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ANSYS Mechanical APDL Feature Archive

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Release 14.5
October 2012
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Table of Contents
About This Archive ....................................................................................................................................... xi
I. Legacy Features ....................................................................................................................................... 1
1. Piping Models ................................................................................................................................... 3
1.1. What the Piping Commands Can Do for You ................................................................................ 3
1.2. Modeling Piping Systems with Piping Commands ....................................................................... 3
1.2.1. Specify the Jobname and Title ............................................................................................ 4
1.2.2. Set Up the Basic Piping Data ............................................................................................... 4
1.2.3. Define the Piping System's Geometry ................................................................................. 5
1.2.3.1. Review and Modify Your Piping Model ....................................................................... 5
1.3. Example Piping Model Input ....................................................................................................... 5
2. Subroutines ....................................................................................................................................... 9
2.1. Creep Subroutine UserCr ............................................................................................................ 9
2.2. Subroutine UserPL (Writing Your Own Plasticity Laws) ............................................................... 10
2.3. Subroutine UserVisLaw (Defining Viscosity Laws) ....................................................................... 12
2.4. Subroutine usflex (Computes the flexibility factor for PIPE16 and PIPE18) ................................... 12
3. Restarting a Direct Coupled-Field Analysis .................................................................................... 15
3.1. Singleframe Restart ................................................................................................................... 15
3.1.1. Singleframe Restart Requirements .................................................................................... 15
3.1.2. Singleframe Restart Procedure ......................................................................................... 17
3.1.3. Restarting a Nonlinear Analysis From an Incompatible Database ....................................... 18
3.1.3.1. Re-establishing Boundary Conditions ....................................................................... 19
4. Partial Solution Procedure .............................................................................................................. 21
4.1. Partial Inertia Relief Calculations ................................................................................................ 21
4.2. Comparison of Linear Perturbation and Partial Solution Procedures ........................................... 22
5. Surface Solution .............................................................................................................................. 25
6. Reduced Modal Analysis Procedure ................................................................................................ 27
II. Legacy Commands ................................................................................................................................ 29
III. Legacy Material Properties .................................................................................................................. 79
1. Anisotropy ....................................................................................................................................... 81
2. Multilinear Elasticity ....................................................................................................................... 83
IV. Legacy Elements .................................................................................................................................. 85
4. BEAM4: 3-D Elastic Beam .................................................................................................................... 87
12. CONTAC12: 2-D Point-to-Point Contact ........................................................................................... 101
16. PIPE16: Elastic Straight Pipe ............................................................................................................ 109
18. PIPE18: Elastic Curved Pipe ............................................................................................................. 121
42. PLANE42: 2-D Structural Solid ......................................................................................................... 131
45. SOLID45: 3-D Structural Solid ......................................................................................................... 139
52. CONTAC52: 3-D Point-to-Point Contact ........................................................................................... 149
59. PIPE59: Immersed Pipe or Cable ..................................................................................................... 157
63. SHELL63: Elastic Shell ..................................................................................................................... 175
79. FLUID79: 2-D Contained Fluid ......................................................................................................... 185
80. FLUID80: 3-D Contained Fluid ......................................................................................................... 189
81. FLUID81: Axisymmetric-Harmonic Contained Fluid ......................................................................... 195
82. PLANE82: 2-D 8-Node Structural Solid ............................................................................................ 201
92. SOLID92: 3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Structural Solid ......................................................................... 209
95. SOLID95: 3-D 20-Node Structural Solid ........................................................................................... 215
V. Legacy Theory ..................................................................................................................................... 223
1. Archived Theory Element Library ................................................................................................. 225
1.1. BEAM4 - 3-D Elastic Beam ........................................................................................................ 225
1.1.1. Stiffness and Mass Matrices ............................................................................................ 225
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Feature Archive
1.1.2. Gyroscopic Damping Matrix ........................................................................................... 229
1.1.3. Pressure and Temperature Load Vector ........................................................................... 229
1.1.4. Local to Global Conversion ............................................................................................. 229
1.1.5. Stress Calculations .......................................................................................................... 231
1.2. CONTAC12 - 2-D Point-to-Point Contact ................................................................................... 232
1.2.1. Element Matrices ............................................................................................................ 232
1.2.2. Orientation of the Element ............................................................................................. 234
1.2.3. Rigid Coulomb Friction ................................................................................................... 234
1.3. PIPE16 - Elastic Straight Pipe .................................................................................................... 235
1.3.1. Assumptions and Restrictions ......................................................................................... 236
1.3.2. Stiffness Matrix ............................................................................................................... 236
1.3.3. Mass Matrix .................................................................................................................... 236
1.3.4. Gyroscopic Damping Matrix ........................................................................................... 237
1.3.5. Load Vector .................................................................................................................... 238
1.3.6. Stress Calculation ........................................................................................................... 240
1.4. PIPE18 - Elastic Curved Pipe ..................................................................................................... 246
1.4.1. Other Applicable Sections .............................................................................................. 246
1.4.2. Stiffness Matrix ............................................................................................................... 246
1.4.3. Mass Matrix .................................................................................................................... 249
1.4.4. Load Vector .................................................................................................................... 250
1.4.5. Stress Calculations .......................................................................................................... 250
1.5. PLANE42 - 2-D Structural Solid ................................................................................................ 251
1.5.1. Other Applicable Sections .............................................................................................. 252
1.6. SOLID45 - 3-D Structural Solid ................................................................................................. 252
1.6.1. Other Applicable Sections .............................................................................................. 253
1.7. CONTAC52 - 3-D Point-to-Point Contact ................................................................................... 253
1.7.1. Other Applicable Sections .............................................................................................. 253
1.7.2. Element Matrices ............................................................................................................ 253
1.7.3. Orientation of Element ................................................................................................... 254
1.8. PIPE59 - Immersed Pipe or Cable ............................................................................................. 255
1.8.1. Overview of the Element ................................................................................................ 256
1.8.2. Location of the Element .................................................................................................. 256
1.8.3. Stiffness Matrix ............................................................................................................... 257
1.8.4. Mass Matrix .................................................................................................................... 257
1.8.5. Load Vector .................................................................................................................... 258
1.8.6. Hydrostatic Effects .......................................................................................................... 258
1.8.7. Hydrodynamic Effects ..................................................................................................... 260
1.8.8. Stress Output ................................................................................................................. 260
1.9. SHELL63 - Elastic Shell ............................................................................................................. 262
1.9.1. Other Applicable Sections .............................................................................................. 263
1.9.2. Foundation Stiffness ....................................................................................................... 263
1.9.3. In-Plane Rotational Stiffness ........................................................................................... 264
1.9.4. Warping ......................................................................................................................... 264
1.9.5. Options for Non-Uniform Material ................................................................................... 265
1.9.6. Extrapolation of Results to the Nodes ............................................................................. 266
1.10. FLUID79 - 2-D Contained Fluid ............................................................................................... 266
1.10.1. Other Applicable Sections ............................................................................................ 267
1.11. FLUID80 - 3-D Contained Fluid ............................................................................................... 267
1.11.1. Other Applicable Sections ............................................................................................ 268
1.11.2. Assumptions and Restrictions ....................................................................................... 268
1.11.3. Material Properties ....................................................................................................... 268
1.11.4. Free Surface Effects ...................................................................................................... 269

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Feature Archive
1.11.5. Other Assumptions and Limitations .............................................................................. 270
1.12. FLUID81 - Axisymmetric-Harmonic Contained Fluid ............................................................... 272
1.12.1. Other Applicable Sections ............................................................................................ 272
1.12.2. Assumptions and Restrictions ....................................................................................... 272
1.12.3. Load Vector Correction ................................................................................................. 273
1.13. PLANE82 - 2-D 8-Node Structural Solid .................................................................................. 273
1.13.1. Other Applicable Sections ............................................................................................ 273
1.13.2. Assumptions and Restrictions ....................................................................................... 273
1.14. SOLID92 - 3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Structural Solid ............................................................... 274
1.14.1. Other Applicable Sections ............................................................................................ 274
1.15. SOLID95 - 3-D 20-Node Structural Solid ................................................................................. 275
1.15.1. Other Applicable Sections ............................................................................................ 275
2. Hydrodynamic Loads on Line Elements ........................................................................................ 277
2.1. Wave Theory ........................................................................................................................... 277
3. Reduced Method for Modal Analysis ............................................................................................ 285

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List of Figures
4.1. BEAM4 Geometry ................................................................................................................................. 87
4.2. BEAM4 Stress Output ............................................................................................................................ 91
12.1. CONTAC12 Geometry ........................................................................................................................ 101
12.2. CONTAC12 Force-Deflection Relationship .......................................................................................... 105
16.1. PIPE16 Geometry .............................................................................................................................. 109
16.2. PIPE16 Stress Output ......................................................................................................................... 114
18.1. PIPE18 Geometry .............................................................................................................................. 121
18.2. PIPE18 Stress Output ......................................................................................................................... 125
42.1. PLANE42 Geometry ........................................................................................................................... 131
42.2. PLANE42 Stress Output ..................................................................................................................... 134
45.1. SOLID45 Geometry ........................................................................................................................... 139
45.2. SOLID45 Stress Output ...................................................................................................................... 143
52.1. CONTAC52 Geometry ........................................................................................................................ 149
52.2. CONTAC52 Force-Deflection Relationship .......................................................................................... 153
59.1. PIPE59 Geometry .............................................................................................................................. 157
59.2. PIPE59 Geometry .............................................................................................................................. 158
59.3. PIPE59 Velocity Profiles for Wave-current Interactions ......................................................................... 164
59.4. PIPE59 Stress Output ......................................................................................................................... 166
63.1. SHELL63 Geometry ........................................................................................................................... 175
63.2. SHELL63 Stress Output ...................................................................................................................... 181
79.1. FLUID79 Geometry ............................................................................................................................ 185
80.1. FLUID80 Geometry ............................................................................................................................ 189
81.1. FLUID81 Geometry ............................................................................................................................ 195
82.1. PLANE82 Geometry ........................................................................................................................... 201
82.2. PLANE82 Stress Output ..................................................................................................................... 204
92.1. SOLID92 Geometry ........................................................................................................................... 209
92.2. SOLID92 Stress Output ...................................................................................................................... 211
95.1. SOLID95 Geometry ........................................................................................................................... 215
95.2. SOLID95 Stress Output ...................................................................................................................... 218
1.1. Order of Degrees of Freedom .............................................................................................................. 226
1.2. Force-Deflection Relations for Standard Case ....................................................................................... 234
1.3. Force-Deflection Relations for Rigid Coulomb Option .......................................................................... 235
1.4. Thermal and Pressure Effects ............................................................................................................... 240
1.5. Elastic Pipe Direct Stress Output .......................................................................................................... 242
1.6. Elastic Pipe Shear Stress Output .......................................................................................................... 242
1.7. Stress Point Locations ......................................................................................................................... 244
1.8. Mohr Circles ........................................................................................................................................ 245
1.9. Plane Element ..................................................................................................................................... 247
1.10. U-Tube with Fluid .............................................................................................................................. 270
1.11. Bending Without Resistance .............................................................................................................. 271
2.1. Velocity Profiles for Wave-Current Interactions ..................................................................................... 281

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List of Tables
3.1. Restart Information for Nonlinear Analyses ............................................................................................ 16
4.1. Linear Perturbation vs. Partial Solution Procedures ................................................................................. 22
5.1. Output Available via ETABLE ................................................................................................................. 25
4.1. BEAM4 Real Constants .......................................................................................................................... 90
4.2. BEAM4 Element Output Definitions ....................................................................................................... 91
4.3. BEAM4 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(9) = 0) ............................................................................ 93
4.4. BEAM4 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(9) = 1) ............................................................................ 94
4.5. BEAM4 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(9) = 3) ............................................................................ 95
4.6. BEAM4 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(9) = 5) ............................................................................ 96
4.7. BEAM4 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(9) = 7) ............................................................................ 97
4.8. BEAM4 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(9) = 9) ............................................................................ 99
12.1. CONTAC12 Real Constants ................................................................................................................. 104
12.2. CONTAC12 Element Output Definitions ............................................................................................. 105
12.3. CONTAC12 Item and Sequence Numbers ........................................................................................... 106
16.1. PIPE16 Real Constants ....................................................................................................................... 113
16.2. PIPE16 Element Output Definitions .................................................................................................... 114
16.3. PIPE16 Item and Sequence Numbers (Node I) .................................................................................... 116
16.4. PIPE16 Item and Sequence Numbers (Node J) .................................................................................... 117
16.5. PIPE16 Item and Sequence Numbers ................................................................................................. 118
18.1. PIPE18 Real Constants ....................................................................................................................... 124
18.2. PIPE18 Element Output Definitions .................................................................................................... 125
18.3. PIPE18 Item and Sequence Numbers (Node I) .................................................................................... 127
18.4. PIPE18 Item and Sequence Numbers (Node J) .................................................................................... 128
18.5. PIPE18 Item and Sequence Numbers ................................................................................................. 129
42.1. PLANE42 Element Output Definitions ................................................................................................ 135
42.2. PLANE42 Miscellaneous Element Output ........................................................................................... 136
42.3. PLANE42 Item and Sequence Numbers .............................................................................................. 137
45.1. SOLID45 Element Output Definitions ................................................................................................. 144
45.2. SOLID45 Miscellaneous Element Output ............................................................................................ 145
45.3. SOLID45 Item and Sequence Numbers .............................................................................................. 146
52.1. CONTAC52 Real Constants ................................................................................................................. 152
52.2. CONTAC52 Element Output Definitions ............................................................................................. 154
52.3. CONTAC52 Item and Sequence Numbers ........................................................................................... 155
59.1. PIPE59 Real Constants ....................................................................................................................... 161
59.2. PIPE59 Water Motion Table ................................................................................................................ 162
59.3. PIPE59 Element Output Definitions .................................................................................................... 166
59.4. PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers (Node I) .................................................................................... 168
59.5. PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers (Node J) .................................................................................... 169
59.6. PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers (Pipe Options) ........................................................................... 170
59.7. PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers (Cable Option) .......................................................................... 171
59.8. PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers (Additional Output) .................................................................. 171
63.1. SHELL63 Real Constants .................................................................................................................... 180
63.2. SHELL63 Element Output Definitions ................................................................................................. 181
63.3. SHELL63 Miscellaneous Element Output ............................................................................................ 182
63.4. SHELL63 Item and Sequence Numbers .............................................................................................. 182
79.1. FLUID79 Element Output Definitions ................................................................................................. 187
79.2. FLUID79 Item and Sequence Numbers ............................................................................................... 188
80.1. FLUID80 Element Output Definitions ................................................................................................. 191
80.2. FLUID80 Item and Sequence Numbers ............................................................................................... 192
81.1. FLUID81 Element Output Definitions ................................................................................................. 197
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Feature Archive
81.2. FLUID81 Item and Sequence Numbers ............................................................................................... 198
82.1. PLANE82 Element Output Definitions ................................................................................................ 204
82.2. PLANE82 Miscellaneous Element Output ........................................................................................... 206
82.3. PLANE82 Item and Sequence Numbers .............................................................................................. 206
92.1. SOLID92 Element Output Definitions ................................................................................................. 212
92.2. SOLID92 Miscellaneous Element Output ............................................................................................ 213
92.3. SOLID92 Item and Sequence Numbers .............................................................................................. 214
95.1. SOLID95 Element Output Definitions ................................................................................................. 219
95.2. SOLID95 Miscellaneous Element Output ............................................................................................ 220
95.3. SOLID95 Item and Sequence Numbers .............................................................................................. 220
1.1. Stress Intensification Factors ............................................................................................................... 242
2.1. Wave Theory Table .............................................................................................................................. 277

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About This Archive
The purpose of this archive is to provide a location for legacy feature, element, theory, and command
documentation.
The Mechanical APDL product continues to provide limited support for capabilities documented in this
archive. In most cases, however, access via the graphical user interface (GUI) is no longer available.
As Mechanical APDL evolves and improves, be aware that ANSYS, Inc. may undocument and discontinue
support for any legacy capability at a future release.
The following topics are available:
• Part I: Legacy Features (p. 1)
• Part II: Legacy Commands (p. 29)
• Part IV: Legacy Elements (p. 85)
• Part V: Legacy Theory (p. 223)

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Part I: Legacy Features
Following is the archived documentation for legacy Mechanical APDL features.

Chapter 1: Piping Models
The ANSYS Multiphysics, ANSYS Mechanical, ANSYS Structural, and ANSYS Professional products offer
a group of commands that enable you to model piping systems and their loads in terms of conventional
piping input data, instead of in terms of standard ANSYS direct-generation modeling operations. As
you input piping commands, the program internally converts your piping data to direct-generation
model data, then stores the converted information in the database. Once this information is stored, you
can list it, display it, modify it, redefine it, etc., using any of the standard direct-generation commands.
The piping system modeling methods described here apply to straight-pipe PIPE16 and curved-pipe
PIPE18 elements. (Both elements are described in Part III: Legacy Elements.)
The following topics concerning piping models are available:
1.1. What the Piping Commands Can Do for You
1.2. Modeling Piping Systems with Piping Commands
1.3. Example Piping Model Input

1.1. What the Piping Commands Can Do for You
Some special features of the piping module are:
• Creates a line model of a piping network using straight-pipe PIPE16 and curved-pipe PIPE18 elements.
(Both elements are described in Part IV: Legacy Elements (p. 85).) Node and element geometry are
defined in terms of incremental run lengths and bend radii, rather than in terms of absolute coordinates.
• Automatically calculates tangency points for bends.
• Relates standard piping designations (such as nominal diameter and schedule) to geometric values.
• Assigns pipe specifications to element real constants.
• Calculates and assigns flexibility and stress intensification factors based on the pressures and the
temperatures specified in the pipe module before the creation of the piping elements as appropriate
for each element type. The flexibility factors are not be changed automatically if the pipe pressures
or temperatures are subsequently revised.
• Determines drag pressure loads from a pressure vs. height relationship.

1.2. Modeling Piping Systems with Piping Commands
Building a model with the piping commands consists of three primary tasks:
1.2.1. Specify the Jobname and Title
1.2.2. Set Up the Basic Piping Data
1.2.3. Define the Piping System's Geometry
All piping commands referenced here are described in Part II: Legacy Commands (p. 29).

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3

Piping Models
Other actions required for a piping system analysis include applying additional loads (D, F, etc.), obtaining
the solution, and reviewing the results. See the Basic Analysis Guide for more information.

1.2.1. Specify the Jobname and Title
Perform these steps at the Begin level.
1. Specify the jobname you want to use for all files that are subsequently created by the analysis
(/FILNAME).
2. Write an analysis file (/TITLE).
3. Issue a "reminder" to yourself about the system of units you intend to use (/UNITS).
This step does not convert data from one system of units to another.

1.2.2. Set Up the Basic Piping Data
Set up the basic piping data as follows:
1. Enter PREP7 (/PREP7).
2. Define the material properties for all materials referenced by the model (MP, MPTEMP, etc.).
3. Select a system of units, if other than consistent (PUNIT).
The PUNIT command determines how the program interprets the data input for the PDRAG,
BRANCH, RUN, BEND, MITER, REDUCE, VALVE, BELLOW, FLANGE, PSPRNG, PGAP, /PSPEC, PINSUL,
and PCORRO commands. The difference between PUNIT and the /UNITS command is that
PUNIT affects how the program behaves, whereas /UNITS does not.
4. Define the pipe specifications. These specifications are applied to the elements as they are generated
via the RUN command.
a. Define pipe material and dimensions (PSPEC).
b. Define the contained fluid density for a piping run (PFLUID).
c. Define the external insulation constants in a piping run (PINSUL).
d. Specify the allowable exterior corrosion thickness for a piping run (PCORRO).
5. Select the piping analysis standard (POPT).:
The program calculates and assigns flexibility and stress intensification factors for curved pipe
elements based on the pressures and the temperatures specified in the pipe module before
the creation of the piping elements as appropriate for each element type. The flexibility factors
and stress intensification factors are not changed retroactively if the pipe pressures or temperatures are subsequently revised.
6. Select the pipe loadings.
a. Define the pipe wall temperatures in a piping run (PTEMP).
b. Define the internal pressure for a piping run (PPRES).

4

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Example Piping Model Input
c. Define the external fluid drag loading for a piping run (PDRAG).

1.2.3. Define the Piping System's Geometry
Define the basic skeleton layout of your piping model as follows.
1. Specify the starting point of your piping system (BRANCH).
2. Follow up with a series of RUN commands to define incremental "straight" runs of pipe.
Pipe elements are generated "straight" in the active coordinate system. Each RUN command
uses length dimensions in the format specified by the PUNIT command to generate a node and
a PIPE16 element (along with its real constants, material properties, and loads).
3. Insert bends and other components (tees, valves, reducers, flanges, bellows, and spring restraints)
into the model at existing nodes that are shared by two or more existing pipe elements. The program
automatically updates your model's geometry to account for the inserted components. Inserted
pipe components take their specifications and loadings from the adjacent straight pipes.
• To define a bend in a piping run, issue the BEND command.
• To define a mitered bend in a piping run, issue the MITER command.
• To define a tee in a piping run, issue the TEE command.
• To define a valve in a piping run, issue the VALVE command.
• To define a reducer in a piping run, issue the REDUCE command.
• To define a flange in a piping run, issue the FLANGE command.
• To define a bellows in a piping run, issue the BELLOW command.
• To define a spring constraint in a piping run, issue the PSPRNG command.
• To define a spring-gap constraint in a piping run, issue the PGAP command.
Another BRANCH command defines the junction point from which another run of pipe branches off
the previously defined run. Subsequent RUN commands define, in incremental fashion, another run of
"straight" pipe elements, starting from the last junction point.

1.2.3.1. Review and Modify Your Piping Model
When you have completed piping data input, you can review the information that has been stored in
the database via standard listing and display commands (NLIST, NPLOT, ELIST, EPLOT, SFELIST,
BFELIST, etc.).
If necessary, you can modify the data using standard procedures for revising your model and your loads.
See Loading in the Basic Analysis Guide for details.

1.3. Example Piping Model Input
The following example input shows how to model this piping system:

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5

Piping Models
❊♥❞ ♦❢ ❢✐rst r✉♥


❙t❛rt ♦❢ s❡❝♦♥❞ r✉♥
✭s❡❝♦♥❞ ❇❘❆◆❈❍✮

❇❊◆❉

❍❛♥❣❡rs ✭€❙€❘◆●✮
❚❊❊
❊♥❞ ♦❢ s❡❝♦♥❞ r✉♥

▼■❚❊❘

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!
! Sample piping data input
!
/FILNAM,EXAMPLE
/TITLE, EXAMPLE PIPING INPUT
/UNITS,BIN
! A reminder that consistent units are U. S. Customary inches
!
/PREP7
! Define material properties for pipe elements
MP,EX,1,30e6
MP,PRXY,1,0.3
MP,ALPX,1,8e-6
MP,DENS,1,.283
PUNIT,1
! Units are read as ft+in+fraction and converted to
! decimal inches
PSPEC,1,8,STD
! 8" standard pipe
POPT,B31.1
! Piping analysis standard: ANSI B31.1
PTEMP,200
! Temperature = 200°
PPRES,1000
! Internal pressure = 1000 psi
PDRAG,,,-.2
! Drag = 0.2 psi in -Z direction at any height (Y)
BRANCH,1,0+12,0+12 ! Start first pipe run at (12",12",0")
RUN,,7+4
! Run 7'-4" in +Y direction
RUN,9+5+1/2
! Run 9'-5 1/2" in +X direction
RUN,,,-8+4
! Run 8'-4" in -Z direction
RUN,,8+4
! Run 8'-4" in +Y direction
/PNUM,NODE,1
/VIEW,1,1,2,3
EPLOT
! Identify node number at which 2nd run starts
BRANCH,4
! Start second pipe run at node 4
RUN,6+2+1/2
! Run 6'-2 1/2" in +X direction
TEE,4,WT
! Insert a tee at node 4
/PNUM,DEFA
/PNUM,ELEM,1
EPLOT
! Identify element numbers for bend and miter inserts
BEND,1,2,SR
! Insert a "short-radius" bend between elements 1 and 2
MITER,2,3,LR,2
! Insert a two-piece miter between elements 2 and 3
/PNUM,DEFA
/PNUM,NODE,1
! Zoom in on miter bend to identify nodes for spring hangers
/ZOOM, 1, 242.93
, 206.62
, -39.059
, 26.866
PSPRNG,14,TRAN,1e4,,0+12
! Insert Y-direction spring at node 14
PSPRNG,16,TRAN,1e4,,0+12
! Insert Y-direction spring at node 16

6

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Example Piping Model Input
! List and display interpreted input data
/AUTO
/PNUM,DEFA
EPLOT
NLIST
ELIST
SFELIST
BFELIST
!

Although two hangers are provided, more restraints are needed before proceeding to the solution.

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

7

8

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 2: Subroutines
2.1. Creep Subroutine UserCr
In contrast to the UserCreep subroutine, the UserCr subroutine requires that you specify the creep
strain tensor. A detailed explanation of this subroutine follows.
*deck,usercr
USERSDISTRIB
subroutine usercr (elem,intpt,mat,ncomp,kfirst,kfsteq,e,posn,d,
x proptb,timval,timinc,tem,dtem,toffst,fluen,dfluen,epel,epcrp,
x statev,usvr,delcr)
c
c *** primary function:
allow users to write their own creep laws.
c
this logic is accessed with c6 = 100
c *** secondary function:
demonstrate the use of user-written creep laws
c
c *** Notice - This file contains ANSYS Confidential information ***
c
c
c
*** Copyright ANSYS. All Rights Reserved.
c
*** ansys, inc.
c
c input arguments:
c
variable (type,sze,intent)
description
c
c
elem
(int,sc,in)
- element number (label)
c
intpt
(int,sc,in)
- element integration point number
c
mat
(int,sc,in)
- material reference number
c
ncomp
(int,sc,in)
- no. of stress/strain components (1,4 or 6)
c
1 - x
c
4 - x,y,z,xy
c
6 - x,y,z,xy,yz,xz
c
kfirst
(int,sc,in)
- 1 if first time through, 0 otherwise
c
(useful for initializing state variables
c
to a non-zero value)
c
kfsteq
(int,sc,in)
- 1 if first equilibrium iteration of a
c
substep, 0 otherwise
c
c
c
e
(dp,sc,in)
- elastic young'S MODULUS
c
posn
(dp,sc,in)
- poisson'S RATIO
c
d
(dp,ar(ncomp,ncomp),in)- elastic stress-strain matrix
c
proptb
(dp,ar(72),in)
- material properties input on tb commands
c
(do not use proptb(13), as it is used elsewhere)
c
timval
(dp,sc,in)
- current time value
c
timinc
(dp,sc,in)
- time increment over this substep
c
tem
(dp,sc,in)
- temperature at the end of this substep
c
dtem
(dp,sc,in)
- temperature increment over this substep
c
toffst
(dp,sc,in)
- temperature offset from absolute zero
c
fluen
(dp,sc,in)
- fluence at the end of this substep
c
dfluen
(dp,sc,in)
- fluence increment over this substep
c
c
epel
(dp,ar(ncomp),inout)- elastic strain
c
epcrp
(dp,ar(ncomp),inout)- creep strain from previous substep
c
statev
(dp,ar(ncomp*5+2),inout)- state variables from previous
c
(converged) substep. This variable is for
c
explicit creep only and refers to a
c
different internal variable than that
c
defined by TB,stat which is used by
c
implicit creep (usercreep) and usermat.
c
usvr
(dp,ar(nuval,nintp),inout)- additional state variables from
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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

9

Subroutines
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c

previous equilibrium iteration (saved
if the nsvr command is used)

output arguments:
variable (type,sze,intent)
epel
epcrp
statev
usvr
delcr

description

(dp,ar(ncomp),inout)- elastic strain adjusted for creep increment
(dp,ar(ncomp),inout)- updated creep strain
(dp,ar(ncomp*5+2),inout)- updated state variables
(dp,ar(nuval,nintp),inout)- updated additional state variables
(dp,sc,out)
- equivalent creep strain increment (used
for creep ratio calculation)

fortran parameters (to be defined by the user):
variable (type)
description
nuval
(int)
- number of additional state variables per
integration point
nintp
(int)
- maximum number of integration points of
an element to be used with this routine
(14 is the maximum)
note: nuval x nintp = nstv(on nsvr command); cannot exceed 840!
internal variables:
variable (type,sze)
con
(dp,sc)
del
(dp,ar(6))
epet
(dp,sc)
ept
(dp,ar(6))
eptot
(dp,sc)
sigen
(dp,sc)
temabs
(dp,sc)

description
- temporary variable
- creep strain increments
- equivalent elastic strain (before creep)
- total strain
- equivalent total strain, elastic + creep
- equivalent stress (before creep)
- temperature on the absolute scale

2.2. Subroutine UserPL (Writing Your Own Plasticity Laws)
ANSYS, Inc. recommends using current-technology elements and the UserMat subroutine for defining
your own material model. However, if you are using a legacy element type and wish to define a plasticity
or viscoplasticity material model, the UserPL subroutine is applicable to legacy element SOLID65.
*deck,userpl
USERSDISTRIB
subroutine userpl (elem,intpt,mat,ncomp,kfirst,kfsteq,e,nu,dens,
x prop,d,ktform,timval,timinc,tem,dtem,toffst,flu,dflu,epel,eppl,
x statev,usvr,epeq,plwork,sigepl,sigrat,depeq,dt)
c
c *** primary function:
allow users to write their own plasticity laws.
c
this logic is accessed with tb,user.
c
the below demonstration logic is the same as using
c
tb,bkin, without adaptive descent (nropt,,,off).
c
Other plasticity rules may require internal
c
iterations and/or the more general definition of
c
plasticity theory, discussed in the Theory
c
Manual.
c *** secondary function:
demonstrate the use of user-written plasticity laws
c
in this routine:
c
a.
update the nonlinear strain history
c
b.
compute the material tangent matrix if requested
c
c *** Notice - This file contains ANSYS Confidential information ***
c
c
c
Copyright ANSYS. All Rights Reserved.
c
*** ansys, inc.
c
c input arguments:
c
variable (type,sze,intent)
description
c
c
elem
(int,sc,in)
- element number (label)

10

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Subroutine UserPL (Writing Your Own Plasticity Laws)
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c

intpt
mat
ncomp

(int,sc,in)
(int,sc,in)
(int,sc,in)

kfirst

(int,sc,in)

kfsteq

(int,sc,in)

e
nu
dens
prop

(dp,sc,in)
(dp,sc,in)
(dp,sc,in)

-

timval
timinc

(dp,sc,in)
(dp,sc,in)

- current time value
- time increment over this substep

tem
dtem
toffst
flu
dflu

(dp,sc,in)
(dp,sc,in)
(dp,sc,in)
(dp,sc,in)
(dp,sc,in)

-

epel

(dp,ar(ncomp),inout)- modified total strain (trial strain)
epel = eptot - eppl - eptherm - ...
if a large strain analysis, epel is
rotation neutralized and is the hencky
(i.e. log) strain
(dp,ar(ncomp),inout)- plastic strain from previous substep

d
ktform

eppl

- element integration point number
- material reference number
- no. of stress/strain components (1,4 or 6)
1 - x
4 - x,y,z,xy
6 - x,y,z,xy,yz,xz
- 1 if first time through, 0 otherwise
(useful for initializing state variables
to a non-zero value)
- 1 if first equilibrium iteration of a
substep, 0 otherwise

average elastic modulus
average poisson ratio
current material density (mass/volume)
linear material property array
(dp,ar(9),in)
(ex,ey,ez, gxy,gyz,gxz, nuxy,nuyz,nuxz)
(dp,ar(1),in)
if ncomp=1 (ex)
(dp,ar(ncomp,ncomp),in)- elastic stress-strain matrix
(int,sc,in)
- request key for tangent matrix formation
(=1, form tangent .ne.1, do not form)

temperature at the end of this substep
temperature increment over this substep
temperature offset from absolute zero
fluence at the end of this substep
fluence increment over this substep

statev
usvr

(dp,ar(ncomp,6),inout)- state variables from previous substep
(dp,ar(nuval,nintp),inout)- additional state variables from
previous equilibrium iteration (saved
if the nsvr command is used)

epeq
plwork

(dp,sc,inout)
(dp,sc,inout)

output arguments:
variable (type,sze,intent)

- effective plastic strain from prev substep
- accumulated plastic work from prev substep

description

epel
eppl

(dp,ar(ncomp),inout)- elastic strain
(dp,ar(ncomp),inout)- updated plastic strain

statev
usvr

(dp,ar(ncomp,6),inout)- updated state variables
(dp,ar(nuval,nintp),inout)- updated additional state variables

epeq
plwork

(dp,sc,inout)
(dp,sc,inout)

- updated effective plastic strain
- updated accumulated plastic work

sigepl
sigrat
depeq

(dp,sc,out)
(dp,sc,out)
(dp,sc,out)

- stress value on stress-strain curve at epeq
- ratio of trial stress to yield stress
- increment in plastic strain (equivalent)
(used for auto time stepping - time step
is reduced if it exceeds .05)

dt

(dp,ar(ncomp,ncomp),out)- material tangent modulus

fortran parameters (to be defined by the user):
variable (type)
description
numinp
(int)
- number of data items in the user-defined
data table (tbdat commands)
nuval
(int)
- number of additional state variables per
integration point

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11

Subroutines
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c

nintp

note:

(int)

- maximum number of integration points of
an element to be used with this routine
(14 is the maximum)
nuval x nintp = nstv(on nsvr command); cannot exceed 840!

internal variables:
variable (type,sze)
b
(dp,ar(6,6))
c
(dp,ar(6,12))
con
(dp,sc)
deppl
(dp,ar(6))
dfds
(dp,ar(6))
dlamb
(dp,sc)
ep
(dp,ar(6))
epshfo
(dp,ar(6))
epshft
(dp,ar(6))
et
(dp,sc)
h
(dp,sc)
n2
(int,sc)
seqtr
(dp,sc)
sigtr
(dp,ar(6))
sigy
(dp,sc)
vect
(dp,ar(6))

description
- 2nd derivative of the yield function
- part of deff
- temporary variable
- plastic strain increment
- derivative of the yield function (normal)
- plastic multiplier
- shifted strain
- initial shift strain (center of the yield surf)
- shift strain (center of the yield surface)
- tangent modulus (stress/total strain)
- plastic tangent modulus (stress/plastic strain)
- ncomp squared, ncomp*ncomp
- equivalent (von mises) trial stress
- trial stress
- yield stress
- temporary vector

2.3. Subroutine UserVisLaw (Defining Viscosity Laws)
*deck,UserVisLaw
USERSDISTRIB
subroutine UserVisLaw
x (dudx,dudy,dudz,
x dvdx,dvdy,dvdz,
x dwdx,dwdy,dwdz,
x u,v,w,x,y,z,kGeom,
x Vis,Temp,Tref,Pres,Pref,Cf,
x MFrac,DfNSpec,Time,VisNew,toffst)

2.4. Subroutine usflex (Computes the flexibility factor for PIPE16 and
PIPE18)
Legacy pipe elements PIPE16 and PIPE18 are described in Part IV: Legacy Elements (p. 85).
*deck,usflex
USERSDISTRIB
subroutine usflex (etype,elem,rvrm,kff,prs,ex, flexi,flexo)
c *** primary function:
to (re)compute the flexibility factor
c
for pipe16, pipe17, pipe18, and pipe60
c
this is accessed by inputting the flexibility factor
c
as any negative number.
c *** secondary functions: none
c
c *** Notice - This file contains ANSYS Confidential information ***
c
c
*** Copyright ANSYS. All Rights Reserved.
c
*** ansys, inc.
c
c
typ=int,dp,log,chr,dcp
siz=sc,ar(n)
intent=in,out,inout
c
c input arguments:
c
variable (typ,siz,intent)
description
c
etype
(int,sc,in)
- pipe element type (16, 17, 18 or 60)
c
elem
(int,sc,in)
- element number
c
rvrm
(dp,ar(*),in)
- real constants
c
kff
(int,sc,in)
- keyopt for flexibility factor
c
(not used for pipe16 or pipe17)
c
prs
(dp,ar(5),in)
- pressures

12

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Subroutine usflex (Computes the flexibility factor for PIPE16 and PIPE18)
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c

ex
flexi
flexo

(dp,sc,in)
(dp,sc,inout)
(dp,sc,inout)

output arguments:
variable (typ,siz,intent)
flexi
(dp,sc,inout)
flexo
(dp,sc,inout)

- young's Modulus
- effective in-plane flexibility factor
- effective out-of-plane flexibility factor
(not used for pipe16 or pipe17)

description
- effective in-plane flexibility factor
- effective out-of-plane flexibility factor
(not used for pipe16 or pipe17)

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13

14

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 3: Restarting a Direct Coupled-Field Analysis
To restart a direct coupled-field analysis, ANSYS Inc. recommends using a singleframe restart. Direct
coupled-field analyses use a coupled-field element containing all necessary degrees of freedom. See
the Coupled-Field Analysis Guide for more information on this type of coupled-field analysis.

3.1. Singleframe Restart
A traditional restart requires that certain files from the initial run of the job are present, and requires
that you make any changes to the input before the SOLVE command.

3.1.1. Singleframe Restart Requirements
When restarting from a static or full transient analysis, the following files must be available from the
initial run:
• Jobname.DB - The database file saved immediately after the initial SOLVE. If you save the database
at any point later in the analysis, boundary conditions and other variables may be changed from their
initial values, which would prevent the restart from running properly. (For non-converged solutions,
the database file is saved automatically; see the note below.)
• Jobname.EMAT - Element matrices (if created).
• Jobname.ESAV or .OSAV - Element saved data (.ESAV) or old element saved data (.OSAV). Jobname.OSAV is required only if the .ESAV file is missing, incomplete, or otherwise corrupted because
of a diverging solution; because the displacement limit was exceeded; or because of a negative pivot
(see Table 3.1: Restart Information for Nonlinear Analyses (p. 16)). It is written if KSTOP is set to 1
(default) or 2 on the NCNV command, or if automatic time stepping is active. If the .OSAV file is required, you must rename it as Jobname.ESAV before restarting the analysis.
• Results file - Not required, but if available, results from the restart run will be appended to it with
the proper, sequential load step and substep numbers. If the initial run terminated because the
number of results sets on the results file were exceeded, you will need to rename the initial results
file to a different name before restarting. To do so, issue the /ASSIGN command (Utility Menu> File>
ANSYS File Options).
When restarting from a mode-superposition transient analysis, the following files must be available
from the initial run:
• Jobname.DB -- The database file saved immediately after the initial solve operation (SOLVE). If you save
the database at any point later in the analysis, boundary conditions and other variables may be changed
from their initial values, which would prevent the restart from running properly.

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15

Restarting a Direct Coupled-Field Analysis
• Jobname.RDSP -- The reduced displacement file with information from the last substep of the last load
step needed for restart.

Note
In a nonlinear analysis, if the program terminates due to nonconvergence, time limits, the
abort file (Jobname.ABT), or other program-detected failure, the database is automatically
saved, and the solution output (Jobname.OUT) will list the files and other information required for restarting. See also Table 3.1: Restart Information for Nonlinear Analyses (p. 16)
for a list of termination causes and the element saved data file needed to restart.
If the files .RDB, .LDHI, or .Rnnn/.Mnnn were accidentally created from a previous run,
you must delete them before performing a singleframe restart.
In interactive mode, an existing database file is first written to a backup file (Jobname.DBB).
In batch mode, an existing database file is replaced by the current database information with
no backup.
Table 3.1: Restart Information for Nonlinear Analyses
Cause of Termination

Element Saved
Data File

Normal (i.e., no errors)

Jobname.ESAV

Add more load steps at the end of your job.

Nonconvergence

Jobname.OSAV

Define a smaller time step, change the adaptive
descent option, or take other action to enhance
convergence. Rename Jobname.OSAV as Jobname.ESAV before restarting.

Nonconvergence due to
insufficient equilibrium
iterations

Jobname.ESAV

If the solution was converging, allow more equilibrium equations (NEQIT command).

Cumulative iteration
limit exceeded (NCNV
command)

Jobname.ESAV

Increase ITLIM on NCNV command.

Time limit exceeded
(NCNV)

Jobname.ESAV

None (simply restart the analysis). (If you were running the analysis interactively and you want to restart it from within the same ANSYS session, you
must reset the time limits before attempting the
restart.)

Displacement limit exceeded (NCNV)

Jobname.OSAV

(Same as for nonconvergence.)

Negative pivot

Jobname.OSAV

(Same as for nonconvergence.)

Jobname.ABT

Jobname.ESAV,
• if solution was conver- Jobging
name.OSAV

Required Corrective Action

Make whatever changes are necessary to address
the behavior that caused you to voluntarily terminate the analysis.

• if solution was diverging

16

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Singleframe Restart
Cause of Termination

Element Saved
Data File

"Killed" job (system
break), system crash, or
system time-limit exceeded

Not applicable

Required Corrective Action
No restart is possible.

Note
Singleframe restart does not support surface-to-surface, node-to-surface, line-to-line, or lineto-surface contact. Use multiframe restart if your model contains any of the following contact
elements: CONTA171, CONTA172, CONTA173, CONTA174, CONTA175, CONTA176, CONTA177.

3.1.2. Singleframe Restart Procedure
If you are performing a mode-superposition transient analysis, ANSYS sets up the parameters for a
singleframe restart by default.
The procedure for performing the restart analysis is as follows:
1. Enter the ANSYS program and specify the same jobname that was used in the initial run with /FILNAME (Utility Menu> File> Change Jobname).
2. Enter the SOLUTION processor using /SOLU (Main Menu> Solution), then resume the database file
using RESUME (Utility Menu> File> Resume Jobname.db).
3. Indicate that this is a restart analysis by issuing ANTYPE,,REST (Main Menu> Solution> Restart).
4. Specify revised or additional loads as needed. Modified ramped loads start from their previous values.
Newly applied ramped loads are ramped from zero; newly applied body loads start from initial values.
Deleted loads which are reapplied are treated as new, not modified, loads. In static and full transient
analyses, surface and body loads to be deleted should be ramped to zero, or to the initial value, so
that the Jobname.ESAV and Jobname.OSAV files are consistent with the database.
For a mode-superposition transient analysis, steps 5, 6, 7, and 8 below do not apply.
Take whatever corrective action is necessary if you are restarting from a convergence failure.
5. If you are running a linear static or linear full transient analysis (with AUTOTS,OFF and the timestep
fixed) using the sparse solver, you can realize additional savings by using the KeepFile field on
the EQSLV command. Setting KeepFile = KEEP on your initial solve will force ANSYS to keep all
necessary files from the sparse solver in the working directory. In the subsequent singleframe restart,
the sparse matrix files are available for reuse in conjunction with KUSE,1 (Main Menu> Preprocessor>
Loads> Other> Reuse LN22 Matrix).
By default, the ANSYS program calculates a new factorized matrix for the first load step of a
restart run. By issuing the KUSE,1 command, you can force the program to reuse the existing
matrix at the first solve of the restart and at all subsequent solves, thereby saving a significant
amount of computer time. However, you can reuse factorized files such as Jobname.LNxx
only under certain conditions, in particular if the specified DOF constraints have not changed
and it is a linear analysis. See the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for details.

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17

Restarting a Direct Coupled-Field Analysis
By issuing KUSE,-1, you can cause ANSYS to redo the element matrices. This can be useful for
debugging analyses and for handling error cases.
Sometimes, you may have to analyze the same model for different constraint conditions, for
instance a quarter-symmetry model with symmetry-symmetry (SS), symmetry-antisymmetry
(SA), antisymmetry-symmetry (AS), and antisymmetry-antisymmetry (AA) conditions. In such a
situation, keep the following points in mind:
• All four cases (SS, SA, AS, AA) require a new factorized matrix.
• You can use substructuring (with the constrained nodes as master DOF) to minimize computing
time. (See Substructuring in the Advanced Analysis Guide.)
6. Initiate the restart solution by issuing the SOLVE command. (See Obtaining the Solution for details.)
7. Repeat steps 4 and 6 for additional load steps, if any. For static and full transient analyses, you can
also use the load step file method to create and solve multiple load steps (not supported for mode
superposition transient analyses). Use the following commands:
Command(s): LSWRITE
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Write LS File
Main Menu> Solution> Write LS File
Command(s): LSSOLVE
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> From LS Files
8. Postprocess as desired, then exit the ANSYS program.
A sample restart input listing is shown below.
! Restart run:
/FILNAME,...
! Jobname
RESUME
/SOLU
ANTYPE,,REST
! Specify restart of previous analysis
!
! Specify new loads, new load step options, etc.
! Take appropriate corrective action for nonlinear analyses.
!
SOLVE
! Initiate restart solution
SAVE
! Optional SAVE for possible subsequent singleframe restart
FINISH
!
! Postprocess as desired
!
/EXIT,NOSAV

3.1.3. Restarting a Nonlinear Analysis From an Incompatible Database
Sometimes, postprocessing is performed prior to a restart. If you issue SET and SAVE commands during
this postprocessing, the boundary conditions in your database might be altered and become inconsistent
with those needed for a restart. By default, the program saves your file automatically when you exit. At
the end of solution, the boundary conditions for the last load step are stored in the database memory.
(The database contains only one set of boundary conditions.)
A SET command in POST1 (other than SET,LAST) reads the boundary conditions for the specified results
into the database, and overwrites the database stored in memory. If you subsequently save your file or
exit, ANSYS overwrites the boundary conditions in the database file with the D's and F's from the current
results file. However, to perform a restart which ramps boundary conditions from the last solved substep,
you need the boundary conditions for the last successfully solved load substep.

