely used.
- clean-roomtemperatures are controlled from 20 to 22°C with tolerances
of ±0.06°C, ±0.1°C, ±0.3°C, and ±0.5°C. In spaces with cleanliness levels
of ISO 14644-1 Class 7 and 8 tolerances are ±1°C.
- humidity should be maintained at 40 to 45 %with a tolerance of ± 5 %.
- to reduce the pressure drop across coils, the most effective method is to
reduce their face velocities to 1.5 to 2 m/s. Result is a larger AHU.
- clean rooms and clean spaces always maintain a higher pressure than
the surrounding less clean space for 12 to 15 Pa to minimize the infiltration
of air contaminants.
- energy use of fans, chillers, and pumps in a clean-room system for a FS
209 class 1 may be around 540 W/m
of floor area (5 to 10 times higher
than that of an air-conditioning system for a commercial building).
Clean spaces
- example semiconductor manufacturing plant:
Clean spaces
- example ISO 14644-1 Class 4 clean room:
Clean spaces
- example ISO 14644-1 Class 4 clean room – air-conditioning process in
psychrometric chart:
Computer rooms
Computer rooms
Design criteria
- before it is introduced into the computer room, outside air should be
treated and preconditioned to remove dust, salts, and corrosive gases.
- system should maintain the room under positive pressure relative to
surrounding spaces. The need for positive pressure to keep contaminants
out of the room is usually a controlling design criterion.
- outside air quantity of 6 to 8 air changes per day usually satisfies
contaminant dilution requirements.
- HVAC equipment for computer spaces should be served by electrically
isolated power sources to prevent electrical noise fromadversely affecting
computer operation and reliability.
Computer rooms
Air-conditioning systems
- computer rooms can be conditioned with a wide variety of systems,
including packaged precision air-conditioning units and central station air-
handling systems.
- precision units are available with chilled-water or multiple-refrigerant
compressors with separate refrigeration circuits, air filters, humidifiers,
reheat, and integrated control systems with remote monitoring panels and
interfaces. Self-contained air conditioners are usually located within the
computer room but may also be remotely located and ducted to the
conditioned space.
- central stations have a larger capacity than precision air-conditioning
units and offer significantly greater opportunities for energy conservation.
Systems that use direct evaporative humidification with mechanical cooling
and VAV control allow the use of outside air for free cooling without a
humidification energy penalty.
Computer rooms
Air-conditioning systems
- example of packaged precision air-conditioning unit with underfloor air
Computer rooms
Energy conservation and heat recovery
- where secondary uses for recovered heat do not exist or justify heat
recovery, central station air-conditioning systems using outside air for free
cooling, variable-volume ventilation, and evaporative cooling/humidification
strategies offer significant opportunities for reducing energy use and
improving air quality over precision air-conditioning systems.
- if a use for recovered energy exists, computer rooms are good
candidates for heat recovery because of their large year-round loads. Heat
rejected during condensing can be used for space heating, domestic water
heating, or other process heat.
Wood and paper product facilities
General considerations
- central exhaust systems are usually designed for specific operations in
which the wood dust is captured at the machines and conveyed through an
overhead duct system to a collector.
- metal ductwork should be used and grounded to prevent a buildup of
static electricity. Hoods should be made of spark-free, noncombustible
material. A pneumatic conveying system should be furnished to reduce the
accumulation of wood dust in the collecting duct system. The airflow rate
and velocity should be capable of maintaining the air-dust mixture below
the minimumexplosive concentration level. Dust collectors should be
located outside of the building.
- fans should be placed downstream of the dust collector and air-cleaning
equipment, and should be interlocked with the wood-processing
equipment. When the fan stops, the wood process should stop
immediately and forward a signal to the alarm system.
Wood product facilities
Design considerations
- temperature and humidity requirements in wood product process areas
vary according to product, manufacturer, and governing code.
- i.e. minimum number of air changes in wood industry recommended in
Canada is 2 ACH.
Wood product facilities
Paper product facilities
- in paper industry temperature inside an enclosed hood ranges from 50 to
60°C at the operating floor to 80 to 95°C in the hood exhaust plenum at 70
to 90% rh, with an exhaust rate generally ranging from 140 to 190 m
- most papers are produced with less than 10% moisture by mass. Dry
paper and pulp are hygroscopic and begin to swell noticeably and deform
permanently when stored where the relative humidity exceeds 38%.
-ventilation in paper machine buildings in the US ranges from 10 to 25
ACH in northern mills to 20 to 50 in southern mills.
- air flow direction is controlled to feed from the tending to the drive side,
and from the dry end to the wet end. Main extract taking place above the
wet end, full advantage being made of the hot surfaces producing a
thermal uplift. A balance is made between the quantity of supply and
extract air. Large volumes of air (240 to 380 m
/s) are required to balance
the paper machine’s exhaust with the building air balance.