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Singleframe Restart

3.1.3.1. Re-establishing Boundary Conditions
To re-establish the correct boundary conditions for the restart, first run a "dummy" load step. The procedure is as follows:
1. Rename Jobname.OSAV as Jobname.ESAV.
2. Enter the ANSYS program and specify the same jobname that was used in the initial run with /FILNAME (Utility Menu> File> Change Jobname).
3. Enter the SOLUTION processor using /SOLU (Main Menu> Solution), then resume the database file
using RESUME (Utility Menu> File> Resume Jobname.db).
4. Indicate that this is a restart analysis by issuing ANTYPE,,REST (Main Menu> Solution> Restart).
5. Respecify boundary conditions from the last substep that was successfully solved. One substep is
sufficient since the solution will converge immediately.
6. Issue SOLVE (Main Menu> Solution> Current LS or Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN).
7. Apply final loads and load step options as desired. You will need to adjust the number of substeps
(or time step size) if this load step is a "continuation" of the previous (before the dummy) load step.
Time step numbering may be altered from your initial intent. Use a small time increment in step 6
if you need to preserve the time step numbering (such as for a transient analysis).
8. Continue the procedure as outlined in Restarting an Analysis.

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Chapter 4: Partial Solution Procedure
When you initiate a solution, the ANSYS program goes through a predefined series of steps to calculate
the solution; it formulates element matrices, triangularizes matrices, and so on. The partial solution
procedure, which is initiated by the PSOLVE command, allows you to exercise each such step individually,
completing just a portion of the solution sequence each time. (The PSOLVE command is described in
Part II: Legacy Commands (p. 29).) For example, you can stop at the element matrix formulation step
and go down a different path to perform inertia relief calculations. Or, you can stop at the Guyan reduction step (matrix reduction) and go on to calculate reduced eigenvalues.
Some possible uses of the PSOLVE approach are listed below.
• You can use the results of an intermediate solution step as input to another software package or
user-written program.
• If you are interested just in inertia relief calculations or some such intermediate result, the PSOLVE
approach is useful.
The following topics concerning the partial solution procedure are available:
4.1. Partial Inertia Relief Calculations
4.2. Comparison of Linear Perturbation and Partial Solution Procedures

4.1. Partial Inertia Relief Calculations
You can do a partial inertia relief calculation using the PSOLVE command (PSOLVE is described in
Part II: Legacy Commands (p. 29)). Use the partial solution method as shown in the command input
below:
/PREP7
...
...
MP,DENS,...
...
...
FINISH
/SOLU
D,...
F,...
SF,...
OUTPR,ALL,ALL
IRLF,1
PSOLVE,ELFORM
PSOLVE,ELPREP
IRLIST
FINISH

! Generate model, define density

! Specify only minimum no. of constraints
! Other loads
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

Activates printout of all items
Can also be set to -1 for precise mass and
load summary only, no inertia relief
Calculates element matrices
Modifies element matrices and calculates
inertia relief terms
Lists the mass summary and total load summary tables

See the OUTPR, IRLF, and IRLIST commands in the Command Reference. See also the PSOLVE command
in Part II: Legacy Commands (p. 29).

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21

Partial Solution Procedure

4.2. Comparison of Linear Perturbation and Partial Solution Procedures
A partial solution procedure (PSOLVE) is available for performing a mode frequency analysis based on
prior linear or nonlinear static or full transient analyses. The procedure can be used when the base
analysis is a small-deflection analysis, and is similar to a prestressed modal analysis.
However, the partial solution procedure has limitations when compared to the linear perturbation
procedure. Therefore, it is recommended that you use the linear perturbation procedure instead. The
following table outlines the advantages of the linear perturbation procedure.
Table 4.1: Linear Perturbation vs. Partial Solution Procedures
Linear Perturbation Procedure

Partial Solution Procedure

A modal analysis can be done at any time point A modal analysis can be done only at the last
during the prior analysis as long as the multisubstep of the last load step of the prior analysframe restart file is made available.
is.
The stress expansion pass uses linear material
properties and is always allowed.

The stress expansion pass is done assuming the
material property is linear for the entire model.
If it contains hyperelasticity or another nonlinear
material that does not have an easy segregation
from the linear material property in the constitutive law, the stress expansion pass is not
allowed.

All nonlinear effects, including history dependent and large rotation effects, are taken into
consideration and handled consistently, guaranteeing correct results for the linear perturbation
analysis.

The stress expansion pass does not have any
effects of the previous nonlinear analysis; any
nonlinear history-dependent properties and
large rotation effects are lost.

The nodal coordinate update is done automat- The nodal coordinate update for the original
mesh is done by an external UPCOORD comically at the beginning of the second phase of
the solution; the stress expansion is done based mand (and is optional).
on the updated geometry.
All prestress effects are included automatically
(independent of PSTRES, OMEGA, or CMOMEGA command settings) in the phases of a
linear perturbation analysis. Also, even though
the base analysis is linear, the prestress effects
are still taken into account in the subsequent
linear perturbation analysis.

All prestress and spin-softening effects are invoked by the commands PSTRES, OMEGA, and
CMOMEGA at the earlier stage of the analysis,
as well as in the PSOLVE phase.

If the base analysis includes geometric nonlin- For the QRDAMP eigensolver, the solution may
earity (NLGEOM,ON), the solution accuracy from be less accurate compared to the UNSYM eigena QR damped (MODOPT,QRDAMP) linear persolver.
turbation analysis is greatly improved. The linear
perturbation architecture enables this improvement on the QRDAMP eigensolver.
The EMATWRITE command is unnecessary.

22

Requires knowing ahead of time that a
prestressed modal analysis is needed and requires the use of the EMATWRITE command
to force writing of the .EMAT file.

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Comparison of Linear Perturbation and Partial Solution Procedures
Linear Perturbation Procedure

Partial Solution Procedure

Eigenvalue buckling analysis is supported. The
base analysis can a be linear or nonlinear, and
can be a static or full transient analysis.

Eigenvalue buckling analysis is not supported

Full harmonic analysis is supported, including
stress/strain calculations during the harmonic
substeps. The contact status from the base
analysis is frozen and maintained in the full
harmonic phase of the analysis.

Full harmonic analysis is not fully supported.

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Chapter 5: Surface Solution
Surface output is available in the output listing on certain free surfaces of legacy solid elements. A free
surface is a surface not connected to any other element and not having any degree-of-freedom constraint
or nodal force load on the surface.
Surface Output Limitations
The following limitations apply to surface output:
• Not valid on surfaces which are not free or for elements having nonlinear material properties
• Not valid for elements deactivated (EKILL) and then reactivated (EALIVE)
• Does not include large-strain effects
The surface output is automatically suppressed if the element has nonlinear material properties. Surface
calculations are of the same accuracy as the displacement calculations. Values are not extrapolated to
the surface from the integration points but are calculated from the nodal displacements, face load, and
the material property relationships. Transverse surface shear stresses are assumed to be zero. The surface
normal stress is set equal to the surface pressure. Surface output should not be requested on condensed
faces or on the zero-radius face (center line) of an axisymmetric model.
For 3-D solid elements, the face coordinate system has the x-axis in the same general direction as the
first two nodes of the face, as defined with pressure loading. The exact direction of the x-axis is on the
line connecting the midside nodes or midpoints of the two opposite edges. The y-axis is normal to the
x-axis, in the plane of the face.
The following table lists output available via the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number
method (Item = SURF). See the appropriate table in the individual element descriptions for definitions
of the output quantities.
Table 5.1: Output Available via ETABLE
Element Dimensionality
snum

3-D

2-D

Axisymm

1

FACE

FACE

FACE

2

AREA

AREA

AREA

3

TEMP

TEMP

TEMP

4

PRES

PRES

PRES

5

EPX

EPPAR

EPPAR

6

EPY

EPPER

EPPER

7

EPZ

EPZ

EPZ

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25

Surface Solution
Element Dimensionality
snum

3-D

2-D

Axisymm

8

EPXY

0

EPSH [1]

9

SX

SPAR

SPAR

10

SY

SPER

SPER

11

SZ

SZ

SZ

12

SXY

0

0

13

0

0

0

14

0

0

SSH [1]

15

S1

S1

S1

16

S2

S2

S2

17

S3

S3

S3

18

SINT

SINT

SINT

19

SEQV

SEQV

SEQV

1. Axiharmonic only
If an additional face has surface output requested, then snum 1-19 are repeated as snum 20-38.
Convection heat flow output may be given on convection surfaces of solid thermal elements. Output
is valid on interior as well as exterior surfaces. Convection conditions should not be defined on condensed
faces or on the zero-radius face (center line) of an axisymmetric model.

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Chapter 6: Reduced Modal Analysis Procedure
The reduced modal analysis is an archived feature requiring use of the following command:
MODOPT, Method, NMODE, FREQB, FREQE, PRMODE, Nrmkey, --, BlockSize, --, --, Scalekey
.
For a reduced modal analysis, use the MODOPT command as described in the Command Reference with
the following exceptions:
• Set Method = REDUC.
• For the reduced method, NMODE defaults to the number of master DOFs. It is recommended that
you set NMODE to less than half of the number of master DOFs.
• PRMODE is the number of reduced modes to print.
To perform a reduced modal analysis, follow the general procedures outlined in Modal Analysis in the
Structural Analysis Guide.
During the step “Define Analysis Type and Options”, follow these instructions for a reduced modal
analysis:
• When specifying the mode extraction method, issue the command MODOPT,REDUC to specify the reduced
(Householder) mode extraction method.
• Define master degrees of freedom (M and MGEN commands).
Master degrees of freedom (MDOFs) are significant degrees of freedom that characterize the dynamic
behavior of the structure. Generally, you should select at least twice as many MDOFs as the number
of modes of interest. ANSYS, Inc. recommends that you define as many MDOFs as you can, based on
your knowledge of the dynamic characteristics of the structure. You can list the defined MDOFs
(MLIST) and delete extraneous MDOFs (MDELE).
The following example input demonstrates a typical modal analysis procedure:
/PREP7
/TITLE, VIBRATION OF A
C***
USING HARMONIC
C***
(FLUID81 IS AN
ANTYPE,MODAL
MODOPT,REDUC
ET,1,FLUID81
ET,2,COMBIN14,,,2
R,2,10
MP,EX,1,3E5
MP,DENS,1,934E-7
N,1,7
N,2,8
N,3,8,1
N,4,7,1
N,11
N,14,,1
E,1,2,3,4

FLUID COUPLING
FLUID ELEMENTS (FLUID81)
ARCHIVED ELEMENT)
! MODE-FREQUENCY ANALYSIS

! 2-D LONGITUDINAL SPRING
! HARMONIC SPRING CONSTANT

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27

Reduced Modal Analysis Procedure
TYPE,2
REAL,2
E,11,1
! TYPE 2 ELEMENTS WITH REAL CONSTANT 2
E,14,4
NSEL,S,LOC,X,7
CP,1,UX,ALL
! APPROPRIATE NODAL DISPLACEMENTS COUPLED
NSEL,S,NODE,,1,4
CP,2,UZ,ALL
NSEL,ALL
M,1,UX
MODE,1
NSEL,S,LOC,X,8
D,ALL,UX
! APPLY DISPLACEMENT CONSTRAINTS
NSEL,S,NODE,,1,4
D,ALL,UY
NSEL,S,LOC,X,0
D,ALL,ALL
NSEL,ALL
FINISH
/SOLU
SOLVE
FINI
/POST1
*GET,F2,MODE,1,FREQ
*DIM,LABEL,CHAR,1,2
*DIM,VALUE,,1,3
LABEL(1,1) = 'f FLD81 '
LABEL(1,2) = 'Hz'
*VFILL,VALUE(1,1),DATA,1.5293
*VFILL,VALUE(1,2),DATA,F2
*VFILL,VALUE(1,3),DATA,ABS(F2/1.5293)
/COM
/OUT,example_reduced,vrt
/COM,------------------- RESULTS COMPARISON ------------/COM,
/COM,
|
TARGET
|
ANSYS
|
RATIO
/COM,
*VWRITE,LABEL(1,1),LABEL(1,2),VALUE(1,1),VALUE(1,2),VALUE(1,3)
(1X,A8,A8,'
',F11.4,' ',F11.4,'
',1F6.3)
/COM,---------------------------------------------------------/OUT
FINISH
*LIST,example_reduced,vrt

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Part II: Legacy Commands
Following is the archived documentation for legacy commands.

BELLOW, NLOC, LENG, STIFF, FLEX, ELEM
Defines a bellows in a piping run.
PREP7:Piping
MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
NLOC
Node where bellows is to be placed. Defaults to current run starting point (RUN).
LENG
Length of bellows (defaults to average pipe OD).
STIFF
Axial stiffness value (defaults to that of equivalent straight pipe).
FLEX
Bending flexibility factor (defaults to 1.0).
ELEM
Element number to be assigned to bellows (defaults to the previous maximum element number (MAXEL)
+ 1).

Notes
Defines a bellows (straight-pipe element PIPE16 with adjusted specifications and loadings) at a given
location in a piping run.

Menu Paths
This command cannot be accessed from a menu.

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BEND, NEL1, NEL2, RAD, NDIV, ESTRT, EINC
Defines a bend in a piping run.
PREP7:Piping
MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
NEL1, NEL2
Element numbers of the two intersecting straight pipes. Defaults to the last two straight pipe elements
nearest the intersection of the last two runs.
RAD
Bend radius. If LR, use long radius standard (1.5 x nominal diameter) (default). If SR, use short radius
standard (1.0 x nominal diameter).
NDIV
Number of divisions (elements) along bend (defaults to 2). A node is generated at the end of each division.
ESTRT
Number to be assigned to first element of bend (defaults to MAXEL + 1).
EINC
Element number increment (defaults to 1).

Notes
Defines a bend of curved (elbow) pipe elements (PIPE18) in place of the intersection of two previously
defined straight pipe elements (RUN). Two new nodes are generated at the ends of the bend (at the
tangency points). A node is also generated at the center of curvature point. The two straight pipes are
automatically "shortened" to meet the ends of the bend. The bend specifications and loadings are taken
from the corresponding two straight pipes. The flexibility factors are calculated from the internal pressure
and EX (evaluated at TAVE) based on the current PPRES and PTEMP command specifications when the
element is generated.

Menu Paths
This command cannot be accessed from a menu.

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BRANCH, NODE, X, Y, Z
Defines the starting point for a piping branch.
PREP7:Piping
MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
NODE
Start branch at this node.
X, Y, Z
Start branch at this location (in the active coordinate system). Used only if NODE is not input or input
but the node itself is not previously defined. In either case a node is generated at this location and assigned the number NODE (or 1 + previous maximum node number if NODE is not input).

Notes
See the RUN command in Part II: Legacy Commands (p. 29) for information relating to piping models.

Menu Paths
This command cannot be accessed from a menu.

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FLANGE, NLOC, LENG, MASS, SIF, FLEX, ARINS, ELEM
Defines a flange in a piping run.
PREP7:Piping
MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
NLOC
Node where flange is to be placed (as described below). Defaults to current piping run starting point.
LENG
Length of flange (defaults to larger pipe OD).
MASS
Dry mass (weight/gravity) of flange without insulation (defaults to equivalent straight pipe mass). Note
that acceleration [ACEL] must be nonzero for weight to be calculated.
SIF
Stress intensification factor (defaults to 1.0).
FLEX
Bending flexibility factor (defaults to 1.0).
ARINS
Insulation surface area (defaults to equivalent straight pipe insulation area). Units (length2) must be
consistent with the smallest unit of the system used (not mixed) regardless of the PUNIT option.
ELEM
Element number to be assigned to flange (defaults to the previous maximum element number (MAXEL)
+ 1).

Notes
Defines a flange (straight-pipe element PIPE16 with adjusted specifications and loadings) at a given
location in a piping run. (See the RUN command, and other commands described here, in Part II: Legacy
Commands (p. 29).)
The FLANGE command is similar to the VALVE command except for a different flexibility factor default.
The location may be 1) between two adjacent colinear straight pipes, 2) between an adjacent straight
pipe and a different piping component, or 3) at the end of a straight pipe.
For Case 1, two new nodes are generated at the ends of the flange. The two straight pipes are automatically "shortened" to meet the ends of the flange. The flange specifications and loadings are taken from
the corresponding two straight pipes.
For Case 2, one new node is generated at one end of the flange. The straight pipe is automatically
"shortened" to meet this end of the flange. The other end of the flange meets the other piping component. The flange specifications and loadings are taken from the straight pipe.
For Case 3, one new node is generated at the free end of the flange. The other end of the flange meets
the straight pipe. The flange specifications and loadings are taken from the straight pipe.

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FLANGE

Menu Paths
This command cannot be accessed from a menu.

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MITER, NEL1, NEL2, RAD, NDIV, ESTRT, EINC
Defines a mitered bend in a piping run.
PREP7:Piping
MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
NEL1, NEL2
Element numbers of the two intersecting straight pipes. Defaults to the last two straight pipe elements
nearest the intersection of the last two runs.
RAD
Bend radius. If LR, use long radius standard (1.5 x OD) (default). If SR, use short radius standard (1.0 x
OD).
NDIV
Number of divisions (elements) along bend (defaults to 2). A node is generated at the end of each division.
ESTRT
Number to be assigned to first element of bend (defaults to MAXEL + 1).
EINC
Element number increment (defaults to 1).

Notes
Defines a mitered bend of piecewise straight-pipe PIPE16 elements in place of the intersection of two
previously defined straight pipe elements (RUN). This command is similar to the BEND command except
that straight pipe elements are used to form the bend instead of curved (elbow) elements. (See the
RUN and BEND command descriptions in Part II: Legacy Commands (p. 29).)

Menu Paths
This command cannot be accessed from a menu.

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PCORRO, CTK
Specifies the allowable exterior corrosion thickness for a piping run.
PREP7:Piping
MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
CTK
Allowable corrosion thickness.

Notes
Specifies the allowable exterior corrosion thickness for a piping run. (See the RUN command description
in Part II: Legacy Commands (p. 29).)

Menu Paths
This command cannot be accessed from a menu.

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PDRAG, PX1, PY1, PZ1, H1, PX2, PY2, PZ2, H2, Kcord
Defines the external fluid drag loading for a piping run.
PREP7:Piping
MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
PX1, PY1, PZ1
External fluid drag pressure (global Cartesian components) at height H1.
H1
Height (along Kcord coordinate) for first drag pressure.
PX2, PY2, PZ2
External fluid drag pressure (global Cartesian components) at height H2.
H2
Height (along Kcord coordinate) for second drag pressure.
Kcord
Coordinate direction for height value (in the global Cartesian coordinate system):
X
X coordinate.
Y
Y coordinate (default).
Z
Z coordinate.

Notes
Defines the external fluid drag loading (pressure) as a function of height for a piping run. (See the RUN
command description in Part II: Legacy Commands (p. 29).) The element drag pressure is determined
from the centroid height and linear interpolation. Pressures are assigned to the elements as they are
generated.

Menu Paths
This command cannot be accessed from a menu.

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PFLUID, DENS
Defines the contained fluid density for a piping run.
PREP7:Piping
MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
DENS
Density of the contained fluid.

Notes
See the RUN command description in Part II: Legacy Commands (p. 29).
Distributed ANSYS Restriction

This command is not supported in Distributed ANSYS.

Menu Paths
This command cannot be accessed from a menu.

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PGAP, NLOC, K, DX, DY, DZ, GAP, ELEM
Defines a spring-gap constraint in a piping run.
PREP7:Piping
MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
NLOC
Node where gap is to be placed. Defaults to current run starting point.
K
Spring constant value (must be positive).
DX, DY, DZ
Increment (in terms of the active coordinate system components) to determine gap ground point. Element
length must not be zero. Constraints are automatically generated at the ground point.
GAP
Gap size (defaults to the element length).
ELEM
Element number to be assigned to gap (defaults to MAXEL + 1).

Notes
Defines a spring-gap constraint (gap element CONTAC52) at a given location in a piping run. Gives
spring constraint resistance after a specified gap is closed. (See the RUN command description in
Part II: Legacy Commands (p. 29).)

Menu Paths
This command cannot be accessed from a menu.

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PINSUL, DENS, ITK
Defines the external insulation constants in a piping run.
PREP7:Piping
MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
DENS
Insulation density.
ITK
Insulation thickness.

Command Default
No insulation.

Notes
Defines the external insulation constants in a piping run. (See the RUN command description in
Part II: Legacy Commands (p. 29).)

Menu Paths
This command cannot be accessed from a menu.

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PIPE
Specifies "Pipe modeling" as the subsequent status topic.
PREP7:Status
MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> FL EM EH DY PP EME MFS

Notes
This is a status topic command. If status is requested for some items, it appears in the log file (Jobname.LOG). This command should be followed immediately by a STAT command, which reports the
status for the specified topic.

Menu Paths
This command cannot be accessed from a menu.

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POPT, Lop1
Selects the piping analysis standard for a piping run.
PREP7:Piping
MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
Lop1
Option label:
B31.1
for ANSI B31.1.
NC
for ASME Section III NC, Class 2.

Command Default
ANSI B31.1.

Notes
Selects the piping analysis standard for a piping run (RUN). Affects only the flexibility and stress intensification factors applied to the curved pipe elements. (See the RUN command description in
Part II: Legacy Commands (p. 29).)

Menu Paths
This command cannot be accessed from a menu.

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PPRES, PRESS
Defines the internal pressure for a piping run.
PREP7:Piping
MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
PRESS
Pipe internal pressure.

Notes
Defines the pipe internal pressure for a piping run (RUN). These pressures are assigned to the elements
as they are generated. (See the RUN command description in Part II: Legacy Commands (p. 29).)

Menu Paths
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PSOLVE, Lab, Rkey
Directs the program to perform a partial solution.
SOLUTION: Analysis Options
MP ME ST <> PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
Lab
Valid labels defining the solution step. All characters are required:
EIGDAMP
Calculates the eigenvalues and eigenvectors using the damped eigensolver. Requires Jobname.FULL
from MODOPT,UNSYM or MODOPT,DAMP options. Produces Jobname.MODE.
EIGQRDA
Calculates eigenvalues and eigenvectors using the QR damped eigensolver. Requires Jobname.EMAT
from MODOPT,QRDAMP option. Produces Jobname.MODE.
EIGEXP
Expands the eigenvector solution. Requires Jobname.ESAV and Jobname.MODE. Produces Jobname.RST.
EIGLANB
Calculates the eigenvalues and eigenvectors using Block Lanczos. Requires Jobname.EMAT from
MODOPT,LANB option. Produces Jobname.MODE.
EIGLANPCG
Calculates the eigenvalues and eigenvectors using PCG Lanczos. Requires Jobname.EMAT from
MODOPT,LANPCG option. Produces Jobname.MODE.
EIGSNODE
Calculates the eigenvalues and eigenvectors using the Supernode method. Requires Jobname.EMAT
from MODOPT,SNODE option. Produces Jobname.MODE. (See the MODOPT command for more
information on the SNODE modal solver.)
EIGUNSYM
Calculates the eigenvalues and eigenvectors using the unsymmetric eigensolver. Requires Jobname.EMAT from MODOPT,UNSYM or MODOPT,DAMP options. Produces Jobname.MODE.
ELFORM
Creates the element matrices. Produces Jobname.EMAT and Jobname.ESAV.

Note
If you want to include prestress effects (PSTRES,ON) from a previous prestress analysis, the ELFORM option requires the Jobname.EMAT and Jobname.ESAV files
generated by that analysis.
ELPREP
Modifies element matrices for solution and calculates inertia relief terms (IRLF). Requires Jobname.EMAT. Produces Jobname.EROT.

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PSOLVE
TRIANG
Triangularizes the matrices completely. This option is required prior to performing a partial solution
using the EIGREDUC option.
Rkey
Key for initial contact results:
CNDI
Write initial contact configuration to the results file. This option is only valid for Lab = ELFORM.

Notes
Directs the program to perform a partial solution (that is, one step of an analysis sequence). Predefined
analysis types (ANTYPE) perform a defined subset of these solution steps in a predefined sequence.
You can use the partial-solution procedure to repeat a certain step of an analysis or to restart an analysis.
Not all steps are valid for all analysis types. The order of the steps may vary depending on the result
you desire. See the Basic Analysis Guide for a description of how to perform partial and predefined
solutions.
An example of a prestressed modal analysis is given below. The Jobname.EMAT and Jobname.ESAV
files from a prior static analysis must be available.
The example is provided for illustration purposes only, as the linear perturbation analysis method is
recommended in place of this partial-solution method.
! Prestressed modal analysis
!
/SOLU
ANTYPE,MODAL
! Modal analysis
UPCOORD,1.0,ON
! Display mode shapes relative to deformed geometry
!
in the postprocessor.
PSTRES,ON
! Prestress effects ON
MODOPT,LANB
! Select eigensolver
PSOLVE,EIGLANB
! Calculate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors.
! EIGxxx label must be consistent with mode extraction method on MODOPT command.
FINISH
/SOLU
!Additional solution step for expansion.
EXPASS,ON
MXPAND,...
! Specify the number of modes to expand, if desired.
PSOLVE,EIGEXP
! Expand the eigenvector solution. (Required if you
!
want to review mode shapes in the postprocessor.)
FINISH

In a cyclic symmetry analysis, PSOLVE,EIGLANB or PSOLVE,EIGLANPCG performs the modal analysis at
multiple load steps, one for each nodal-diameter specified via the CYCOPT command. In addition, the
eigenvector solution is expanded at each nodal-diameter solution, eliminating the need for a separate
expansion pass (PSOLVE,EIGEXP).
If issuing PSOLVE,ELFORM and PSOLVE,ELPREP using the Jacobi Conjugate Gradient solver, do so only
after issuing PSOLVE,CGSOL; otherwise, unpredictable results may occur.
Although documented to work, using the PSOLVE commands with an iterative solver is not likely to
decrease solution-processing time.
If Jobname.EMAT is required, run the prior analysis with EMATWRITE,YES to ensure that a Jobname.EMAT is generated.
58

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PSOLVE
In a prestressed modal analysis, issue a PSOLVE,TRIANG command immediately before a PSOLVE,EIGREDUC command to ensure that ANSYS creates a proper .FULL file. The PSOLVE ,EIGUNSYM;
PSOLVE,EIGLANB; PSOLVE,EIGDAMP; PSOLVE,EIGQRDA; PSOLVE,EIGLANPCG; and PSOLVE,EIGSNODE
commands do not require a preceding PSOLVE,TRIANG command and should not be preceded by a
PSOLVE,TRIANG command.
Distributed ANSYS Restriction Only the EIGLANB, and EIGLANPCG options on this command are
supported in Distributed ANSYS.

Menu Paths
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PSPEC, MAT, DNOM, SCHED, OD, TK
Defines pipe material and dimensions.
PREP7:Piping
MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
MAT
Material number referring to a material property [MP]. Material number must be between 1 and 40.
DNOM, SCHED
Nominal diameter of pipe and schedule rating. Only valid ratings accepted. If these are specified, the
OD and TK values are found from an internal table.
Valid values for DNOM are: 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32,
34, and 36.
Valid ratings for SCHED are: 5, 5S, 10, 10S, 20, 30, 40, 40S, 60, 80 80S, 100, 120, 140, 160, XS, XXS,
and STD.
OD
Outer diameter of pipe (if DNOM not specified). If both DNOM and OD are not specified, OD and TK retain
their previous values.
TK
Wall thickness of pipe (if OD specified).

Notes
Defines pipe material and dimensions. (See the RUN command description in Part II: Legacy Commands (p. 29).)

Menu Paths
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PSPRNG, NLOC, TYPE, K, DX, DY, DZ, ELEM
Defines a spring constraint in a piping run.
PREP7:Piping
MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
NLOC
Node where spring is to be placed. Defaults to current run starting point.
TYPE
Type of spring:
TRAN
Translational (default).
ROT
Rotational.
K
Spring constant value (must be positive).
DX, DY, DZ
Increment (in terms of the active coordinate system components) to determine spring ground point.
Spring length must not be zero. Constraints are automatically generated at the ground point.
ELEM
Element number to be assigned to spring (defaults to the previous maximum element number (MAXEL
+ 1)).

Notes
Defines a spring constraint (spring element COMBIN14) at a given location in a piping run. (See the
RUN command description in Part II: Legacy Commands (p. 29).)

Menu Paths
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PTEMP, TOUT, TIN
Defines the pipe wall temperatures in a piping run.
PREP7:Piping
MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
TOUT
Outer pipe wall temperature. If NONE, reset temperature specification to none (BFUNIF will be assigned).
TIN
Inner pipe wall temperature (defaults to TOUT).

Command Default
Assign uniform temperature BFUNIF to elements.

Notes
Defines the pipe wall temperatures in a piping run. These temperatures are assigned to the elements
as they are generated. (See the RUN command description in Part II: Legacy Commands (p. 29).)

Menu Paths
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PUNIT, KOPT
Selects the system of length units to be used in a piping run.
PREP7:Piping
MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
KOPT
Units key:
0
Input units are consistent (no conversions are done) (default).
FTIN or 1
English units (feet A, inch B, fraction of inch C/D). Use A+B+C/D format for PDRAG, BRANCH, RUN,
BEND, MITER, REDUCE, VALVE, BELLOW, FLANGE, PSPRNG, and PGAP commands. Precede by "-'' sign
for negative coordinates. (Example: 5+6+7/16 for 5 ft. 6-7/16 in., +3 for 3 in., -0+3 for -3 in., +0+9/16
for 9/16 in.).
The two signs should not be consecutive. A, B, C, and D must be integers. Use B+C/D format
for PSPEC, PINSUL, and PCORRO commands. (Example: 2 for 2 in., 3+1/2 for 3-1/2 in., +3/8 for
3/8 in.)
METRIC or 2
Metric units (meter A, centimeter B, fraction of cm C/D). Use as explained for English units. (Example:
5+6+7/10 for 5 m 6-7/10 cm with PDRAG command.)

Command Default
Input units are consistent (no conversions are done).

Notes
Selects the system of length units to be used for the piping commands. Mixed length units require a
+ sign to delimit (or position) the units in the system and are converted to the smallest unit of the
system (inches or centimeters) upon input.
This conversion is local only to pure length units of the piping commands listed. Other units and units
for other commands must be input to be consistent with the smallest length unit of the system used.

Menu Paths
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REDUCE, NLOC, LENG, ELEM
Defines a reducer in a piping run.
PREP7:Piping
MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
NLOC
Node where two straight pipes intersect at center of reducer. Defaults to previous run starting point.
LENG
Length of reducer (defaults to average pipe OD).
ELEM
Element number to be assigned to reducer (defaults to MAXEL + 1).

Notes
Defines a reducer (straight-pipe element PIPE16 with averaged specifications) in place of the intersection
of two previously defined straight pipe elements in a piping run. (See the RUN command description
in Part II: Legacy Commands (p. 29).) Two new nodes are generated at the ends of the reducer. The two
straight pipes are automatically "shortened" to meet the ends of the reducer. The reducer specifications
and loadings are taken from the corresponding two straight pipes.

Menu Paths
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RUN, DX, DY, DZ, NDIV, NEND, ESTRT, EINC
Defines a pipe run.
PREP7:Piping
MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
DX, DY, DZ
Increment (in terms of the active coordinate system components) to determine run end point. Increment
is applied to branch starting point (BRANCH) or end point of previous run (whichever was later).
NDIV
Number of divisions (elements) along branch (defaults to 1). A node is generated at the end of each division.
NEND
Number to be assigned to end node of branch (defaults to MAXNP + NDIV).
ESTRT
Number to be assigned to first element of branch (defaults to the previous maximum element number
(MAXEL) + 1).
EINC
Element number increment (defaults to 1).

Notes
Defines a pipe run from a previous point to an incremental point. Nodes (and elements) are generated
straight (in the active coordinate system). Elements are of type PIPE16 straight pipes. Material properties,
real constants, and loads are derived from the previously defined piping specifications. Piping loads
and specifications are defined via PCORRO, PDRAG, PFLUID, PINSUL, POPT, PPRES, PSPEC, PTEMP, and
PUNIT commands.
Generated items may be listed (or displayed) with the standard commands (NLIST, ELIST, NPLOT,
EPLOT, ETLIST, RLIST, etc.).
Items may also be modified (NMODIF, EMODIF, RMODIF, etc.) or redefined as desired.
See Piping Models (p. 3) for more information.

Menu Paths
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SSTIF, Key
Activates stress stiffness effects in a nonlinear analysis.
SOLUTION: Nonlinear Options
MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
Key
Stress stiffening key:
OFF
No stress stiffening is included (default unless NLGEOM,ON).
ON
Stress stiffening is included (default if NLGEOM,ON).

Command Default
SSTIF will be turned on if NLGEOM,ON; otherwise it will be turned off.

Notes
Activates stress stiffness effects in a nonlinear analysis (ANTYPE,STATIC or TRANS). (The PSTRES command
also controls the generation of the stress stiffness matrix and therefore should not be used in conjunction
with SSTIF.) If used within the solution processor, this command is valid only within the first load step.
When SOLCONTROL and NLGEOM are ON, SSTIF defaults to ON. This normally forms all of the consistent
tangent matrix. However, for some special nonlinear cases, this can lead to divergence caused by some
elements which do not provide a complete consistent tangent (notably, elements outside the 18x
family). In such a case, ANSYS recommends issuing an SSTIF,OFF command to achieve convergence.
For current-technology elements, setting SSTIF,OFF when NLGEOM is ON has no effect (because stress
stiffness effects are always included).
The default values given for this command assume SOLCONTROL,ON (the default). See the description
of SOLCONTROL for a complete listing of the defaults set by SOLCONTROL,ON and SOLCONTROL,OFF.
This command is also valid in PREP7.

Menu Paths
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TEE, NCENT, TYPE, ELEM, EINC, L1, L2, L3
Defines a tee in a piping run.
PREP7:Piping
MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
NCENT
Node where three straight pipes intersect forming a tee (or "Y"). Defaults to last starting branch node
(BRANCH).
TYPE
Type of tee:
WT
Welding tee (default).
r = (D0 - tw) / 2
h = 4.4 tw/ r
SIF = 0.9 / (h2/3)
If (SIF < 1) SIF = 1
UFT
Unreinforced fabricated tee.
r = (D0 - tw) / 2
h = tw/ r
SIF = 0.9 / (h2/3)
If (SIF < 1) SIF = 1
ELEM
Element number to be assigned to first tee leg (defaults to the previous maximum element number
(MAXEL) + 1).
EINC
Element number increment (defaults to 1).
L1, L2, L3
Tee leg lengths (corresponding in order of increasing straight pipe element numbers). Must be less than
the straight pipe length. Defaults to 2 x OD of straight pipe (for each leg).

Notes
Defines a tee in place of the tee intersection of three previously defined straight pipe elements. (See
the RUN command description in Part II: Legacy Commands (p. 29).)

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TEE
The new tee is also composed of three PIPE16 straight pipe elements, but of the leg lengths specified
and with the appropriate tee factors calculated.
Three new nodes are generated at the ends of the tee.
The original three straight pipes are automatically "shortened" to meet the ends of the tee. The tee
specifications and loadings are taken from the corresponding three straight pipes.

Menu Paths
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VALVE, NLOC, LENG, MASS, SIF, FLEX, ARINS, ELEM
Defines a valve in a piping run.
PREP7:Piping
MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
NLOC
Node where valve is to be placed (as described below). Defaults to current run starting point.
LENG
Length of valve (defaults to larger pipe OD).
MASS
Dry mass (weight/gravity) of valve without insulation (defaults to equivalent straight pipe mass). Note,
acceleration (ACEL) must be nonzero for weight to be calculated.
SIF
Stress intensification factor (defaults to 1.0).
FLEX
Bending flexibility factor (defaults to 0.5).
ARINS
Insulation surface area (defaults to equivalent straight pipe insulation area). Units (length2) must be
consistent with the smallest unit of the system used (not mixed) regardless of the PUNIT option.
ELEM
Element number to be assigned to valve (defaults to the previous maximum element number (MAXEL)
+ 1).

Notes
Defines a valve (straight-pipe element PIPE16 with adjusted specifications and loadings) at a given
location in a piping run. (See the RUN command description in Part II: Legacy Commands (p. 29).) The
location may be 1) between two adjacent colinear straight pipes, 2) between an adjacent straight pipe
and a different piping component, or 3) at the end of a straight pipe.
For Case 1, two new nodes are generated at the ends of the valve. The two straight pipes are automatically "shortened" to meet the ends of the valve. The valve specifications and loadings are taken from
the corresponding two straight pipes.
For Case 2, one new node is generated at one end of the valve. The straight pipe is automatically
"shortened" to meet this end of the valve. The other end of the valve meets the other piping component.
The valve specifications and loadings are taken from the straight pipe.
For Case 3, one new node is generated at the free end of the valve. The other end of the valve meets
the straight pipe. The valve specifications and loadings are taken from the straight pipe.

Menu Paths
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Part III: Legacy Material Properties
Following is the archived documentation for legacy material properties.

Chapter 1: Anisotropy
This option (TB,ANISO) allows for different stress-strain behavior in the material x, y, and z directions
as well as different behavior in tension and compression (see Anisotropic Elasticity). A modified von
Mises yield criterion is used to determine yielding. The theory is an extension of Hill's formulation as
noted in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference. This option is not recommended for cyclic or highly
nonproportional load histories since work hardening is assumed. The principal axes of anisotropy coincide
with the material (or element) coordinate system and are assumed not to change over the load history.
The material behavior is described by the uniaxial tensile and compressive stress-strain curves in three
orthogonal directions and the shear stress-engineering shear strain curves in the corresponding directions.
A bilinear response in each direction is assumed. The initial slope of the curve is taken as the elastic
moduli of the material. At the specified yield stress, the curve continues along the second slope defined
by the tangent modulus (having the same units as the elastic modulus). The tangent modulus cannot
be less than zero or greater than the elastic modulus. Temperature dependent curves cannot be input.
All values must be input as no defaults are defined. Input the magnitude of the yield stresses (without
signs). No yield stress can have a zero value. The tensile x-direction is used as the reference curve for
output quantities SEPL and EPEQ.
Initialize the stress-strain table with TB,ANISO. You can define up to 18 constants with TBDATA commands. The constants (C1-C18) entered on TBDATA commands (6 per command) are:
Constant

Meaning (Units in Force/Area)

C1-C3

Tensile yield stresses in the material x, y, and z directions

C4-C6

Corresponding tangent moduli

C7-C9

Compressive yield stresses in the material x, y, and z directions

C10-C12

Corresponding tangent moduli

C13-C15

Shear yield stresses in the material xy, yz, and xz directions

C16-C18

Corresponding tangent moduli

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Chapter 2: Multilinear Elasticity
This option (TB,MELAS) causes unloading to occur along the same path as loading. This behavior, unlike
the other options, is conservative (path-independent). The plastic strain (εpl) for this option should be
interpreted as a "pseudo plastic strain" since it returns to zero when the material is unloaded (no hysteresis). See the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for details.
The material behavior is described by a piece-wise linear stress-strain curve, starting at the origin, with
positive stress and strain values. The curve is continuous from the origin through 100 (max) stress-strain
points. Successive slopes can be greater than the preceding slope; however, no slope can be greater
than the elastic modulus of the material. The slope of the first curve segment usually corresponds to
the elastic modulus of the material, although the elastic modulus can be input as greater than the first
slope to ensure that all slopes are less than or equal to the elastic modulus.
Specify up to 20 temperature-dependent stress-strain curves. Initialize the curves with TB,MELAS. The
temperature for the first curve is input with TBTEMP, followed by TBPT commands for up to 100 stressstrain points (the origin stress-strain point is not input). You can define up to 20 temperature- dependent
stress-strain curves (NTEMP = 20 max on the TB command) in this manner. The constants (X, Y) entered
on TBPT (two per command) are:
Constant

Meaning

Property

X

Dimensionless

Strain value

Y

Force/Area

Corresponding
stress value

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Part IV: Legacy Elements
Following is the archived documentation for legacy elements.

BEAM4
3-D Elastic Beam
MP ME ST PR PRN DS DSS <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
Product Restrictions

BEAM4 Element Description
Although this legacy element is available for use in your analysis, ANSYS, Inc. recommends using
a current-technology element such as BEAM188 (KEYOPT(3) = 3).
BEAM4 is a uniaxial element with tension, compression, torsion, and bending capabilities. The element
has six degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x, y, and z directions and rotations
about the nodal x, y, and z axes. Stress stiffening and large deflection capabilities are included. A consistent tangent stiffness matrix option is available for use in large deflection (finite rotation) analyses.
A tapered unsymmetrical elastic beam is described in BEAM44 and a 3-D plastic beam in BEAM24.
Figure 4.1: BEAM4 Geometry
✭■❢ ♥♦❞❡ ❑ ✐s ♦♠✐tt❡❞ ❛♥❞

Θ ❂ ✵➦✱

❑ ✭♦♣t✐♦♥❛❧✮

t❤❡ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t ② ❛①✐s ✐s ♣❛r❛❧❧❡❧ t♦
t❤❡ ❣❧♦❜❛❧ ❳✲❨ ♣❧❛♥❡✳✮


Θ

Θ

Θ


Θ

Θ

❚✺
❚✻


❚✹

❚✽

❚✼

Θ


❚✶
❚✷

Θ

Θ


❚✸

■❩❩

❚✶✱❚✺

❚✹✱❚✽


❚❑❩

■❨❨


❚✷✱❚✻

❚❑❨

❚✸✱❚✼

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87

BEAM4

BEAM4 Input Data
The geometry, node locations, and coordinate systems for this element are shown in Figure 4.1: BEAM4
Geometry (p. 87). The element is defined by two or three nodes, the cross-sectional area, two area
moments of inertia (IZZ and IYY), two thicknesses (TKY and TKZ), an angle of orientation (θ) about the
element x-axis, the torsional moment of inertia (IXX), and the material properties. For stiffness purposes,
the torsional moment of inertia, if IXX is equal to 0.0 or not specified, is assumed to be equal to the
polar moment of inertia (IYY + IZZ). For inertial purposes, the torsional (rotational) moment of inertia
used is the polar moment of inertia, and is therefore not affected by the value entered for IXX. The IXX
value should be positive and is usually less than the polar moment of inertia. An added mass per unit
length may be input with the ADDMAS value.
The element x-axis is oriented from node I toward node J. For the two-node option, the default (θ = 0°)
orientation of the element y-axis is automatically calculated to be parallel to the global X-Y plane. Several orientations are shown in Figure 4.1: BEAM4 Geometry (p. 87). For the case where the element is
parallel to the global Z axis (or within a 0.01 percent slope of it), the element y axis is oriented parallel
to the global Y axis (as shown). For user control of the element orientation about the element x-axis,
use the θ angle (THETA) or the third node option. If both are defined, the third node option takes precedence. The third node (K), if used, defines a plane (with I and J) containing the element x and z axes
(as shown). If this element is used in a large deflection analysis, it should be noted that the location of
the third node (K), or the angle (THETA), is used only to initially orient the element. (For information
about orientation nodes and beam meshing, see Meshing Your Solid Model in the Modeling and Meshing
Guide.)
The initial strain in the element (ISTRN) is given by ∆/L, where ∆ is the difference between the element
length, L, (as defined by the I and J node locations) and the zero strain length. The shear deflection
constants (SHEARZ and SHEARY) are used only if shear deflection is to be included. A zero value of
SHEAR_ may be used to neglect shear deflection in a particular direction.
KEYOPT(2) is used to activate the consistent tangent stiffness matrix (i.e., a matrix composed of the
main tangent stiffness matrix plus the consistent stress stiffness matrix) in large deflection analyses
[NLGEOM,ON]. You can often obtain more rapid convergence in a geometrically nonlinear analysis,
such as a nonlinear buckling or postbuckling analysis, by activating this option. However, you should
not use this option if you are using the element to simulate a rigid link or a group of coupled nodes.
The resulting abrupt changes in stiffness within the structure make the consistent tangent stiffness
matrix unsuitable for such applications.
KEYOPT(7) is used to compute an unsymmetric gyroscopic damping matrix (often used for rotordynamic
analyses). The rotational frequency is input with the SPIN real constant (radians/time, positive in the
positive element x direction). The element must be symmetric with this option (e.g., IYY = IZZ and
SHEARY = SHEARZ).
Element loads are described in Nodal Loading. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element
faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 4.1: BEAM4 Geometry (p. 87). Positive normal pressures
act into the element. Lateral pressures are input as a force per unit length. End "pressures" are input
as a force. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the eight "corner" locations shown in
Figure 4.1: BEAM4 Geometry (p. 87). The first corner temperature T1 defaults to TUNIF. If all other temperatures are unspecified, they default to T1. If only T1 and T2 are input, T3 defaults to T2 and T4 defaults
to T1. If only T1 and T4 are input, T2 defaults to T1 and T3 defaults to T4. In both cases, T5 through T8
default to T1 through T4. For any other input pattern, unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF.
KEYOPT(9) is used to request output at intermediate locations. It is based on equilibrium (free body of
a portion of the element) considerations and is not valid if:

88

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BEAM4
• stress stiffening is turned on [SSTIF,ON]
• more than one component of angular velocity is applied [OMEGA]
• any angular velocities or accelerations are applied with the CGOMGA, DOMEGA, or DCGOMG commands.
A summary of the element input is given in "BEAM4 Input Summary" (p. 89). A general description of
element input is given in Element Input.

BEAM4 Input Summary
Nodes
I, J, K (K orientation node is optional)
Degrees of Freedom
UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ
Real Constants
AREA, IZZ, IYY, TKZ, TKY, THETA
ISTRN, IXX, SHEARZ, SHEARY, SPIN, ADDMAS
See Table 4.1: BEAM4 Real Constants (p. 90) for a description of the real constants.
Material Properties
EX, ALPX (or CTEX or THSX), DENS, GXY, BETD, ALPD
Surface Loads
Pressures -face 1 (I-J) (-Z normal direction)
face 2 (I-J) (-Y normal direction)
face 3 (I-J) (+X tangential direction)
face 4 (I) (+X axial direction)
face 5 (J) (-X axial direction)
(use negative value for opposite loading)
Body Loads
Temperatures -T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8
Special Features
Stress stiffening
Large deflection
Birth and death
KEYOPT(2)
Stress stiffening option:
0 -Use only the main tangent stiffness matrix when NLGEOM is ON. (Stress stiffening effects used in
linear buckling or other linear prestressed analyses must be activated separately with PSTRES,ON.)
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89

BEAM4
1 -Use the consistent tangent stiffness matrix (i.e., a matrix composed of the main tangent stiffness
matrix plus the consistent stress stiffness matrix) when NLGEOM is ON. (SSTIF,ON will be ignored
for this element when KEYOPT(2) = 1 is activated.) Note that if SOLCONTROL is ON and NLGEOM
is ON, KEYOPT(2) is automatically set to 1; i.e., the consistent tangent will be used.
2 -Turn off consistent tangent stiffness matrix (i.e., a matrix composed of the main tangent stiffness
matrix plus the consistent stress stiffness matrix) when SOLCONTROL is ON. Sometimes it is necessary
to turn off the consistent tangent stiffness matrix if the element is used to simulate rigid bodies by
using a very large real constant number . KEYOPT(2) = 2 is the same as KEYOPT(2) = 0, however,
KEYOPT(2) = 0 is controlled by SOLCONTROL, ON or OFF, while KEYOPT(2) = 2 is independent of
SOLCONTROL.
KEYOPT(6)
Member force and moment output:
0 -No printout of member forces or moments
1 -Print out member forces and moments in the element coordinate system
KEYOPT(7)
Gyroscopic damping matrix:
0 -No gyroscopic damping matrix
1 -Compute gyroscopic damping matrix. Real constant SPIN must be greater than zero. IYY must equal
IZZ.
KEYOPT(9)
Output at intermediate points between ends I and J:
N -Output at N intermediate locations (N = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9)
Table 4.1: BEAM4 Real Constants
No.

90

Name

Description

1

AREA

Cross-sectional area

2

IZZ

Area moment of inertia

3

IYY

Area moment of inertia

4

TKZ

Thickness along Z axis

5

TKY

Thickness along Y axis

6

THETA

Orientation about X axis

7

ISTRN

Initial strain

8

IXX

Torsional moment of inertia

9

SHEARZ

Shear deflection constant Z [1]

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BEAM4
No.

Name

Description

10

SHEARY

Shear deflection constant Y [2]

11

SPIN

Rotational frequency (required if KEYOPT(7) = 1)

12

ADDMAS

Added mass/unit length

1. SHEARZ goes with IZZ; if SHEARZ = 0, there is no shear deflection in the element Y direction.
2. SHEARY goes with IYY; if SHEARY = 0, there is no shear deflection in the element Z direction.

BEAM4 Output Data
The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:
• Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution
• Additional element output as shown in Table 4.2: BEAM4 Element Output Definitions (p. 91).
Several items are illustrated in Figure 4.2: BEAM4 Stress Output (p. 91).
The maximum stress is computed as the direct stress plus the absolute values of both bending stresses.
The minimum stress is the direct stress minus the absolute value of both bending stresses. A general
description of solution output is given in Solution Output. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view
results.
Figure 4.2: BEAM4 Stress Output

❙❇❩❚

❙❉■❘

❙❉■❘

❙❇❨❇

The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation:
A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name
method (ETABLE, ESOL). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT.
The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.
In either the O or R columns, “Y” indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table
footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and “-” indicates that the item is not
available.
Table 4.2: BEAM4 Element Output Definitions
Name

Definition

O

R

EL

Element number

Y

Y

NODES

Element node number (I and J)

Y

Y

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91

BEAM4
Name

Definition

O

R

MAT

Material number for the element

Y

Y

VOLU:

Element volume

-

Y

XC, YC, ZC

Location where results are reported

Y

3

TEMP

Temperatures at integration points T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6,
T7, T8

Y

Y

PRES

Pressure P1 at nodes I, J; OFFST1 at I, J; P2 at I, J; OFFST2
at I, J; P3 at I, J; OFFST3 at I, J; P4 at I; P5 at J

Y

Y

SDIR

Axial direct stress

1

1

SBYT

Bending stress on the element +Y side of the beam

1

1

SBYB

Bending stress on the element -Y side of the beam

1

1

SBZT

Bending stress on the element +Z side of the beam

1

1

SBZB

Bending stress on the element -Z side of the beam

1

1

SMAX

Maximum stress (direct stress + bending stress)

1

1

SMIN

Minimum stress (direct stress - bending stress)

1

1

EPELDIR

Axial elastic strain at the end

1

1

EPELBYT

Bending elastic strain on the element +Y side of the beam

1

1

EPELBYB

Bending elastic strain on the element -Y side of the beam

1

1

EPELBZT

Bending elastic strain on the element +Z side of the beam

1

1

EPELBZB

Bending elastic strain on the element -Z side of the beam

1

1

EPTHDIR

Axial thermal strain at the end

1

1

EPTHBYT

Bending thermal strain on the element +Y side of the beam

1

1

EPTHBYB

Bending thermal strain on the element -Y side of the beam

1

1

EPTHBZT

Bending thermal strain on the element +Z side of the beam

1

1

EPTHBZB

Bending thermal strain on the element -Z side of the beam

1

1

EPINAXL

Initial axial strain in the element

1

1

MFOR(X, Y,
Z)

Member forces in the element coordinate system X, Y, Z
directions

2

Y

MMOM(X, Y,
Z)

Member moments in the element coordinate system X, Y,
Z directions

2

Y

1. The item repeats for end I, intermediate locations (see KEYOPT(9)), and end J.
2. If KEYOPT(6) = 1.
3. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.
The following tables list output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number
method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) of the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence
Number Table of this manual for more information. The following notation is used in Table 4.3: BEAM4
Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(9) = 0) (p. 93) through Table 4.8: BEAM4 Item and Sequence
Numbers (KEYOPT(9) = 9) (p. 99):
Name
output quantity as defined in the Table 4.2: BEAM4 Element Output Definitions (p. 91)
92

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BEAM4
Item
predetermined Item label for ETABLE command
E
sequence number for single-valued or constant element data
I,J
sequence number for data at nodes I and J
ILN
sequence number for data at Intermediate Location N
Table 4.3: BEAM4 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(9) = 0)
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Item

E

I

J

SDIR

LS

-

1

6

SBYT

LS

-

2

7

SBYB

LS

-

3

8

SBZT

LS

-

4

9

SBZB

LS

-

5

10

EPELDIR

LEPEL

-

1

6

EPELBYT

LEPEL

-

2

7

EPELBYB

LEPEL

-

3

8

EPELBZT

LEPEL

-

4

9

EPELBZB

LEPEL

-

5

10

SMAX

NMISC

-

1

3

SMIN

NMISC

-

2

4

EPTHDIR

LEPTH

-

1

6

EPTHBYT

LEPTH

-

2

7

EPTHBYB

LEPTH

-

3

8

EPTHBZT

LEPTH

-

4

9

EPTHBZB

LEPTH

-

5

10

EPINAXL

LEPTH

11

-

-

MFORX

SMISC

-

1

7

MFORY

SMISC

-

2

8

MFORZ

SMISC

-

3

9

MMOMX

SMISC

-

4

10

MMOMY

SMISC

-

5

11

MMOMZ

SMISC

-

6

12

P1

SMISC

-

13

14

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93

BEAM4
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Item

E

I

J

OFFST1

SMISC

-

15

16

P2

SMISC

-

17

18

OFFST2

SMISC

-

19

20

P3

SMISC

-

21

22

OFFST3

SMISC

-

23

24

P4

SMISC

-

25

-

P5

SMISC

-

-

26
Pseudo Node

TEMP

LBFE

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Table 4.4: BEAM4 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(9) = 1)
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Item

E

I

IL1

J

SDIR

LS

-

1

6

11

SBYT

LS

-

2

7

12

SBYB

LS

-

3

8

13

SBZT

LS

-

4

9

14

SBZB

LS

-

5

10

15

EPELDIR

LEPEL

-

1

6

11

EPELBYT

LEPEL

-

2

7

12

EPELBYB

LEPEL

-

3

8

13

EPELBZT

LEPEL

-

4

9

14

EPELBZB

LEPEL

-

5

10

15

SMAX

NMISC

-

1

3

5

SMIN

NMISC

-

2

4

6

EPTHDIR

LEPTH

-

1

6

11

EPTHBYT

LEPTH

-

2

7

12

EPTHBYB

LEPTH

-

3

8

13

EPTHBZT

LEPTH

-

4

9

14

EPTHBZB

LEPTH

-

5

10

15

EPINAXL

LEPTH

16

-

-

-

MFORX

SMISC

-

1

7

13

94

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BEAM4
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Item

E

I

IL1

J

MFORY

SMISC

-

2

8

14

MFORZ

SMISC

-

3

9

15

MMOMX

SMISC

-

4

10

16

MMOMY

SMISC

-

5

11

17

MMOMZ

SMISC

-

6

12

18

P1

SMISC

-

19

-

20

OFFST1

SMISC

-

21

-

22

P2

SMISC

-

23

-

24

OFFST2

SMISC

-

25

-

26

P3

SMISC

-

27

-

28

OFFST3

SMISC

-

29

-

30

P4

SMISC

-

31

-

-

P5

SMISC

-

-

-

32

Pseudo Node
TEMP

LBFE

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Table 4.5: BEAM4 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(9) = 3)
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Item

E

I

IL1

IL2

IL3

J

SDIR

LS

-

1

6

11

16

21

SBYT

LS

-

2

7

12

17

22

SBYB

LS

-

3

8

13

18

23

SBZT

LS

-

4

9

14

19

24

SBZB

LS

-

5

10

15

20

25

EPELDIR

LEPEL

-

1

6

11

16

21

EPELBYT

LEPEL

-

2

7

12

17

22

EPELBYB

LEPEL

-

3

8

13

18

23

EPELBZT

LEPEL

-

4

9

14

19

24

EPELBZB

LEPEL

-

5

10

15

20

25

SMAX

NMISC

-

1

3

5

7

9

SMIN

NMISC

-

2

4

6

8

10

EPTHDIR

LEPTH

-

1

6

11

16

21

EPTHBYT

LEPTH

-

2

7

12

17

22

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95

BEAM4
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Item

E

I

IL1

IL2

IL3

J

EPTHBYB

LEPTH

-

3

8

13

18

23

EPTHBZT

LEPTH

-

4

9

14

19

24

EPTHBZB

LEPTH

-

5

10

15

20

25

EPINAXL

LEPTH

26

-

-

-

-

-

MFORX

SMISC

-

1

7

13

19

25

MFORY

SMISC

-

2

8

14

20

26

MFORZ

SMISC

-

3

9

15

21

27

MMOMX

SMISC

-

4

10

16

22

28

MMOMY

SMISC

-

5

11

17

23

29

MMOMZ

SMISC

-

6

12

18

24

30

P1

SMISC

-

31

-

-

-

32

OFFST1

SMISC

-

33

-

-

-

34

P2

SMISC

-

35

-

-

-

36

OFFST2

SMISC

-

37

-

-

-

38

P3

SMISC

-

39

-

-

-

40

OFFST3

SMISC

-

41

-

-

-

42

P4

SMISC

-

43

-

-

-

P5

SMISC

-

-

-

-

-

44

Pseudo Node
TEMP

LBFE

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Table 4.6: BEAM4 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(9) = 5)
Output
Quantity
Name

Item

E

I

IL1

IL2

IL3

IL4

IL5

J

SDIR

LS

-

1

6

11

16

21

26

31

SBYT

LS

-

2

7

12

17

22

27

32

SBYB

LS

-

3

8

13

18

23

28

33

SBZT

LS

-

4

9

14

19

24

29

34

SBZB

LS

-

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

EPELDIR

LEPEL

-

1

6

11

16

21

26

31

EPELBYT

LEPEL

-

2

7

12

17

22

27

32

EPELBYB

LEPEL

-

3

8

13

18

23

28

33

96

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input

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BEAM4
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Item

E

I

IL1

IL2

IL3

IL4

IL5

J

EPELBZT

LEPEL

-

4

9

14

19

24

29

34

EPELBZB

LEPEL

-

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

SMAX

NMISC

-

1

3

5

7

9

11

13

SMIN

NMISC

-

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

EPTHDIR

LEPTH

-

1

6

11

16

21

26

31

EPTHBYT

LEPTH

-

2

7

12

17

22

27

32

EPTHBYB

LEPTH

-

3

8

13

18

23

28

33

EPTHBZT

LEPTH

-

4

9

14

19

24

29

34

EPTHBZB

LEPTH

-

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

EPINAXL

LEPTH

36

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MFORX

SMISC

-

1

7

13

19

25

31

37

MFORY

SMISC

-

2

8

14

20

26

32

38

MFORZ

SMISC

-

3

9

15

21

27

33

39

MMOMX

SMISC

-

4

10

16

22

28

34

40

MMOMY

SMISC

-

5

11

17

23

29

35

41

MMOMZ

SMISC

-

6

12

18

24

30

36

42

P1

SMISC

-

43

-

-

-

-

-

44

OFFST1

SMISC

-

45

-

-

-

-

-

46

P2

SMISC

-

47

-

-

-

-

-

48

OFFST2

SMISC

-

49

-

-

-

-

-

50

P3

SMISC

-

51

-

-

-

-

-

52

OFFST3

SMISC

-

53

-

-

-

-

-

54

P4

SMISC

-

55

-

-

-

-

-

-

P5

SMISC

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

56

Pseudo Node
TEMP

LBFE

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Table 4.7: BEAM4 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(9) = 7)
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Item

E

I

IL1

IL2

IL3

IL4

IL5

IL6

IL7

J

SDIR

LS

-

1

6

11

16

21

26

31

36

41

SBYT

LS

-

2

7

12

17

22

27

32

37

42

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97

BEAM4
Output
Quantity
Name

Item

E

I

IL1

IL2

IL3

IL4

IL5

IL6

IL7

J

SBYB

LS

-

3

8

13

18

23

28

33

38

43

SBZT

LS

-

4

9

14

19

24

29

34

39

44

SBZB

LS

-

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

EPELDIR

LEPEL

-

1

6

11

16

21

26

31

36

41

EPELBYT

LEPEL

-

2

7

12

17

22

27

32

37

42

EPELBYB

LEPEL

-

3

8

13

18

23

28

33

38

43

EPELBZT

LEPEL

-

4

9

14

19

24

29

34

39

44

EPELBZB

LEPEL

-

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

SMAX

NMISC

-

1

3

5

7

9

11

13

15

17

SMIN

NMISC

-

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

EPTHDIR

LEPTH

-

1

6

11

16

21

26

31

36

41

EPTHBYT

LEPTH

-

2

7

12

17

22

27

32

37

42

EPTHBYB

LEPTH

-

3

8

13

18

23

28

33

38

43

EPTHBZT

LEPTH

-

4

9

14

19

24

29

34

39

44

EPTHBZB

LEPTH

-

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

EPINAXL

LEPTH

46

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MFORX

SMISC

-

1

7

13

19

25

31

37

43

49

MFORY

SMISC

-

2

8

14

20

26

32

38

44

50

MFORZ

SMISC

-

3

9

15

21

27

33

39

45

51

MMOMX

SMISC

-

4

10

16

22

28

34

40

46

52

MMOMY

SMISC

-

5

11

17

23

29

35

41

47

53

MMOMZ

SMISC

-

6

12

18

24

30

36

42

48

54

P1

SMISC

-

55

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

56

OFFST1

SMISC

-

57

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

58

P2

SMISC

-

59

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

60

OFFST2

SMISC

-

61

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

62

P3

SMISC

-

63

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

64

OFFST3

SMISC

-

65

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

66

P4

SMISC

-

67

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

P5

SMISC

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

68

98

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input

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BEAM4
Pseudo Node
TEMP

LBFE

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Table 4.8: BEAM4 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(9) = 9)
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Item

E

I

IL1 IL2 IL3 IL4 IL5 IL6 IL7 IL8 IL9

SDIR

LS

-

1

6

11

16

21

26

31

36

41

46

51

SBYT

LS

-

2

7

12

17

22

27

32

37

42

47

52

SBYB

LS

-

3

8

13

18

23

28

33

38

43

48

53

SBZT

LS

-

4

9

14

19

24

29

34

39

44

49

54

SBZB

LS

-

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

EPELDIR

LEPEL

-

1

6

11

16

21

26

31

36

41

46

51

EPELBYT

LEPEL

-

2

7

12

17

22

27

32

37

42

47

52

EPELBYB

LEPEL

-

3

8

13

18

23

28

33

38

43

48

53

EPELBZT

LEPEL

-

4

9

14

19

24

29

34

39

44

49

54

EPELBZB

LEPEL

-

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

SMAX

NMISC

-

1

3

5

7

9

11

13

15

17

19

21

SMIN

NMISC

-

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

EPTHDIR

LEPTH

-

1

6

11

16

21

26

31

36

41

46

51

EPTHBYT

LEPTH

-

2

7

12

17

22

27

32

37

42

47

52

EPTHBYB

LEPTH

-

3

8

13

18

23

28

33

38

43

48

53

EPTHBZT

LEPTH

-

4

9

14

19

24

29

34

39

44

49

54

EPTHBZB

LEPTH

-

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

EPINAXL

LEPTH

56

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MFORX

SMISC

-

1

7

13

19

25

31

37

43

49

55

61

MFORY

SMISC

-

2

8

14

20

26

32

38

44

50

56

62

MFORZ

SMISC

-

3

9

15

21

27

33

39

45

51

57

63

MMOMX

SMISC

-

4

10

16

22

28

34

40

46

52

58

64

MMOMY

SMISC

-

5

11

17

23

29

35

41

47

53

59

65

MMOMZ

SMISC

-

6

12

18

24

30

36

42

48

54

60

66

P1

SMISC

-

67

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

68

OFFST1

SMISC

-

69

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

70

P2

SMISC

-

71

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

72

OFFST2

SMISC

-

73

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

74

P3

SMISC

-

75

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

76

OFFST3

SMISC

-

77

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

78

J

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99

BEAM4
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Item

E

I

P4

SMISC

-

79

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

P5

SMISC

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

80

IL1 IL2 IL3 IL4 IL5 IL6 IL7 IL8 IL9

J

Pseudo Node
TEMP

LBFE

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

BEAM4 Assumptions and Restrictions
• The beam must not have a zero length or area. The moments of inertia, however, may be zero if large
deflections are not used.
• The beam can have any cross-sectional shape for which the moments of inertia can be computed. The
stresses, however, will be determined as if the distance between the neutral axis and the extreme fiber
is one-half of the corresponding thickness.
• The element thicknesses are used only in the bending and thermal stress calculations.
• The applied thermal gradients are assumed to be linear across the thickness in both directions and along
the length of the element.
• If you use the consistent tangent stiffness matrix (KEYOPT(2) = 1), take care to use realistic (that is, "to
scale") element real constants. This precaution is necessary because the consistent stress-stiffening matrix
is based on the calculated stresses in the element. If you use artificially large or small cross-sectional
properties, the calculated stresses will become inaccurate, and the stress-stiffening matrix will suffer corresponding inaccuracies. (Certain components of the stress-stiffening matrix could even overshoot to infinity.) Similar difficulties could arise if unrealistic real constants are used in a linear prestressed or linear
buckling analysis [PSTRES,ON].
• Eigenvalues calculated in a gyroscopic modal analysis can be very sensitive to changes in the initial shift
value, leading to potential error in either the real or imaginary (or both) parts of the eigenvalues.

BEAM4 Product Restrictions
When used in the product(s) listed below, the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element
in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.
ANSYS Professional
• The SPIN real constant (R11) is not available. Input R11 as a blank.
• KEYOPT(2) can only be set to 0 (default).
• KEYOPT(7) can only be set to 0 (default).
• The only special features allowed are stress stiffening and large deflections.

100

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CONTAC12
2-D Point-to-Point Contact
MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
Product Restrictions

CONTAC12 Element Description
Although this legacy element is available for use in your analysis, ANSYS, Inc. recommends using a currenttechnology element such as CONTA178. To use CONTA178 as you would CONTAC12, constrain the UZ
degree of freedom to simulate 2-D behavior. CONTA178 does not support the circular gap option of
CONTAC12.
CONTAC12 represents two surfaces which may maintain or break physical contact and may slide relative
to each other. The element is capable of supporting only compression in the direction normal to the
surfaces and shear (Coulomb friction) in the tangential direction. The element has two degrees of freedom
at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions.
The element may be initially preloaded in the normal direction or it may be given a gap specification.
A specified stiffness acts in the normal and tangential directions when the gap is closed and not sliding.
Figure 12.1: CONTAC12 Geometry

δ❁✵

▲✟

s

θ

δ❃✵

θ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❡s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t


♦r✐❡♥t❛t✐♦♥

s

 ✁✂ ✄①✆✄✝✞


◆♦❞❡s ♠❛② ❜❡ ❝♦✐♥❝✐❞❡♥t

€♦s✐t✐✈❡ ❙❧✐❞❡
✭❙❚❆❚ ♦r ❙❚❆❘❚ ❂ ✰✷✮

❳  ✁✂ ✂✄☎✆✄✝✞

CONTAC12 Input Data
The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 12.1: CONTAC12 Geometry (p. 101). The element is defined by two nodes, an angle to define the interface, two
stiffnesses (KN and KS), an initial displacement interference or gap (INTF), and an initial element status
(START). An element coordinate system (s-n) is defined on the interface. The angle θ (THETA) is input
(or calculated) in degrees and is measured from the global X axis to the element s-axis. The orientation
of the interface may be defined (KEYOPT(2)) by THETA or by the node locations.
The normal stiffness, KN, should be based upon the stiffness of the surfaces in contact. See Performing
a Node-to-Node Contact Analysis in the Contact Technology Guide for guidelines on choosing a value
for KN. In some cases (such as initial interference analyses, nonconvergence, or over penetration), it
may be useful to change the KN value between load steps or in a restart in order to obtain an accurate,
converged solution. The sticking stiffness, KS, represents the stiffness in the tangential direction when
elastic Coulomb friction is selected (µ > 0.0 and KEYOPT(1) = 0). The coefficient of friction µ is input as
material property MU and is evaluated at the average of the two node temperatures. Stiffnesses may
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101

CONTAC12
also be computed from the maximum expected force divided by the maximum allowable surface displacement. KS defaults to KN. Stiffnesses should be on a full 360° basis for an axisymmetric analysis.
The initial displacement interference, ∆, defines the displacement interference (if positive) or the gap
size (if negative). The value may be input as a real constant (INTF) or automatically calculated from the
input node locations if KEYOPT(4) = 1. Stiffness is associated with a zero or positive interference. The
initial element status (START) is used to define the "previous" condition of the interface to be used at
the start of the first substep. This input is used to override the condition implied by the interference
specification and is useful in anticipating the final interface configuration and in reducing the number
of iterations required for convergence.
The force deflection relationships for the interface element can be separated into the normal and tangential (sliding) directions as shown in Figure 12.2: CONTAC12 Force-Deflection Relationship (p. 105).
The element condition at the beginning of the first substep is determined from the START parameter.
If the interface is open, no stiffness is associated with this element for this substep. If the interface is
closed and sticking, KN is used in the gap resistance and KS is used in the sliding resistance. If the interface is closed but sliding, KN is used in the gap resistance and the limit friction force µFN is used for
the sliding resistance.
In the normal direction, when the normal force (FN) is negative, the interface remains in contact and
responds as a linear spring. As the normal force becomes positive, contact is broken and no force is
transmitted.
KEYOPT(3) can be used to specify a "weak spring" across an open interface, which is useful for preventing
rigid body motion that could occur in a static analysis. The weak spring stiffness is computed by multiplying the normal stiffness KN by a reduction factor. The default reduction factor of 1E-6 can be
overridden with real constant REDFACT.
In the tangential direction, for FN < 0 and the absolute value of the tangential force (FS) less than
(µ|FN|), the interface sticks and responds as a linear spring in the tangential direction. For FN < 0 and
FS = µ|FN|, sliding occurs.
If KEYOPT(1) = 1, rigid Coulomb friction is selected, KS is not used, and the elastic sticking capability is
removed. This option is useful for displacement controlled problems or for certain dynamic problems
where sliding dominates. With this option, no tangential resistance is assumed for the first substep.
The only material property used is the interface coefficient of friction MU. A zero value should be used
for frictionless surfaces. Temperatures may be input at the element nodes (for material property evaluation
only). The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. The node J temperature defaults to T(I). The circular
gap option (KEYOPT(2)) is useful where the final contact point (and thus the orientation angle) is not
known, such as with concentric cylinders. With this option the angular orientation THETA is initially set
to 0.0 and then internally calculated from the relative displacements of the nodes at the end of the
substep for use in the next substep. The user specified THETA (if any) is ignored. A negative interference
(gap) and a zero coefficient of friction is used with this option.
For analyses involving friction, using NROPT,UNSYM is useful (and, in fact, sometimes required) for
problems where the normal and tangential (sliding) motions are strongly coupled, such as in a wedge
insertion problem.
A summary of the element input is given in "CONTAC12 Input Summary" (p. 103). A general description
of element input is given in Element Input.

102

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CONTAC12

CONTAC12 Input Summary
Nodes
I, J
Degrees of Freedom
UX, UY
Real Constants
See Table 12.1: CONTAC12 Real Constants (p. 104) for details on these real constants
Material Properties
MU
Surface Loads
None
Body Loads
Temperatures -T(I), T(J)
Special Features
Nonlinear
Adaptive descent
KEYOPT(1)
Type of friction (only with MU > 0.0):
0 -Elastic coulomb friction (KS used for sticking stiffness)
1 -Rigid coulomb friction (resisting force only)
KEYOPT(2)
Orientation angle:
0 -Orientation angle based on Theta real constant
1 -Circular gap option (THETA orientation determined from direction of motion) (ignore THETA real
constant)
KEYOPT(3)
Weak spring across open gap:
0 -No weak spring across an open gap
1 -Use a weak spring across an open gap

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103

CONTAC12
KEYOPT(4)
Interference or gap:
0 -Interference (or gap) based on INTF real constant
1 -Interference (or gap) based on initial node locations (ignore INTF real constant)
KEYOPT(7)
Element level time incrementation control. Note that this option should be activated first at the procedure
level if SOLCONTROL is ON. SOLCONTROL,ON,ON is the most frequent usage with this element. If
SOLCONTROL,ON,OFF, this keyoption is not activated.
0 -Predictions are made to achieve the minimum time (or load) increment whenever a change in contact
status occurs
1 -Predictions are made to maintain a reasonable time (or load) increment (recommended)
Table 12.1: CONTAC12 Real Constants
No.

Name

Description

1

THETA

Interference angle

2

KN

Normal stiffness

3

INTF

Initial displacement interference or gap. A negative INTF (interference) assumes an initially open gap.

4

START

Initial element status
If = 0.0 or blank, initial condition of gap status is determined from real constant INTF
If = 1.0, gap is initially closed and not sliding (if MU ≠
0.0), or sliding node J is positive (if MU = 0.0)
If = 2.0, gap is initially closed and node J is sliding to
the right of node I
If = -2.0, gap is initially closed and node J is sliding to
the left of node I
If = 3.0, gap is initially open

5

KS

Sticking stiffness

6

REDFACT

KN reduction factor

CONTAC12 Output Data
The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:
• nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution
• additional element output as shown in Table 12.2: CONTAC12 Element Output Definitions (p. 105).
Several items are illustrated in Figure 12.2: CONTAC12 Force-Deflection Relationship (p. 105).

104

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CONTAC12
The value of USEP is determined from the normal displacement (un) (in the element x-direction) between
the interface nodes at the end of this substep. That is: USEP = (un) J - (un) I - ∆. This value is used in
determining the normal force, FN. For an axisymmetric analysis, the element forces are expressed on a
full 360° basis. The value represented by UT is the total translational displacement. The maximum value
printed for the sliding force, FS, is µ|FN|. STAT describes the status of the element at the end of this
substep. If STAT = 1, the gap is closed and no sliding occurs. If STAT = 3, the gap is open. A value of
STAT = +2 indicates the node J slides positive relative to node I as shown in Figure 4.12-1. STAT = -2
indicates a negative slide. For a frictionless surface (µ = 0.0), the element status is either STAT = ±2 or
3. The value of THETA is either the input orientation angle (if KEYOPT(2) = 0), or the calculated angle
(if KEYOPT(2) = 1). A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. See the Basic
Analysis Guide for ways to view results.
Figure 12.2: CONTAC12 Force-Deflection Relationship
❋◆

❋❙

µ ⑤ ❋◆ ⑤
❑❙

 ✉♥✁❏ ✲  ✉♥✁■ ✲

δ

 ✉s✁❏ ✲  ✉s✁■

❑◆

✂µ ⑤ ❋◆ ⑤
✄♦r ✄☎ ❁ ✵✱ ✆✝❞ ✝♦
r❡✈❡r✞❡❞ ❧♦✆❞✐✝❣

✭❛✮

✭❜✮

The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation:
A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name
method (ETABLE, ESOL). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT.
The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.
In either the O or R columns, “Y” indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table
footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and “-” indicates that the item is not
available.
Table 12.2: CONTAC12 Element Output Definitions
Name

Definition

O

R

EL

Element Number

Y

Y

NODES

Nodes - I, J

Y

Y

XC, YC

Location where results are reported

Y

3

TEMP

Temperatures T(I), T(J)

Y

Y

USEP

Gap size or interference

Y

Y

FN

Normal force

Y

Y

STAT

Element status

1

1

OLDST

Stat value of the previous time step

1

1

THETA

Orientation angle

Y

Y

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105

CONTAC12
Name

Definition

O

R

MU

Coefficient of friction

2

2

UT

Relative displacement in tangential direction
(positive for node J moving to right of node I)

2

2

FS

Tangential force

2

2

1. Element status values:
1 - Contact, no sliding
2 - Sliding contact with node J moving to right of node I
-2 - Sliding contact with node J moving to left of node I
3 - Gap open
2. Only if MU > 0.0 and KEYOPT(2) = 0.
3. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.
Table 12.3: CONTAC12 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 106) lists output available through the ETABLE
command using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) of the Basic
Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. The
following notation is used in Table 12.3: CONTAC12 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 106):
Name
output quantity as defined in the Table 12.2: CONTAC12 Element Output Definitions (p. 105)
Item
predetermined Item label for ETABLE command
E
sequence number for single-valued or constant element data
Table 12.3: CONTAC12 Item and Sequence Numbers
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and
ESOL Command
Input
Item

E

FN

SMISC

1

FS

SMISC

2

STAT

NMISC

1

OLDST

NMISC

2

USEP

NMISC

3

UT

NMISC

4

MU

NMISC

5

THETA

NMISC

6

106

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CONTAC12

CONTAC12 Assumptions and Restrictions
• The 2-D interface element must be defined in an X-Y plane and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry
for axisymmetric analyses. An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants.
• The element operates bilinearly only in a static or a nonlinear transient dynamic analysis.
• If used in other analysis types, the element maintains its initial status throughout the analysis.
• The element is nonlinear and requires an iterative solution.
• Convergence is also based on forces when friction or the circular gap option is present.
• Nodes I and J may be coincident since the orientation of the interface is defined only by the angle THETA.
• The orientation of the interface does not change (with KEYOPT(2) = 0) during a large deflection analysis.
Use CONTA175 if this effect is desired.
• No moment effects due to noncoincident nodes are included. That is, if the nodes are offset from a line
perpendicular to the interface, moment equilibrium may not be satisfied.
• The element is defined such that a positive normal displacement (in the element coordinate system) of
node J relative to node I tends to open the gap, as shown in Figure 12.1: CONTAC12 Geometry (p. 101). If,
for a given set of conditions, node I and J are interchanged, or if the interface is rotated by 180°, the gap
element acts as a hook element, i.e., the gap closes as the nodes separate. The element may have rotated
nodal coordinates since a displacement transformation into the element coordinate system is included.
• The element stiffness KN cannot be exactly zero.
• Unreasonably high stiffness values also should be avoided.
• The rate of convergence decreases as the stiffness increases. Note that, although it is permissible to change
KN, it is not permissible to change any other real constants between load steps. Therefore, if you plan to
change KN, you cannot allow the value of KS to be defined by default, because the program would then
attempt to redefine KS as KN changed.
• You must explicitly define KS whenever KN changes, to maintain a consistent value throughout all load
steps.
• The element may not be deactivated with the EKILL command.
• If µ is nonzero, the element is nonconservative as well as nonlinear. Nonconservative elements require
that the load be applied very gradually, along the actual load history path, and in the proper sequence
(if multiple loadings exist).

CONTAC12 Product Restrictions
When used in the product(s) listed below, the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element
in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.
ANSYS Professional
• This element is frictionless. Specifically, MU is not allowed as a material property and KS is not allowed
as a real constant.

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107

CONTAC12
• Temperature body loads are not applicable.
• KEYOPT(1) is not applicable.

108

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PIPE16
Elastic Straight Pipe
MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
Product Restrictions

PIPE16 Element Description
Although this legacy element is available for use in your analysis, ANSYS, Inc. recommends using a currenttechnology element such as PIPE288.
PIPE16 is a uniaxial element with tension-compression, torsion, and bending capabilities. The element
has six degrees of freedom at two nodes: translations in the nodal x, y, and z directions and rotations
about the nodal x, y, and z axes. See PIPE16 - Elastic Straight Pipe (p. 235) for more details about this
element.
Figure 16.1: PIPE16 Geometry

■❢ ♥♦❞❡ ❑ ✐s ♦♠✐tt❡❞✱ t❤❡ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t ②✲❛①✐s
✐s ♣❛r❛❧❧❡❧ t♦ t❤❡ ❣❧♦❜❛❧ ❳✲❨ ♣❧❛♥❡

 



€❳


❚✞✈✟

€❩



❚✾✵

❚✶✽✵

✸ €❨


✠✄✉☎

✠✆✝☎

❚✆✝
❚✄✉☎

①✱ ②✱ ③ ❞❡❢✐♥❡s t❤❡ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t
❝♦♦r❞✐♥❛t❡ s②st❡♠ ♦r✐❡♥t❛t✐♦♥

PIPE16 Input Data
The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 16.1: PIPE16
Geometry (p. 109). The element input data include two or three nodes, the pipe outer diameter and wall
thickness, stress intensification and flexibility factors, internal fluid density, exterior insulation density
and thickness, corrosion thickness allowance, insulation surface area, pipe wall mass, axial pipe stiffness,
rotordynamic spin, and the isotropic material properties.
The element X-axis is oriented from node I toward node J. For the two-node option, the element Y-axis
is automatically calculated to be parallel to the global X-Y plane. Several orientations are shown in
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109

PIPE16
Figure 16.1: PIPE16 Geometry (p. 109). For the case where the element is parallel to the global Z-axis (or
within a 0.01 percent slope of it), the element Y-axis is oriented parallel to the global Y-axis (as shown).
For user control of the element orientation about the element X-axis, use the third node option. The
third node (K), if used, defines a plane (with I and J) containing the element X and Z axes (as shown).
Input and output locations around the pipe circumference identified as being at 0° are located along
the element Y-axis, and similarly 90° is along the element Z-axis.
The stress intensification factor (SIF) modifies the bending stress. Stress intensification factors may be
input at end I (SIFI) and end J (SIFJ), if KEYOPT(2) = 0, or determined by the program using a tee-joint
calculation if KEYOPT(2) = 1, 2, or 3. SIF values less than 1.0 are set equal to 1.0. The flexibility factor
(FLEX) is divided into the cross-sectional moment of inertia to produce a modified moment of inertia
for the bending stiffness calculation. FLEX defaults to 1.0 but may be input as any positive value.
The element mass is calculated from the pipe wall material, the external insulation, and the internal
fluid. The insulation and the fluid contribute only to the element mass matrix. The corrosion thickness
allowance contributes only to the stress calculations. A positive wall mass real constant overrides the
pipe wall mass calculation. A nonzero insulation area real constant overrides the insulation surface area
calculation (from the pipe outer diameter and length). A nonzero stiffness real constant overrides the
calculated axial pipe stiffness.
Element loads are described in Nodal Loading. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element
faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 16.1: PIPE16 Geometry (p. 109). Internal pressure (PINT)
and external pressure (POUT) are input as positive values. The internal and external pressure loads are
designed for closed-loop static pressure environments and therefore include pressure loads on fictitious
"end caps" so that the pressure loads induce an axial stress and/or reaction in the pipe system. If a dynamic situation needs to be represented, such as a pipe venting to a lower pressure area or the internal
flow is past a constriction in the pipe, these end cap loads may need to be modified by applying a
nodal force normal to the cross-section of the pipe with the magnitude representing the change in
pressure. Alternatively, the precomputed end cap loads can be removed using KEYOPT(8) = 1 and the
appropriate end cap loads added by the user. The transverse pressures (PX, PY, and PZ) may represent
wind or drag loads (per unit length of the pipe) and are defined in the global Cartesian directions.
Positive transverse pressures act in the positive coordinate directions. The normal component or the
projected full pressure may be used (KEYOPT(5)). Tapered pressures are not recognized. Only constant
pressures are supported for this element. See PIPE16 - Elastic Straight Pipe (p. 235) for more information.
Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. Temperatures may have wall gradients
or diametral gradients (KEYOPT(1)). The average wall temperature at θ = 0° is computed as 2 * TAVG T(180) and the average wall temperature at θ = -90° is computed as 2 * TAVG - T(90). The element
temperatures are assumed to be linear along the length. The first temperature at node I (TOUT(I) or
TAVG(I)) defaults to TUNIF. If all temperatures after the first are unspecified, they default to the first. If
all temperatures at node I are input, and all temperatures at node J are unspecified, the node J temperatures default to the corresponding node I temperatures. For any other pattern of input temperatures,
unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF.
For piping analyses, the PIPE module of PREP7 may be used to generate the input for this element.
KEYOPT(4) is used to identify the element type for output labeling and for postprocessing operations.
KEYOPT(7) is used to compute an unsymmetric gyroscopic damping matrix (often used for rotordynamic
analyses). The rotational frequency is input with the SPIN real constant (radians/time, positive in the
positive element x direction).
A summary of the element input is given in "PIPE16 Input Summary" (p. 111). A general description of
element input is given in Element Input.

110

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PIPE16

PIPE16 Input Summary
Nodes
I, J, K (K, the orientation node, is optional)
Degrees of Freedom
UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ
Real Constants
OD, TKWALL, SIFI, SIFJ, FLEX, DENSFL,
DENSIN, TKIN, TKCORR, AREAIN, MWALL, STIFF,
SPIN
See Table 16.1: PIPE16 Real Constants (p. 113) for a description of the real constants
Material Properties
EX, ALPX (or CTEX or THSX),
PRXY (or NUXY), DENS, GXY, BETD, ALPD
Surface Loads
Pressures -1-PINT, 2-PX, 3-PY, 4-PZ, 5-POUT
Body Loads
Temperatures -TOUT(I), TIN(I), TOUT(J), TIN(J) if KEYOPT (1) = 0, or
TAVG(I), T90(I), T180(I), TAVG(J), T90(J), T180(J) if KEYOPT (1) = 1
Special Features
Stress stiffening
Large deflection
Birth and death
KEYOPT(1)
Temperatures represent:
0 -The through-wall gradient
1 -The diametral gradient
KEYOPT(2)
Stress intensification factors:
0 -Stress intensity factors from SIFI and SIFJ
1 -Stress intensity factors at node I from tee joint calculation
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111

PIPE16
2 -Stress intensity factors at node J from tee joint calculation
3 -Stress intensity factors at both nodes from tee joint calculation
KEYOPT(4)
Element identification (for output and postprocessing):
0 -Straight pipe
1 -Valve
2 -Reducer
3 -Flange
4 -Expansion joint
5 -Mitered bend
6 -Tee branch
KEYOPT(5)
PX, PY, and PZ transverse pressures:
0 -Use only the normal component of pressure
1 -Use the full pressure (normal and shear components)
KEYOPT(6)
Member force and moment output:
0 -Do not print member forces or moments
2 -Print member forces and moments in the element coordinate system
KEYOPT(7)
Gyroscopic damping matrix:
0 -No gyroscopic damping matrix

112

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PIPE16
1 -Compute gyroscopic damping matrix. Real constant SPIN must be greater than zero. DENSFL and
DENSIN must be zero.

Note
The real constant MWALL is not used to compute the gyroscopic damping matrix.
KEYOPT(8)
End cap loads:
0 -Internal and external pressures cause loads on end caps
1 -Internal and external pressures do not cause loads on end caps
Table 16.1: PIPE16 Real Constants
No.