Paper product facilities
- values which can be achieved and represent a good level system in
paper industry:
Paper product facilities
- flow of heat energy in a modern paper mill. Primary energy for the
process is steam from the boiler, with full use being made of heat recovery:
Paper product facilities
- example of the air curtain system for winding of tissue paper:
Paper product facilities
Paint spraying facilities
Paint spraying facilities
General considerations
- different spray systems are more or less efficient at transferring paint onto
surfaces but all create what is called 'overspray'. This consists of relatively
large and visible paint droplets which land nearby but not on the object
being sprayed, and also fine paint particles (mist) which mix with and
remain suspended in air.
- fine particle paint aerosols will fill the volume of the booth or spray space
and will remain airborne for prolonged periods. How long will depend on
the particle size and the effectiveness of the ventilation.
- spray booths are ventilated enclosures providing a positive movement of
air in the spraying area to protect the health of those outside the booth to
give some protection to the health of the operator and to provide an
atmosphere free from the risk of fire or explosion. Basic aim is to draw
clean air past the breathing zone of the operator as effectively as possible
before exhausting it after suitable filtration.
Paint spraying facilities
- the air flow should be uniform over the whole working area and in a
direction such that the operator avoids breathing air contaminated at
dangerous levels by the liquid being sprayed. Airflow through a booth
should be as linear as possible i.e. in a down-draught booth for example
the air should literally move in a downward direction.
-mechanical ventilation of the booth must be maintained after spraying
ceases until the work area is free of all residual spray mist (purge time).
- most down-draught booths are run under positive pressure as this
prevents the inward leakage of dusty air. About 10% more air is supplied
than is extracted. The excess air leaks out through gaps under doors for
example and will carry some overspray/vapour out of the booth. This mode
of working is not recommended for highly toxic finishes such as
isocyanate-containing paints where vapour mist and droplets should be
contained within the booth.
Paint spraying facilities
- airflow velocity values which should be achieved are a mean of not less
than 0.4 m/s and a minimum measured value of 0.3 m/s.
- inlet filters provide two advantages: they remove particulates which
might otherwise deposit on the painted surfaces and reduce the effects of
cross-draughts and disturbances which are external to the booth. 2-stage
filtration system with a prefilter and a final/ ceiling filter stage will usually
Kitchen ventilation
Kitchen ventilation
General considerations
- two purposes:
(1) provide a comfortable environment in the kitchen
(2) enhance the safety of personnel working in the kitchen and of other
building occupants
- centerpiece of any kitchen ventilation system is an exhaust hood, used
primarily to remove effluent from kitchens.
- exhaust ductwork conveys exhaust air from the hood to the outside,
along with any grease, smoke, VOCs, and odors that are not extracted
from the air stream along the way. NFPA Standard 96 have set minimum
air velocity for exhaust ducts at 7.5 m/s. Maximum velocities are limited by
pressure drop and noise and typically do not exceed 12.5 m/s.
- exhaust fans for kitchen ventilation must be capable of handling hot,
grease-laden air. The fan should be designed to keep the motor out of the
air stream.
Kitchen ventilation
- commercial kitchen exhaust hoods:
Kitchen ventilation
Kitchen ventilation
- common type of exhaust fans is roof ventilator (upblast fan) for mounting
at the exhaust stack outlet. Discharge is upward or outward from the roof
or building. Aluminumupblast fans must be listed for the service.
Kitchen ventilation
Design considerations
- properly designed kitchen ventilation system leaves a little negative
pressure (up to 5 Pa) preventing kitchen odors migrating to adjacent
building spaces, and maintaining a comfortable building environment.
- kitchens require minimum outdoor air ventilation of 25 m
/h per person
based on 22 persons per 100 m
. These requirements may be increased
or decreased in certain areas.
- terminal velocities at the leading edge of the hood should be kept to a
minimum of 0.25 m/s. Ceiling diffuser should be located so that the jet
velocity at the lip of the hood does not exceed 0.25 m/s.
- use of short circuit hoods has to be considered carefully. They introduce
unconditioned air into the hood, which reduces the supply air flow rate.
But, the problem is that the more short-circuited air is exhausted, the less
exhaust capacity is left to get rid of the kitchen effluent.
Kitchen ventilation
Heat recovery
- heated exhaust air may be suitable for heat recovery; however, smoke
and grease in the exhaust air will, with time, cover any heat transfer
surface. Under these conditions, the heat exchangers require constant
maintenance (e.g., automatic washdown) to maintain acceptable heat
- exhaust hood equipped with heat recovery is more likely to be cost
effective where food service facilities with large amounts of cooking
equipment are used and/or the climate is extreme.