Name

Description

1

OD

Pipe outer diameter

2

TKWALL

Wall thickness

3

SIFI

Stress intensification factor (node I)

4

SIFJ

Stress intensification factor (node J)

5

FLEX

Flexibility factor

6

DENSFL

Internal fluid density

7

DENSIN

Exterior insulation density

8

TKIN

Insulation thickness

9

TKCORR

Corrosion thickness allowance

10

AREAIN

Insulation surface area (replaces program-calculated value)

11

MWALL

Pipe wall mass (replaces program-calculated value)

12

STIFF

Axial pipe stiffness (replaces program-calculated value)

13

SPIN

Rotordynamic spin (required if KEYOPT(7) = 1)

PIPE16 Output Data
The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:
• Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution
• Additional element output as shown in Table 16.2: PIPE16 Element Output Definitions (p. 114)
Several items are illustrated in Figure 16.2: PIPE16 Stress Output (p. 114).
The direct stress (SAXL) includes the internal pressure (closed end) effect. The direct stress does not
include the axial component of the transverse thermal stress (STH). The principal stresses and the stress
intensity include the shear force stress component, and are based on the stresses at the two extreme
points on opposite sides of the neutral axis. These quantities are computed at the outer surface and
might not occur at the same location around the pipe circumference. Angles listed in the output are
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113

PIPE16
measured as shown (θ) in Figure 16.2: PIPE16 Stress Output (p. 114). A general description of solution
output is given in Solution Output. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.
Figure 16.2: PIPE16 Stress Output

❚♦rs✐♦♥❛❧
▼♦♠❡♥t

❙❇❊◆❉

❙❚

❙❆❳▲

θ

❙❍

❙❉■❘

❙❤❡❛r
❋♦r❝❡

The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation:
A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name
method (ETABLE, ESOL). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT.
The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.
In either the O or R columns, “Y” indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table
footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and “-” indicates that the item is not
available.
Table 16.2: PIPE16 Element Output Definitions
Name

Definition

O

R

EL

Element Number

Y

Y

NODES

Nodes - I, J

Y

Y

MAT

Material number

Y

Y

VOLU:

Volume

-

Y

XC, YC, ZC

Location where results are reported

Y

6

CORAL

Corrosion thickness allowance

1

1

TEMP

TOUT(I), TIN(I), TOUT(J), TIN(J)

2

2

TEMP

TAVG(I), T90(I), T180(I), TAVG(J), T90(J), T180(J)

3

3

PRES

PINT, PX, PY, PZ, POUT

Y

Y

SFACTI, SFACTJ

Stress intensification factors at nodes I and J

Y

Y

STH

Stress due to maximum thermal gradient through
the wall thickness

Y

Y

SPR2

Hoop pressure stress for code calculations

-

Y

SMI, SMJ

Moment stress at nodes I and J for code calculations

-

Y

SDIR

Direct (axial) stress

-

Y

SBEND

Maximum bending stress at outer surface

-

Y

ST

Shear stress at outer surface due to torsion

-

Y

SSF

Shear stress due to shear force

-

Y

114

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PIPE16
Name

Definition

O

R

S:(1MX, 3MN, INTMX, EQVMX)

Maximum principal stress, minimum principal stress,
maximum stress intensity, maximum equivalent
stress (over eight points on the outside surface at
both ends of the element)

Y

Y

S:(AXL, RAD, H, XH)

Axial, radial, hoop, and shear stresses

4

4

S:(1, 3, INT, EQV)

Maximum principal stress, minimum principal stress,
stress intensity, equivalent stress

4

4

EPEL:(AXL, RAD, H,
XH)

Axial, radial, hoop, and shear strains

4

4

EPTH:(AXL, RAD, H)

Axial, radial, and hoop thermal strain

4

4

MFOR:(X, Y, Z)

Member forces for nodes I and J (in the element
coordinate system)

5

Y

MMOM:(X, Y, Z)

Member moments for nodes I and J (in the element
coordinate system)

5

Y

1. If the value is greater than 0.
2. If KEYOPT(1) = 0
3. If KEYOPT(1) = 1
4. The item repeats at 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, 180°, 225°, 270°, 315° at node I, then at node J, all at the outer
surface.
5. If KEYOPT(6) = 2
6. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.
The following tables list output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number
method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence
Number Table of this manual for more information. The following notation is used in Table 16.3: PIPE16
Item and Sequence Numbers (Node I) (p. 116) through Table 16.5: PIPE16 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 118):
Name
output quantity as defined in the Table 16.2: PIPE16 Element Output Definitions (p. 114)
Item
predetermined Item label for ETABLE command
E
sequence number for single-valued or constant element data

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115

PIPE16
I, J
sequence number for data at nodes I and J
Table 16.3: PIPE16 Item and Sequence Numbers (Node I)
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Circumferential Location
Item

E

SAXL

LS

SRAD

45°

90°

-

1

5

9

13

17

21

25

29

LS

-

2

6

10

14

18

22

26

30

SH

LS

-

3

7

11

15

19

23

27

31

SXH

LS

-

4

8

12

16

20

24

28

32

EPELAXL

LEPEL

-

1

5

9

13

17

21

25

29

EPELRAD

LEPEL

-

2

6

10

14

18

22

26

30

EPELH

LEPEL

-

3

7

11

15

19

23

27

31

EPELXH

LEPEL

-

4

8

12

16

20

24

28

32

EPTHAXL

LEPTH

-

1

5

9

13

17

21

25

29

EPTHRAD

LEPTH

-

2

6

10

14

18

22

26

30

EPTHH

LEPTH

-

3

7

11

15

19

23

27

31

MFORX

SMISC

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MFORY

SMISC

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MFORZ

SMISC

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MMOMX

SMISC

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MMOMY

SMISC

5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MMOMZ

SMISC

6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

SDIR

SMISC

13

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

ST

SMISC

14

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

S1

NMISC

-

1

6

11

16

21

26

31

36

S3

NMISC

-

3

8

13

18

23

28

33

38

SINT

NMISC

-

4

9

14

19

24

29

34

39

SEQV

NMISC

-

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

SBEND

NMISC

90

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

SSF

NMISC

91

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

TOUT

LBFE

-

4

-

1

-

2

-

3

-

116

135° 180° 225° 270° 315°

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PIPE16
Output
Quantity
Name
TIN

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Circumferential Location
Item

E

LBFE

-

45°

90°

8

-

5

135° 180° 225° 270° 315°
-

6

-

7

-

Table 16.4: PIPE16 Item and Sequence Numbers (Node J)
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Circumferential Location
Item

E

SAXL

LS

SRAD

45°

90°

135° 180° 225° 270° 315°

-

33

37

41

45

49

53

57

61

LS

-

34

38

42

46

50

54

58

62

SH

LS

-

35

39

43

47

51

55

59

63

SXH

LS

-

36

40

44

48

52

56

60

64

EPELAXL

LEPEL

-

33

37

41

45

49

53

57

61

EPELRAD

LEPEL

-

34

38

42

46

50

54

58

62

EPELH

LEPEL

-

35

39

43

47

51

55

59

63

EPELXH

LEPEL

-

36

40

44

48

52

56

60

64

EPTHAXL

LEPTH

-

33

37

41

45

49

53

57

61

EPTHRAD

LEPTH

-

34

38

42

46

50

54

58

62

EPTHH

LEPTH

-

35

39

43

47

51

55

59

63

MFORX

SMISC

7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MFORY

SMISC

8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MFORZ

SMISC

9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MMOMX

SMISC

10

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MMOMY

SMISC

11

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MMOMZ

SMISC

12

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

SDIR

SMISC

15

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

ST

SMISC

16

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

S1

NMISC

-

41

46

51

56

61

66

71

76

S3

NMISC

-

43

48

53

58

63

68

73

78

SINT

NMISC

-

44

49

54

59

64

69

74

79

SEQV

NMISC

-

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

SBEND

NMISC

92

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

SSF

NMISC

93

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

TOUT

LBFE

-

12

-

9

-

10

-

11

-

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117

PIPE16
Output
Quantity
Name
TIN

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Circumferential Location
Item

E

LBFE

-

45°

90°

16

-

13

135° 180° 225° 270° 315°
-

14

-

15

-

Table 16.5: PIPE16 Item and Sequence Numbers
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and
ESOL Command
Input
Item

E

STH

SMISC

17

PINT

SMISC

18

PX

SMISC

19

PY

SMISC

20

PZ

SMISC

21

POUT

SMISC

22

SFACTI

NMISC

81

SFACTJ

NMISC

82

SPR2

NMISC

83

SMI

NMISC

84

SMJ

NMISC

85

S1MX

NMISC

86

S3MN

NMISC

87

SINTMX

NMISC

88

SEQVMX

NMISC

89

PIPE16 Assumptions and Restrictions
• The pipe must not have a zero length or wall thickness. In addition, the OD must not be less than or equal
to zero, the ID must not be less than zero, and the corrosion thickness allowance must be less than the
wall thickness.
• The element temperatures are assumed to vary linearly along the length.
• The element may be used for both thin and thick-walled situations; however, some of the stress calculations
are based on thin-wall theory.
• The pipe element is assumed to have "closed ends" so that the axial pressure effect is included.
• Shear deflection capability is also included in the element formulation.
• Eigenvalues calculated in a gyroscopic modal analysis can be very sensitive to changes in the initial shift
value, leading to potential error in either the real or imaginary (or both) parts of the eigenvalues.

118

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PIPE16

PIPE16 Product Restrictions
When used in the product(s) listed below, the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element
in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.
ANSYS Professional
• The SPIN real constant (R13) is not available.
• The only special features allowed are stress stiffening and large deflections.
• KEYOPT(7) (gyroscopic damping) is not allowed.

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119

120

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PIPE18
Elastic Curved Pipe
MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
Product Restrictions

PIPE18 Element Description
Although this legacy element is available for use in your analysis, ANSYS, Inc. recommends using a currenttechnology element such as ELBOW290.
PIPE18, also known as an elbow element, is a circularly uniaxial element with tension, compression,
torsion, and bending capabilities. The element has six degrees of freedom at each node: translations
in the nodal x, y, and z directions and rotations about the nodal x, y, and z axes.
Options are available to include various flexibility and stress intensification factors in the formulation.
The element can account for insulation, contained fluid, and a corrosion allowance. See PIPE18 - Elastic
Curved Pipe (p. 246) for more details about this element.
Figure 18.1: PIPE18 Geometry

❚❤   ❧ ♠ ♥✁ ①✲③ ❝✂✂✄☎✆♥✝✁ ✞
✝✄  ✆♥ ✁❤  ■✱ ❏✱ ❑ ♣❧✝♥ 

❘❛❞✐✉s ♦❢
❈✉r✈❛t✉r❡

€①

❚✝✠❣

❚✾✵

€②



€✂✟✁

€✆♥✁

❚✶✽✵

€③

❚✆♥
❚✂✟✁

PIPE18 Input Data
The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 18.1: PIPE18
Geometry (p. 121). The element input data include three nodes, the pipe outer diameter, wall thickness,
radius of curvature, optional stress intensification and flexibility factors, internal fluid density, exterior
insulation density and thickness, corrosion thickness allowance, and the isotropic material properties.
The internal fluid and external insulation constants are used only to determine the added mass effects
for these components.
Although the curved pipe element has only two endpoints (nodes I and J), the third node (K) is required
to define the plane in which the element lies. This node must lie in the plane of the curved pipe and
on the center-of-curvature side of line I-J. A node point belonging to another element (such as the
other node of a connecting straight pipe element) may be used. Input and output locations around the
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121

PIPE18
pipe circumference identified as being at 0° are located along the element y-axis, and similarly 90° is
along the element z-axis.
Only the lumped mass matrix is available.
The flexibility and stress intensification factors included in the element are calculated as follows:
ANSYS Flexibility Factor = 1.65/(h(1 + PrXk/tE)) or 1.0 (whichever is greater) (used if
KEYOPT(3) = 0 or 1 and FLXI not input)
Karman Flexibility Factor = (10 + 12h2)/(1 + 12h2) (used if KEYOPT(3) = 2 and FLXI not
input)
User Defined Flexibility Factors = FLXI (in-plane) and FLXO (out-of-plane) (may be input
as any positive value)
FLXO defaults to FLXI for all cases.
Stress Intensification Factor = 0.9/h2/3 or 1.0 (whichever is greater) (used for SIFI or SIFJ
if factor not input or if input less than 1.0 (must be positive))
where:
h = tR/r2
t = thickness
R = radius of curvature
r = average radius
E = modulus of elasticity
Xk = 6 (r/t)4/3 (R/r)1/3 if KEYOPT(3) = 1 and R/r ≥ 1.7, otherwise Xk = 0
P = Pi - Po if Pi - Po > 0, otherwise P = 0, Pi = internal pressure, Po = external pressure
Do not use KEYOPT(3) = 1 if the included angle of the complete elbow is less than 360/(π(R/r)) degrees.
Element loads are described in Nodal Loading. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element
faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 18.1: PIPE18 Geometry (p. 121). Internal pressure (PINT)
and external pressure (POUT) are input as positive values. The internal and external pressure loads are
designed for closed-loop static pressure environments and therefore include pressure loads on fictitious
"end caps" so that the pressure loads induce an axial stress and/or reaction in the pipe system. If a dynamic situation needs to be represented, such as a pipe venting to a lower pressure area or the internal
flow is past a constriction in the pipe, these end cap loads may need to be modified by applying a
nodal force normal to the cross-section of the pipe with the magnitude representing the change in
pressure. Alternatively, the precomputed end cap loads can be removed using KEYOPT(8) = 1 and the
appropriate end cap loads added by the user. Note that when using KEYOPT(8) = 1, the pressure load
will be acting on only the wall of the elbow element so that the total pressure load will not be selfequilibrating. The transverse pressures (PX, PY, and PZ) may represent wind or drag loads (per unit
length of the pipe) and are defined in the global Cartesian directions. Positive transverse pressures act
in the positive coordinate directions. Tapered pressures are not recognized. Only constant pressures
are supported for this element.
Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. Temperatures may have wall gradients
or diametral gradients (KEYOPT(1)). The average wall temperature at θ = 0° is computed as 2 * TAVG T(180) and the average wall temperature at θ = -90° is computed as 2 * TAVG - T(90). The element
temperatures are assumed to be linear along the length. The first temperature at node I (TOUT(I) or

122

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PIPE18
TAVG(I)) defaults to TUNIF. If all temperatures after the first are unspecified, they default to the first. If
all temperatures at node I are input, and all temperatures at node J are unspecified, the node J temperatures default to the corresponding node I temperatures. For any other pattern of input temperatures,
unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF.
For piping analyses, the PIPE module of PREP7 may be used to generate the input for this element.
A summary of the element input is given below. A general description of element input is given in
Element Input.

PIPE18 Input Summary
Nodes
I, J, K - where node K is in the plane of the elbow, on the center of curvature side of line I-J
Degrees of Freedom
UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ
Real Constants
OD, TKWALL, RADCUR, SIFI, SIFJ, FLXI,
DENSFL, DENSIN, TKIN, TKCORR, (Blank), FLXO
See Table 18.1: PIPE18 Real Constants (p. 124) for a description of the real constants
Material Properties
EX, ALPX (or CTEX or THSX), PRXY (or NUXY), DENS, GXY, ALPD, BETD
Surface Loads
Pressures -1-PINT, 2-PX, 3-PY, 4-PZ, 5-POUT
Body Loads
Temperatures -TOUT(I), TIN(I), TOUT(J), TIN(J) if KEYOPT (1) = 0, or
TAVG(I), T90(I), T180(I), TAVG(J), T90(J), T180(J) if KEYOPT (1) = 1
Special Features
Large deflection
Birth and death
KEYOPT(1)
Temperatures represent:
0 -The through-wall gradient
1 -The diametral gradient
KEYOPT(3)
Flex factor (if FLEX is not specified):
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123

PIPE18
0 -Use ANSYS flexibility factor (without pressure term)
1 -Use ANSYS flexibility factor (with pressure term)
2 -Use KARMAN flexibility factor
KEYOPT(6)
Member force and moment output:
0 -Do not print member forces or moments
2 -Print member forces and moments in the element coordinate system
KEYOPT(8)
End cap loads:
0 -Internal and external pressures cause loads on end caps
1 -Internal and external pressures do not cause loads on end caps
Table 18.1: PIPE18 Real Constants
No.

Name

Description

1

OD

Pipe outer diameter

2

TKWALL

Wall thickness

3

RADCUR

Radius of curvature

4

SIFI

Stress intensification factor (node I)

5

SIFJ

Stress intensification factor (node J)

6

FLXI

Flexibility factor (in-plane)

7

DENSFL

Internal fluid density

8

DENSIN

Exterior insulation density

9

TKIN

Insulation thickness

10

TKCORR

Corrosion thickness allowance

11

(Blank)

--

12

FLXO

Flexibility factor (out-of-plane). FLXO defaults to FLXI in all cases.

PIPE18 Output Data
The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:
• Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution
• Additional element output as shown in Table 18.2: PIPE18 Element Output Definitions (p. 125)

124

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PIPE18
Several items are illustrated in Figure 18.2: PIPE18 Stress Output (p. 125).
The stresses are computed with the outer diameter of the pipe reduced by twice the corrosion thickness
allowance. The direct stress includes the internal pressure (closed end) effect. Also printed for each end
are the maximum and minimum principal stresses and the stress intensity. These quantities are computed
at the outer surface and may not occur at the same location around the pipe circumference. Some of
these stresses are shown in Figure 18.2: PIPE18 Stress Output (p. 125). The direct stress does not include
the axial component of the transverse thermal stress. The principal stresses and the stress intensity include
the shear force stress component. Angles listed in the output are measured (θ) as shown in Figure 18.2: PIPE18 Stress Output (p. 125). A general description of solution output is given in Solution
Output. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.
Figure 18.2: PIPE18 Stress Output

❙❇❊◆❉

❙❚

❙❍

❚✁✂s✐✁♥✄❧
▼✁♠☎♥t

❙❆❳▲

θ

❙❉■❘

 ❤❡❛r
❋♦r❝❡
The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation:
A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name
method (ETABLE, ESOL). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT.
The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.
In either the O or R columns, “Y” indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table
footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and “-” indicates that the item is not
available.
Table 18.2: PIPE18 Element Output Definitions
Name

Definition

O

R

EL

Element Number

Y

Y

NODES

Nodes - I, J

Y

Y

MAT

Material number

Y

Y

VOLU:

Volume

-

Y

XC, YC, ZC

Location where results are reported

Y

6

CORAL

Corrosion thickness allowance

1

1

TEMP

TOUT(I), TIN(I), TOUT(J), TIN(J)

2

2

TEMP

TAVG(I), T90(I), T180(I), TAVG(J), T90(J), T180(J)

3

3

PRES

PINT, PX, PY, PZ, POUT

Y

Y

FFACT

Element flexibility factor

-

Y

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125

PIPE18
Name

Definition

O

R

MFOR(X, Y, Z)

Member forces for nodes I and J (in the element
coordinate system)

4

Y

MMOM(X, Y, Z)

Member moments for nodes I and J (in the element
coordinate system)

4

Y

SFACTI, SFACTJ

Stress intensification factors at nodes I and J

Y

Y

STH

Stress due to maximum thermal gradient through
the wall thickness

Y

Y

SPR2

Hoop pressure stress for code calculations

-

Y

SMI, SMJ

Moment stress at nodes I and J for code calculations

-

Y

SDIR

Direct (axial) stress

-

Y

SBEND

Maximum bending stress at outer surface

-

Y

ST

Shear stress at outer surface due to torsion

-

Y

SSF

Shear stress due to shear force

-

Y

S(1MX, 3MN,INTMX,
EQVMX)

Maximum principal stress, minimum principal stress,
maximum stress intensity, maximum equivalent
stress (over eight points on the outside surface at
both ends of the element)

Y

Y

S(1, 3, INT, EQV)

Maximum principal stress, minimum principal stress,
stress intensity, equivalent stress

5

5

S(AXL, RAD, H, XH)

Axial, radial, hoop, and shear stresses

5

5

EPEL(AXL, RAD, H,
XH)

Axial, radial, hoop, and shear strains

5

5

EPTH(AXL, RAD, H)

Axial, radial, and hoop thermal strain

5

5

1. If the value is greater than 0.
2. If KEYOPT(1) = 0
3. If KEYOPT(1) = 1
4. If KEYOPT(6) = 2
5. The item repeats at 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, 180°, 225°, 270°, 315° at node I, then at node J (all at the outer
surface)
6. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.
The following tables list output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number
method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence
Number Table of this manual for more information. The following notation is used in Table 18.3: PIPE18
Item and Sequence Numbers (Node I) (p. 127) through Table 18.5: PIPE18 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 129):
Name
output quantity as defined in the Table 18.2: PIPE18 Element Output Definitions (p. 125)
Item
predetermined Item label for ETABLE command
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PIPE18
E
sequence number for single-valued or constant element data
I,J
sequence number for data at nodes I and J
Table 18.3: PIPE18 Item and Sequence Numbers (Node I)
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Circumferential Location
Item

E

SAXL

LS

SRAD

45°

90°

135° 180° 225° 270° 315°

-

1

5

9

13

17

21

25

29

LS

-

2

6

10

14

18

22

26

30

SH

LS

-

3

7

11

15

19

23

27

31

SXH

LS

-

4

8

12

16

20

24

28

32

EPELAXL

LEPEL

-

1

5

9

13

17

21

25

29

EPELRAD

LEPEL

-

2

6

10

14

18

22

26

30

EPELH

LEPEL

-

3

7

11

15

19

23

27

31

EPELXH

LEPEL

-

4

8

12

16

20

24

28

32

EPTHAXL

LEPTH

-

1

5

9

13

17

21

25

29

EPTHRAD

LEPTH

-

2

6

10

14

18

22

26

30

EPTHH

LEPTH

-

3

7

11

15

19

23

27

31

S1

NMISC

-

1

6

11

16

21

26

31

36

S3

NMISC

-

3

8

13

18

23

28

33

38

SINT

NMISC

-

4

9

14

19

24

29

34

39

SEQV

NMISC

-

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

SBEND

NMISC

91

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

SSF

NMISC

92

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MFORX

SMISC

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MFORY

SMISC

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MFORZ

SMISC

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MMOMX

SMISC

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MMOMY

SMISC

5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MMOMZ

SMISC

6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

SDIR

SMISC

13

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

ST

SMISC

14

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

TOUT

LBFE

-

4

-

1

-

2

-

3

-

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127

PIPE18
Output
Quantity
Name
TIN

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Circumferential Location
Item

E

LBFE

-

45°

90°

8

-

5

135° 180° 225° 270° 315°
-

6

-

7

-

Table 18.4: PIPE18 Item and Sequence Numbers (Node J)
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Circumferential Location
Item

E

SAXL

LS

SRAD

45°

90°

-

33

37

41

45

49

53

57

61

LS

-

34

38

42

46

50

54

58

62

SH

LS

-

35

39

43

47

51

55

59

63

SXH

LS

-

36

40

44

48

52

56

60

64

EPELAXL

LEPEL

-

33

37

41

45

49

53

57

61

EPELRAD

LEPEL

-

34

38

42

46

50

54

58

62

EPELH

LEPEL

-

35

39

43

47

51

55

59

63

EPELXH

LEPEL

-

36

40

44

48

52

56

60

64

EPTHAXL

LEPTH

-

33

37

41

45

49

53

57

61

EPTHRAD

LEPTH

-

34

38

42

46

50

54

58

62

EPTHH

LEPTH

-

35

39

43

47

51

55

59

63

S1

NMISC

-

41

46

51

56

61

66

71

76

S3

NMISC

-

43

48

53

58

63

68

73

78

SINT

NMISC

-

44

49

54

59

64

69

74

79

SEQV

NMISC

-

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

SBEND

NMISC

93

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

SSF

NMISC

94

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MFORX

SMISC

7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MFORY

SMISC

8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MFORZ

SMISC

9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MMOMX

SMISC

10

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MMOMY

SMISC

11

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MMOMZ

SMISC

12

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

SDIR

SMISC

15

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

ST

SMISC

16

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

TOUT

LBFE

-

12

-

9

-

10

-

11

-

128

135° 180° 225° 270° 315°

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PIPE18
Output
Quantity
Name
TIN

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Circumferential Location
Item

E

LBFE

-

45°

90°

16

-

13

135° 180° 225° 270° 315°
-

14

-

15

-

Table 18.5: PIPE18 Item and Sequence Numbers
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and
ESOL Command
Input
Item

E

SFACTI

NMISC

81

SFACTJ

NMISC

82

SPR2

NMISC

83

SMI

NMISC

84

SMJ

NMISC

85

S1MX

NMISC

86

S3MN

NMISC

87

SINTMX

NMISC

88

SEQVMX

NMISC

89

FFACT

NMISC

90

STH

SMISC

17

PINT

SMISC

18

PX

SMISC

19

PY

SMISC

20

PZ

SMISC

21

POUT

SMISC

22

PIPE18 Assumptions and Restrictions
• The curved pipe must not have a zero length or wall thickness. In addition, the OD must not be less than
or equal to zero and the ID must not be less than zero.
• The corrosion allowance must be less than the wall thickness.
• The element is limited to having an axis with a single curvature and a subtended angle of 0° < θ ≤ 90°.
• Shear deflection capability is also included in the element formulation.
• The elbow is assumed to have "closed ends" so that the axial pressure effect is included.
• When used in a large deflection analysis, the location of the third node (K) is used only to initially orient
the element.

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129

PIPE18
• The element temperatures are assumed to be linear along the length. The average wall temperature at θ
= 0° is computed as 2 * TAVG - T(180) and the average wall temperature at θ = -90° is computed as 2 *
TAVG - T(90).
• Stress intensification factors input with values less than 1.0 are set to 1.0.
• The element formulation is based upon thin-walled theory. The elbow should have a large radius-tothickness ratio since the integration points are assumed to be located at the midthickness of the wall.
• Only the lumped mass matrix is available.

PIPE18 Product Restrictions
When used in the product(s) listed below, the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element
in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.
ANSYS Professional
• The ALPD and BETD material properties are not allowed.
• The only special feature allowed is large deflection.

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PLANE42
2-D Structural Solid
MP ME ST PR PRN DS DSS <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
Product Restrictions

PLANE42 Element Description
Although this legacy element is available for use in your analysis, ANSYS, Inc. recommends using a currenttechnology element such as PLANE182 (KEYOPT(1) = 3).
PLANE42 is used for 2-D modeling of solid structures. The element can be used either as a plane element
(plane stress or plane strain) or as an axisymmetric element. The element is defined by four nodes
having two degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions. The element
has plasticity, creep, swelling, stress stiffening, large deflection, and large strain capabilities.
An option is available to suppress the extra displacement shapes. See PLANE183 for a multi-node version
of this element. See SOLID272 for an axisymmetric version that accepts nonaxisymmetric loading.
Figure 42.1: PLANE42 Geometry

❑✱ ▲

❊☎❡♠❡♥t ❝✆✆✁✝✂♥✄t❡

y

❑❊✟❖€❚ ✶✞ ❂ ✶✞


✭♦r ❛①✐❛❧✮

s②st❡♠  s❤✆✇♥ ❢✆✁


x

❳ ✭♦r r❛❞✐❛❧✮

 ❚✁✂✄♥❣✉☎✄✁ ❖♣t✂✆♥ ✲
♥✆t ✁❡❝✆♠♠❡♥✝❡✝✞

PLANE42 Input Data
The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 42.1: PLANE42 Geometry (p. 131). The element input data includes four nodes, a thickness (for the
plane stress option only) and the orthotropic material properties. Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. The element coordinate system orientation is as described
in Coordinate Systems.
Element loads are described in Nodal Loading. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element
faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 42.1: PLANE42 Geometry (p. 131). Positive pressures
act into the element. Temperatures and fluences may be input as element body loads at the nodes.
The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. If all other temperatures are unspecified, they default to
T(I). For any other input pattern, unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. Similar defaults occurs for
fluence except that zero is used instead of TUNIF.
The nodal forces, if any, should be input per unit of depth for a plane analysis (except for KEYOPT(3) =
3) and on a full 360° basis for an axisymmetric analysis. KEYOPT(2) is used to include or suppress the
extra displacement shapes.
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131

PLANE42
KEYOPT(5) and KEYOPT(6) provide various element printout options. (See Element Solution.)
You cannot set initial state conditions (INISTATE) using this element. You can set initial state conditions
using current-technology elements (such as LINK180,SHELL181). To continue using initial state conditions
in future versions of ANSYS, consider using a current element technology. For more information, see
Legacy vs. Current Element Technologies in the Element Reference. For more information about setting
initial state values, see the INISTATE command documentation and Initial State Loading in the Basic
Analysis Guide.
You can include the effects of pressure load stiffness in a geometric nonlinear analysis using SOLCONTROL,,,INCP. Pressure load stiffness effects are included in linear eigenvalue buckling automatically. If
an unsymmetric matrix is needed for pressure load stiffness effects, use NROPT,UNSYM.
A summary of the element input is given in "PLANE42 Input Summary" (p. 132). A general description
of element input is given in Element Input. For axisymmetric applications see Harmonic Axisymmetric
Elements.

PLANE42 Input Summary
Nodes
I, J, K, L
Degrees of Freedom
UX, UY
Real Constants
None, if KEYOPT(3) = 0, 1, or 2
THK - Thickness if KEYOPT(3) = 3
Material Properties
EX, EY, EZ, PRXY, PRYZ, PRXZ (or NUXY, NUYZ, NUXZ),
ALPX, ALPY, ALPZ (or CTEX, CTEY, CTEZ or THSX, THSY, THSZ), DENS, GXY, BETD, ALPD
Surface Loads
Pressures -face 1 (J-I), face 2 (K-J), face 3 (L-K), face 4 (I-L)
Body Loads
Temperatures -T(I), T(J), T(K), T(L)
Fluences -FL(I), FL(J), FL(K), FL(L)
Special Features
Plasticity (BISO, MISO, BKIN, MKIN, KINH, DP, ANISO)
Creep (CREEP, RATE)
Swelling (SWELL)
Elasticity (MELAS)
Other material (USER)

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PLANE42
Stress stiffening
Large deflection
Large strain
Birth and death
Adaptive descent
Items in parentheses refer to data tables associated with the TB command.
KEYOPT(1)
Element coordinate system defined:
0 -Element coordinate system is parallel to the global coordinate system
1 -Element coordinate system is based on the element I-J side
KEYOPT(2)
Extra displacement shapes:
0 -Include extra displacement shapes
1 -Suppress extra displacement shapes
KEYOPT(3)
Element behavior:
0 -Plane stress
1 -Axisymmetric
2 -Plane strain (Z strain = 0.0)
3 -Plane stress with thickness input
KEYOPT(5)
Extra stress output:
0 -Basic element solution
1 -Repeat basic solution for all integration points
2 -Nodal stress solution
KEYOPT(6)
Extra surface output:
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133

PLANE42
0 -Basic element solution
1 -Surface solution for face I-J also.
2 -Surface solution for both faces I-J and K-L also. (Surface solution available for linear materials only)
3 -Nonlinear solution at each integration point also.
4 -Surface solution for faces with nonzero pressure

PLANE42 Output Data
The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:
• Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution
• Additional element output as shown in Table 42.1: PLANE42 Element Output Definitions (p. 135)
Several items are illustrated in Figure 42.2: PLANE42 Stress Output (p. 134).
The element stress directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. Surface stresses are available
on any face. Surface stresses on face IJ, for example, are defined parallel and perpendicular to the IJ
line and along the Z axis for a plane analysis or in the hoop direction for an axisymmetric analysis. A
general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways
to view results.
Figure 42.2: PLANE42 Stress Output

❙ 


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❳ ✭♦r r❛❞✐❛❧✮

❙✁

Stress directions shown are for KEYOPT(1) = 0
The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation:
A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name
method (ETABLE, ESOL). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT.
The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.

134

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PLANE42
In either the O or R columns, “Y” indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table
footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and “-” indicates that the item is not
available.
Table 42.1: PLANE42 Element Output Definitions
Name

Definition

O

R

EL

Element Number

Y

Y

NODES

Nodes - I, J, K, L

Y

Y

MAT

Material number

Y

Y

THICK

Average thickness

Y

Y

VOLU:

Volume

Y

Y

XC, YC

Location where results are reported

Y

3

PRES

Pressures P1 at nodes J,I; P2 at K,J; P3 at L,K; P4
at I,L

Y

Y

TEMP

Temperatures T(I), T(J), T(K), T(L)

Y

Y

FLUEN

Fluences FL(I), FL(J), FL(K), FL(L)

Y

Y

S:X, Y, Z, XY

Stresses (SZ = 0.0 for plane stress elements)

Y

Y

S:1, 2, 3

Principal stresses

Y

-

S:INT

Stress intensity

Y

-

S:EQV

Equivalent stress

Y

Y

EPEL:X, Y, Z, XY

Elastic strains

Y

Y

EPEL:1, 2, 3

Principal elastic strain

Y

-

EPEL:EQV

Equivalent elastic strain [4]

-

Y

EPTH:X, Y, Z, XY

Average thermal strain

Y

Y

EPTH:EQV

Equivalent thermal strain [4]

-

Y

EPPL:X, Y, Z, XY

Plastic strain

1

1

EPPL:EQV

Equivalent plastic strain [4]

-

1

EPCR:X, Y, Z, XY

Creep strains

1

1

EPCR:EQV

Equivalent creep strains [4]

-

1

EPSW:

Swelling strain

1

1

NL:EPEQ

Equivalent plastic strain

1

1

NL:SRAT

Ratio of trial stress to stress on yield surface

1

1

NL:SEPL

Equivalent stress on stress-strain curve

1

1

NL:HPRES

Hydrostatic pressure

-

1

FACE

Face label

2

2

EPEL(PAR, PER,
Z)

Surface elastic strains (parallel, perpendicular,
Z or hoop)

2

2

TEMP

Surface average temperature

2

2

S(PAR, PER, Z)

Surface stresses (parallel, perpendicular, Z or
hoop)

2

2

SINT

Surface stress intensity

2

2

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135

PLANE42
Name

Definition

O

R

SEQV

Surface equivalent stress

2

2

LOCI:X, Y, Z

Integration point locations

-

Y

1. Nonlinear solution, output only if the element has a nonlinear material.
2. Surface output (if KEYOPT(6) is 1,2, or 4)
3. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.
4. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user
(MP,PRXY); for plastic and creep this value is set at 0.5.
Table 42.2: PLANE42 Miscellaneous Element Output
Description

Names of Items Output

O

R

Integration Point Solution
(KEYOPT(5) = 1)

TEMP, SINT, SEQV, EPEL(1, 2,
3), S(X, Y, Z, XY), S(1, 2, 3)

Y

-

Nodal Stress Solution (KEYOPT(5) = 2)

TEMP, S(X, Y, Z, XY), S(1, 2,
3), SINT, SEQV

Y

-

Nonlinear Integration Point
Solution (KEYOPT(6) = 3)

EPPL, EPEQ, SRAT, SEPL,
HPRES, EPCR, EPSW

1

-

1. Valid if the element has a nonlinear material and KEYOPT(6) = 3

Note
For axisymmetric solutions with KEYOPT(1) = 0, the X, Y, Z, and XY stress and strain outputs
correspond to the radial, axial, hoop, and in-plane shear stresses and strains, respectively.
Table 42.3: PLANE42 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 137) lists output available through the ETABLE
command using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic
Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. The
following notation is used in Table 42.3: PLANE42 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 137):
Name
output quantity as defined in the Table 42.1: PLANE42 Element Output Definitions (p. 135)
Item
predetermined Item label for ETABLE command
E
sequence number for single-valued or constant element data

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PLANE42
I,J,K,L
sequence number for data at nodes I,J,K,L
Table 42.3: PLANE42 Item and Sequence Numbers
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Item

E

I

J

K

L

P1

SMISC

-

2

1

-

-

P2

SMISC

-

-

4

3

-

P3

SMISC

-

-

-

6

5

P4

SMISC

-

7

-

-

8

S:1

NMISC

-

1

6

11

16

S:2

NMISC

-

2

7

12

17

S:3

NMISC

-

3

8

13

18

S:INT

NMISC

-

4

9

14

19

S:EQV

NMISC

-

5

10

15

20

FLUEN

NMISC

-

21

22

23

24

THICK

NMISC

25

-

-

-

-

See Surface Solution for the item and sequence numbers for surface output for the ETABLE command.

PLANE42 Assumptions and Restrictions
• The area of the element must be nonzero.
• The element must lie in a global X-Y plane as shown in Figure 42.1: PLANE42 Geometry (p. 131) and the
Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses. An axisymmetric structure should be
modeled in the +X quadrants.
• A triangular element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L node numbers (see Degenerated Shape
Elements).
• The extra shapes are automatically deleted for triangular elements so that a constant strain element results.
• Surface stress printout is valid only if the conditions described in Element Solution are met.

PLANE42 Product Restrictions
When used in the product(s) listed below, the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element
in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.
ANSYS Professional
• Fluence body loads are not applicable.
• The only special feature allowed is stress stiffening.
• KEYOPT(6) = 3 is not applicable.

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137

138

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SOLID45
3-D Structural Solid
MP ME ST PR PRN DS DSS <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
Product Restrictions

SOLID45 Element Description
Although this legacy element is available for use in your analysis, ANSYS, Inc. recommends using a currenttechnology element such as SOLID185 (KEYOPT(2) = 3).
SOLID45 is used for the 3-D modeling of solid structures. The element is defined by eight nodes having
three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x, y, and z directions.
The element has plasticity, creep, swelling, stress stiffening, large deflection, and large strain capabilities.
A reduced integration option with hourglass control is available. A higher-order version of the SOLID45
element is SOLID186.
Figure 45.1: SOLID45 Geometry

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SOLID45 Input Data
The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 45.1: SOLID45 Geometry (p. 139). The element is defined by eight nodes and the orthotropic material properties.
Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. The element coordinate
system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems.
Element loads are described in Nodal Loading. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element
faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 45.1: SOLID45 Geometry (p. 139). Positive pressures act
into the element. Temperatures and fluences may be input as element body loads at the nodes. The
node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. If all other temperatures are unspecified, they default to T(I).
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139

SOLID45
For any other input temperature pattern, unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. Similar defaults
occurs for fluence except that zero is used instead of TUNIF.
KEYOPT(1) is used to include or suppress the extra displacement shapes. KEYOPT(5) and KEYOPT(6)
provide various element printout options (see Element Solution).
This element also supports uniform reduced (1 point) integration with hourglass control when KEYOPT(2)
= 1. Using uniform reduced integration provides the following advantages when running a nonlinear
analysis:
• Less cpu time is required for element stiffness formation and stress/strain calculations to achieve a
comparable accuracy to the FULL integration option.
• The length of the element history saved record (.ESAV and .OSAV) is about 1/7th as much as when
the full integration (2 X 2 X 2) is used for the same number of elements.
• Nonlinear convergence characteristic of the option is generally far superior to the default full integration with extra displacement shape; that is, KEYOPT(1) = 0, KEYOPT(2) = 0.
• The analysis will not suffer from volumetric locking which can be caused by plasticity or other incompressible material properties.
An analysis using uniform reduced integration can have the following disadvantages:
• The analysis is not as accurate as the full integration method, which is apparent in the linear analysis
for the same mesh.
• The analysis cannot capture the bending behavior with a single layer of elements; for example, in
the case of a fixed-end cantilever with a lateral point load, modeled by one layer of elements laterally.
Instead, four elements are usually recommended.
When the uniform reduced integration option is used (KEYOPT(2) = 1 - this option is the same as SOLID185 with KEYOPT(2) = 1), you can check the accuracy of the solution by comparing the total energy
(SENE label in ETABLE) and the artificial energy (AENE label in ETABLE) introduced by hourglass control.
If the ratio of artificial energy to total energy is less than 5%, the solution is generally acceptable. If the
ratio exceeds 5%, refine the mesh. The total energy and artificial energy can also be monitored by using
the OUTPR,VENG command in the solution phase. For more details, see Energies in the Mechanical
APDL Theory Reference.
You cannot set initial state conditions (INISTATE) using this element. You can set initial state conditions
using current-technology elements (such as LINK180,SHELL181). To continue using initial state conditions
in future versions of ANSYS, consider using a current element technology. For more information, see
Legacy vs. Current Element Technologies in the Element Reference. For more information about setting
initial state values, see the INISTATE command documentation and Initial State Loading in the Basic
Analysis Guide.
You can include the effects of pressure load stiffness in a geometric nonlinear analysis using SOLCONTROL,,,INCP. Pressure load stiffness effects are included in linear eigenvalue buckling automatically. If
an unsymmetric matrix is needed for pressure load stiffness effects, use NROPT,UNSYM.
A summary of the element input is given in "SOLID45 Input Summary" (p. 141). A general description of
element input is given in Element Input.

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SOLID45

SOLID45 Input Summary
Nodes
I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P
Degrees of Freedom
UX, UY, UZ
Real Constants
HGSTF - Hourglass control factor needed only when KEYOPT(2) = 1.

Note
The valid value for this real constant is any positive number; default = 1.0. We recommend
that you use a value between 1 and 10.
Material Properties
EX, EY, EZ, PRXY, PRYZ, PRXZ (or NUXY, NUYZ, NUXZ), GXY, GYZ, GXZ, ALPX, ALPY, ALPZ (or
CTEX, CTEY, CTEZ or THSX, THSY, THSZ), DENS, BETD, ALPD
Surface Loads
Pressures -face 1 (J-I-L-K), face 2 (I-J-N-M), face 3 (J-K-O-N), face 4 (K-L-P-O), face 5 (L-I-M-P), face 6 (M-N-O-P)
Body Loads
Temperatures -T(I), T(J), T(K), T(L), T(M), T(N), T(O), T(P)
Fluences -FL(I), FL(J), FL(K), FL(L), FL(M), FL(N), FL(O), FL(P)
Special Features
Plasticity (BISO, MISO, BKIN, MKIN, KINH, DP, ANISO)
Creep (CREEP, RATE)
Swelling (SWELL)
Elasticity (MELAS)
Other material (USER)
Stress stiffening
Large deflection
Large strain
Birth and death
Adaptive descent
Initial stress import
Items in parentheses refer to data tables associated with the TB command.
KEYOPT(1)
Include or suppress extra displacement shapes:

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141

SOLID45
0 -Include extra displacement shapes
1 -Suppress extra displacement shapes
KEYOPT(2)
Integration option:
0 -Full integration with or without extra displacement shapes, depending on the setting of KEYOPT(1)
1 -Uniform reduced integration with hourglass control; suppress extra displacement shapes (KEYOPT(1)
is automatically set to 1).
KEYOPT(4)
Element coordinate system:
0 -Element coordinate system is parallel to the global coordinate system
1 -Element coordinate system is based on the element I-J side
KEYOPT(5)
Extra element output:
0 -Basic element solution
1 -Repeat basic solution for all integration points
2 -Nodal Stress Solution
KEYOPT(6)
Extra surface output:
0 -Basic element solution
1 -Surface solution for face I-J-N-M also
2 -Surface solution for face I-J-N-M and face K-L-P-O (Surface solution available for linear materials only)
3 -Include nonlinear solution at each integration point
4 -Surface solution for faces with nonzero pressure

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SOLID45
KEYOPT(9)
Initial stress subroutine option (available only through direct input of the KEYOPT command):
0 -No user subroutine to provide initial stress (default)
1 -Read initial stress data from user subroutine INISTATE (see the Guide to User-Programmable Features
for user written subroutines)

SOLID45 Output Data
The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:
• Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution
• Additional element output as shown in Table 45.1: SOLID45 Element Output Definitions (p. 144)
Several items are illustrated in Figure 45.2: SOLID45 Stress Output (p. 143). The element stress directions
are parallel to the element coordinate system. The surface stress outputs are in the surface coordinate
systems and are available for any face (KEYOPT(6)). The coordinate systems for faces IJNM and KLPO
are shown in Figure 45.1: SOLID45 Geometry (p. 139). The other surface coordinate systems follow similar
orientations as indicated by the pressure face node description. Surface stress printout is valid only if
the conditions described in Element Solution are met. A general description of solution output is given
in Solution Output. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.
Figure 45.2: SOLID45 Stress Output

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 ❳



Stress directions shown are for KEYOPT(4) = 0
When KEYOPT(2) = 1 (the element is using uniform reduced integration), all the outputs for the element
integration points are output in the same style as the full integration outputs. The number of points
for full integration is used for consistency of output within the same element type.
The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation:

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143

SOLID45
A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name
method (ETABLE, ESOL). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT.
The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.
In either the O or R columns, “Y” indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table
footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and “-” indicates that the item is not
available.
Table 45.1: SOLID45 Element Output Definitions
Name

Definition

O

R

EL

Element Number

Y

Y

NODES

Nodes - I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P

Y

Y

MAT

Material number

Y

Y

VOLU:

Volume

Y

Y

XC, YC, ZC

Location where results are reported

Y

3

PRES

Pressures P1 at nodes J, I, L, K; P2 at I, J, N, M; P3 at
J, K, O, N; P4 at K, L, P, O; P5 at L, I, M, P; P6 at M, N,
O, P

Y

Y

TEMP

Temperatures T(I), T(J), T(K), T(L), T(M), T(N), T(O), T(P)

Y

Y

FLUEN

Fluences FL(I), FL(J), FL(K), FL(L), FL(M), FL(N), FL(O),
FL(P)

Y

Y

S:X, Y, Z, XY, YZ, XZ

Stresses

Y

Y

S:1, 2, 3

Principal stresses

Y

Y

S:INT

Stress intensity

Y

Y

S:EQV

Equivalent stress

Y

Y

EPEL:X, Y, Z, XY, YZ,
XZ

Elastic strains

Y

Y

EPEL:1, 2, 3

Principal elastic strains

Y

-

EPEL:EQV

Equivalent elastic strain [4]

Y

Y

EPTH:X, Y, Z, XY, YZ,
XZ

Average thermal strains

-

5

EPTH:EQV

Equivalent thermal strain [4]

-

5

EPPL:X, Y, Z, XY, YZ,
XZ

Average plastic strains

1

1

EPPL:EQV

Equivalent plastic strain [4]

1

1

EPCR:X, Y, Z, XY, YZ,
XZ

Average creep strains

1

1

EPCR:EQV

Equivalent creep strain [4]

1

1

EPSW:

Average swelling strain

1

1

NL:EPEQ

Average equivalent plastic strain

1

1

NL:SRAT

Ratio of trial stress to stress on yield surface

1

1

NL:SEPL

Average equivalent stress from stress-strain curve

1

1

NL:HPRES

Hydrostatic pressure

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1

SOLID45
Name

Definition

O

R

FACE

Face label

2

2

AREA

Face area

2

2

TEMP

Surface average temperature

2

2

EPEL

Surface elastic strains (X ,Y, XY)

2

2

PRESS

Surface pressure

2

2

S(X, Y, XY)

Surface stresses (X-axis parallel to line defined by
first two nodes which define the face)

2

2

S(1, 2, 3)

Surface principal stresses

2

2

SINT

Surface stress intensity

2

2

SEQV

Surface equivalent stress

2

2

LOCI:X, Y, Z

Integration point locations

-

Y

1. Nonlinear solution, output only if the element has a nonlinear material
2. Surface output (if KEYOPT(6) is 1, 2, or 4)
3. Available only at centroid as a *GET item
4. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user
(MP,PRXY); for plastic and creep this value is set at 0.5.
5. Output only if element has a thermal load.
Table 45.2: SOLID45 Miscellaneous Element Output
Description

Names of Items Output

O

R

Nonlinear Integration Pt.
Solution

EPPL, EPEQ, SRAT, SEPL,
HPRES, EPCR, EPSW

1

-

Integration Point Stress
Solution

TEMP, S(X, Y, Z, XY, YZ, XZ),
SINT, SEQV, EPEL

2

-

Nodal Stress Solution

TEMP, S(X, Y, Z, XY, YZ, XZ),
SINT, SEQV, EPEL

3

-

1. Output at each of eight integration points, if the element has a nonlinear material and KEYOPT(6) = 3
2. Output at each integration point, if KEYOPT(5) = 1
3. Output at each node, if KEYOPT(5) = 2
Table 45.3: SOLID45 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 146) lists output available through the ETABLE
command using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic
Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. The
following notation is used in Table 45.3: SOLID45 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 146):
Name
output quantity as defined in the Table 45.1: SOLID45 Element Output Definitions (p. 144)
Item
predetermined Item label for ETABLE command
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145

SOLID45
I,J,...,P
sequence number for data at nodes I,J,...,P
Table 45.3: SOLID45 Item and Sequence Numbers
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Item

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

P1

SMISC

2

1

4

3

-

-

-

-

P2

SMISC

5

6

-

-

8

7

-

-

P3

SMISC

-

9

10

-

-

12

11

-

P4

SMISC

-

-

13

14

-

-

16

15

P5

SMISC

18

-

-

17

19

-

-

20

P6

SMISC

-

-

-

-

21

22

23

24

S:1

NMISC

1

6

11

16

21

26

31

36

S:2

NMISC

2

7

12

17

22

27

32

37

S:3

NMISC

3

8

13

18

23

28

33

38

S:INT

NMISC

4

9

14

19

24

29

34

39

S:EQV

NMISC

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

FLUEN

NMISC

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

See Surface Solution for the item and sequence numbers for surface output for the ETABLE command.

SOLID45 Assumptions and Restrictions
• Zero volume elements are not allowed.
• Elements may be numbered either as shown in Figure 45.1: SOLID45 Geometry (p. 139) or may have
the planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged.
• The element may not be twisted such that the element has two separate volumes. This occurs most
frequently when the elements are not numbered properly.
• All elements must have eight nodes.
– A prism-shaped element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L and duplicate O and P node
numbers (see Degenerated Shape Elements).
– A tetrahedron shape is also available. The extra shapes are automatically deleted for tetrahedron
elements.

SOLID45 Product Restrictions
When used in the product(s) listed below, the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element
in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.
ANSYS Professional
• Fluence body loads are not applicable.

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SOLID45
• The only special feature allowed is stress stiffening.
• KEYOPT(6) = 3 is not applicable.

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148

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CONTAC52
3-D Point-to-Point Contact
MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
Product Restrictions

CONTAC52 Element Description
Although this legacy element is available for use in your analysis, ANSYS, Inc. recommends using a currenttechnology element such as CONTA178.
CONTAC52 represents two surfaces which may maintain or break physical contact and may slide relative
to each other. The element is capable of supporting only compression in the direction normal to the
surfaces and shear (Coulomb friction) in the tangential direction. The element has three degrees of
freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x, y, and z directions.
The element may be initially preloaded in the normal direction or it may be given a gap specification.
A specified stiffness acts in the normal and tangential directions when the gap is closed and not sliding.
Figure 52.1: CONTAC52 Geometry

① ③

●❛♣



β

α


CONTAC52 Input Data
The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 52.1: CONTAC52 Geometry (p. 149). The element is defined by two nodes, two stiffnesses (KN and KS), an initial
gap or interference (GAP), and an initial element status (START). The orientation of the interface is
defined by the node locations, or by a user-specified gap direction. The interface is assumed to be
perpendicular to the I-J line or to the specified gap direction. The element coordinate system has its

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149

CONTAC52
origin at node I and the x-axis is directed toward node J or in the user-specified gap direction. The interface is parallel to the element y-z plane.
The normal stiffness, KN, should be based upon the stiffness of the surfaces in contact. See Nonlinear
Structural Analysis in the Structural Analysis Guide for guidelines on choosing a value for KN. In some
cases (such as initial interference analyses, nonconvergence, or over penetration), it may be useful to
change the KN value between load steps or in a restart in order to obtain an accurate, converged
solution. The sticking stiffness, KS, represents the stiffness in the tangential direction when elastic
Coulomb friction is selected (µ > 0.0 and KEYOPT(1) = 0). The coefficient of friction µ is input as material
property MU and is evaluated at the average of the two node temperatures. Stiffnesses may also be
computed from the maximum expected force divided by the maximum allowable surface displacement.
KS defaults to KN.
The initial gap defines the gap size (if positive) or the displacement interference (if negative). This input
is the opposite of that used for CONTAC12 (described in the Feature Archive). If you do not specify the
gap direction (by means of real constants NX, NY, and NZ), an interference causes the nodes to separate.
The gap size may be input as a real constant (GAP) or automatically calculated from the input node
locations (as the distance between node I and node J) if KEYOPT(4) = 1. Interference must be input as
a real constant. Stiffness is associated with a zero or negative gap. The initial element status (START) is
used to define the "previous" condition of the interface to be used at the start of the first substep. This
input is used to override the condition implied by the interference specification and is useful in anticipating the final interface configuration and in reducing the number of iterations required for convergence.
You can specify the gap direction by means of real constants NX, NY, and NZ (the global Cartesian X,
Y, and Z components of the gap direction vector). If you do not specify the gap direction, the program
will calculate the direction based on the initial positions of the I and J nodes, such that a positive normal
displacement (in the element coordinate system) of node J relative to node I tends to open the gap.
You should always specify the gap direction if nodes I and J have the same initial coordinates, if the
model has an initial interference condition in which the underlying elements' geometry overlaps, or if
the initial open gap distance is very small. If the gap is initially geometrically open, the correct normal
(NX, NY, NZ) usually points from node I toward node J.
The only material property used is the interface coefficient of friction µ. A zero value should be used
for frictionless surfaces. Temperatures may be specified at the element nodes (for material property
evaluation only). The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. The node J temperature defaults to T(I).
The force deflection relationships for the interface element can be separated into the normal and tangential (sliding) directions as shown in Figure 52.2: CONTAC52 Force-Deflection Relationship (p. 153).
The element condition at the beginning of the first substep is determined from the START parameter.
If the interface is closed and sticking, KN is used in the gap resistance and KS is used for sticking resistance. If the interface is closed but sliding, KN is used in the gap resistance and the constant friction
force µFN is used for the sliding resistance.
In the normal direction, when the normal force (FN) is negative, the interface remains in contact and
responds as a linear spring. As the normal force becomes positive, contact is broken and no force is
transmitted.
KEYOPT(3) can be used to specify a "weak spring" across an open interface, which is useful for preventing
rigid body motion that could occur in a static analysis. The weak spring stiffness is computed by multiplying the normal stiffness KN by a reduction factor. The default reduction factor of 1E-6 can be
overridden with real constant REDFACT.

150

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CONTAC52
This "weak spring" capability is not analogous to overlaying an actual spring element (such as COMBIN14)
with a low stiffness value. The REDFACT capability will not limit gap separation when a tensile force is
applied.
In the tangential direction, for FN < 0 and the absolute value of the tangential force (FS) less than µ|FN|,
the interface sticks and responds as a linear spring. For FN < 0 and FS = µ|FN|, sliding occurs. If contact
is broken, FS = 0.
If KEYOPT(1) = 1, rigid Coulomb friction is selected, KS is not used, and the elastic sticking capability is
removed. This option is useful for displacement controlled problems or for certain dynamic problems
where sliding dominates.
For analyses involving friction, using NROPT,UNSYM is useful (and, in fact, sometimes required) for
problems where the normal and tangential (sliding) motions are strongly coupled, such as in a wedge
insertion problem.
A summary of the element input is given in "CONTAC52 Input Summary" (p. 151). A general description
of element input is given in Element Input.

CONTAC52 Input Summary
Nodes
I, J
Degrees of Freedom
UX, UY, UZ
Real Constants
KN, GAP, START, KS, REDFACT, NX,
NY, NZ
See Table 52.1: CONTAC52 Real Constants (p. 152) for details on these real constants.
Material Properties
MU
Surface Loads
None
Body Loads
Temperatures -T(I), T(J)
Special Features
Nonlinear
Adaptive descent
KEYOPT(1)
Sticking stiffness if MU > 0.0:
0 -Elastic Coulomb friction (KS used for sticking stiffness)
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151

CONTAC52
1 -Rigid Coulomb friction (resisting force only)
KEYOPT(3)
Weak spring across open gap:
0 -No weak spring across an open gap
1 -Use a weak spring across an open gap
KEYOPT(4)
Basis for gap size:
0 -Gap size based on gap real constant
1 -Gap size determined from initial node locations (ignore gap real constant)
KEYOPT(7)
Element-level time incrementation control. Note that this option should be activated first at the procedure
level if SOLCONTROL is ON. SOLCONTROL,ON,ON is the most frequent usage with this element. If
SOLCONTROL,ON,OFF, this keyoption is not activated.
0 -Change in contact predictions made to achieve the minimum time/load increment whenever a
change in contact status occurs
1 -Change in contact predictions made to maintain a reasonable time/load increment (recommended)
Table 52.1: CONTAC52 Real Constants
No.

Name

Description

1

KN

Normal stiffness

2

GAP

Initial gap size; a negative value assumes an initial interference
condition.
Initial condition:
If = 0.0 or blank, initial status of element is determined
from gap input
If = 1.0, gap is initially closed and not sliding (if MU ≠
0.0), or sliding (if MU = 0.0)
If = 2.0, gap is initially closed and sliding
If = 3.0, gap initially open

3

START

4

KS

Sticking stiffness

5

REDFACT

Default reduction factor 1E-6

6

NX

Defined gap normal - X component

7

NY

Defined gap normal - Y component

8

NZ

Defined gap normal - Z component

152

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CONTAC52

CONTAC52 Output Data
The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:
• Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution
• Additional element output as shown in Table 52.2: CONTAC52 Element Output Definitions (p. 154).
Force-deflection curves are illustrated in Figure 52.2: CONTAC52 Force-Deflection Relationship (p. 153).
The value of USEP is determined from the normal displacement (un) (in the element x-direction) between
the interface nodes at the end of a substep, that is: USEP = (un)J - (un)I + GAP. This value is used in determining the normal force, FN. The values represented by UT(Y, Z) are the total translational displacements in the element y and z directions. The maximum value printed for the sliding force, FS, is µ|FN|.
Sliding may occur in both the element y and z directions. STAT describes the status of the element at
the end of a substep. If STAT = 1, the gap is closed and no sliding occurs. If STAT = 3, the gap is open.
A value of STAT = 2 indicates the node J slides relative to node I. For a frictionless surface (µ = 0.0), the
converged element status is either STAT = 2 or 3.
The element coordinate system orientation angles α and β (shown in Figure 52.1: CONTAC52 Geometry (p. 149)) are computed by the program from the node locations. These values are printed as ALPHA
and BETA respectively. α ranges from 0° to 360° and β from -90° to +90°. Elements lying along the Zaxis are assigned values of α = 0°, β = ± 90°, respectively. Elements lying off the Z-axis have their coordinate system oriented as shown for the general α, β position. Note, for α = 90°, β → 90°, the element
coordinate system flips 90° about the Z-axis. The value of ANGLE represents the principal angle of the
friction force in the element y-z plane. A general description of solution output is given in Solution
Output. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.
Figure 52.2: CONTAC52 Force-Deflection Relationship

❋◆

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µ  ❋◆ 

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❑◆

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❑❙
−µ  ❋◆ 

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r❡✈❡r✁❡❞ ❧♦❛❞✐ ❣
✭❛✮

✭❜✮

The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation:

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153

CONTAC52
A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name
method (ETABLE, ESOL). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT.
The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.
In either the O or R columns, “Y” indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table
footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and “-” indicates that the item is not
available.
Table 52.2: CONTAC52 Element Output Definitions
Name

Definition

O

R

EL

Element Number

Y

Y

NODES

Nodes - I, J

Y

Y

XC, YC, ZC

Location where results are reported

Y

3

TEMP

T(I), T(J)

Y

Y

USEP

Gap size

Y

Y

FN

Normal force (along I-J line)

Y

Y

STAT

Element status

1

1

ALPHA, BETA

Element orientation angles

Y

Y

MU

Coefficient of friction

2

2

UT(Y, Z)

Displacement (node J - node I) in element y and z directions

2

2

FS

Tangential (friction) force (vector sum)

2

2

ANGLE

Principal angle of friction force in element y-z plane

2

2

1. If the value of STAT is:
1 - Contact, no sliding
2 - Sliding contact
3 - Gap open
2. If MU > 0.0
3. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.
Table 52.3: CONTAC52 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 155) lists output available through the ETABLE
command using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic
Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. The
following notation is used in Table 52.3: CONTAC52 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 155):
Name
output quantity as defined in the Table 52.2: CONTAC52 Element Output Definitions (p. 154)
Item
predetermined Item label for ETABLE command

154

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CONTAC52
E
sequence number for single-valued or constant element data
Table 52.3: CONTAC52 Item and Sequence Numbers
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and
ESOL Command
Input
Item

E

FN

SMISC

1

FS

SMISC

2

STAT

NMISC

1

OLDST

NMISC

2

USEP

NMISC

3

ALPHA

NMISC

4

BETA

NMISC

5

UTY

NMISC

6

UTZ

NMISC

7

MU

NMISC

8

ANGLE

NMISC

9

CONTAC52 Assumptions and Restrictions
• The element operates bilinearly only in the static and the nonlinear transient dynamic analyses. If
used in other analysis types, the element maintains its initial status throughout the analysis.
• The element is nonlinear and requires an iterative solution. Nonconverged substeps are not in equilibrium.
• Unless the gap direction is specified (NX, NY, NZ), nodes I and J may not be coincident since the
nodal locations define the interface orientation. The element maintains is original orientation in either
a small or a large deflection analysis.
• The element coordinate system is defined by the initial I and J node locations or by the specified gap
direction.
• The gap value may be specified independent of the node locations.
• The element may have rotated nodal coordinates since a displacement transformation into the element
coordinate system is included.
• The element stiffness KN should not be exactly zero, and unreasonably high stiffness values also
should be avoided. The rate of convergence decreases as the stiffness increases.
• Although it is permissible to change KN, it is not permissible to change any other real constants
between load steps. Therefore, if you plan to change KN, you cannot allow the value of KS to be
defined by default, because the program would then attempt to redefine KS as KN changed. You
must explicitly define KS whenever KN changes, to maintain a consistent value throughout all load
steps.

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155

CONTAC52
• The element may not be deactivated with the EKILL command.
• If µ is not equal to zero, the element is nonconservative as well as nonlinear. Nonconservative elements
require that the load be applied very gradually, along the actual load history path, and in the proper
sequence (if multiple loadings exist).

CONTAC52 Product Restrictions
When used in the product(s) listed below, the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element
in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.
ANSYS Professional
• This element is frictionless. MU is not allowed as a material property and KS is not allowed as a real
constant.
• Temperature body loads are not applicable in a structural analysis.
• KEYOPT(1) is not applicable.

156

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PIPE59
Immersed Pipe or Cable
MP ME ST <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
Product Restrictions

PIPE59 Element Description
Although this legacy element is available for use in your analysis, ANSYS, Inc. recommends using a currenttechnology element such as PIPE288. To apply ocean loading using PIPE288, issue the SOCEAN and ocean
commands (OCxxxxxx) .
PIPE59 is a uniaxial element with tension-compression, torsion, and bending capabilities, and with
member forces simulating ocean waves and current. The element has six degrees of freedom at each
node: translations in the nodal x, y, and z directions and rotations about the nodal x, y, and z-axes. The
element loads include the hydrodynamic and buoyant effects of the water and the element mass includes
the added mass of the water and the pipe internals. A cable representation option is also available with
the element. The element has stress stiffening and large deflection capabilities.
Figure 59.1: PIPE59 Geometry

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PIPE59 Input Data
The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 59.1: PIPE59
Geometry (p. 157). The element input data (see "PIPE59 Input Summary" (p. 158)) includes two nodes,
the pipe outer diameter and wall thickness, certain loading and inertial information (described in
Table 59.1: PIPE59 Real Constants (p. 161) and Figure 59.2: PIPE59 Geometry (p. 158)), and the isotropic
material properties. An external "insulation" may be defined to represent ice loads or biofouling. The
material VISC is used only to determine Reynolds number of the fluid outside the pipe.

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157

PIPE59
The element x-axis is oriented from node I toward node J. The element y-axis is automatically calculated
to be parallel to the global X-Y plane. Several orientations are shown in Figure 59.1: PIPE59 Geometry (p. 157). For the case where the element is parallel to the global Z-axis (or within a 0.01 percent
slope of it), the element y-axis is oriented parallel to the global Y-axis (as shown). Input and output
locations around the pipe circumference identified as being at 0° are located along the element y-axis,
and similarly 90° is along the element z-axis.
Figure 59.2: PIPE59 Geometry

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✲❩✭❥✮

φ✭✐✮

❆✭✐✮

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▼✉❞ ▲✐♥❡

KEYOPT(1) may be used to convert the element to the cable option by deleting the bending stiffnesses.
If the element is not "torque balanced", the twist-tension option may be used (KEYOPT(1) = 2). This
option accounts for the twisting induced when a helically wound or armored structure is stretched. The
KEYOPT(2) key allows a reduced mass matrix and load vector formulation (with rotational degrees of
freedom terms deleted as described in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference). This formulation is useful
for suppressing large deflections and improving bending stresses in long, slender members. It is also
often used with the twist-tension pipe option for cable structures.
The description of the waves, the current, and the water density are input through the water motion
table. The water motion table is associated with a material number and is explained in detail in
Table 59.2: PIPE59 Water Motion Table (p. 162). If the water motion table is not input, no water is assumed
to surround the pipe. Note that even though the word "water" is used to describe various input
quantities, the quantities may actually be characteristic of any fluid. Alternate drag coefficient and
temperature data may also be input through this table.
A summary of the element input is given in "PIPE59 Input Summary" (p. 158). A general description of
element input is given in Element Input.

PIPE59 Input Summary
Nodes
I, J

158

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PIPE59
Degrees of Freedom
UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ if KEYOPT(1) ≠ 1, or
UX, UY, UZ if KEYOPT(1) = 1
Real Constants
DO, TWALL, CD, CM, DENSO, FSO,
CENMPL, CI, CB, CT, ISTR, DENSIN,
TKIN, TWISTTEN
See Table 59.1: PIPE59 Real Constants (p. 161) for details.
Material Properties
EX, ALPX (or CTEX or THSX), PRXY (or NUXY), DENS, GXY, BETD, ALPD, VISC
Surface Loads
Pressures -1-PINT, 2-PX, 3-PY, 4-PZ, 5-POUT
Body Loads
Temperatures -TOUT(I), TIN(I), TOUT(J), TIN(J) if KEYOPT(3) = 0
TAVG(I), T90(I), T180(I), TAVG(J), T90(J), T180(J) if KEYOPT(3) = 1
Special Features
Stress stiffening
Large deflection
Birth and death
KEYOPT(1)
Element behavior:
0 -Pipe option
1 -Cable option
2 -Pipe with twist-tension option
KEYOPT(2)
Load vector and mass matrix:
0 -Consistent mass matrix and load vector
1 -Reduced mass matrix and load vector
KEYOPT(3)
Temperatures represent:
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159

PIPE59
0 -The through-wall gradient
1 -The diametral gradient
KEYOPT(5)
Wave force modifications:
0 -Waves act on elements at their actual location
1 -Elements are assumed to be at wave peak
2 -Upward vertical wave velocity acts on element
3 -Downward vertical wave velocity acts on element
4 -Elements are assumed to be at wave trough
KEYOPT(6)
Member force and moment output:
0 -No printout of member forces or moments
2 -Print member forces and moments in the element coordinate system
KEYOPT(7)
Extra element output:
0 -Basic element printout
1 -Additional hydrodynamic integration point printout
KEYOPT(8)
End cap loads:
0 -Internal and external pressures cause loads on end caps
1 -Internal and external pressures do not cause loads on end caps
KEYOPT(9)
PX, PY, and PZ transverse pressures:

160

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PIPE59
0 -Use only the normal component of pressure
1 -Use the full pressure (normal and shear components)
Table 59.1: PIPE59 Real Constants
No.

Name

Description

1

DO

Outside diameter (Do)

2

TWALL

Wall thickness of the pipe (defaults to Do/2.0)

3

CD

Normal drag coefficient (CD). May be overridden by Constants 43
through 54 of water motion table (see Table 59.2: PIPE59 Water
Motion Table (p. 162))

4

CM

Coefficient of inertia (CM)

5

DENSO

Internal fluid density (used for pressure effect only) (Mass/Length3)

6

FSO

Z coordinate location of the free surface of the fluid on the inside
of the pipe (used for pressure effect only)

7

CENMPL

Mass per unit length of the internal fluid and additional hardware
(used for mass matrix computation)

8

CI

Added-mass-used/added-mass for circular cross section (if blank
or 0, defaults to 1; if CI should be 0.0, enter negative number)

9

CB

Buoyancy force ratio (Buoyancy-force based on outside diameter
and water density) (if blank or 0, defaults to 1; if CB should be 0.0,
enter negative number)

10

CT

Coefficient of tangential drag (CT). May be overridden by Constants
55 through 66 of water motion table (See Table 59.2: PIPE59 Water
Motion Table (p. 162)).

11

ISTR

Initial strain in axial direction.

12

DENSIN

Density of external insulation[1].

13

TKIN

Thickness of external insulation (ti).

14

TWISTTEN

Twist tension constant (used if KEYOPT(1) = 2) (See Mechanical
APDL Theory Reference for more details).

1. Density of external insulation (ρi).

PIPE59 Water Motion Information
The data listed in Table 59.2: PIPE59 Water Motion Table (p. 162) is entered in the data table with the
TB commands. If the table is not input, no water is assumed to surround the pipe. Constants not input
are assumed to be zero. If the table is input, ACELZ must also have a positive value and remain constant
for all load steps. The constant table is started by using the TB command (with Lab = WATER). Up to
196 constants may be defined with the TBDATA commands. The constants (C1-C196) entered on the
TBDATA commands (6 per command) are:
where:
KWAVE = Wave selection key (see next section)
KCRC = Wave/current interaction key (see next section)
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161

PIPE59
DEPTH = Depth of water to mud line (DEPTH > 0.0) (Length)
DENSW = Water density, ρw, (DENSW > 0.0) (Mass/Length3)
θw = Wave direction (see Figure 59.2: PIPE59 Geometry (p. 158))
Z(j) = Z coordinate of location j of drift current measurement (see Figure 59.2: PIPE59 Geometry (p. 158)) (location must be input starting at the ocean floor (Z(1) = -DEPTH) and ending
at the water surface (Z(MAX) = 0.0). If the current does not change with height, only W(1) needs
to be defined.)
W(j) = Velocity of drift current at location j (Length/Time)
θd(j) = Direction of drift current at location j (Degrees) (see Figure 59.2: PIPE59 Geometry (p. 158))
Re(k) = Twelve Reynolds number values (if used, all 12 must be input in ascending order)
CD(k) = Twelve corresponding normal drag coefficients (if used, all 12 must be input)
CT(k) = Twelve corresponding tangential drag coefficients (if used, all 12 must be input)
T(j) = Temperature at Z(j) water depth (Degrees)
A(i) = Wave peak-to-trough height (0.0 ≤ A(i) < DEPTH) (Length) (if KWAVE = 2, A(1) is entire
wave height and A(2) through A(5) are not used)
τ(i) = Wave period (τ(i) > 0.0) (Time/Cycle)
ϕ(i) = Adjustment for phase shift (Degrees)
WL(i) = Wave length (0.0 ≤ WL(i) < 1000.0*DEPTH) (Length)
τ

=

π

π

(default
Use 0.0 with Stokes theory (KWAVE = 2).

)

Table 59.2: PIPE59 Water Motion Table
Constant

Meaning

1-5

KWAVE

KCRC

DEPTH

DENSW

θw

7-12

Z(1)

W(1)

θd(1)

Z(2)

W(2)

θd(2)

13-18

Z(3)

W(3)

θd(3)

Z(4)

W(4)

θd(4)

19-24

Z(5)

W(5)

θd(5)

Z(6)

W(6)

θd(6)

25-30

Z(7)

W(7)

θd(7)

Z(8)

W(8)

θd(8)

31-36

Re(1)

Re(2)

Re(3)

Re(4)

Re(5)

Re(6)

37-42

Re(7)

Re(8)

Re(9)

Re(10)

Re(11)

Re(12)

43-48

CD(1)

CD(2)

CD(3)

CD(4)

CD(5)

CD(6)

49-54

CD(7)

CD(8)

CD(9)

CD(10)

CD(11)

CD(12)

55-60

CT(1)

CT(2)

CT(3)

CT(4)

CT(5)

CT(6)

61-66

CT(7)

CT(8)

CT(9)

CT(10)

CT(11)

CT(12)

67-72

T(1)

T(2)

T(3)

T(4)

T(5)

T(6)

73-74

T(7)

T(8)

79-82

A(1)

τ(1)

ϕ(1)

WL(1)

For KWAVE = 0, 1, or 2

85-88

A(2)

τ(2)

ϕ(2)

WL(2)

etc.

etc.

193-196

A(20)

τ(20)

ϕ(20)

WL(20)

79-81

X(1)/(H*T*G)

Not Used

ϕ(1)

85-86

X(2)/(H*T*G)

DPT/LO

For KWAVE = 3 (See Dean for
definitions other than ϕ(1))

162

For KWAVE = 2, use
only A(1), τ(1), ϕ(1)

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PIPE59
Constant

Meaning

91-92

X(3)/(H*T*G)

L/LO

97-98

X(4)/(H*T*G)

H/DPT

103-104

X(5)/(H*T*G)

Ψ/(G*H*T)

109

X(6)/(H*T*G)

etc.
193

etc.
X(20)/(H*T*G)

The distributed load applied to the pipe by the hydrodynamic effects is computed from a generalized
Morison's equation. This equation includes the coefficient of normal drag (CD) (perpendicular to the
element axis) and the coefficient of tangential drag (CT), both of which are a functions of Reynolds
numbers (Re). These values are input as shown in Table 59.1: PIPE59 Real Constants (p. 161) and
Table 59.2: PIPE59 Water Motion Table (p. 162).
The Reynolds numbers are determined from the normal and tangential relative particle velocities, the
pipe geometry, the water density, and the viscosity µ (input as VISC). The relative particle velocities
include the effects of water motion due to waves and current, as well as motion of the pipe itself. If
both Re(1) and CD(1) are positive, the value of CD from the real constant table (Table 59.1: PIPE59 Real
Constants (p. 161)) is ignored and a log-log table based on Constants 31 through 54 of the water motion
table (Table 59.2: PIPE59 Water Motion Table (p. 162)) is used to determine CD. If this capability is to be
used, the viscosity, Re, and CD constants must be input and none may be less than or equal to zero.
Similarly, if both Re(1) and CT(1) are positive, the value of CT from the real constant table
(Table 59.1: PIPE59 Real Constants (p. 161)) is ignored, and a log-log table based on Constants 31 through
42 and 55 through 66 of the water motion table (Table 59.2: PIPE59 Water Motion Table (p. 162)) is used
to determine CT. If this capability is to be used, the viscosity, Re, and CT constants must be input and
none may be less than or equal to zero.
Various wave theories may be selected with the KWAVE constant of the water motion table
(Table 59.2: PIPE59 Water Motion Table (p. 162)). These are:
• Small Amplitude Wave Theory with empirical modification of depth decay function (KWAVE = 0)
• Small Amplitude Airy Wave Theory without modifications (KWAVE = 1)
• Stokes Fifth Order Wave Theory (KWAVE = 2)
• Stream Function Wave Theory (KWAVE = 3).
The wave loadings can be altered (KEYOPT(5)) so that horizontal position has no effect on the waveinduced forces.
Wave loading depends on the acceleration due to gravity (ACELZ), and it may not change between
substeps or load steps. Therefore, when performing an analysis using load steps with multiple substeps,
the gravity may only be "stepped on" [KBC,1] and not ramped.
With the stream function wave theory (KWAVE = 3), the wave is described by alternate Constants 79
through 193 as shown in Table 59.2: PIPE59 Water Motion Table (p. 162). The definitions of the constants
correspond exactly to those given in the tables in Dean for the forty cases of ratio of wave height and
water depth to the deep water wave length. The other wave-related constants that the user inputs
directly are the water density (DENSW), water depth (DEPTH), wave direction (Φ), and acceleration due
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163

PIPE59
to gravity (ACELZ). The wave height, length, and period are inferred from the tables. The user should
verify the input by comparing the interpreted results (the columns headed DIMENSIONLESS under the
STREAM FUNCTION INPUT VALUES printout) with the data presented in the Dean tables. Note that this
wave theory uses the current value defined for time [TIME] (which defaults to 1.0 for the first load step).
Several adjustments to the current profile are available with the KCRC constant of the water motion
table as shown in Figure 59.3: PIPE59 Velocity Profiles for Wave-current Interactions (p. 164). The adjustments are usually used only when the wave amplitude is large relative to the water depth, such that
there is significant wave/current interaction. Options include
1. use the current profile (as input) for wave locations below the mean water level and the top current
profile value for wave locations above the mean water level (KCRC = 0)
2. "stretch" (or compress) the current profile to the top of the wave (KCRC = 1)
3. same as (2) but also adjust the current profile horizontally such that total flow continuity is maintained
with the input profile (KCRC = 2) (all current directions (θ(j)) must be the same for this option).
Figure 59.3: PIPE59 Velocity Profiles for Wave-current Interactions

Z
Water Surface

Mean Water
Surface
Constant (KCRC = 0)
Stretch (KCRC = 1)
Continuity (KCRC = 2)
Nonlinear Stretch (KCRC = 3)
Mud Line

Horizontal arrows represent
input velocities

Element loads are described in Nodal Loading. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element
faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 59.1: PIPE59 Geometry (p. 157). Internal pressure (PINT)
and external pressure (POUT) are input as positive values. These pressures are in addition to the linearly
varying pressure of the fluids on the inside and outside of the pipe. In handling the pressures, each
element is assumed to be capped (that is, have closed ends). The internal and external pressure loads
are designed for closed-loop static pressure environments and therefore include pressure loads on fictitious "end caps" so that the pressure loads induce an axial stress and/or reaction in the pipe system.
If a dynamic situation needs to be represented, such as a pipe venting to a lower pressure area or the
internal flow is past a constriction in the pipe, these end cap loads may need to be modified by applying
a nodal force normal to the cross-section of the pipe with the magnitude representing the change in
pressure. Alternatively, the precomputed end cap loads can be removed using KEYOPT(8) = 1 and the
appropriate end cap loads added by the user. The transverse pressures (PX, PY, and PZ) may represent
wind or drag loads (per unit length of the pipe) and are defined in the global Cartesian directions.
164

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PIPE59
Positive transverse pressures act in the positive coordinate directions. The normal component or the
projected full pressure may be used (KEYOPT(9)). See the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more
details.
Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. Temperatures may have wall gradients
or diametral gradients (KEYOPT(3)). Diametral gradients are not valid for the cable option. The average
wall temperature at θ = 0° is computed as 2 * TAVG - T(180) and the average wall temperature at θ = 90° is computed as 2 * TAVG - T(90). The element temperatures are assumed to be linear along the
length. The first temperature at node I (TOUT(I) or TAVG(I)) defaults to TUNIF. If all temperatures after
the first are unspecified, they default to the first. If all temperatures at node I are input, and all temperatures at node J are unspecified, the node J temperatures default to the corresponding node I temperatures. For any other pattern of input temperatures, unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF.
Eight temperatures (T(j)) are read as Constants 67-74 corresponding to the eight water depths (Z(j)) input
as Constants 7-30. These temperatures override any other temperature input (except TREF) unless the
element is entirely out of the water or if all eight temperatures are input as zero. The thermal load
vector from these temperatures may not be scaled in a superelement use pass if an expansion pass is
to follow. Constants 31 through 66 may have zero values if desired. The temperatures input as Constants
67-74 are used to compute a temperature-dependent viscosity based on linear interpolation (if previous
constants are not all zero). In the case of a solid cross section (inside diameter = 0.0), they are also used
to compute the material properties of the element.
For the mass matrix, the mass per unit length used for axial motion is the mass of the pipe wall (DENS),
the external insulation (DENSIN), and the internal fluid together with the added mass of any additional
hardware (CENMPL). The mass per unit length used for motion normal to the pipe is all of the above
plus the added mass of the external fluid (DENSW).
CI should be 1.0 for a circular cross section. Values for other cross sections may be found in McCormick.
The user should remember, however, that other properties of PIPE59 are based on a circular cross section.

PIPE59 Output Data
The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:
• Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution
• Additional element output as shown in Table 59.3: PIPE59 Element Output Definitions (p. 166)
Several items are illustrated in Figure 59.4: PIPE59 Stress Output (p. 166). Note that the output is simplified
and reduced if the cable option, KEYOPT(1) = 1, is used.
The principal stresses are computed at the two points around the circumference where the bending
stresses are at a maximum. The principal stresses and the stress intensity include the shear force stress
component. The principal stresses and the stress intensity are based on the stresses at two extreme
points on opposite sides of the neutral axis. If KEYOPT(6) = 2, the 12-member forces and moments (6
at each end) are also printed (in the element coordinate system).
The axial force (FX) excludes the hydrostatic force component, as does the MFORX member force
(printed if KEYOPT(6) = 2). If KWAVE = 2 or 3 (Stokes or Stream Function theory), additional wave information is also printed. If KEYOPT(7) = 1, detailed hydrodynamic information is printed at the immersed
integration points. Angles listed in the output are measured (θ) as shown in Figure 59.4: PIPE59 Stress
Output (p. 166). A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. See the Basic
Analysis Guide for ways to view results.

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165

PIPE59
Figure 59.4: PIPE59 Stress Output

❚♦rs✐♦♥❛❧
▼♦♠❡♥t

❙❇❊◆❉

❙❚

❙❆❳▲

θ

❙❍

❙❉■❘

❙❤❡❛r
❋♦r❝❡

The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation:
A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name
method (ETABLE, ESOL). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT.
The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.
In either the O or R columns, “Y” indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table
footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and “-” indicates that the item is not
available.
Table 59.3: PIPE59 Element Output Definitions
Name

Definition

O

R

EL

Element number

Y

Y

NODES

Nodes - I, J

Y

Y

MAT

Material number

Y

Y

VOLU:

Volume

-

Y

XC, YC, ZC

Location where results are reported

-

9

LEN

Length

Y

-

PRES

Pressures PINTE (average effective internal pressure),
PX, PY, PZ, POUTE (average effective external pressure)

Y

Y

STH

Stress due to maximum thermal gradient through
the wall thickness

Y

Y

SPR2

Hoop pressure stress for code calculations

-

1

SMI, SMJ

Moment stress at nodes I and J for code calculations

-

1

SDIR

Direct (axial) stress

-

1

SBEND

Maximum bending stress at outer surface

-

1

ST

Shear stress at outer surface due to torsion

-

1

SSF

Shear stress due to shear force

-

1

S(1MX, 3MN, INTMX, EQVMX)

Maximum principal stress, minimum principal stress,
maximum stress intensity, maximum equivalent
stress (over eight points on the outside surface at
both ends of the element)

1

1

TEMP

Temperatures TOUT(I), TIN(I), TOUT(J), TIN(J)

2

2

166

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PIPE59
Name

Definition

O

R

TEMP

Temperatures TAVG(I), T90(I), T180(I), TAVG(J), T90(J),
T180(J)

3

3

S(1, 3, INT, EQV)

Maximum principal stress, minimum principal stress,
stress intensity, equivalent stress

4

4

S(AXL, RAD, H, XH)

Axial, radial, hoop, and shear stresses

4

4

EPEL(AXL, RAD, H,
XH)

Axial, radial, hoop, and shear strains

4

4

EPTH(AXL, RAD, H)

Axial, radial, and hoop thermal strain

4

4

MFOR(X, Y, Z)

Member forces for nodes I and J (in the element
coordinate system)

7

7

MMOM(X, Y, Z)

Member moments for nodes I and J (in the element
coordinate system)

5

5

NODE

Node I or J

6

6

FAXL

Axial force (excludes the hydrostatic force)

6

6

SAXL

Axial stress (includes the hydrostatic stress)

6

6

SRAD

Radial stress

6

6

SH

Hoop stress

6

6

SINT

Stress intensity

6

6

SEQV

Equivalent stress (SAXL minus the hydrostatic stress)

6

6

EPEL(AXL, RAD, H)

Axial, radial, and hoop elastic strains (excludes the
thermal strain)

6

6

TEMP

TOUT(I), TOUT(J)

6

6

EPTHAXL

Axial thermal strains at nodes I and J

6

6

VR, VZ

Radial and vertical fluid particle velocities (VR is always > 0)

8

8

AR, AZ

Radial and vertical fluid particle accelerations

8

8

PHDYN

Dynamic fluid pressure head

8

8

ETA

Wave amplitude over integration point

8

8

TFLUID

Fluid temperature (printed if VISC is nonzero)

8

8

VISC

Viscosity

8

8

REN, RET

Normal and tangential Reynolds numbers (if VISC is
nonzero)

8

8

CT, CD, CM

Input coefficients evaluated at Reynolds numbers

8

8

CTW, CDW

CT*DENSW*DO/2, CD*DENSW*DO/2

8

8

CMW

CM*DENSW*PI*DO**2/4

8

8

URT, URN

Tangential (parallel to element axis) and normal relative velocity

8

8

ABURN

Vector sum of normal (URN) velocities

8

8

AN

Accelerations normal to the element

8

8

FX, FY, FZ

Hydrodynamic forces tangential and normal to element axis

8

8

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167

PIPE59
Name

Definition

ARGU

Effective position of integration point (radians)

O

R

8

8

1. Output only for the pipe option (KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 2)
2. If KEYOPT(3) = 0 or if KEYOPT(1) = 1
3. If KEYOPT(3) = 1
4. Output only for the pipe option and the item repeats at 0, 45, 90, 135, 180, 225, 270, 315° at node I, then
at node J (all at the outer surface)
5. Output only for the pipe option (KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 2) and if KEYOPT(6) = 2
6. Output only for the cable option (KEYOPT(1) = 1)
7. Output only if KEYOPT(6) = 2
8. Hydrodynamic solution (if KEYOPT(7) = 1 for immersed elements at integration points)
9. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.
Table 59.4: PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers (Node I) (p. 168) lists output available through the
ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in
Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information.
The following notation is used in Table 59.4: PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers (Node I) (p. 168):
Name
output quantity as defined in the Table 59.3: PIPE59 Element Output Definitions (p. 166)
Item
predetermined Item label for ETABLE command
E
sequence number for single-valued or constant element data
I,J
sequence number for data at nodes I and J
Table 59.4: PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers (Node I)
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Circumferential Location
Item

E

SAXL

LS

SRAD

45°

90°

-

1

5

9

13

17

21

25

29

LS

-

2

6

10

14

18

22

26

30

SH

LS

-

3

7

11

15

19

23

27

31

SXH

LS

-

4

8

12

16

20

24

28

32

EPELAXL

LEPEL

-

1

5

9

13

17

21

25

29

EPELRAD

LEPEL

-

2

6

10

14

18

22

26

30

EPELH

LEPEL

-

3

7

11

15

19

23

27

31

168

135° 180° 225° 270° 315°

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PIPE59
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Circumferential Location
Item

E

EPELXH

LEPEL

EPTHAXL

45°

90°

135° 180° 225° 270° 315°

-

4

8

12

16

20

24

28

32

LEPTH

-

1

5

9

13

17

21

25

29

EPTHRAD

LEPTH

-

2

6

10

14

18

22

26

30

EPTHH

LEPTH

-

3

7

11

15

19

23

27

31

MFORX

SMISC

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MFORY

SMISC

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MFORZ

SMISC

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MMOMX

SMISC

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MMOMY

SMISC

5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MMOMZ

SMISC

6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

SDIR

SMISC

13

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

ST

SMISC

14

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

S1

NMISC

-

1

6

11

16

21

26

31

36

S3

NMISC

-

3

8

13

18

23

28

33

38

SINT

NMISC

-

4

9

14

19

24

29

34

39

SEQV

NMISC

-

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

SBEND

NMISC

88

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

SSF

NMISC

89

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

TOUT

LBFE

-

4

-

1

-

2

-

3

-

TIN

LBFE

-

8

-

5

-

6

-

7

-

Table 59.5: PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers (Node J)
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Circumferential Location
Item

E

SAXL

LS

SRAD

45°

90°

135° 180° 225° 270° 315°

-

33

37

41

45

49

53

57

61

LS

-

34

38

42

46

50

54

58

62

SH

LS

-

35

39

43

47

51

55

59

63

SXH

LS

-

36

40

44

48

52

56

60

64

EPELAXL

LEPEL

-

33

37

41

45

49

53

57

61

EPELRAD

LEPEL

-

34

38

42

46

50

54

58

62

EPELH

LEPEL

-

35

39

43

47

51

55

59

63

EPELXH

LEPEL

-

36

40

44

48

52

56

60

64

EPTHAXL

LEPTH

-

33

37

41

45

49

53

57

61

EPTHRAD

LEPTH

-

34

38

42

46

50

54

58

62

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169

PIPE59
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Circumferential Location
Item

E

EPTHH

LEPTH

MFORX

45°

90°

135° 180° 225° 270° 315°

-

35

39

43

47

51

55

59

63

SMISC

7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MFORY

SMISC

8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MFORZ

SMISC

9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MMOMX

SMISC

10

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MMOMY

SMISC

11

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MMOMZ

SMISC

12

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

SDIR

SMISC

15

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

ST

SMISC

16

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

S1

NMISC

-

41

46

51

56

61

66

71

76

S3

NMISC

-

43

48

53

58

63

68

73

78

SINT

NMISC

-

44

49

54

59

64

69

74

79

SEQV

NMISC

-

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

SBEND

NMISC

90

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

SSF

NMISC

91

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

TOUT

LBFE

-

12

-

9

-

10

-

11

-

TIN

LBFE

-

16

-

13

-

14

-

15

-

Table 59.6: PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers (Pipe Options)
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and
ESOL Command
Input
Item

E

STH

SMISC

17

PINTE

SMISC

18

PX

SMISC

19

PY

SMISC

20

PZ

SMISC

21

POUTE

SMISC

22

SPR2

NMISC

81

SMI

NMISC

82

SMJ

NMISC

83

S1MX

NMISC

84

S3MN

NMISC

85

SINTMX

NMISC

86

170

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PIPE59
Output
Quantity
Name
SEQVMX

ETABLE and
ESOL Command
Input
Item
NMISC

E
87

Table 59.7: PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers (Cable Option)
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Item

E

Node
I

Node
J

SAXL

LS

1

4

SRAD

LS

2

5

SH

LS

3

6

EPELAXL

LEPEL

1

4

EPELRAD

LEPEL

2

5

EPELH

LEPEL

3

6

EPTHAXL

LEPTH

1

4

TOUT

LBFE

1

9

TIN

LBFE

5

13

SINT

NMISC

4

9

SEQV

NMISC

5

10

FAXL

SMISC

1

6

STH

SMISC

13

PINTE

SMISC

14

PX

SMISC

15

PY

SMISC

16

PZ

SMISC

17

POUTE

SMISC

18

Table 59.8: PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers (Additional Output) (p. 171) lists additional print and
post data file output available through the ETABLE command if KEYOPT(7) = 1.
Table 59.8: PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers (Additional Output)
Output Quantity Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Item

E- First Integration Point

E- Second Integration Point

GLOBAL COORD

NMISC

N + 1, N + 2, N
+3

N + 31, N + 32,
N + 33

VR

NMISC

N+4

N + 34

VZ

NMISC

N+5

N + 35

AR

NMISC

N+6

N + 36

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171

PIPE59
ETABLE and ESOL Command Input

Output Quantity Name

Item

E- First Integration Point

E- Second Integration Point

AZ

NMISC

N+7

N + 37

PHDY

NMISC

N+8

N + 38

ETA

NMISC

N+9

N + 39

TFLUID

NMISC

N + 10

N + 40

VISC

NMISC

N + 11

N + 41

REN

NMISC

N + 12

N + 42

RET

NMISC

N + 13

N + 43

CT

NMISC

N + 14

N + 44

CTW

NMISC

N + 15

N + 45

URT

NMISC

N + 16

N + 46

FX

NMISC

N + 17

N + 47

CD

NMISC

N + 18

N + 48

CDW

NMISC

N + 19

N + 49

URN

NMISC

N + 20, N + 21

N + 50, N + 51

ABURN

NMISC

N + 22

N + 52

FY

NMISC

N + 23

N + 53

CM

NMISC

N + 24

N + 54

CMW

NMISC

N + 25

N + 55

AN

NMISC

N + 26, N + 27

N + 56, N + 57

FZ

NMISC

N + 28

N + 58

ARGU

NMISC

N + 29

N + 59

Note
For the pipe option (KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 2): N = 99. For the cable option (KEYOPT(1) = 1): N =
10.

Material Properties -- WATER Specifications
TB,WATER (water motion table data for PIPE59)
NTEMP:
Not used.
NPTS:
Not used.
TBOPT:
Not used.

172

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PIPE59

PIPE59 Assumptions and Restrictions
• The pipe must not have a zero length. In addition, the O.D. must not be less than or equal to zero and
the I.D. must not be less than zero.
• Elements input at or near the water surface should be small in length relative to the wave length.
• Neither end of the element may be input below the mud line (ocean floor). Integration points that move
below the mud line are presumed to have no hydrodynamic forces acting on them.
• If the element is used out of water, the water motion table (Table 59.2: PIPE59 Water Motion Table (p. 162))
need not be included.
• When performing a transient analysis, the solution may be unstable with small time steps due to the
nature of Morrison's equation.
• The applied thermal gradient is assumed to vary linearly along the length of the element.
• The same water motion table (Table 59.2: PIPE59 Water Motion Table (p. 162)) should not be used for different wave theories in the same problem.
• The lumped mass matrix formulation [LUMPM,ON] is not allowed for PIPE59 when using "added mass"
on the outside of the pipe (CI ≥ 0.0).

PIPE59 Product Restrictions
There are no product-specific restrictions for this element.

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173

174

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SHELL63
Elastic Shell
MP ME ST PR PRN DS <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
Product Restrictions

SHELL63 Element Description
Although this legacy element is available for use in your analysis, ANSYS, Inc. recommends using a currenttechnology element such as SHELL181 (KEYOPT(3) = 2).
SHELL63 has both bending and membrane capabilities. Both in-plane and normal loads are permitted.
The element has six degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x, y, and z directions
and rotations about the nodal x, y, and z-axes. Stress stiffening and large deflection capabilities are included. A consistent tangent stiffness matrix option is available for use in large deflection (finite rotation)
analyses. See SHELL63 for more details about this element. Similar elements are SHELL181 (plastic capability) and SHELL281 (midside node capability). The ETCHG command converts SHELL157 elements to
SHELL63.
Figure 63.1: SHELL63 Geometry
③■❏



②■❏





❑✱▲

 

①■❏


 
❚r✐❛♥❣✉❧❛r ❖♣t✐♦♥

xIJ = Element x-axis if ESYS is not supplied.
x = Element x-axis if ESYS is supplied.

SHELL63 Input Data
The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 63.1: SHELL63 Geometry (p. 175). The element is defined by four nodes, four thicknesses, an elastic
foundation stiffness, and the orthotropic material properties. Orthotropic material directions correspond
to the element coordinate directions. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in
Coordinate Systems. The element x-axis may be rotated by an angle THETA (in degrees).
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175

SHELL63
The thickness is assumed to vary smoothly over the area of the element, with the thickness input at
the four nodes. If the element has a constant thickness, only TK(I) need be input. If the thickness is not
constant, all four thicknesses must be input.
The elastic foundation stiffness (EFS) is defined as the pressure required to produce a unit normal deflection of the foundation. The elastic foundation capability is bypassed if EFS is less than, or equal to,
zero.
For certain nonhomogeneous or sandwich shell applications, the following real constants are provided:
RMI is the ratio of the bending moment of inertia to be used to that calculated from the input thicknesses.
RMI defaults to 1.0. CTOP and CBOT are the distances from the middle surface to the extreme fibers to
be used for stress evaluations. Both CTOP and CBOT are positive, assuming that the middle surface is
between the fibers used for stress evaluation. If not input, stresses are based on the input thicknesses.
ADMSUA is the added mass per unit area.
Element loads are described in Nodal Loading. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element
faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 63.1: SHELL63 Geometry (p. 175). Positive pressures act
into the element. Because shell edge pressures are input on a per-unit-length basis, per-unit-area
quantities must be multiplied by the shell thickness. The lateral pressure loading may be an equivalent
(lumped) element load applied at the nodes (KEYOPT(6) = 0) or distributed over the face of the element
(KEYOPT(6) = 2). The equivalent element load produces more accurate stress results with flat elements
representing a curved surface or elements supported on an elastic foundation since certain fictitious
bending stresses are eliminated.
Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the "corner" locations (1-8) shown in Figure 63.1: SHELL63 Geometry (p. 175). The first corner temperature T1 defaults to TUNIF. If all other temperatures are unspecified, they default to T1. If only T1 and T2 are input, T1 is used for T1, T2, T3, and
T4, while T2 (as input) is used for T5, T6, T7, and T8. For any other input pattern, unspecified temperatures
default to TUNIF.
KEYOPT(1) is available for neglecting the membrane stiffness or the bending stiffness, if desired. A reduced
out-of-plane mass matrix is also used when the bending stiffness is neglected.
KEYOPT(2) is used to activate the consistent tangent stiffness matrix (that is, a matrix composed of the
main tangent stiffness matrix plus the consistent stress stiffness matrix) in large deflection analyses
[NLGEOM,ON]. You can often obtain more rapid convergence in a geometrically nonlinear analysis,
such as a nonlinear buckling or postbuckling analysis, by activating this option. However, you should
not use this option if you are using the element to simulate a rigid link or a group of coupled nodes.
The resulting abrupt changes in stiffness within the structure make the consistent tangent stiffness
matrix unsuitable for such applications.
KEYOPT(3) allows you to include (KEYOPT(3) = 0 or 2) or suppress (KEYOPT(3) = 1) extra displacement
shapes. It also allows you to choose the type of in-plane rotational stiffness used:
• KEYOPT(3) = 0 or 1 activates a spring-type in-plane rotational stiffness about the element z-axis
• KEYOPT(3) = 2 activates a more realistic in-plane rotational stiffness (Allman rotational stiffness - the
program uses default penalty parameter values of d1 = 1.0E-6 and d2 = 1.0E-3).
Using the Allman stiffness will often enhance convergence behavior in large deflection (finite rotation)
analyses of planar shell structures (that is, flat shells or flat regions of shells).
KEYOPT(7) allows a reduced mass matrix formulation (rotational degrees of freedom terms deleted).
This option is useful for improved bending stresses in thin members under mass loading.

176

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SHELL63
KEYOPT(8) allows a reduced stress stiffness matrix (rotational degrees of freedom deleted). This option
can be useful for calculating improved mode shapes and a more accurate load factor in linear buckling
analyses of certain curved shell structures.
KEYOPT(11) = 2 is used to store midsurface results in the results file for single or multi-layer shell elements.
If you use SHELL,MID, you will see these calculated values, rather than the average of the TOP and
BOTTOM results. You should use this option to access these correct midsurface results (membrane results)
for those analyses where averaging TOP and BOTTOM results is inappropriate; examples include midsurface stresses and strains with nonlinear material behavior, and midsurface results after mode combinations
that involve squaring operations such as in spectrum analyses.
A summary of the element input is given in "SHELL63 Input Summary" (p. 177). A general description of
element input is given in Element Input.

SHELL63 Input Summary
Nodes
I, J, K, L
Degrees of Freedom
UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ
Real Constants
TK(I), TK(J), TK(K), TK(L), EFS, THETA,
RMI, CTOP, CBOT, (Blank), (Blank), (Blank),
(Blank), (Blank), (Blank), (Blank), (Blank), (Blank),
ADMSUA
See Table 63.1: SHELL63 Real Constants (p. 180) for a description of the real constants
Material Properties
EX, EY, EZ, (PRXY, PRYZ, PRXZ or NUXY, NUYZ, NUXZ), ALPX, ALPY, ALPZ (or CTEX, CTEY, CTEZ or THSX,
THSY, THSZ), DENS, GXY, BETD, ALPD
Surface Loads
Pressures -face 1 (I-J-K-L) (bottom, in +Z direction), face 2 (I-J-K-L) (top, in -Z direction),
face 3 (J-I), face 4 (K-J), face 5 (L-K), face 6 (I-L)
Body Loads
Temperatures -T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8
Special Features
Stress stiffening
Large deflection
Birth and death
KEYOPT(1)
Element stiffness:

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177

SHELL63
0 -Bending and membrane stiffness
1 -Membrane stiffness only
2 -Bending stiffness only
KEYOPT(2)
Stress stiffening option:
0 -Use only the main tangent stiffness matrix when NLGEOM is ON. (Stress stiffening effects used in
linear buckling or other linear prestressed analyses must be activated separately with PSTRES,ON.)
1 -Use the consistent tangent stiffness matrix (that is, a matrix composed of the main tangent stiffness
matrix plus the consistent stress stiffness matrix) when NLGEOM is ON and when KEYOPT(1) = 0.
(SSTIF,ON will be ignored for this element when KEYOPT(2) = 1 is activated.) Note that if SOLCONTROL
is ON and NLGEOM is ON, KEYOPT(2) is automatically set to 1; that is, the consistent tangent will be
used.
2 -Use to turn off consistent tangent stiffness matrix (i.e., a matrix composed of the main tangent
stiffness matrix plus the consistent stress stiffness matrix) when SOLCONTROL is ON. Sometimes it
is necessary to turn off the consistent tangent stiffness matrix if the element is used to simulate rigid
bodies by using a very large real constant number . KEYOPT(2) = 2 is the same as KEYOPT(2) = 0,
however, KEYOPT(2) = 0 is controlled by SOLCONTROL, ON or OFF, while KEYOPT(2) = 2 is independent of SOLCONTROL.
KEYOPT(3)
Extra displacement shapes:
0 -Include extra displacement shapes, and use spring-type in-plane rotational stiffness about the element
z-axis (the program automatically adds a small stiffness to prevent numerical instability for nonwarped elements if KEYOPT(1) = 0).

Note
For models with large rotation about the in-plane direction, KEYOPT(3) = 0 results in
some transfer of moment directly to ground.
1 -Suppress extra displacement shapes, and use spring-type in-plane rotational stiffness about the element z-axis (the program automatically adds a small stiffness to prevent numerical instability for
non-warped elements if KEYOPT(1) = 0).
2 -Include extra displacement shapes, and use the Allman in-plane rotational stiffness about the element
z-axis). See the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference.

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SHELL63
KEYOPT(5)
Extra stress output:
0 -Basic element printout
2 -Nodal stress printout
KEYOPT(6)
Pressure loading:
0 -Reduced pressure loading (must be used if KEYOPT(1) = 1)
2 -Consistent pressure loading
KEYOPT(7)
Mass matrix:
0 -Consistent mass matrix
1 -Reduced mass matrix
KEYOPT(8)
Stress stiffness matrix:
0 -"Nearly" consistent stress stiffness matrix (default)
1 -Reduced stress stiffness matrix
KEYOPT(9)
Element coordinate system defined:
0 -No user subroutine to define element coordinate system
4 -Element x-axis located by user subroutine USERAN

Note
See the Guide to User-Programmable Features for user written subroutines
KEYOPT(11)
Specify data storage:
0 -Store data for TOP and BOTTOM surfaces only
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179

SHELL63
2 -Store data for TOP, BOTTOM, and MID surfaces
Table 63.1: SHELL63 Real Constants
No.

Name

Description

1

TK(I)

Shell thickness at node I

2

TK(J)

Shell thickness at node J

3

TK(K)

Shell thickness at node K

4

TK(L)

Shell thickness at node L

5

EFS

Elastic foundation stiffness

6

THETA

Element X-axis rotation

7

RMI

Bending moment of inertia ratio

8

CTOP

Distance from mid surface to top

9

CBOT

Distance from mid surface to bottom

10, ..., 18

(Blank)

--

19

ADMSUA

Added mass/unit area

SHELL63 Output Data
The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:
• Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution
• Additional element output as shown in Table 63.2: SHELL63 Element Output Definitions (p. 181)
Several items are illustrated in Figure 63.2: SHELL63 Stress Output (p. 181). Printout includes the moments
about the x face (MX), the moments about the y face (MY), and the twisting moment (MXY). The moments
are calculated per unit length in the element coordinate system. The element stress directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. A general description of solution output is given in Solution
Output. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.

180

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SHELL63
Figure 63.2: SHELL63 Stress Output
▼❳❨

▼❳

❙❨

❚❳

③■❏

❙❳

❚❳❨

▼❨

❙❳✭❚❖€✮
❙❳ ✭▼✁❉✮
❙❳ ✭❇❖❚✮

▼❳❨

❚❳❨

❚❨

②■❏

 

①■❏

xIJ = Element x-axis if ESYS is not supplied.
x = Element x-axis if ESYS is supplied.
The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation:
A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name
method (ETABLE, ESOL). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT.
The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.
In either the O or R columns, “Y” indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table
footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and “-” indicates that the item is not
available.
Table 63.2: SHELL63 Element Output Definitions
Name

Definition

O

R

EL

Element Number

Y

Y

NODES

Nodes - I, J, K, L

Y

Y

MAT

Material number

Y

Y

AREA

AREA

Y

Y

XC, YC, ZC

Location where results are reported

Y

1

PRES

Pressures P1 at nodes I, J, K, L; P2 at I, J, K, L; P3
at J, I; P4 at K, J; P5 at L, K; P6 at I, L

Y

Y

TEMP

Temperatures T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8

Y

Y

T(X, Y, XY)

In-plane element X, Y, and XY forces

Y

Y

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181

SHELL63
Name

Definition

O

R

M(X, Y, XY)

Element X, Y, and XY moments

Y

Y

FOUND.PRESS

Foundation pressure (if nonzero)

Y

-

LOC

Top, middle, or bottom

Y

Y

S:X, Y, Z, XY

Combined membrane and bending stresses

Y

Y

S:1, 2, 3

Principal stress

Y

Y

S:INT

Stress intensity

Y

Y

S:EQV

Equivalent stress

Y

Y

EPEL:X, Y, Z, XY

Average elastic strain

Y

Y

EPEL:EQV

Equivalent elastic strain [2]

-

Y

EPTH:X, Y, Z, XY

Average thermal strain

Y

Y

EPTH:EQV

Equivalent thermal strain [2]

-

Y

1. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.
2. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user
(MP,PRXY).
Table 63.3: SHELL63 Miscellaneous Element Output
Description

Names of Items Output

Nodal Stress Solution

TEMP, S(X, Y, Z, XY), SINT,
SEQV

O

R

1

-

1. Output at each node, if KEYOPT(5) = 2, repeats each location
Table 63.4: SHELL63 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 182) lists output available through the ETABLE
command using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic
Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this manual for more information. The
following notation is used in Table 63.4: SHELL63 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 182):
Name
output quantity as defined in the Table 63.2: SHELL63 Element Output Definitions (p. 181)
Item
predetermined Item label for ETABLE command
E
sequence number for single-valued or constant element data
I,J,K,L
sequence number for data at nodes I,J,K,L
Table 63.4: SHELL63 Item and Sequence Numbers
Output
Quantity
Name

Item

E

I

J

K

L

TX

SMISC

1

-

-

-

-

182

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input

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SHELL63
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Item

E

I

J

K

L

TY

SMISC

2

-

-

-

-

TXY

SMISC

3

-

-

-

-

MX

SMISC

4

-

-

-

-

MY

SMISC

5

-

-

-

-

MXY

SMISC

6

-

-

-

-

P1

SMISC

-

9

10

11

12

P2

SMISC

-

13

14

15

16

P3

SMISC

-

18

17

-

-

P4

SMISC

-

-

20

19

-

P5

SMISC

-

-

-

22

21

P6

SMISC

-

23

-

-

24

Top
S:1

NMISC

-

1

6

11

16

S:2

NMISC

-

2

7

12

17

S:3

NMISC

-

3

8

13

18

S:INT

NMISC

-

4

9

14

19

S:EQV

NMISC

-

5

10

15

20

Bot
S:1

NMISC

-

21

26

31

36

S:2

NMISC

-

22

27

32

37

S:3

NMISC

-

23

28

33

38

S:INT

NMISC

-

24

29

34

39

S:EQV

NMISC

-

25

30

35

40

SHELL63 Assumptions and Restrictions
• Zero area elements are not allowed. This occurs most often whenever the elements are not numbered
properly.
• Zero thickness elements or elements tapering down to a zero thickness at any corner are not allowed.
• The applied transverse thermal gradient is assumed to vary linearly through the thickness and vary bilinearly
over the shell surface.
• An assemblage of flat shell elements can produce a good approximation of a curved shell surface provided
that each flat element does not extend over more than a 15° arc. If an elastic foundation stiffness is input,
one-fourth of the total is applied at each node. Shear deflection is not included in this thin-shell element.
• A triangular element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L node numbers as described in Degenerated Shape Elements. The extra shapes are automatically deleted for triangular elements so that the

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183

SHELL63
membrane stiffness reduces to a constant strain formulation. For large deflection analyses, if KEYOPT(1)
= 1 (membrane stiffness only), the element must be triangular.
• For KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 2, the four nodes defining the element should lie as close as possible to a flat plane
(for maximum accuracy), but a moderate amount of warping is permitted. For KEYOPT(1) = 1, the warping
limit is very restrictive. In either case, an excessively warped element may produce a warning or error
message. In the case of warping errors, triangular elements should be used (see Degenerated Shape Elements). Shell element warping is described in detail in Warping Factor in Mechanical APDL Theory Reference.
• If the lumped mass matrix formulation is specified [LUMPM,ON], the effect of the implied offsets on the
mass matrix is ignored for warped SHELL63 elements.

SHELL63 Product Restrictions
When used in the product(s) listed below, the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element
in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.
ANSYS Professional
• The ALPD and BETD material properties are not allowed.
• The only special features allowed are stress stiffening and large deflection.
• KEYOPT(2) can only be set to 0 (default).
• KEYOPT(9) can only be set to 0 (default).

184

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FLUID79
2-D Contained Fluid
MP ME ST <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
Product Restrictions

FLUID79 Element Description
Although this legacy element is available for use in your analysis, ANSYS, Inc. recommends using a currenttechnology element such as FLUID29, FLUID30, FLUID220, or FLUID221.
FLUID79 is used to model fluids contained within vessels having no net flow rate. Another fluid element
(FLUID116) is available to model fluids flowing in pipes and channels. The fluid element is particularly
well suited for calculating hydrostatic pressures and fluid/solid interactions. Acceleration effects, such
as in sloshing problems, as well as temperature effects, may be included.
The fluid element is defined by four nodes having two degrees of freedom at each node: translation in
the nodal x and y directions. The element may be used in a structural analysis as a plane element or
as an axisymmetric ring element. See FLUID79 - 2-D Contained Fluid (p. 266) for more details about this
element. See FLUID80 for a 3-D version of this element.

Note
The reduced method is the only acceptable method for extracting frequencies in a modal
analysis using this element.
Figure 79.1: FLUID79 Geometry
❨ ✭❛①✐❛❧✮

❳ ✭r❛❞✐❛❧✮

FLUID79 Input Data
The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 79.1: FLUID79 Geometry (p. 185). The element input data includes four nodes and the isotropic material properties.
EX, which is interpreted as the "fluid elastic modulus", should be the bulk modulus of the fluid (approxRelease 14.5 - © SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
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185

FLUID79
imately 300,000 psi for water). The viscosity property (VISC) is used to compute a damping matrix for
dynamic analyses (typical viscosity value for water is 1.639 x 10-7 lb-sec/in2). The use of KEYOPT(2) for
gravity springs is discussed in "FLUID80 Input Data" (p. 189). Vertical acceleration (ACELY on the ACEL
command) is needed for the gravity springs.
Element loads are described in Nodal Loading. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element
faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 79.1: FLUID79 Geometry (p. 185). Positive pressures act
into the element. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. If all other temperatures are unspecified, they default to T(I). For any other
input pattern, unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF.
A summary of the element input is given in "FLUID79 Input Summary" (p. 186). A general description of
element input is given in Element Input. For axisymmetric applications see Harmonic Axisymmetric
Elements.

FLUID79 Input Summary
Nodes
I, J, K, L
Degrees of Freedom
UX, UY
Real Constants
None
Material Properties
MP command: EX, ALPX (or CTEX or THSX), DENS, VISC, ALPD, BETD
Surface Loads
Pressures -face 1 (J-I), face 2 (K-J), face 3 (L-K), face 4 (I-L)
Body Loads
Temperatures -T(I), T(J), T(K), T(L)
Special Features
None
KEYOPT(2)
Location of gravity springs:
0 -Place gravity springs on all sides of all elements
1 -Place gravity springs only on face of elements located on Y = 0.0 plane (elements must not have
positive Y coordinates)
KEYOPT(3)
Element behavior:

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FLUID79
0 -Plane
1 -Axisymmetric

FLUID79 Output Data
The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:
• Degree of freedom results included in the overall nodal solution
• Additional element output as shown in Table 79.1: FLUID79 Element Output Definitions (p. 187)
The pressure and temperature are evaluated at the element centroid. Nodal forces and reaction forces
are on a full 360° basis for axisymmetric models. A general description of solution output is given in
Solution Output. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.
The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation:
A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name
method (ETABLE, ESOL). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT.
The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.
In either the O or R columns, “Y” indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table
footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and “-” indicates that the item is not
available.
Table 79.1: FLUID79 Element Output Definitions
Name

Definition

O

R

EL

Element Number

Y

Y

NODES

Nodes - I, J, K, L

Y

Y

MAT

Material number

Y

Y

VOLU:

Volume

Y

Y

XC, YC

Location where results are reported

Y

1

PRES

Pressures P1 at nodes J, I; P2 at K, J; P3 at L, K;
P4 at I, L

Y

Y

TEMP

Temperatures T(I), T(J), T(K), T(L)

Y

Y

TAVG

Average temperature

Y

-

PAVG

Average pressure

Y

Y

1. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.
Table 79.2: FLUID79 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 188) lists output available through the ETABLE
command using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic
Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table for more information. The following notation
is used in Table 79.2: FLUID79 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 188):
Name
output quantity as defined in the Table 79.1: FLUID79 Element Output Definitions (p. 187)
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187

FLUID79
Item
predetermined Item label for ETABLE command
E
sequence number for single-valued or constant element data
I,J,...,L
sequence number for data at nodes I,J,...,L
Table 79.2: FLUID79 Item and Sequence Numbers
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Item

E

I

J

K

L

PRES

SMISC

1

-

-

-

-

P1

SMISC

-

3

2

-

-

P2

SMISC

-

-

5

4

-

P3

SMISC

-

-

-

7

6

P4

SMISC

-

8

-

-

9

FLUID79 Assumptions and Restrictions
• The area of the element must be positive.
• The fluid element must lie in an X-Y plane as shown in Figure 79.1: FLUID79 Geometry (p. 185) and the Yaxis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses.
• An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants.
• Radial motion should be constrained at the centerline.
• Usually the Y-axis is oriented in the vertical direction with the top surface at Y = 0.0.
• The element temperature is taken to be the average of the nodal temperatures.
• Elements should be rectangular whenever possible, as results are known to be of lower quality for some
cases using nonrectangular shapes.
• Axisymmetric elements should always be rectangular.
• The nonlinear transient dynamic analysis should be used instead of the linear transient dynamic analysis
for this element.
• A very small stiffness (EX x 1.0E-9) is associated with the shear and rotational strains to ensure static stability. See FLUID80 for more assumptions and restrictions.
• Only the lumped mass matrix is available.

FLUID79 Product Restrictions
There are no product-specific restrictions for this element.

188

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FLUID80
3-D Contained Fluid
MP ME ST <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
Product Restrictions

FLUID80 Element Description
Although this legacy element is available for use in your analysis, ANSYS, Inc. recommends using a currenttechnology element such as FLUID29, FLUID30, FLUID220, or FLUID221.
FLUID80 is used to model fluids contained within vessels having no net flow rate. Another fluid element
(FLUID116) is available to model fluids flowing in pipes and channels. The fluid element is particularly
well suited for calculating hydrostatic pressures and fluid/solid interactions. Acceleration effects, such
as in sloshing problems, as well as temperature effects, may be included.
The fluid element is defined by eight nodes having three degrees of freedom at each node: translation
in the nodal x, y, and z directions. See FLUID80 - 3-D Contained Fluid (p. 267) for more details about this
element. See FLUID79 for a 2-D version of this element.

Note
The reduced method is the only acceptable method for extracting frequencies in a modal
analysis using this element.
Figure 80.1: FLUID80 Geometry

€





FLUID80 Input Data
The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 80.1: FLUID80 Geometry (p. 189). The element input data includes eight nodes and the isotropic material properties.
EX, which is interpreted as the "fluid elastic modulus", should be the bulk modulus of the fluid (approx-

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189

FLUID80
imately 300,000 psi for water). The viscosity property (VISC) is used to compute a damping matrix for
dynamic analyses. A typical viscosity value for water is 1.639 x 10-7 lb-sec/in2.
Element loads are described in Nodal Loading. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element
faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 80.1: FLUID80 Geometry (p. 189). Positive pressures act
into the element. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. If all other temperatures are unspecified, they default to T(I). For any other
input pattern, unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF.
The element also includes special surface effects, which may be thought of as gravity springs used to
hold the surface in place. This is performed by adding springs to each node, with the spring constants
being positive on the top of the element, and negative on the bottom. Gravity effects [ACEL] must be
included if a free surface exists. For an interior node, the positive and negative effects cancel out, and
at the bottom, where the fluid must be contained to keep the fluid from leaking out, the negative spring
has no effect (as long as all degrees of freedom on the bottom are fixed). If the bottom consists of a
flexible container, or if the degrees of freedom tangential to a curved surface are released, these negative
springs may cause erroneous results and "negative pivot" messages. In this case, use of KEYOPT(2) = 1
is recommended.
These surface springs, while necessary to keep the free surface in place, artificially reduce the hydrostatic
motion of the free surface. The error for a tank with vertical walls, expressed as a ratio of the computed
answer over the correct answer is 1.0/(1.0 + (bottom pressure/bulk modulus)), which is normally very
close to 1.0. Hydrodynamic results are not affected by this overstiffness.
A summary of the element input is given in "FLUID80 Input Summary" (p. 190). A general description of
element input is given in Element Input.

FLUID80 Input Summary
Nodes
I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P
Degrees of Freedom
UX, UY, UZ
Real Constants
None
Material Properties
MP command: EX, ALPX (or CTEX or THSX), DENS, VISC, ALPD, BETD
Surface Loads
Pressures -face 1 (J-I-L-K), face 2 (I-J-N-M), face 3 (J-K-O-N),
face 4 (K-L-P-O), face 5 (L-I-M-P), face 6 (M-N-O-P)
Body Loads
Temperatures -T(I), T(J), T(K), T(L), T(M), T(N), T(O), T(P)

190

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FLUID80
Special Features
None
KEYOPT(2)
Location of gravity springs:
0 -Place gravity springs on all sides of all elements
1 -Place gravity springs only on face of elements located on Z = 0.0 plane (elements must not have
positive Z coordinates)

FLUID80 Output Data
The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:
• Degree of freedom results included in the overall nodal solution
• Additional element output as shown in Table 80.1: FLUID80 Element Output Definitions (p. 191)
The pressure and temperature are evaluated at the element centroid. A general description of solution
output is given in Solution Output. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.
The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation:
A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name
method (ETABLE, ESOL). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT.
The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.
In either the O or R columns, “Y” indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table
footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and “-” indicates that the item is not
available.
Table 80.1: FLUID80 Element Output Definitions
Name

Definition

O

R

EL

Element Number

Y

Y

NODES

Nodes - I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P

Y

Y

MAT

Material number

Y

Y

VOLU:

Volume

Y

Y

XC, YC, ZC

Location where results are reported

Y

1

PRES

Pressures P1 at nodes J, I, L, K; P2 at I, J, N, M; P3 at J,
K, O, N; P4 at K, L, P, O; P5 at L, I, M, P; P6 at M, N, O, P

Y

Y

TEMP

Temperatures T(I), T(J), T(K), T(L), T(M), T(N), T(O), T(P)

Y

Y

TAVG

Average temperature

Y

-

PAVG

Average pressure

Y

Y

1. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.
Table 80.2: FLUID80 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 192) lists output available through the ETABLE
command using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic
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FLUID80
Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table for more information. The following notation
is used in Table 80.2: FLUID80 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 192):
Name
output quantity as defined in the Table 80.1: FLUID80 Element Output Definitions (p. 191)
Item
predetermined Item label for ETABLE command
E
sequence number for single-valued or constant element data
I,J,...,P
sequence number for data at nodes I,J,...,P
Table 80.2: FLUID80 Item and Sequence Numbers
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Item

E

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

PRES

SMISC

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

P1

SMISC

-

3

2

5

4

-

-

-

-

P2

SMISC

-

6

7

-

-

9

8

-

-

P3

SMISC

-

-

10

11

-

-

13

12

-

P4

SMISC

-

-

-

14

15

-

-

17

16

P5

SMISC

-

19

-

-

18

20

-

-

21

P6

SMISC

-

-

-

-

-

22

23

24

25

FLUID80 Assumptions and Restrictions
• Zero volume elements are not allowed.
• Elements may be numbered either as shown in Figure 80.1: FLUID80 Geometry (p. 189) or may have the
planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged.
• The element may not be twisted such that the element has two separate volumes. This occurs most frequently when the elements are not numbered properly.
• Structures are usually modeled with the Z-axis oriented in the vertical direction and the top surface at Z
= 0.0.
• The element temperature is taken to be the average of the nodal temperatures.
• Elements should be rectangular (brick shaped) whenever possible, as results are known to be of lower
quality for some cases using nonrectangular shapes.
• The nonlinear transient dynamic analysis should be used instead of the linear transient dynamic analysis
for this element.

192

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FLUID80
• For the case of a modal analysis with irregular meshes, one can expect one or more low frequency eigenvectors, representing internal fluid motions, without significantly affecting the vertical motion of the free
surface.
• The amount of flow permitted is limited to that which will not cause gross distortions in the element.
• The large deflection option should not be used with this element.
• In a reduced analysis, master degrees of freedom should be selected at all nodes on the free fluid surface
in the direction normal to the free surface. Other master degrees of freedom, if any, should only be selected
normal to one or more flat planes within the fluid, with all nodes on these planes being included. Other
selections may produce large internal rotations.
• When used for a static application, the free surface must be input flat. Gravity must be input if there is a
free surface. The element gives valid nodal forces representing hydrostatic pressure and also valid vertical
displacements at the free surface. Other nodal displacements, which may be large, represent energy-free
internal motions of the fluid.
• Fluid element at a boundary should not be attached directly to structural elements but should have separate, coincident nodes that are coupled only in the direction normal to the interface.
• Arbitrarily small numbers are included to give the element some shear and rotational stability.
• Only the lumped mass matrix is available.

FLUID80 Product Restrictions
There are no product-specific restrictions for this element.

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193

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FLUID81
Axisymmetric-Harmonic Contained Fluid
MP ME ST <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
Product Restrictions

FLUID81 Element Description
Although this legacy element is available for use in your analysis, ANSYS, Inc. recommends using a currenttechnology element such as FLUID29, FLUID30, FLUID220, or FLUID221.
FLUID81 is a modification of the axisymmetric structural solid element (PLANE25). The element is used
to model fluids contained within vessels having no net flow rate. It is defined by four nodes having
three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x, y, and z directions. The element is
used in a structural analysis as an axisymmetric ring element.
The element is a generalization of the axisymmetric version of FLUID79, the 2-D fluid element, in that
the loading need not be axisymmetric. Various loading cases are described in Harmonic Axisymmetric
Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads. The fluid element is particularly well suited for calculating hydrostatic pressures and fluid/solid interactions. Acceleration effects, such as in sloshing problems, as
well as temperature effects, may be included. See FLUID81 - Axisymmetric-Harmonic Contained Fluid (p. 272) for more details about this element. Another fluid element (FLUID116) is available to model
fluids flowing in pipes and channels.

Note
The reduced method is the only acceptable method for extracting frequencies in a modal
analysis using this element.
Figure 81.1: FLUID81 Geometry
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195

FLUID81

FLUID81 Input Data
The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 81.1: FLUID81 Geometry (p. 195). The element input data includes four nodes, the number of harmonic waves
(MODE on the MODE command), the symmetry condition (ISYM on the MODE command), and the
isotropic material properties. If MODE = 0 and ISYM = 1, the element behaves similar to the axisymmetric
case of FLUID79. The MODE and ISYM parameters are discussed in detail in Harmonic Axisymmetric
Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads. EX, which is interpreted as the "fluid elastic modulus," should
be the bulk modulus of the fluid (approximately 300,000 psi for water). The viscosity property (VISC) is
used to compute a damping matrix for dynamic analyses. A typical viscosity value for water is 1.639 x
10-7 lb-sec/in2. Density (DENS) must be input as a positive number.
The use of KEYOPT(2) for gravity springs is discussed in "FLUID80 Input Data" (p. 189). Vertical acceleration
(ACELY on the ACEL command) is needed for the gravity springs regardless of the value of MODE, even
for a modal analysis. Harmonically varying nodal forces, if any, should be input on a full 360° basis.
Element loads are described in Nodal Loading. Harmonically varying pressures may be input as surface
loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 81.1: FLUID81 Geometry (p. 195).
Positive pressures act into the element.
Harmonically varying temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. The node I
temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. If all other temperatures are unspecified, they default to T(I). For any
other input pattern, unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF.
A summary of the element input is given in "FLUID81 Input Summary" (p. 196). A general description of
element input is given in Element Input.

FLUID81 Input Summary
Nodes
I, J, K, L
Degrees of Freedom
UX, UY, UZ
Real Constants
None
Material Properties
MP command: EX, ALPX (or CTEX or THSX), DENS, VISC, ALPD, BETD
Surface Loads
Pressures -face 1 (J-I), face 2 (K-J), face 3 (L-K), face 4 (I-L)
Body Loads
Temperatures -T(I), T(J), T(K), T(L)
Mode Number
Number of harmonic waves around the circumference (MODE)

196

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FLUID81
Loading Condition
Symmetry condition (MODE)
Special Features
None
KEYOPT(2)
Location of gravity springs:
0 -Place gravity springs on all sides of all elements
1 -Place gravity springs only on face of elements located on Y = 0.0 plane (element must not have
positive Y coordinates)

FLUID81 Output Data
The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:
• Degree of freedom results included in the overall nodal solution
• Additional element output as shown in Table 81.1: FLUID81 Element Output Definitions (p. 197)
The pressure and temperature are evaluated at the element centroid. Nodal forces and reaction forces
are on a full 360° basis.
In the displacement printout, the UZ component is out-of-phase with the UX and UY components. For
example, in the MODE = 1, ISYM = 1 loading case, UX and UY are the peak values at θ = 0° and UZ is
the peak value at θ = 90°. Printout for combined loading cases may be obtained from the POST1 routine.
We recommend that you always use the angle field on the SET command when postprocessing the
results. For more information about harmonic elements, see Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements with
Nonaxisymmetric Loads.
A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. See the Basic Analysis Guide for
ways to view results.
The following notation is used in Table 81.1: FLUID81 Element Output Definitions (p. 197):
The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation:
A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name
method (ETABLE, ESOL). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT.
The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.
In either the O or R columns, “Y” indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table
footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and “-” indicates that the item is not
available.
Table 81.1: FLUID81 Element Output Definitions
Name

Definition

O

R

EL

Element Number

Y

Y

NODES

Nodes - I, J, K, L

Y

Y

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197

FLUID81
Name

Definition

O

R

MAT

Material number

Y

Y

ISYM

Loading Key

1

1

MODE

Number of waves in loading

Y

Y

VOLU:

Volume

Y

Y

XC, YC

Location where results are reported

Y

2

PRES

Pressures P1 at nodes J,I; P2 at K,J; P3 at L,K; P4
at I,L

Y

Y

TEMP

Temperatures T(I), T(J), T(K), T(L)

Y

Y

TAVG

Average temperature

Y

-

PAVG

Average pressure

Y

Y

1. If ISYM is:
1 - Symmetric loading
-1 - Antisymmetric loading
2. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.
Table 81.2: FLUID81 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 198) lists output available through the ETABLE
command using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic
Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table for more information. The following notation
is used in Table 81.2: FLUID81 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 198):
Name
output quantity as defined in the Table 81.1: FLUID81 Element Output Definitions (p. 197)
Item
predetermined Item label for ETABLE command
E
sequence number for single-valued or constant element data
I,J,...,L
sequence number for data at nodes I,J,...,L
Table 81.2: FLUID81 Item and Sequence Numbers
Output
Quantity
Name

Item

E

I

J

K

L

PRES

SMISC

1

-

-

-

-

P1

SMISC

-

3

2

-

-

P2

SMISC

-

-

5

4

-

P3

SMISC

-

-

-

7

6

P4

SMISC

-

8

-

-

9

198

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input

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FLUID81

FLUID81 Assumptions and Restrictions
• The area of the element must be positive.
• The fluid element must lie in an X-Y plane as shown in Figure 81.1: FLUID81 Geometry (p. 195) and the Yaxis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses.
• An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants.
• The Y-axis should be oriented in the vertical direction and the top surface is usually at Y = 0.0.
• The element temperature is taken to be the average of the nodal temperatures.
• Temperature-dependent material properties, if any, are evaluated at the reference temperature [TREF].
• Elements should be rectangular since results are known to be of lower quality for nonrectangular shapes.
• The nonlinear transient dynamic analysis should be used instead of the linear transient dynamic analysis
for this element.
• A lumped mass matrix may be obtained for this element with the LUMPM command.
• See FLUID80 for more assumptions and restrictions.

FLUID81 Product Restrictions
There are no product-specific restrictions for this element.

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199

200

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PLANE82
2-D 8-Node Structural Solid
MP ME ST PR PRN DS <> <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
Product Restrictions

PLANE82 Element Description
Although this legacy element is available for use in your analysis, ANSYS, Inc. recommends using a currenttechnology element such as PLANE183.
PLANE82 provides accurate results for mixed (quadrilateral-triangular) automatic meshes and can tolerate
irregular shapes without as much loss of accuracy. The eight-node elements have compatible displacement shapes and are well suited to model curved boundaries.
The 8-node element is defined by eight nodes having two degrees of freedom at each node: translations
in the nodal x and y directions. The element may be used as a plane element or as an axisymmetric
element. The element has plasticity, creep, swelling, stress stiffening, large deflection, and large strain
capabilities. Various printout options are also available. See SOLID273 for a description of an axisymmetric
element which accepts nonaxisymmetric loading.
Figure 82.1: PLANE82 Geometry

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PLANE82 Input Data
The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 82.1: PLANE82 Geometry (p. 201).
A triangular-shaped element may be formed by defining the same node number for nodes K, L and O.
Besides the nodes, the element input data includes a thickness (TK) (for the plane stress option only)
and the orthotropic material properties. Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems.
Element loads are described in Nodal Loading. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element
faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 82.1: PLANE82 Geometry (p. 201). Positive pressures
act into the element. Temperatures and fluences may be input as element body loads at the nodes.
The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. If all other temperatures are unspecified, they default to
T(I). If all corner node temperatures are specified, each midside node temperature defaults to the average

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201

PLANE82
temperature of its adjacent corner nodes. For any other input temperature pattern, unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. Similar defaults occurs for fluence except that zero is used instead of TUNIF.
The nodal forces, if any, should be input per unit of depth for a plane analysis (except for KEYOPT(3) =
3) and on a full 360° basis for an axisymmetric analysis. KEYOPT(5) and KEYOPT(6) parameters provide
various element printout options (see Element Solution).
You cannot set initial state conditions (INISTATE) using this element. You can set initial state conditions
using current-technology elements (such as LINK180,SHELL181). To continue using initial state conditions
in future versions of ANSYS, consider using a current element technology. For more information, see
Legacy vs. Current Element Technologies in the Element Reference. For more information about setting
initial state values, see the INISTATE command documentation and Initial State Loading in the Basic
Analysis Guide.
You can include the effects of pressure load stiffness in a geometric nonlinear analysis using SOLCONTROL,,,INCP. Pressure load stiffness effects are included in linear eigenvalue buckling automatically. If
an unsymmetric matrix is needed for pressure load stiffness effects, use NROPT,UNSYM.
A summary of the element input is given in "PLANE82 Input Summary" (p. 202). A general description
of element input is given in Element Input. For axisymmetric applications see Harmonic Axisymmetric
Elements.

PLANE82 Input Summary
Nodes
I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P
Degrees of Freedom
UX, UY
Real Constants
None, if KEYOPT (3) = 0, 1, or 2
THK - Thickness, if KEYOPT (3) = 3
Material Properties
EX, EY, EZ, PRXY, PRYZ, PRXZ (or NUXY, NUYZ, NUXZ),
ALPX, ALPY, ALPZ (or CTEX, CTEY, CTEZ or THSX, THSY, THSZ), DENS, GXY, BETD, ALPD
Surface Loads
Pressures -face 1 (J-I), face 2 (K-J), face 3 (I-K), face 4 (I-L)
Body Loads
Temperatures -T(I), T(J), T(K), T(L), T(M), T(N), T(O), T(P)
Fluences -FL(I), FL(J), FL(K), FL(L), FL(M), FL(N), FL(O), FL(P)

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PLANE82
Special Features
Plasticity (BISO, MISO, BKIN, MKIN, KINH, DP, ANISO)
Creep (CREEP, RATE)
Swelling (SWELL)
Elasticity (MELAS)
Other material (USER)
Stress stiffening
Large deflection
Large strain
Birth and death
Adaptive descent
Items in parentheses refer to data tables associated with the TB command.
KEYOPT(3)
Element behavior:
0 -Plane stress
1 -Axisymmetric
2 -Plane strain (Z strain = 0.0)
3 -Plane stress with thickness (TK) real constant input
KEYOPT(5)
Extra element output:
0 -Basic element solution
1 -Repeat basic solution for all integration points
2 -Nodal Stress Solution
KEYOPT(6)
Extra surface output:
0 -Basic element solution
1 -Surface solution for face I-J also
2 -Surface solution for both faces I-J and K-L also (surface solution valid for linear materials only)

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PLANE82
3 -Nonlinear solution at each integration point also
4 -Surface solution for faces with nonzero pressure

PLANE82 Output Data
The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:
• Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution
• Additional element output as shown in Table 82.1: PLANE82 Element Output Definitions (p. 204)
Several items are illustrated in Figure 82.2: PLANE82 Stress Output (p. 204).
The element stress directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. Surface stresses are available
on any face. Surface stresses on face IJ, for example, are defined parallel and perpendicular to the IJ
line and along the Z axis for a plane analysis or in the hoop direction for an axisymmetric analysis. A
general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways
to view results.
Figure 82.2: PLANE82 Stress Output

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The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation:
A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name
method (ETABLE, ESOL). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT.
The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.
In either the O or R columns, “Y” indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table
footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and “-” indicates that the item is not
available.
Table 82.1: PLANE82 Element Output Definitions
Name

Definition

O

R

EL

Element Number

Y

Y

NODES

Corner nodes - I, J, K, L

Y

Y

MAT

Material number

Y

Y

THICK

Average thickness

Y

Y

204

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PLANE82
Name

Definition

O

R

VOLU:

Volume

Y

Y

XC, YC

Location where results are reported

Y

3

PRES

Pressures P1 at nodes J,I; P2 at K,J; P3 at L,K; P4 at
I,L

Y

Y

TEMP

Temperatures T(I), T(J), T(K), T(L), T(M), T(N), T(O), T(P)

Y

Y

FLUEN

Fluences FL(I), FL(J), FL(K), FL(L), FL(M), FL(N), FL(O),
FL(P)

Y

Y

S:X, Y, Z, XY

Stresses (SZ = 0.0 for plane stress elements)

Y

Y

S:1, 2, 3

Principal stresses

Y

-

S:INT

Stress intensity

Y

-

S:EQV

Equivalent stress

Y

Y

EPEL:X, Y, Z, XY

Elastic strains

Y

Y

EPEL:1, 2, 3

Principal elastic strains

Y

-

EPEL:EQV

Equivalent elastic strain [4]

-

Y

EPTH:X, Y, Z, XY

Average thermal strains

Y

Y

EPTH:EQV

Equivalent thermal strain [4]

-

Y

EPPL:X, Y, XY, Z

Average plastic strains

2

2

EPPL:EQV

Equivalent plastic strain [4]

-

2

EPCR:X, Y, XY, Z

Average creep strains

2

2

EPCR:EQV

Equivalent creep strain [4]

-

2

EPSW:

Swelling strain

2

2

NL:EPEQ

Equivalent plastic strain

2

2

NL:SRAT

Ratio of trial stress to stress on yield surface

2

2

NL:SEPL

Equivalent stress on stress-strain curve

2

2

NL:HPRES

Hydrostatic pressure

-

2

FACE

Face label

1

1

EPEL(PAR, PER, Z)

Surface elastic strains (parallel, perpendicular, Z or
hoop)

1

1

TEMP

Surface average temperature

1

1

S(PAR, PER, Z)

Surface stresses (parallel, perpendicular, Z or hoop)

1

1

SINT

Surface stress intensity

1

1

SEQV

Surface equivalent stress

1

1

LOCI:X, Y, Z

Integration point locations

-

Y

1. Surface output (if KEYOPT(6) is 1, 2 or 4)
2. Nonlinear solution (if the element has a nonlinear material)
3. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.

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205

PLANE82
4. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user
(MP,PRXY); for plastic and creep this value is set at 0.5.
Table 82.2: PLANE82 Miscellaneous Element Output
Description

Names of Items Output

O

R

Nonlinear Integration Pt. Solution

EPPL, EPEQ, SRAT, SEPL, HPRES, EPCR, EPSW

1

-

Integration Point Stress Solution

TEMP, SINT, SEQV, EPEL, S

2

-

Nodal Stress Solution

TEMP, S, SINT, SEQV

3

-

1. Output at each integration point, if the element has a nonlinear material and KEYOPT(6) = 3
2. Output at each integration point, if KEYOPT(5) = 1
3. Output at each vertex node, if KEYOPT(5) = 2

Note
For axisymmetric solutions, the X, Y, XY, and Z stress and strain outputs correspond to the
radial, axial, in-plane shear, and hoop stresses and strains.
Table 82.3: PLANE82 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 206) lists output available through the ETABLE
command using the Sequence Number method. See Creating an Element Table in the Basic Analysis
Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this manual for more information. The following
notation is used in Table 82.3: PLANE82 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 206):
Name
output quantity as defined in the Table 82.1: PLANE82 Element Output Definitions (p. 204)
Item
predetermined Item label for ETABLE command
E
sequence number for single-valued or constant element data
I,J,...,P
sequence number for data at nodes I,J,...,P
Table 82.3: PLANE82 Item and Sequence Numbers
Output
Quantity
Name

Item

E

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

P1

SMISC

-

2

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

P2

SMISC

-

-

4

3

-

-

-

-

-

P3

SMISC

-

-

-

6

5

-

-

-

-

P4

SMISC

-

7

-

-

8

-

-

-

-

S:1

NMISC

-

1

6

11

16

-

-

-

-

S:2

NMISC

-

2

7

12

17

-

-

-

-

206

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input

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PLANE82
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Item

E

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

S:3

NMISC

-

3

8

13

18

-

-

-

-

S:INT

NMISC

-

4

9

14

19

-

-

-

-

S:EQV

NMISC

-

5

10

15

20

-

-

-

-

FLUEN

NMISC

-

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

THICK

NMISC

29

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

See Surface Solution for the item and sequence numbers for surface output for the ETABLE command.

PLANE82 Assumptions and Restrictions
• The area of the element must be positive.
• The element must lie in a global X-Y plane as shown in Figure 82.1: PLANE82 Geometry (p. 201) and the
Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses. An axisymmetric structure should be
modeled in the +X quadrants.
• A face with a removed midside node implies that the displacement varies linearly, rather than parabolically,
along that face. See Quadratic Elements (Midside Nodes) in the Modeling and Meshing Guide for more information about the use of midside nodes.

PLANE82 Product Restrictions
When used in the product(s) listed below, the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element
in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.
ANSYS Professional
• The ALPD and BETD material properties are not allowed.
• Fluence body loads are not applicable.
• The only special feature allowed is stress stiffening.
• KEYOPT(6) = 3 is not applicable.

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207

208

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SOLID92
3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Structural Solid
MP ME ST PR PRN DS DSS <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
Product Restrictions

SOLID92 Element Description
Although this legacy element is available for use in your analysis, ANSYS, Inc. recommends using a currenttechnology element such as SOLID187.
SOLID92 has a quadratic displacement behavior and is well suited to model irregular meshes (such as
produced from various CAD/CAM systems).
The element is defined by ten nodes having three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the
nodal x, y, and z directions. The element also has plasticity, creep, swelling, stress stiffening, large deflection, and large strain capabilities.
Figure 92.1: SOLID92 Geometry



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SOLID92 Input Data
The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 92.1: SOLID92 Geometry (p. 209).
Beside the nodes, the element input data includes the orthotropic material properties. Orthotropic
material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. The element coordinate system
orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems.
Element loads are described in Nodal Loading. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element
faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 92.1: SOLID92 Geometry (p. 209). Positive pressures act
into the element. Temperatures and fluences may be input as element body loads at the nodes. The
node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. If all other temperatures are unspecified, they default to T(I).
If all corner node temperatures are specified, each midside node temperature defaults to the average
temperature of its adjacent corner nodes. For any other input temperature pattern, unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. Similar defaults occurs for fluence except that zero is used instead of TUNIF.

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209

SOLID92
You cannot set initial state conditions (INISTATE) using this element. You can set initial state conditions
using current-technology elements only (such as LINK180,SHELL181). To continue using initial state
conditions in future versions of ANSYS, consider using a current element technology. For more information, see Legacy vs. Current Element Technologies in the Element Reference. For more information
about setting initial state values, see the INISTATE command documentation and Initial State Loading
in the Basic Analysis Guide.
You can include the effects of pressure load stiffness in a geometric nonlinear analysis using SOLCONTROL,,,INCP. Pressure load stiffness effects are included in linear eigenvalue buckling automatically. If
an unsymmetric matrix is needed for pressure load stiffness effects, use NROPT,UNSYM.
A summary of the element input is given in "SOLID92 Input Summary" (p. 210). A general description of
element input is given in Element Input.

SOLID92 Input Summary
Nodes
I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R
Degrees of Freedom
UX, UY, UZ
Real Constants
None
Material Properties
EX, EY, EZ, ALPX, ALPY, ALPZ (or CTEX, CTEY, CTEZ or THSX, THSY, THSZ), PRXY, PRYZ, PRXZ (or NUXY,
NUYZ, NUXZ), DENS, GXY, GYZ, GXZ, BETD, ALPD
Surface Loads
Pressures -face 1 (J-I-K), face 2 (I-J-L), face 3 (J-K-L), face 4 (K-I-L)
Body Loads
Temperatures -T(I), T(J), T(K), T(L), T(M), T(N), T(O), T(P), T(Q), T(R)
Fluences -FL(I), FL(J), FL(K), FL(L), FL(M), FL(N), FL(O), FL(P), FL(Q), FL(R)
Special Features
Plasticity (BISO, MISO, BKIN, MKIN, KINH, DP, ANISO)
Creep (CREEP, RATE)
Swelling (SWELL)
Elasticity (MELAS)
Other material (USER)
Stress stiffening
Large deflection
Large strain
Birth and death
Adaptive descent

210

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SOLID92
Items in parentheses refer to data tables associated with the TB command.
KEYOPT(5)
Extra element output:
0 -Basic element printout
1 -Integration point printout
2 -Nodal stress printout
KEYOPT(6)
Extra surface output:
0 -Basic element printout
4 -Surface printout for faces with nonzero pressure

SOLID92 Output Data
The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:
• Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution
• Additional element output as shown in Table 92.1: SOLID92 Element Output Definitions (p. 212)
Several items are illustrated in Figure 92.2: SOLID92 Stress Output (p. 211). The element stress directions
are parallel to the element coordinate system. The surface stress outputs are in the surface coordinate
system and are available for any face (KEYOPT(6)). The coordinate system for face J-I-K is shown in Figure 92.2: SOLID92 Stress Output (p. 211). The other surface coordinate systems follow similar orientations
as indicated by the pressure face node description. Surface stress printout is valid only if the conditions
described in Element Solution are met. A general description of solution output is given in Solution
Output. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.
Figure 92.2: SOLID92 Stress Output


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211

SOLID92
The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation:
A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name
method (ETABLE, ESOL). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT.
The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.
In either the O or R columns, “Y” indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table
footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and “-” indicates that the item is not
available.
Table 92.1: SOLID92 Element Output Definitions
Name

Definition

O

R

EL

Element Number

Y

Y

NODES

Corner nodes - I, J, K, L

Y

Y

MAT

Material number

Y

Y

VOLU:

Volume

Y

Y

XC, YC, ZC

Location where results are reported

Y

3

PRES

Pressures P1 at nodes J, I, K; P2 at I, J, L; P3 at J, K,
L; P4 at K, I, L

Y

Y

TEMP

Temperatures T(I), T(J), T(K), T(L)

Y

Y

FLUEN

Fluences FL(I), FL(J), FL(K), FL(L), FL(M), FL(N), FL(O),
FL(P), FL(Q), FL(R)

Y

Y

S:X, Y, Z, XY, YZ, XZ

Stresses

Y

Y

S:1, 2, 3

Principal stresses

Y

Y

S:INT

Stress intensity

Y

Y

S:EQV

Equivalent stress

Y

Y

EPEL:X, Y, Z, XY, YZ,
XZ

Elastic strains

Y

Y

EPEL:1, 2, 3

Principal elastic strains

Y

Y

EPEL:EQV

Equivalent elastic strains [4]

Y

-

EPTH:X, Y, Z, XY, YZ,
XZ

Thermal strains

1

1

EPTH:EQV

Equivalent thermal strains [4]

1

1

EPPL:X, Y, Z, XY, YZ,
XZ

Plastic strains

1

1

EPPL:EQV

Equivalent plastic strains [4]

1

1

EPCR:X, Y, Z, XY, YZ,
XZ

Creep strains

1

1

EPCR:EQV

Equivalent creep strains [4]

1

1

EPSW:

Swelling strain

1

1

NL:EPEQ

Average equivalent plastic strain

1

1

NL:SRAT

Ratio of trial stress to stress on yield surface

1

1

NL:SEPL

Equivalent stress from stress-strain curve

1

1

NL:HPRES

Hydrostatic pressure

-

1

212

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SOLID92
Name

Definition

O

R

FACE

Face label

2

2

TRI

Nodes on this face

2

-

AREA

Face area

2

2

TEMP

Face average temperature

2

2

EPEL(X, Y, XY)

Surface elastic strains

2

2

PRES

Surface pressure

2

2

S(X, Y, XY)

Surface stresses

2

2

S(1, 2, 3)

Surface principal stresses

2

2

SINT

Surface stress intensity

2

2

SEQV

Surface equivalent stress

2

2

LOCI:X, Y, Z

Integration point locations

-

Y

1. Nonlinear solution (output if the element has a nonlinear material)
2. Surface output (if KEYOPT(6) = 4 and a nonzero pressure face)
3. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.
4. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user
(MP,PRXY); for plastic and creep this value is set at 0.5.
Table 92.2: SOLID92 Miscellaneous Element Output
Description

Names of Items Output

O

R

Integration Point Stress Solution

TEMP, SINT, SEQV, EPEL, S, EPPL,
EPCR, EPSW, EPEQ, SRAT, SEPL,
HPRES

1

-

Nodal Stress Solution

LOCATION, TEMP, SINT, SEQV, S

2

-

1. Output at each integration point, if KEYOPT(5) = 1
2. Output at each vertex node, if KEYOPT(5) = 2
Table 92.3: SOLID92 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 214) lists output available through the ETABLE
command using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic
Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this manual for more information. The
following notation is used in Table 92.3: SOLID92 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 214):
Name
output quantity as defined in the Table 92.1: SOLID92 Element Output Definitions (p. 212)
Item
predetermined Item label for ETABLE command

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213

SOLID92
I,J,...,R
sequence number for data at nodes I,J,...,R
Table 92.3: SOLID92 Item and Sequence Numbers
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Item

I

J

K

L

M,...,R

P1

SMISC

2

1

3

-

-

P2

SMISC

4

5

-

6

-

P3

SMISC

-

7

8

9

-

P4

SMISC

11

-

10

12

-

S:1

NMISC

1

6

11

16

-

S:2

NMISC

2

7

12

17

-

S:3

NMISC

3

8

13

18

-

S:INT

NMISC

4

9

14

19

-

S:EQV

NMISC

5

10

15

20

-

See Surface Solution in this manual for the item and sequence numbers for surface output for the
ETABLE command.

SOLID92 Assumptions and Restrictions
• The element must not have a zero volume. Elements may be numbered either as shown in Figure 92.1: SOLID92 Geometry (p. 209) or may have node L below the I-J-K plane.
• An edge with a removed midside node implies that the displacement varies linearly, rather than parabolically, along that edge. See Quadratic Elements (Midside Nodes) in the Modeling and Meshing Guide for
information about the use of midside nodes.

SOLID92 Product Restrictions
When used in the product(s) listed below, the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element
in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.
ANSYS Professional
• Fluence body loads are not applicable.
• The only special feature allowed is stress stiffening.

214

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SOLID95
3-D 20-Node Structural Solid
MP ME ST PR PRN DS DSS <> <> <> <> PP EME MFS
Product Restrictions

SOLID95 Element Description
Although this legacy element is available for use in your analysis, ANSYS, Inc. recommends using a currenttechnology element such as SOLID186 (KEYOPT(2) = 1, or KEYOPT(2) = 0 for nonlinear analyses).
SOLID95 is a higher-order version of the 3-D 8-node solid element SOLID45. It can tolerate irregular
shapes without as much loss of accuracy. SOLID95 elements have compatible displacement shapes and
are well suited to model curved boundaries.
The element is defined by 20 nodes having three degrees of freedom per node: translations in the
nodal x, y, and z directions. The element may have any spatial orientation. SOLID95 has plasticity, creep,
stress stiffening, large deflection, and large strain capabilities. Various printout options are also available.
Figure 95.1: SOLID95 Geometry

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SOLID95 Input Data
The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 95.1: SOLID95 Geometry (p. 215). A prism-shaped element may be formed by defining the same node numbers
for nodes K, L, and S; nodes A and B; and nodes O, P, and W. A tetrahedral-shaped element and a pyrRelease 14.5 - © SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
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215

SOLID95
amid-shaped element may also be formed as shown in Figure 95.1: SOLID95 Geometry (p. 215). A similar,
but 10-node tetrahedron, element is SOLID187.
Besides the nodes, the element input data includes the orthotropic material properties. Orthotropic
material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. The element coordinate system
orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems.
Element loads are described in Nodal Loading. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element
faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 95.1: SOLID95 Geometry (p. 215). Positive pressures act
into the element. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. If all other temperatures are unspecified, they default to T(I). If all corner
node temperatures are specified, each midside node temperature defaults to the average temperature
of its adjacent corner nodes. For any other input temperature pattern, unspecified temperatures default
to TUNIF.
A lumped mass matrix formulation, which may be useful for certain analyses, may be obtained with
LUMPM. While the consistent matrix gives good results for most applications, the lumped matrix may
give better results with reduced analyses using Guyan reduction. The KEYOPT(5) and (6) parameters
provide various element printout options (see Element Solution).
You cannot set initial state conditions (INISTATE) using this element. You can set initial state conditions
using current-technology elements only (such as LINK180,SHELL181). To continue using initial state
conditions in future releases, consider using a current element technology. For more information, see
Legacy vs. Current Element Technologies in the Element Reference. For more information about setting
initial state values, see the INISTATE command documentation and Initial State Loading in the Basic
Analysis Guide.
You can include the effects of pressure load stiffness using SOLCONTROL,,,INCP. If an unsymmetric
matrix is needed for pressure load stiffness effects, use NROPT,UNSYM.
A summary of the element input is given in "SOLID95 Input Summary" (p. 216). A general description of
element input is given in Element Input.

SOLID95 Input Summary
Nodes
I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z, A, B
Degrees of Freedom
UX, UY, UZ
Real Constants
None
Material Properties
EX, EY, EZ, ALPX, ALPY, ALPZ (or CTEX, CTEY, CTEZ or THSX, THSY, THSZ), PRXY, PRYZ, PRXZ (or NUXY,
NUYZ, NUXZ), DENS, GXY, GYZ, GXZ, BETD, ALPD
Surface Loads
Pressures -face 1 (J-I-L-K), face 2 (I-J-N-M), face 3 (J-K-O-N),
face 4 (K-L-P-O), face 5 (L-I-M-P), face 6 (M-N-O-P)

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SOLID95
Body Loads
Temperatures -T(I), T(J), ..., T(Z), T(A), T(B)
Special Features
Plasticity (BISO, MISO, BKIN, MKIN, KINH, DP, ANISO)
Creep (CREEP, RATE)
Swelling (SWELL)
Elasticity (MELAS)
Other material (USER)
Stress stiffening
Large deflection
Large strain
Birth and death
Adaptive descent
Items in parentheses refer to data tables associated with the TB command.
KEYOPT(5)
Extra element output:
0 -Basic element printout
1 -Repeat basic solution for all integration points
2 -Nodal stress printout
KEYOPT(6)
Extra surface output:
0 -Basic element printout
1 -Surface printout for face I-J-N-M
2 -Surface printout for face I-J-N-M and face K-L-P-O (Surface printout valid for linear materials only)
3 -Nonlinear printout at each integration point
4 -Surface printout for faces with nonzero pressure
KEYOPT(11)
Integration rule:
0 -No reduced integration (default)
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SOLID95
1 -2 x 2 x 2 reduced integration option for brick shape
See Failure Criteria in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for an explanation of the three predefined
failure criteria. For a complete discussion of failure criteria, please refer to Failure Criteria.

SOLID95 Output Data
The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:
• Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution
• Additional element output as shown in Table 95.1: SOLID95 Element Output Definitions (p. 219)
Several items are illustrated in Figure 95.2: SOLID95 Stress Output (p. 218).
The element stress directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. The surface stress outputs
are in the surface coordinate systems and are available for any face (KEYOPT(6)). The coordinate systems
for faces I-J-N-M and K-L-P-O are shown in Figure 95.2: SOLID95 Stress Output (p. 218). The other surface
coordinate systems follow similar orientations as indicated by the pressure face node description. Surface
printout is valid only if the conditions described in Element Solution are met. The SXY component is
the in-plane shear stress on that face. A general description of solution output is given in Solution
Output. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.
Figure 95.2: SOLID95 Stress Output

€

✄  ✻



 





☎✁

① ❩


☎✂ ✸




❙✉r❢❛❝❡ ❈♦♦r❞✐♥❛t❡ ❙✆st❡♠

The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation:
A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name
method (ETABLE, ESOL). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT.
The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.

218

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SOLID95
In either the O or R columns, “Y” indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table
footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and “-” indicates that the item is not
available.
Table 95.1: SOLID95 Element Output Definitions
Name

Definition

O

R

EL

Element number and name

Y

Y

CORNER NODES

Nodes - I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P

Y

Y

MAT

Material number

Y

Y

VOLU:

Volume

Y

Y

XC, YC, ZC

Location where results are reported

Y

3

PRES

Pressures P1 at nodes J, I, L, K; P2 at I, J, N, M; P3
at J, K, O, N; P4 at K, L, P, O; P5 at L, I, M, P; P6 at
M, N, O, P

Y

Y

TEMP

Temperatures T(I), T(J), ..., T(Z), T(A), T(B)

Y

Y

S:X, Y, Z, XY, YZ, XZ

Stresses

Y

Y

S:1, 2, 3

Principal stresses

Y

Y

S:INT

Stress intensity

Y

Y

S:EQV

Equivalent stress

Y

Y

EPEL:X, Y, Z, XY, YZ,
XZ

Elastic strains

Y

Y

EPEL:1, 2, 3

Principal elastic strains

Y

-

EPEL:EQV

Equivalent elastic strain [4]

Y

Y

EPTH:X, Y, Z, XY, YZ,
XZ

Average thermal strains

1

1

EPTH:EQV

Equivalent thermal strain [4]

1

1

EPPL:X, Y, Z, XY, YZ,
XZ

Average plastic strains

1

1

EPPL:EQV

Equivalent plastic strain [4]

1

1

EPCR:X, Y, Z, XY, YZ,
XZ

Average creep strains

1

1

EPCR:EQV

Equivalent creep strain [4]

1

1

EPSW:

Swelling strain

1

1

NL:EPEQ

Average equivalent plastic strain

1

1

NL:SRAT

Ratio of trial stress to stress on yield surface

1

1

NL:SEPL

Average equivalent stress from stress-strain curve

1

1

NL:HPRES

Hydrostatic pressure

-

1

FACE

Face label

2

2

AREA

Face area

2

2

TEMP

Face average temperature

2

2

EPEL(X, Y, XY)

Surface elastic strains

2

2

PRES

Surface pressure

2

2

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219

SOLID95
Name

Definition

O

R

S(X, Y, XY)

Surface stresses (X-axis parallel to line defined by
first two nodes which define the face)

2

2

S(1, 2, 3)

Surface principal stresses

2

2

SINT

Surface stress intensity

2

2

SEQV

Surface equivalent stress

2

2

LOCI:X, Y, Z

Integration point locations

-

Y

1. Nonlinear solution (output only if the element has a nonlinear material)
2. Surface output (if KEYOPT(6) is 1, 2, or 4)
3. Available only at centroid as a *GET item
4. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user
(MP,PRXY); for plastic and creep this value is set at 0.5.
Table 95.2: SOLID95 Miscellaneous Element Output
Description

Names of Items Output

O

R

Nonlinear Integration Pt. Solution

EPPL, EPEQ, SRAT, SEPL, HPRES, EPCR

1

-

Integration Point Stress Solution

TEMP, S, SINT, SEQV, EPEL

2

-

Nodal Stress Solution

TEMP, S, SINT, SEQV, EPEL

3

-

1. Output at each integration point, if the element has a nonlinear material and KEYOPT(6) = 3
2. Output at each integration point, if KEYOPT(5) = 1
3. Output at each node, if KEYOPT(5) = 2
Table 95.3: SOLID95 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 220) lists output available through the ETABLE
command using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic
Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this manual for more information. The
following notation is used in Table 95.3: SOLID95 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 220):
Name
output quantity as defined in Table 95.1: SOLID95 Element Output Definitions (p. 219)
Item
predetermined Item label for ETABLE command
I,J,...,P
sequence number for data at nodes I,J,...,P
Table 95.3: SOLID95 Item and Sequence Numbers
Output
Quantity
Name

Item

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

P1

SMISC

2

1

4

3

-

-

-

-

220

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input

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SOLID95
Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Item

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

P2

SMISC

5

6

-

-

8

7

-

-

P3

SMISC

-

9

10

-

-

12

11

-

P4

SMISC

-

-

13

14

-

-

16

15

P5

SMISC

18

-

-

17

19

-

-

20

P6

SMISC

-

-

-

-

21

22

23

24

S:1

NMISC

1

6

11

16

21

26

31

36

S:2

NMISC

2

7

12

17

22

27

32

37

S:3

NMISC

3

8

13

18

23

28

33

38

S:INT

NMISC

4

9

14

19

24

29

34

39

S:EQV

NMISC

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Note
N refers to the failure criterion number: N = 1 for the first failure criterion, N = 2 for the
second failure criterion, and so on.
See Surface Solution in this manual for the item and sequence numbers for surface output for the
ETABLE command.

SOLID95 Assumptions and Restrictions
• The element must not have a zero volume.
• The element may not be twisted such that the element has two separate volumes. This occurs most frequently when the element is not numbered properly.
• Elements may be numbered either as shown in Figure 95.1: SOLID95 Geometry (p. 215) or may have the
planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged.
• An edge with a removed midside node implies that the displacement varies linearly, rather than parabolically, along that edge. See Quadratic Elements (Midside Nodes) in the Modeling and Meshing Guide for
more information on the use of midside nodes.
• Degeneration to the form of pyramid should be used with caution. The element sizes, when degenerated,
should be small in order to minimize the stress gradients. Pyramid elements are best used as filler elements
or in meshing transition zones.

SOLID95 Product Restrictions
When used in the product(s) listed below, the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element
in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.
ANSYS Professional
• The only special feature allowed is stress stiffening.
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221

SOLID95
• KEYOPT(6) = 3 is not applicable.

222

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Part V: Legacy Theory
Following is archived theory information for legacy capabilities.

Chapter 1: Archived Theory Element Library
Following is archived theory information for legacy elements.

1.1. BEAM4 - 3-D Elastic Beam
x, u

θx

J

y, v
Y
z, w

X
I

Z

Matrix or Vector

Shape Functions

Integration Points

Stiffness and Mass Matrices

Equation 12.15, Equation 12.16, Equation 12.17, and Equation 12.18

None

Stress Stiffness and Damping Matrices

Equation 12.7 and Equation 12.8

None

Pressure Load Vector and
Temperatures

Equation 12.15, Equation 12.16, and Equation 12.17

None

Load Type

Distribution

Element Temperature

Bilinear across cross-section, linear along length

Nodal Temperature

Constant across cross-section, linear along length

Pressure

Linear along length

1.1.1. Stiffness and Mass Matrices
The order of degrees of freedom (DOFs) is shown in Figure 1.1: Order of Degrees of Freedom (p. 226).

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225

Archived Theory Element Library
Figure 1.1: Order of Degrees of Freedom

8

9

11

12
J

7

10

2

3

5

6
1 4

I

The stiffness matrix in element coordinates is (Przemieniecki):










=

−










❙ ♠♠❡tr✐❝

− ②

− ③

− ③
− ②


− ②

− ③



















③ 

where:
A = cross-section area (input as AREA on R command)
E = Young's modulus (input as EX on MP command)
L = element length
G = shear modulus (input as GXY on MP command)
 ✄❢ = 
= ✁♦✂s✄♦♥❛❧ ☎♦☎✆♥✁ ♦❢ ✄♥✆✂✁✄❛ =  ① ①

 ① ✄❢ ① ≠ 
Ix = input torsional moment of inertia (input as IXX on RMORE command)
Jx = polar moment of inertia = Iy + Iz
az = a(Iz,φy)
ay = a(Iy,φz)
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BEAM4 - 3-D Elastic Beam
bz = b(Iz,φy)

fz = f(Iz,φy)
fy = f(Iy,φz)
φ =
φ =

φ =


φ =

−φ

φ② =


s  

φ✁ =


✄ ☎

Ii = moment of inertia about direction i (input as Iii on R command)

✐ = ✝❤❡❛r ❛r❡❛ ♥♦r♠❛❧ t♦ ❞✞r❡❝t✞♦♥ ✞ =



✟ = ✡☛☞✌✍ ✎✏☞❢❢✑✎✑☞✒✓ ✭✑✒♣✉✓ ✌✡ ❙❍❊❆❘✑ ✏✒ ✖▼❖✖✗ ✎✏✔✔✌✒✕✮

The consistent mass matrix (LUMPM,OFF) in element coordinates LUMPM,OFF is (Yokoyama):

=










✘











✛✜✢✢✣✤✥✦✧

− ✚

− ✚


− ✙



− ✙



















✙ 

(1.2)

where:
Mt = (ρA+m)L(1-εin)
ρ = density (input as DENS on MP command)
m = added mass per unit length (input as ADDMAS on RMORE command)

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227

Archived Theory Element Library
εin = prestrain (input as ISTRN on RMORE command)
Az = A(rz,φy)
Ay = A(ry,φz)
Bz = B(rz,φy)

Fz = F(rz,φy)
Fy = F(ry,φz)
+
φ =

 

+φ  



φ =

+



φ =

+



φ =

+



φ =

+

③=

φ  −

φ+

φ =

②②

+φ ✷
+

② =

φ✷ +

φ+

φ+


φ✁ + 


φ

✁


+φ ✁
φ+


φ✂ − 


φ

+φ ✂
φ+


φ✄ + 

+

✂


φ+


φ✄ 

✄ ✄

φ−


φ☎ 

☎ ☎

+φ ✄
φ+


φ☎ + 

+

+φ ☎



= r❛❞✐✉s ♦❢ ❣✆r❛t✐♦♥

③③ = ✝✞✟✠✡☛ ☞✌ ✍✎✝✞✏✠☞✑

The mass matrix (LUMPM,ON) in element coordinates is:

228

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BEAM4 - 3-D Elastic Beam

=

t







































❙②♠♠❡ r✐❝

(1.3)

1.1.2. Gyroscopic Damping Matrix
The element gyroscopic damping matrix is the same as for PIPE16.

1.1.3. Pressure and Temperature Load Vector
The pressure and temperature load vector are computed in a manner similar to that of BEAM3.

1.1.4. Local to Global Conversion
The element coordinates are related to the global coordinates by:
ℓ = ❘

(1.4)

where:

= ✈✁✂✄♦☎ ♦❢ ❞✆s♣❧❛✂✁✝✁♥✄s ✆♥ ✁❧✁✝✁♥✄ ❈❛☎✄✁s✆❛♥ ✂♦♦☎❞✆♥❛✄✄✁s

{u} = vector of displacements in global Cartesian coordinates



=











[T] is defined by:

=  −
 −



✸ −



+
✸ −




✷

✷

(1.5)

where:

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229

Archived Theory Element Library
 ✷− ✶

①②
✶=
0.0

✐❢ ①② >
✐❢ ①② <

 − ✁

 =

S3 = sin (θ)
 ✆− ☎
✝✞ ✂✄ >

✂✄
☎=

✝✞ ✂✄ <

✟✠

✡=

C3 = cos (θ)
X1, etc. = x coordinate of node 1, etc.
Lxy = projection of length onto X-Y plane
d = .0001 L
θ = user-selected adjustment angle (input as THETA on R command)
If a third node is given, θ is not used. Rather C3 and S3 are defined using:
{V1} = vector from origin to node 1
{V2} = vector from origin to node 2
{V3} = vector from origin to node 3
{V4} = unit vector parallel to global Z axis, unless element is almost parallel to Z axis, in which
case it is parallel to the X axis.
Then,
✺ =

✸ −

☛ = ✈❡❝t♦r ❜❡t✇❡❡♥ ♥♦❞❡s ■ ❛♥❞ ❑

(1.6)

✻ =

☞ −

✌ = ✍✎✏✑✒✓ ✔❧✒✕❣ ✎❧✎♠✎✕✑ ❳ ✔✖✗✘

(1.7)

✼ =

✙ ×

(1.8)

✽ =

✚ ×

(1.9)

and
✜=
✤=

✢ ⋅

✥ ⋅

✾ ×

(1.10)
(1.11)

The x and • refer to vector cross and dot products, respectively. Thus, the element stiffness matrix in
global coordinates becomes:

230

✧ =

★ =


(1.12)

(1.13)

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BEAM4 - 3-D Elastic Beam

(

❡ =

  =


(1.14)

(1.15)

is defined in Large Strain).

1.1.5. Stress Calculations
The centroidal stress at end i is:
σ✐❞✐r = ①✱✐

(1.16)

where:
σ✄☎✄✆ = ❝✝♥t✞♦✟✠❛❧ st✞✝ss ✭♦✉t♣✉t ❛s ❙❉■✡✮
Fx,i = axial force (output as FX)
The bending stresses are
σ❜☞✌
③✍☛ =

②✍☛ ③

σ✑✒✓
✎✕✏ =

✔✕✏ ✎

(1.17)

(1.18)

where:
✜✢✣✤✥✣❣ ✦✧★✢✦✦ ✥✣ ✢✩✢♠✢✣✧ ✪ ✤✥★✢✫✧✥✬✣ ✬✣ ✧❤✢ ✢✩✢♠✢✣
✣✧
σ✘✙✚
✖✛✗ = ✰ ✯ ✦✥✤✢ ✬❢ ✧❤✢ ✜✢✲♠ ✲✧ ✢✣✤ ✥ ✳✬✴✧✵✴✧ ✲✦ ✶❇❩✷
✾✿❀❁❂❀❃ ❄❅✿❄❄ ❆❀ ❅❈✿ ✿❊✿❋✿❀❅ ❂❀ ✿❊✿❋✿❀❅ ● ❁❂❍✿❏❅❂❆❀

σ✺✻✼
✸✽✹ =
❑ ▲ ❄❂❁✿ ❆▼ ❅❈✿ ✾✿◆❋ ◆❅ ✿❀❁ ❂ ❖❆€❅◗€❅ ◆❄ ❯❱❨❲

My,i = moment about the element y axis at end i
Mz,i = moment about the element z axis at end i
tz = thickness of beam in element z direction (input as TKZ on R command)
ty = thickness of beam in element y direction (input as TKY on R command)
The maximum and minimum stresses are:
❫❴❬
σ❥❦q
= σ❳❬❳❭ + σ❫❴❬

❪✈❳ + σ ❵✈❳

(1.19)

⑦⑧④
σ⑩✇⑧
= σ✇④✇⑤ − σ⑦⑧④

⑥❶✇ − σ ⑨❶✇

(1.20)

The presumption has been made that the cross-section is a rectangle, so that the maximum and minimum stresses of the cross-section occur at the corners. If the cross-section is of some other form, such
as an ellipse, the user must replace Equation 1.19 (p. 231) and Equation 1.20 (p. 231) with other more
appropriate expressions.

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Archived Theory Element Library
For long members, subjected to distributed loading (such as acceleration or pressure), it is possible that
the peak stresses occur not at one end or the other, but somewhere in between. If this is of concern,
the user should either use more elements or compute the interior stresses outside of the program.

1.2. CONTAC12 - 2-D Point-to-Point Contact

J
n
s
θ

Y or axial

Nodes may be coincident

X or radial

I

Matrix or Vector
Stiffness Matrix

Shape Functions
None (nodes may be coincident)

Load Type

Integration Points
None

Distribution

Element Temperature

None - average used for material property evaluation

Nodal Temperature

None - average used for material property evaluation

1.2.1. Element Matrices
CONTAC12 may have one of three conditions if the elastic Coulomb friction option (KEYOPT(1) = 0) is
used: closed and stuck, closed and sliding, or open. The following matrices are derived assuming that
θ is input as 0.0.
1. Closed and stuck. This occurs if:
µ ♥ >

(1.21)

s

where:
µ = coefficient of friction (input as MU on TB command with Lab = FRIC or MP command)
Fn = normal force across gap
Fs = sliding force parallel to gap
The normal force is:
  =    ✱❏ −  ✱■ − ∆
where:
kn = normal stiffness (input as KN on R command

232

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(1.22)

CONTAC12 - 2-D Point-to-Point Contact
un,I = displacement of node I in normal direction
un,J = displacement of node J in normal direction
✐♥♣✉t ❛s ■◆❚❋ ♦♥ ❘ ❝♦♠♠❛♥❞
∆ = ✐♥t❡r❢❡r❡♥❝❡ 
❂ ✲ ❞
d = distance between nodes

✐❢ ❑❊❨❖€❚✭✹✮ ❂ ✵
✐❢ ❑❊❨❖€❚✭✹✮ ❂ ✶

The sliding force is:
  =    ✱❏ −  ✱✁ − ✂

(1.23)

where:
ks = sticking stiffness (input as KS on R command)
us,I = displacement of node I in sliding direction
us,J = displacement of node J in sliding direction
uo = distance that nodes I and J have slid with respect to each other
The resulting element stiffness matrix (in element coordinates) is:
 ✄


=

− ✄



− ✄

− ☎


− ☎ 


☎ 

(1.24)

and the Newton-Raphson load vector (in element coordinates) is:



✆✝
=

−
 −

✞



✞

✆
✆

(1.25)

2. Closed and sliding. This occurs if:
µ ✟ =

(1.26)

In this case, the element stiffness matrix (in element coordinates) is:



=






− ✡ 


✡ 

− ✡

(1.27)

and the Newton-Raphson load vector is the same as in Equation 1.25 (p. 233). If the unsymmetric
option is chosen (NROPT,UNSYM), then the stiffness matrix includes the coupling between the
normal and sliding directions; which for STAT = 2 is:



=





−µ ☛

µ ☛
− ☛

µ ☛ 
− ☛ 
−µ ☛ 

☛ 

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233

Archived Theory Element Library
3. Open - When there is no contact between nodes I and J. There is no stiffness matrix or load vector.
Figure 1.2: Force-Deflection Relations for Standard Case (p. 234) shows the force-deflection relationships
for this element. It may be seen in these figures that the element is nonlinear and therefore needs to
be solved iteratively. Further, since energy lost in the slider cannot be recovered, the load needs to be
applied gradually.
Figure 1.2: Force-Deflection Relations for Standard Case

Fn

Fs
m | Fn |
1

1

n)J − (µ n) I − δ

kn

ks

s)J − (µ s) I

- m | Fn |
For Fn <0, and no
reversed loading

1.2.2. Orientation of the Element
The element is normally oriented based on θ (input as THETA on R command). If KEYOPT(2) = 1, however,
θ is not used. Rather, the first iteration has θ equal to zero, and all subsequent iterations have the orientation of the element based on the displacements of the previous iteration. In no case does the element
use its nodal coordinates.

1.2.3. Rigid Coulomb Friction
If the user knows that a gap element will be in sliding status for the life of the problem, and that the
relative displacement of the two nodes will be monotonically increasing, the rigid Coulomb friction
option (KEYOPT(1) = 1) can be used to avoid convergence problems. This option removes the stiffness
in the sliding direction, as shown in Figure 1.3: Force-Deflection Relations for Rigid Coulomb Option (p. 235). It should be noted that if the relative displacement does not increase monotonically, the
convergence characteristics of KEYOPT(1) = 1 will be worse than for KEYOPT(1) = 0.

234

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PIPE16 - Elastic Straight Pipe
Figure 1.3: Force-Deflection Relations for Rigid Coulomb Option

Fn

m | Fn |

1

Fs

n)J − (µ n) I − δ

kn

s)J − (µ s) I

- m | Fn |
For Fn <0, and no
reversed loading

1.3. PIPE16 - Elastic Straight Pipe
θx
x,u

y,v
J

Y

z,w

X
Z

I

Matrix or Vector

Shape Functions

Integration Points

Stiffness and Mass
Matrices

Equation 12.15, Equation 12.16, Equation 12.17,
and Equation 12.18

None

Stress Stiffness and
Damping Matrices

Equation 12.16 and Equation 12.17

None

Pressure and Thermal
Load Vectors

Equation 12.15, Equation 12.16, and Equation 12.17

None

Load Type

Distribution

Element Temperature

Linear thru thickness or across diameter, and along length

Nodal Temperature

Constant across cross-section, linear along length

Pressure

Internal and External: constant along length and around circumference. Lateral: constant along length

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235

Archived Theory Element Library

1.3.1. Assumptions and Restrictions
The element is assumed to be a thin-walled pipe except as noted. The corrosion allowance is used only
in the stress evaluation, not in the matrix formulation.

1.3.2. Stiffness Matrix
The element stiffness matrix of PIPE16 is similar to that of a 3-D elastic beam, except that
π ✷
= ✇ =
− ✐✷ = ♣ ♣❡ ✁❛❧❧ ❝r✂ss✲s❡❝t ✂♥❛❧ ❛r❡❛

=

= =

π


= ❜☎✆❞✝✆❣ ♠✞♠☎✆✟ ✞✠ ✝✆☎✡✟✝☛


(1.29)
(1.30)

π

=



= ✎✏✑✒✓✏✔✕✖ ✗✏✗✘✔✎ ✏✙ ✓✔✘✑✎✓✕

(1.31)

and,
✚✛

=

= ✜❤✢✣✤ ✣✤✢✣

(1.32)

where:
π = 3.141592653
Do = outside diameter (input as OD on R command)
Di = inside diameter = Do - 2tw
tw = wall thickness (input as TKWALL on R command)
✦✧ ✧ ❂ ✵✳✵

=
✦✧ ✧ ❃ ✵✳✵

f = flexibility factor (input as FLEX on R command)

Further, the axial stiffness of the element is defined as


=


✩✪ ❦ ✫ ✬✭✬

(1.33)

✩✪ ❦ ✮ ✬✭✬

where:
= ✯①✰✯✱ ✴✶✰✸✸✺✻✴✴ ✼✸ ✻✱✻✽✻✺✶

E = Young's modulus (input as EX on MP command)
L = element length
k = alternate axial pipe stiffness (input as STIFF on RMORE command)

1.3.3. Mass Matrix
The element mass matrix of PIPE16 is the same as for a 3-D elastic beam, except total mass of the element
is assumed to be:

236

=


+ ρ❀❁

❀❁

+ ρ❄❅

❄❅

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(1.34)

PIPE16 - Elastic Straight Pipe
where:
me = total mass of element


✇ = ρ
✇ =
= ♣✐♣  ✁❛❧❧ ♠❛ss


✇>
 ✇
mw = alternate pipe wall mass (input as MWALL on RMORE command)
ρ = pipe wall density (input as DENS on MP command)
ρfl = internal fluid density (input as DENSFL on R command)
❢✂ = π ✷

ρin = insulation density (input as DENSIN on RMORE command)
π ✝

♦+ − ♦

☎♥ =
 ☎♥ ☎♥



☎♥ =

☎♥ >

= ✞✟✠✉
✉✡☛t✞☞✟ ❝r☞✠✠✲✠✌❝t✞☞✟☛✡ ☛r✌☛

Do+ = Do + 2tin
tin = insulation thickness (input as TKIN on RMORE command)
✎✏
✍ = alternate representation of the surface area of the outside of the pipe element (input
as AREAIN on RMORE command)
Also, the bending moments of inertia (Equation 1.30 (p. 236)) are used without the Cf term.

1.3.4. Gyroscopic Damping Matrix
The element gyroscopic damping matrix is:

✑ = Ωρ




















❆✒✓✔✕②✖✖✗✓✘✔✙























(1.35)

where:
Ω = rotation frequency about the positive x axis (input as SPIN on RMORE command)

=
✚ +φ ✚
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237

Archived Theory Element Library

=

+φ ✷
+

=

=

φ ✷

φ   

φ+
+φ  

+

φ−

φ✁ ✁

+φ ✁

=
φ=

s ✂

G = shear modulus (input as GXY on MP command)
As = shear area ( = Aw/2.0)

1.3.5. Load Vector
The element pressure load vector is



ℓ =



✶



⋮ 
✶✄ 

✄

(1.36)

where:
F1 = FA + FP
F7 = -FA + FP
❆ =

✇ ε♣r

ε✆✝
☎ = ❛✞✐❛❧ ✟t✠❛✐♥ ❞✉❡ t♦ ✡✠❡✟✟✉✠❡ ❧♦❛❞✱ ❞❡❢✐♥❡❞ ❜❡❧♦☛


☞ = ✍

✎✏ ❑❊❨❖€❚✭✺✮ ❂ ✵


✓= ✽=

✸= ✾=

✎✏ ❑❊❨❖€❚✭✺✮ ❂ ✑

F4 = F10 = 0.0

✖ = − ✗✗ =

✻ = − ✛✜ =

✙ ✕
✜ ✚

P1 = parallel pressure component in element coordinate system (force/unit length)
238

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PIPE16 - Elastic Straight Pipe
P2, P3 = transverse pressure components in element coordinate system (force/unit length)

✶✳✵




❆ =

♣♦s✐t✐✈❡ s✐♥❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❛♥❣❧❡ ❜❡t✇❡❡♥
 t❤❡ ❛①✐s ♦❢ t❤❡ ❡❧❡
❡♠❡♥t ❛♥❞ t❤❡

❞✐r❡❝t✐♦♥ ♦❢ t❤❡ ♣r❡ss✉r❡s✱ ❛s
❞❡❢✐♥❡❞ ❜② € ✱ € ❛♥❞ €
  ✷



✐❢ ❑❊❨❖€❚✭✺✮ ❂ ✵

✐❢ ❑❊❨❖€❚✭✺✮ ❂ ✶

The transverse pressures are assumed to act on the centerline, and not on the inner or outer surfaces.
The transverse pressures in the element coordinate system are computed by
 ✂
 
 ✄ =
 
 ☎

 ❳
 
 ✁
 
 ❩

(1.37)

where:
[T] = conversion matrix
PX = transverse pressure acting in global Cartesian X direction) (input using face 2 on SFE
command)
PY = transverse pressure acting in global Cartesian Y direction) (input using face 3 on SFE
command)
PZ = transverse pressure acting in global Cartesian Z direction) (input using face 4 on SFE
command)
ε✝✞
✆ , the unrestrained axial strain caused by internal and external pressure effects, is needed to compute
the pressure part of the element load vector (see Figure 1.4: Thermal and Pressure Effects (p. 240)).

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239

Archived Theory Element Library
Figure 1.4: Thermal and Pressure Effects

z

T90

Tout

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T180

T

T
I

y

P

P

out

ε♣r
① is computed using thick wall (Lame') effects:
ε✁✂
  =


✷

✐ ✐ − ♦ ♦

ν



✷ 

♦− ✐

(1.38)

where:
☎❢ ❑✆❨❖€❚✭✽✮ ❂ ✵

=
☎❢ ❑✆❨❖€❚✭✽✮ ❂ ✶

ν = Poisson's ratio (input as PRXY or NUXY on MP command)
Pi = internal pressure (input using face 1 on SFE command)
Po = external pressure (input using face 5 on SFE command)

An element thermal load vector is computed also, based on thick wall effects.

1.3.6. Stress Calculation
The output stresses, computed at the outside surface and illustrated in Figure 1.5: Elastic Pipe Direct
Stress Output (p. 242) and Figure 1.6: Elastic Pipe Shear Stress Output (p. 242), are calculated from the
following definitions:
+ ✠
σ❞✝✞ = ✟
(1.39)

σ❜❡♥✡ = σ
σt✌✍ =

240

❜☛

(1.40)

✎✌

(1.41)

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PIPE16 - Elastic Straight Pipe

σ =



σℓ =

+


(1.42)

s

(1.43)

where:
σdir = direct stress (output as SDIR)
Fx = axial force
π

=


=


 

 


✄☎ ❑✆❨❖€❚✭✽✮ ❂ ✵

✄☎ ❑✆❨❖€❚✭✽✮ ❂ ✶

π



do = 2 ro
=

tc = corrosion allowance (input as TKCORR on RMORE command)
σbend = bending stress (output as SBEND)
Cσ = stress intensification factor, defined in Table 1.1: Stress Intensification Factors (p. 242)
=

r

=

☛❡♥❞☞♥❣ ♠✌♠❡♥t

π


=


+



σtor = torsional shear stress (output as ST)
Mx = torsional moment
J = 2Ir
σh = hoop pressure stress at the outside surface of the pipe (output as SH)
=

te = tw - tc
σℓ = lateral force shear stress (output as SSF)

=

✗✘✙❛✚ ✛✜✚✢✙

=


+


Average values of Pi and Po are reported as first and fifth items of the output quantities ELEMENT
PRESSURES. The outside surface is chosen as the bending stresses usually dominate over pressure induced
stresses.

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241

Archived Theory Element Library
Figure 1.5: Elastic Pipe Direct Stress Output

σbend
J

σdir
Figure 1.6: Elastic Pipe Shear Stress Output

Mx
dir , σbend

σ
σ

tor

J

σ

h

Fs
Stress intensification factors are given in Table 1.1: Stress Intensification Factors (p. 242).
Table 1.1: Stress Intensification Factors
KEYOPT(2)
0
1
2
3


at node I
σ ■
σ✁❚

1.0
σ✞✝

at node J
σ✱❏

1.0
σ✄✂
σ✆☎

Any entry in Table 1.1: Stress Intensification Factors (p. 242) either input as or computed to be less than
1.0 is set to 1.0. The entries are:

242

σ✠✟

= stress intensification factor of end I of straight pipe (input as SIFI on R command)

σ☛✡

= stress intensification factor of end J of straight pipe (input as SIFJ on R command)

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PIPE16 - Elastic Straight Pipe
σ❚

=


✇ 

✐+ ♦ 

✷ ✸ = ✧ ✧ st❡ss ✁♥t❡♥s✁❢✁❝❛t✁✂♥ ❢❛❝t✂r ✭❆❙▼❊✭✹✵✮✮

σth (output as STH), which is in the postprocessing file, represents the stress due to the thermal gradient
thru the thickness. If the temperatures are given as nodal temperatures, σth = 0.0. But, if the temperatures
are input as element temperatures,
α ☎− ✆
σ✄❤ = −
(1.44)
−υ
where:
To = temperature at outside surface
Ta = temperature midway thru wall
Equation 1.44 (p. 243) is derived as a special case of Equation 2.8, Equation 2.9 and Equation 2.11 with
y as the hoop coordinate (h) and z as the radial coordinate (r). Specifically, these equations
1. are specialized to an isotropic material
2. are premultiplied by [D] and -1
3. have all motions set to zero, hence εx = εh = εr = γxh = γhr = γxr = 0.0
4. have σr = τhr = τxr = 0.0 since r = Ro is a free surface.
This results in:


 σ✝   − ν ✟
 ①  ν
 ✝ 
 σ✞  =  −

 ✝   −ν
σ ①✞  


υ

− ν✟
− ν✟




 α∆

 α∆

− 





(1.45)

or
σ✡✠ = σ☛✡ = −

α∆
= σ✡☛
−ν

(1.46)

and
σ✍☞✌ =

(1.47)

Finally, the axial and shear stresses are combined with:
σ ✎ = σ❞✏✑ + σ❜✒✓❞ + σ✔✕

(1.48)

σ ✖✗ = σ✘✙✚ + σℓ✛

(1.49)

where:

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243

Archived Theory Element Library
A, B = sine and cosine functions at the appropriate angle
σx = axial stress on outside surface (output as SAXL)
σxh = hoop stress on outside surface (output as SXH)
The maximum and minimum principal stresses, as well as the stress intensity and the equivalent stress,
are based on the stresses at two extreme points on opposite sides of the bending axis, as shown in
Figure 1.7: Stress Point Locations (p. 244). If shear stresses due to lateral forces σℓ❢ are greater than the
bending stresses, the two points of maximum shearing stresses due to those forces are reported instead.
The stresses are calculated from the typical Mohr's circle approach in Figure 1.8: Mohr Circles (p. 245).
The equivalent stress for Point 1 is based on the three principal stresses which are designated by small
circles in Figure 1.8: Mohr Circles (p. 245). Note that one of the small circles is at the origin. This represents
the radial stress on the outside of the pipe, which is equal to zero (unless Po ≠ 0.0). Similarly, the points
marked with an X represent the principal stresses associated with Point 2, and a second equivalent
stress is derived from them.
Next, the program selects the largest of the four maximum principal stresses (σ1, output as S1MX), the
smallest of the four minimum principal stresses (σ3, output as S3MN), the largest of the four stress intensities (σI, output as SINTMX), and the largest of the four equivalent stresses (σe, output as SEQVMX).
Finally, these are also compared (and replaced as necessary) to the values at the right positions around
the circumference at each end. These four values are then printed out and put on the postprocessing
file.
Figure 1.7: Stress Point Locations

α

z

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244

y

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PIPE16 - Elastic Straight Pipe
Figure 1.8: Mohr Circles

τ
σ

x

σ

For point 2

x

For point 1

σ

xh

σ

σ

xh

σ

h

σ

σ

3

1

Three additional items are put on the postdata file for use with certain code checking. These are:

σ♣r
=

✐ ♦

(1.50)

 
σ▼■
=


❳■

+ ✷❨■ + ✷❩■


σ✂❏
=


☎❏

+ ✟✆❏ + ✟✝❏

(1.51)

(1.52)

where:

σ✠✡
= s☞❡✌✍❛❧ ❤✎✎☞ st✏❡ss ✭✎✉t☞✉t ❛s ❙€❘✑✮

σ✒✓
= ✕✖✗✘✙✚✛ ❜✗♥❞✙♥❣ ✕✜✢✗✕✕ ✚✜ ✗♥❞ ✣ ✤✥✦✜✖✦✜ ✚✕ ✧★✣✩

σ✪✫
= ✯✰✱✲✳✴✵ ✶✱✸✹✳✸✺ ✯✻✼✱✯✯ ✴✻ ✱✸✹ ✽ ✾✿❀✻✰❀✻ ✴✯ ❁❂✽❃

MXI = moment about the x axis at node I, etc.

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1.4. PIPE18 - Elastic Curved Pipe
J

Y

X

I

x

Z

Matrix or Vector

Shape Functions

Integration Points

Stiffness Matrix

No shape functions are explicitly used. Rather
a flexibility matrix similar to that developed by
Chen is inverted and used.

None

Mass Matrix

No shape functions are used. Rather a lumped
mass matrix using only translational degrees of
freedom is used.

None

Thermal and Pressure
Load Vector

Equation 12.15, Equation 12.16, and Equation 12.17

None

Load Type

Distribution

Element Temperature

Linear thru thickness or across diameter, and along length

Nodal Temperature

Constant across cross-section, linear along length

Pressure

Internal and External: constant along length and around the circumference Lateral: varies trigonometrically along length (see below)

1.4.1. Other Applicable Sections
PIPE16 - Elastic Straight Pipe (p. 235) covers some of the applicable stress calculations.

1.4.2. Stiffness Matrix
The geometry in the plane of the element is given in Figure 1.9: Plane Element (p. 247).

246

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PIPE18 - Elastic Curved Pipe
Figure 1.9: Plane Element

θ

R

The stiffness matrix is developed based on an approach similar to that of Chen. The flexibility of one
end with respect to the other is:
 ✶✶



=  ✸✶

 ✺✶



✶✸

✶✺

✷✷

✷✹
✸✸

✸✺

✹✷

✹✹
✺✸✸

✺✺

✻✷

✻✹



✷✻ 


✹✻ 


✻✻ 

(1.53)

where:
   =

❢✐  θ



+

✆✝ = − ✝✆ =
✠✡ = ✡✠ =
✌✌ =

+
+

θ


θ

✒✓ = ✓✒ =

θ−

✂✄ 



θ + θ +

θ−

✞✟

θ

θ+

θ

θ

θ− +

θ

θ
θ

θ +




+ ν

θ−θ

θ−

θ

+ ν + ☞♦ θ

θ−

θ



+ ν + ✏✑ θ

θ−

θ

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Archived Theory Element Library

✷✻

✸✸

= − ✻✷ =



θ−

θ
=

θ−


θ 
 

θ
+

θ+


θ 


+

θ

θ +ν+


 ✐

+

❢♦






+ν 



✄✺

= − ✺✄ =

✹✹

=

✠✡

= − ✡✠ =

✌✌

=

✏✏

=

+ν+

☛☞

θ−

✁✂

✆✝

θ

+ν+

θ+

+ν−

θ

θ

θ−

+ν−

✞✟

θ

✆✝

θ
+ν+

✍✎

θ

✍✎

θ

and where:
R = radius of curvature (input as RADCUR on R command) (see Figure 1.9: Plane Element (p. 247))
θ = included angle of element (see Figure 1.9: Plane Element (p. 247))
E = Young's modulus (input as EX on MP command)
ν = Poisson's ratio (input as PRXY or NUXY on MP command)
π

= ♠✓♠❡♥t ✓✔ ✕♥❡rt✕❛ ✓✔❝r✓ss✲s❡❝t✕✓♥ =
− ✒✖

= ✚✛✜✚ ✢✣ ✤✛✢✥✥✦✥✜✤✧★✢✩ =

π



Do = outside diameter (input as OD on R command)
Di = Do - 2t = inside diameter
t = wall thickness (input as TKWALL on R command)

✫✬

248









=









′✫✬

′✫✬ > ✵✳✵

✭✮

✯❤✭✰❤✱✈✱✴ ✭✶ ❣✴✱✼✽✱✴ ✭✮

′✫✬

❂ ✵✳✵ ✼✾❞ ❑❊❨❖€❚✿❀❁ ❂ ✵

✿❆❙▼❊ ✮❧✱①✭❜✭❧✭✽② ✮✼✰✽❃✴❄ ❆❙▼❊ ❈❃
❃❞✱✿❅✵❁❁


 +

+
+




✯❤✭✰❤✱✈✱✴ ✭✶ ❣✴✱✼✽✱✴ ✭✮

′✫✬

❂ ✵✳✵ ✼✾❞ ❑❊❨❖€❚✿❀❁ ❂ ❉

✿❆❙▼❊ ✮❧✱①✭❜✭❧✭✽② ✮✼✰✽❃✴❄ ❆❙▼❊ ❈❃❞✱✿❅✵❁❁

✭✮

′✫✬

❂ ✵✳✵ ✼✾❞ ❑❊❨❖€❚✿❀❁ ❂ ❋

✿❑✼✴❍✼✾ ✮❧✱①✭❜✭❧✭✽② ✮✼✰✽❃✴❁

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PIPE18 - Elastic Curved Pipe

❢✐

=  ♥✲♣❧❛♥❡ ✁❧❡① ❜ ❧ t② ✭ ♥♣✉t ❛s ❋▲❳■ ♦♥ ❘

=

❝♦♠♠❛♥❞✮

= ✄✈☎r✄❣☎ r✄✆✝✞✟

=

☛☞
☛☞





>

Pi = internal pressure (input on SFE command)
Po = external pressure (input on SFE command)



  ✸ 
   
=   


 ′
′✍✎ =  ✍✎
 ✍✏

✸


<

′✍✎ >
′✍✎ =

′✑✒ = ✓✔✕✖✓✗✖✘✙✚✛✜ ✗✙✜✢✣✤✣✙✣✕✥ ✦✓✔✕✘✔✕ ✚✧ ★✩✪❖ ✓✛ ✯▼✰✯❊

✫✓✬ ✬ ✚✛✱✳

The user should not use the KEYOPT(3) = 1 option if:
θ✴ <

(1.54)

where:
θc = included angle of the complete elbow, not just the included angle for this element (θ)
Next, the 6 x 6 stiffness matrix is derived from the flexibility matrix by inversion:
−✺

=

(1.55)

The full 12 x 12 stiffness matrix (in element coordinates) is derived by expanding the 6 x 6 matrix derived
above and transforming to the global coordinate system.

1.4.3. Mass Matrix
The element mass matrix is a diagonal (lumped) matrix with each translation term being defined as:

=

(1.56)

where:
mt = mass at each node in each translation direction
me= (ρAw + ρflAfl + ρinAin)Rθ = total mass of element
ρ = pipe wall density (input as DENS on MP command)
ρfl = internal fluid density (input as DENSFL on RMORE command)

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❢❧

π

=


ρin = insulation density (input as DENSIN on RMORE command)
π

=

 ♥


+

=


✂✄s✉☎❛t✂✆✄ ❝r✆ss✲s❡❝t✂✆✄ ❛r❡❛

Do+ = Do + 2 tin
tin = insulation thickness (input as TKIN on RMORE command)

1.4.4. Load Vector
The load vector in element coordinates due to thermal and pressure effects is:
✝❤

+

♣✞✱✟

= ε

+

♣✞✱ ✝

(1.57)

where:
εx = strain caused by thermal as well as internal and external pressure effects (see Equation 1.38 (p. 240) )
[Ke] = element stiffness matrix in global coordinates
= 
☛☞✡ ✌

=



✍✎✍♠✍✏✑ ✎✒✓❞ ✈✍✔✑✒✕ ❞✖✍ ✑✒ ✑✕✓✏✗✈✍✕✗✍ ✘✕✍✗✗✖✕✍

✚✛✙ ✜

is computed based on the transverse pressures acting in the global Cartesian directions (input
using face 2, 3, and 4 on SFE command) and curved beam formulas from Roark. Table 18, reference no.
(loading) 3, 4, and 5 and 5c was used for in-plane effects and Table 19, reference no. (end restraint) 4e
was used for out-of-plane effects. As a radial load varying trigonometrically along the length of the
element was not one of the available cases given in Roark, an integration of a point radial load was
done, using Loading 5c.

1.4.5. Stress Calculations
In the stress pass, the stress evaluation is similar to that for PIPE16 - Elastic Straight Pipe (p. 235). The
wall thickness is diminished by the corrosion allowance, if present. The bending stress components are
multiplied by stress intensification factors (Cσ). The “intensified” stresses are used in the principal and
combined stress calculations. The factors are:


σ =


✣■



=

σ

250

(1.58)

✧★✩✪✧✧ ✤✫★✪✫✧✤✥✤✬✭★✤✮✫ ✥✭✬★✮✩ ✭★ ✪✫✯

✦ ✰✤✫✴✸★ ✭✧ ❙✦❋✦ ✮✫ ❘ ✬✮✹✹✭✫✯✺

✼❏

✤✥ ❙✦❋✦ ❁ ✶✳✵

✤✥ ❙✦❋✦ ❃ ✶✳✵

✽✾ ✿❀❂❄ ❅ ❆❇❈

(1.59)

❉❊●❍❉❉ ✽❑❊❍❑❉✽✾✽▲▼❊✽◆❑ ✾▼▲❊◆● ▼❊ ❍❑❖
❄ €✽❑◗❯❊ ▼❉ ✿❀❂❄ ◆❑ ❨ ▲◆❱❱▼❑❖❲

✽✾ ✿❀❂❄ ❳ ❆❇❈

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PLANE42 - 2-D Structural Solid

 ✷✸
♦ = ❡

✇❤✐❝❤ ✈ r ✐s ❣r ❛t r ✭❆❙▼❊ ❈✁❞ ✭✹✵✮✮

(1.60)

where:

✂=


✄+ ☎
te = t - tc
do = Do - 2 tc (where tc = corrosion allowances, input as TKCORR on the R command)

1.5. PLANE42 - 2-D Structural Solid
K

s

t

J

Y,v
L

X,R,u
I

Matrix or Vector

Geometry

Shape Functions

Integration Points

Quad

Equation 12.120 and Equation 12.121 and, if modified extra shapes are included (KEYOPT(2) ≠ 1) and element has 4
unique nodes, Equation 12.132
and Equation 12.133

2x2

Triangle

Equation 12.100 and Equation 12.101

Quad

Equation 12.120 and Equation 12.121

Triangle

Equation 12.100 and Equation 12.101

Stiffness Matrix

Mass and Stress Stiffness
Matrices
Pressure Load Vector

3 if axisymmetric
1 if plane

Same as stiffness
matrix

Same as mass matrix, specialized to face

Load Type

2

Distribution

Element Temperature

Bilinear across element, constant thru thickness or around circumference

Nodal Temperature

Same as element temperature distribution

Pressure

Linear along each face

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References: Wilson, Taylor

1.5.1. Other Applicable Sections
Structures describes the derivation of structural element matrices and load vectors as well as stress
evaluations.

1.6. SOLID45 - 3-D Structural Solid
r
P
t

O
M

N

Z,w

s
L

Y,v

K

I
X,u

J

Matrix or Vector

Stiffness Matrix and
Thermal Load Vector

Shape Functions

Integration Points

Equation 12.212, Equation 12.213, and
Equation 12.214 or, if modified extra
shape functions are included (KEYOPT(1) 2 x 2 x 2 if KEYOPT(2) = 0
1 if KEYOPT(2) = 1
= 0) and element has 8 unique nodes,
Equation 12.227, Equation 12.228, and
Equation 12.229

Mass and Stress Stiffness Equation 12.212, Equation 12.213, and
Matrices
Equation 12.214

Same as stiffness matrix

Quad

Equation 12.69 and Equation 12.70

2x2

Triangle

Equation 12.49 and Equation 12.50

3

Pressure Load Vector

Load Type

Distribution

Element Temperature

Trilinear thru element

Nodal Temperature

Trilinear thru element

Pressure

Bilinear across each face

Reference: Wilson, Taylor et al.

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CONTAC52 - 3-D Point-to-Point Contact

1.6.1. Other Applicable Sections
Structures describes the derivation of structural element matrices and load vectors as well as stress
evaluations. Uniform reduced integration technique (Flanagan and Belytschko) can be chosen by using
KEYOPT(2) = 1.

1.7. CONTAC52 - 3-D Point-to-Point Contact
J

Y
z

x
y

X
I

Z

Matrix or Vector

Geometry

Stiffness Matrix

Shape Functions

Integration Points

Normal Direction

None

None

Sliding Direction

None

None

Load Type

Distribution

Element Temperature

None - average used for material property evaluation

Nodal Temperature

None - average used for material property evaluation

1.7.1. Other Applicable Sections
CONTAC12 - 2-D Point-to-Point Contact (p. 232) has many aspects also valid for CONTAC52, including
normal and sliding force determinations, rigid Coulomb friction (KEYOPT(1) = 1), and the force-deflection
relationship shown in Figure 1.2: Force-Deflection Relations for Standard Case (p. 234).

1.7.2. Element Matrices
CONTAC52 may have one of three conditions: closed and stuck, closed and sliding, or open.
If the element is closed and stuck, the element stiffness matrix (in element coordinates) is:
 ♥



ℓ =
− ♥




− ♥
− s

s
s

− s

s

− s




− s




s 

(1.61)

where:
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Archived Theory Element Library
kn = normal stiffness (input as KN on R command)
ks = sticking stiffness (input as KS on R command)
The Newton-Raphson load vector is:




♥r = 


−
−

 −

♥ 

s② 



♥ 
s② 

s③ 

s③ 

(1.62)

where:
Fn = normal force across gap (from previous iteration)
Fs = sticking force across gap (from previous iteration)
If the element is closed and sliding in both directions, the element stiffness matrix (in element coordinates) is:
  



ℓ =
−  




−  

 











(1.63)

and the Newton-Raphson load vector is the same as in Equation 1.62 (p. 254). For details on the unsymmetric option (NROPT,UNSYM), see CONTAC12 - 2-D Point-to-Point Contact (p. 232)
If the element is open, there is no stiffness matrix or load vector.

1.7.3. Orientation of Element
For both small and large deformation analysis, the orientation of the element is unchanged. The element
is oriented so that the normal force is in line with the original position of the two nodes.

254

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PIPE59 - Immersed Pipe or Cable

1.8. PIPE59 - Immersed Pipe or Cable

θ

②✱✈
①✱✉

③✱✇


Matrix or Vector

Options

Shape Functions

Stiffness Matrix; and
Thermal, Pressure, and
Hydrostatic Load Vectors

Pipe Option (KEYOPT(1)
≠ 1)

Equation 12.15, Equation 12.16, Equation 12.17, and Equation 12.18

None

Cable Option (KEYOPT(1)
= 1)

Equation 12.6, Equation 12.7, and Equation 12.8

None

Pipe Option (KEYOPT(1)
≠ 1)

Equation 12.16 and
Equation 12.17

None

Cable Option (KEYOPT(1)
= 1)

Equation 12.7 and Equation 12.8

None

Pipe Option (KEYOPT(1)
≠ 1) with consistent
mass matrix (KEYOPT(2)
= 0)

Equation 12.15, Equation 12.17, and Equation 12.16

None

Cable Option (KEYOPT(1)
= 1) or reduced mass
matrix (KEYOPT(2) = 1)

Equation 12.6, Equation 12.7, and Equation 12.8

None

Stress Stiffness Matrix

Mass Matrix

Hydrodynamic Load
Vector

Integration
Points

Same as stiffness matrix

2

Load Type

Distribution

Element Temperature*

Linear thru thickness or across diameter, and along length

Nodal Temperature*

Constant across cross-section, linear along length

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Load Type

Distribution

Pressure

Linearly varying (in Z direction) internal and external pressure
caused by hydrostatic effects. Exponentially varying external overpressure (in Z direction) caused by hydrodynamic effects

Note
* Immersed elements with no internal diameter assume the temperatures of the water.

1.8.1. Overview of the Element
PIPE59 is similar to PIPE16. The principal differences are that the mass matrix includes the:
1. Outside mass of the fluid (“added mass”) (acts only normal to the axis of the element),
2. Internal structural components (pipe option only), and the load vector includes:
a. Hydrostatic effects
b. Hydrodynamic effects

1.8.2. Location of the Element
The origin for any problem containing PIPE59 must be at the free surface (mean sea level). Further, the
Z axis is always the vertical axis, pointing away from the center of the earth.
The element may be located in the fluid, above the fluid, or in both regimes simultaneously. There is

a tolerance of only
 = ♦+ ✐

below the mud line, for which
(1.64)

where:
ti = thickness of external insulation (input as TKIN on RMORE command)
Do = outside diameter of pipe/cable (input as DO on R command)
The mud line is located at distance d below the origin (input as DEPTH with TB,WATER (water motion
table)). This condition is checked with:


> −  + ✁  ← ♥✂ ✄rr✂r ♠✄ss❛❣✄

(1.65)



≤ −  + ☎  ← ❢✆t✆❧ ✝✞✞✟✞ ✠✝✡✡✆☛✝

(1.66)

where Z(N) is the vertical location of node N. If it is desired to generate a structure below the mud line,
one can set up a second material property for those elements using a greater d and deleting hydrodynamic effects. Alternatively, a second element type such as PIPE288 can be used.
If the problem is a large deflection problem, greater tolerances apply for second and subsequent iterations:

256

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PIPE59 - Immersed Pipe or Cable
>−

+

❡ ← ♥♦  rr♦r ♠ ss❛❣ 

+

✁ ≥

(1.67)

← ✇✂✄☎✐☎✆ ✝✞✟✟✂✆✞

>

(1.68)

← ❢✠t✠❧ ✡☛☛☞☛ ✌✡✍✍✠✎✡

(1.69)

where Z(N) is the present vertical location of node N. In other words, the element is allowed to sink
into the mud for 10 diameters before generating a warning message. If a node sinks into the mud a
distance equal to the water depth, the run is terminated. If the element is supposed to lie on the ocean
floor, gap elements must be provided.

1.8.3. Stiffness Matrix
The element stiffness matrix for the pipe option (KEYOPT(1) ≠ 1) is the same as for a 3-D elastic beam,
except that:

❬❑ ℓ ❪✭ ✹✱✶✮ = ❬❑ ℓ ❪✭✶✱ ✹ ✮ = ❬❑ ℓ ❪✭✶✵✱ ✼ ✮ = ❬❑ ℓ ❪✭✼✱✶✵ ✮ = ❚✏ ✑✒❞ ❬❑ ℓ ❪✭✼✱ ✹ ✮ = ❬❑ ℓ ❪✭ ✹✱ ✼✮ = ❬❑ ℓ ❪✭✶✵✱✶✮ = ❬❑ ℓ ❪✭✶✱✶✵ ✮ = −❚✏
where:




=
✓ 
 ✓



✸− ✸

✔✕ ✖❊❨❖€✗✘✙✚ ❂ ✛✜ ✙

✘✢✣✤✥✦✤✧✦ ★♣✣✔★✥ ✕★✧ ✣★✧q✉✩
❜✤✪✤✥❝✩✦ ❝✤❜✪✩ ★✧ ♣✔♣✩✚

✔✕ ✖❊❨❖€✗✘✙✚ ❂ ✷

✘✣✫✔✢✣ ✣✩✥✣✔★✥ ★♣✣✔★✥ ✕★✧ ✥★✥✲✣★✧q✉✩
❜✤✪✤✥❝✩✦ ❝✤❜✪✩ ★✧ ♣✔♣✩✚

GT = twist-tension stiffness constant, which is a function of the helical winding of the armoring
(input as TWISTEN on RMORE command, may be negative)
Di = inside diameter of pipe = Do - 2 tw
tw = wall thickness (input as TWALL on R command)
L = element length
π ✴

=
✰ − ✳ = ✺✻✽✾✾✿✾❀✺❁❃✽❄❅❆ ❅✻❀❅
=

π



❇ − ❈ = ❉❋❉●❍■ ❋❏ ▲❍●▼■▲◆

J = 2I

1.8.4. Mass Matrix
The element mass matrix for the pipe option (KEYOPT(1) ≠ 1) and KEYOPT(2) = 0) is the same as for a
3-D elastic beam, except that ℓ (1,1), ℓ (7,7), ℓ (1,7), and
M(4,10), and M(10,4), are multiplied by the factor (Ma /Mt).

(7,1), as well as M(4,4), M(10,10),

where:
Mt = (mw + mint + mins + madd) L = mass/unit length for motion normal to axis of element
Ma = (mw + mint + mins) L= mass/unit length for motion parallel to axis of element

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=

−ε

ρ

✐♥

π



ρ = density of the pipe wall (input as DENS on MP command)
εin = initial strain (input as ISTR on RMORE command)
mint = mass/unit length of the internal fluid and additional hardware (input as CENMPL on RMORE
command)
π
= −ε ρ

 ✁ s

 ✁

 

ρi = density of external insulation (input as DENSIN on RMORE command)
❛❞❞

=

−ε

☎✆

ρ

π


CI = coefficient of added mass of the external fluid (input as CI on RMORE command)
ρw = fluid density (input as DENSW with TB,WATER)

1.8.5. Load Vector
The element load vector consists of two parts:
1. Distributed force per unit length to account for hydrostatic (buoyancy) effects ({F/L}b) as well as axial
nodal forces due to internal pressure and temperature effects {Fx}.
2. Distributed force per unit length to account for hydrodynamic effects (current and waves) ({F/L}d).
The hydrostatic and hydrodynamic effects work with the original diameter and length, i.e., initial strain
and large deflection effects are not considered.

1.8.6. Hydrostatic Effects
Hydrostatic effects may affect the outside and the inside of the pipe. Pressure on the outside crushes
the pipe and buoyant forces on the outside tend to raise the pipe to the water surface. Pressure on the
inside tends to stabilize the pipe cross-section.
The buoyant force for a totally submerged element acting in the positive z direction is:
π
=
ρ

(1.70)

where: {F/L}b = vector of loads per unit length due to buoyancy
Cb = coefficient of buoyancy (input as CB on RMORE command)
{g} = acceleration vector
Also, an adjustment for the added mass term is made.
The crushing pressure at a node is:

= −ρ

+

(1.71)


where:

258

= crushing pressure due to hydrostatic effects
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PIPE59 - Immersed Pipe or Cable
g = acceleration due to gravity
z = vertical coordinate of the node

♦ = input external pressure (input on SFE command)

The internal (bursting) pressure is:
− ❢  + ✐✁

✐ = −ρ 

(1.72)

where:
Pi = internal pressure
ρo = internal fluid density (input as DENSO on R command)
Sfo = z coordinate of free surface of fluid (input as FSO on R command)

✂ = input internal pressure (input as SFE command)

To ensure that the problem is physically possible as input, a check is made at the element midpoint to
see if the cross-section collapses under the hydrostatic effects. The cross-section is assumed to be unstable
if:
s
☎ − ✆>




−ν 


✇

☎ 

(1.73)

where:
E = Young's modulus (input as EX on MP command)
ν = Poisson's ratio (input as PRXY or NUXY on MP command)
The axial force correction term (Fx) is computed as
① =

ε①

(1.74)

where εx, the axial strain (see Equation 2.12) is:
ε ✝ = α∆ +

σ ✝ − ν σ❤ + σr

(1.75)

where:
α = coefficient of thermal expansion (input as ALPX on MP command)
∆T = Ta - TREF
Ta = average element temperature
TREF = reference temperature (input on TREF command)
σx = axial stress, computed below
σh = hoop stress, computed below
σr = radial stress, computed below
The axial stress is:

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Archived Theory Element Library


σ① = 





 ❢ ❑❊❨❖€❚✭✽✮ ❂ ✵


(1.76)

 ❢ ❑❊❨❖€❚✭✽✮ ❂ ✶

and using the Lamé stress distribution,


σ❤ =

+



σr =






(1.77)



(1.78)


where:

=

s

+


= hydrodynamic pressure, described below
D = diameter being studied

Pi and Po are taken as average values along each element. Combining Equation 1.75 (p. 259) thru Equation 1.78 (p. 260).
ε ✡ = α∆ +

− ν





(1.79)

Note:


=

✏✑ ✒✓✔✕✖✗✘✙✚ ✛ ✜
✏✑ ✒✓✔✕✖✗✘✙✚ ✛ ✢

Note that if the cross-section is solid (Di = 0.), Equation 1.77 (p. 260) reduces to:
ε ✣ = α∆ −

− ν

(1.80)

1.8.7. Hydrodynamic Effects
See Hydrodynamic Loads in the Element Tools section of this document for information about this
subject.

1.8.8. Stress Output
The below two equations are specialized either to end I or to end J.
The stress output for the pipe format (KEYOPT(1) ≠ 1), is similar to PIPE16. The average axial stress is:
+
σ✦ = ♥ ✧
(1.81)

260

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PIPE59 - Immersed Pipe or Cable
where:
σx = average axial stress (output as SAXL)
Fn = axial element reaction force (output as FX, adjusted for sign)
π

− ♦ ♦✷
 ❢ ❑✁❨❖€❚✭✽✮ ❂ ✵



=



 ❢ ❑✁❨✂€❚✭✽✮ ❂ ✶
Pi = internal pressure (output as the first term of ELEMENT PRESSURES)
s

Po = external pressure =

+


(output as the fifth term of the ELEMENT PRESSURES)

and the hoop stress is:

σ❤ =




+


(1.82)

where:
σh = hoop stress at the outside surface of the pipe (output as SH)
Equation 1.82 (p. 261) is a specialization of Equation 1.77 (p. 260). The outside surface is chosen as the
bending stresses usually dominate over pressure induced stresses.
All stress results are given at the nodes of the element. However, the hydrodynamic pressure had been
computed only at the two integration points. These two values are then used to compute hydrodynamic
pressures at the two nodes of the element by extrapolation.
For the stress output for the cable format (KEYOPT(1) = 1 with Di = 0.0), the stress is given with and
without the external pressure applied:
σ ①■ = ℓ +

(1.83)

σ❡✞ = ℓ

(1.84)

= σ ✟✠

(1.85)

where:
σxI = axial stress (output as SAXL)
☞✌ ✍✎✏✑✒✓✔✕✖ ✗ ✘

= ☛
☞✌ ✍✎✏✑✒✓✔✕✖ ✗ ✙

σeI = equivalent stress (output as SEQV)

= axial force on node (output as FX)
Fa = axial force in the element (output as FAXL)

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1.9. SHELL63 - Elastic Shell
t
K

s

t
L
Y

x,u

y,v
J
X
Z

z,w

I

Matrix or Vector

Shape Functions
Equation 12.94 and Equation 12.95 (and, if modified
extra shape functions are
included (KEYOPT(3) = 0)
Membrane / Quad
and element has 4 unique
nodes, Equation 12.97,
Equation 12.98, and Equation 12.99

Stiffness Matrix and
Thermal Load Vector

Membrane / Triangle

Equation 12.66, Equation 12.67, and Equation 12.68

Bending

Four triangles that are
overlaid are used. These
subtriangles refer to Equation 12.68

Equation 12.69, EquaMembrane / Quad tion 12.70, and Equation 12.71
Mass, Foundation Stiffness and Stress Stiffness
Matrices

Transverse Pressure
Load Vector

262

Integration Points

2x2

1

3 (for each triangle)

2x2

Membrane / Triangle

Equation 12.49, Equation 12.50, and Equation 12.51

Bending

Four triangles that are
overlaid are used. These
triangles connect nodes
IJK, IJL, KLI, and KLJ. w is
defined as given in Zienkiewicz

3 (for each triangle)

Reduced shell
pressure loading
(KEYOPT(6) = 0)
(Load vector excludes moments)

One-sixth (one- third for
triangles) of the total
pressure times the area is
applied to each node nor-

None

1

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SHELL63 - Elastic Shell
Matrix or Vector

Shape Functions

Integration Points

mal of each subtriangle of
the element
Consistent shell
pressure loading
(KEYOPT(6) = 2)
(Load vector includes moments)

Same as mass matrix

Quad

Equation 12.69 and Equation 12.70 specialized to
the edge

2

Triangle

Equation 12.49 and Equation 12.50 specialized to
the edge

2

Edge Pressure Load
Vector

Load Type

Same as mass matrix

Distribution

Element Temperature

Bilinear in plane of element, linear thru thickness

Nodal Temperature

Bilinear in plane of element, constant thru thickness

Pressure

Bilinear in plane of element, linear along each edge

1.9.1. Other Applicable Sections
Structures describes the derivation of structural element matrices and load vectors as well as stress
evaluations.

1.9.2. Foundation Stiffness
If Kf, the foundation stiffness, is input, the out-of-plane stiffness matrix is augmented by three or four
springs to ground. The number of springs is equal to the number of distinct nodes, and their direction
is normal to the plane of the element. The value of each spring is:
∆ ❢
=
(1.86)
❢ ✱✐

where:
Kf,i = normal stiffness at node i
∆ = element area
Kf = foundation stiffness (input as EFS on R command)
Nd = number of distinct nodes
The output includes the foundation pressure, computed as:
σ♣ =

 

+

+

+

(1.87)

where:
σp = foundation pressure (output as FOUND, PRESS)
wI, etc. = lateral deflection at node I, etc.
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1.9.3. In-Plane Rotational Stiffness
The in-plane rotational (drilling) DOF has no stiffness associated with it, based on the shape functions.
A small stiffness is added to prevent a numerical instability following the approach presented by KanokNukulchai for nonwarped elements if KEYOPT(1) = 0. KEYOPT(3) = 2 is used to include the Allman-type
rotational DOFs.

1.9.4. Warping
If all four nodes are not defined to be in the same flat plane (or if an initially flat element loses its flatness
due to large displacements (using NLGEOM,ON)), additional calculations are performed in SHELL63.
The purpose of the additional calculations is to convert the matrices and load vectors of the element
from the points on the flat plane in which the element is derived to the actual nodes. Physically, this
may be thought of as adding short rigid offsets between the flat plane of the element and the actual
nodes. (For the membrane stiffness only case (KEYOPT(1) = 1), the limits given with SHELL41 are used).
When these offsets are required, it implies that the element is not flat, but rather it is “warped”. To account for the warping, the following procedure is used: First, the normal to element is computed by
taking the vector cross-product (the common normal) between the vector from node I to node K and
the vector from node J to node L. Then, the check can be made to see if extra calculations are needed
to account for warped elements. This check consists of comparing the normal to each of the four element
corners with the element normal as defined above. The corner normals are computed by taking the
vector cross-product of vectors representing the two adjacent edges. All vectors are normalized to 1.0.
If any of the three global Cartesian components of each corner normal differs from the equivalent
component of the element normal by more than .00001, then the element is considered to be warped.
A warping factor is computed as:
φ=

(1.88)

where:
D = component of the vector from the first node to the fourth node parallel to the element normal
t = average thickness of the element
If:
φ ≤ 0.1 no warning message is printed
.10 ≤ φ ≤ 1.0 a warning message is printed
1.0 < φ a message suggesting the use of triangles is printed and the run terminates
To account for the warping, the following matrix is developed to adjust the output matrices and load
vector:


=




264








✹ 

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(1.89)

SHELL63 - Elastic Shell





=




















(1.90)

where:
=


 

✂❢❢s❡t ❢r✂♠ ❛✈❡r❛❣❡ ♣❧❛♥❡ ❛t ♥✂❞❡ ✄

and the DOF are in the usual order of UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, and ROTZ. To ensure the location of the
average plane goes through the middle of the element, the following condition is met:

+


+


+

=


(1.91)

1.9.5. Options for Non-Uniform Material
SHELL63 can be adjusted for nonuniform materials, using an approach similar to that of Takemoto and
Cook . Considering effects in the element x direction only, the loads are related to the displacement
by:
=
ε
(1.92)


=−


 − ν


✆②




 


κ

(1.93)

where:
Tx = force per unit length
t = thickness (input as TK(I), TK(J), TK(K), TK(L) on R command)
Ex = Young's modulus in x direction (input as EX on MP command)
Ey = Young's modulus in y direction (input as EY on MP command)
εx = strain of middle fiber in x direction
Mx = moment per unit length
νxy = Poisson's ratio (input as PRXY on MP command)
κx = curvature in x direction
A nonuniform material may be represented with Equation 1.93 as:

=−



 − ν


✟✡




 


κ

(1.94)

where:
Cr = bending moment multiplier (input as RMI on RMORE command)
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The above discussion relates only to the formulation of the stiffness matrix.
Similarly, stresses for uniform materials are determined by:

σt♦♣
① =  ε① +


κ① 

(1.95)


σ❜✁✂
  =  ε  −


κ  

(1.96)

where:
σ☎✆✝
✄ = ✞ ❞✐r❡❝✟✐✠♥ s✟r❡ss ❛✟ ✟✠✡ ❢✐☛❡r
σ✌✍✎
☞ = ✏ ✑✒✓✔✕✖✒✗✘ ✙✖✓✔✙✙ ✚✖ ✛✗✖✖✗♠ ✜✒✛✔✓
For nonuniform materials, the stresses are determined by:
σ✣✤✥
✢ =

ε✢ + ✣ κ✢

(1.97)

σ✧★✩
✦ =

ε✦ − ✧κ✦

(1.98)

where:
ct = top bending stress multiplier (input as CTOP, RMORE command)
cb = bottom bending stress multiplier (input as CBOT, RMORE command)
The resultant moments (output as MX, MY, MXY) are determined from the output stresses rather than
from Equation 1.94.

1.9.6. Extrapolation of Results to the Nodes
Integration point results can be requested to be copied to the nodes (ERESX,NO command). For the
case of quadrilateral shaped elements, the bending results of each subtriangle are averaged and copied
to the node of the quadrilateral which shares two edges with that subtriangle.

1.10. FLUID79 - 2-D Contained Fluid
t
L

K

s

Y (or axial)

X (or radial)

266

I

J

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FLUID80 - 3-D Contained Fluid
Geometry

Matrix or Vector

Shape Functions

Integration Points

Quad

Equation 12.120 and Equation 12.121

1 x 1 for bulk strain effects
2 x 2 for shear and rotational
resistance effects

Triangle

Equation 12.100 and Equation 12.101

1 x 1 for bulk strain effects
3 for shear and rotational
resistance effects

Stiffness and Damping Matrices; and
Thermal Load Vector

Mass Matrix

Same as stiffness matrix. Matrix is diagonalized as in Lumped Matrices.

Pressure Load Vector

Same as stiffness matrix, specialized to the
face

Load Type

Same as for shear effects
2

Distribution

Element Temperature

Average of the four nodal temperatures is used throughout the
element

Nodal Temperature

Same as element temperature distribution

Pressure

Linear along each face

1.10.1. Other Applicable Sections
Structures describes the derivation of element matrices and load vectors. The fluid aspects of this element
are the same as described for FLUID80.

1.11. FLUID80 - 3-D Contained Fluid
P

5

O
6
N

M
Y

Z

2
X

Matrix or Vector
Stiffness and
Damping
Matrices; and
Thermal Load
Vector

I

1

4
3

L

K
J

Shape Functions
Equation 12.212, Equation 12.213, and
Equation 12.214

Integration Points
1 x 1 x 1 for bulk strain effects
2 x 2 x 2 for shear and rotational
resistance effects

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Matrix or Vector

Shape Functions

Integration Points

Mass Matrix

Same as stiffness matrix. Matrix is diagonalized as described in Lumped Matrices

2x2x2

Pressure Load
Vector

Same as stiffness matrix, specialized to the
face

2x2

Load Type

Distribution

Element Temperature

Average of the 8 nodal temperatures is used throughout element

Nodal Temperature

Average of the 8 nodal temperatures is used throughout element

Pressure

Bilinear across each face

1.11.1. Other Applicable Sections
Structures describes the derivation of element matrices and load vectors.

1.11.2. Assumptions and Restrictions
This element does not generate a consistent mass matrix; only the lumped mass matrix is available.

1.11.3. Material Properties
Rather than Equation 2.3, the stress-strain relationships used to develop the stiffness matrix and thermal
load vector are:

ε❜✉❧❦  

 
 γ ①②  
γ  
 ②③  
 γ ①③  = 

 
 ①  
 ②  

 
 ③  





α∆  
 
 
 
 
+
 
 
 
 
 









 
 
 τ ①② 
 τ 
  ②③ 
  τ ①③ 
 
 ①
 
 ②
  ③ 





where:
ε ✁✂✄ = ☎✆✝✞ str❛✐♥ =




+
+


α = thermal coefficient of expansion (input as ALPX on MP command)
∆T = change of temperature from reference temperature
K = fluid elastic (bulk) modulus (input as EX on MP command)
P = pressure
γ = shear strain

268

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(1.99)

FLUID80 - 3-D Contained Fluid
S = K x 10-9 (arbitrarily small number to give element some shear stability)
τ = shear stress
Ri = rotation about axis i
B = K x 10-9 (arbitrarily small number to give element some rotational stability)
Mi = twisting force about axis i
A damping matrix is also developed based on:




εɺ ❜✉❧❦  
 γɺ  
 ①②  
 γɺ  
 ②③  
 γɺ ①③  = 
 ɺ  
 ①  
 ɺ②  

 
 ɺ ③  





η
η
η





 
 τ 
  ①② 
  τ ②③ 
  
  τ ①③ 
 
 ①
 ②
 
  ③ 





(1.100)

where:
η = viscosity (input as VISC on MP command)
c = .00001*η

and the ( ) represents differentiation with respect to time.
A lumped mass matrix is developed, based on the density (input as DENS on MP command).

1.11.4. Free Surface Effects
The free surface is handled with an additional special spring effect. The necessity of these springs can
be seen by studying a U-Tube, as shown in Figure 1.10: U-Tube with Fluid (p. 270).
Note that if the left side is pushed down a distance of ∆h, the displaced fluid mass is:
❉ =∆ ρ

(1.101)

where:
MD = mass of displaced fluid
∆h = distance fluid surface has moved
A = cross-sectional area of U-Tube
ρ = fluid density
Then, the force required to hold the fluid in place is
 =  

(1.102)

where:
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FD = force required to hold the fluid in place
g = acceleration due to gravity (input on ACEL command)
Figure 1.10: U-Tube with Fluid

Finally, the stiffness at the surface is the force divided by the distance, or
s

= ❉ =ρ

(1.103)

This expression is generalized to be:
  =ρ ❋ ① ① + ② ② + ③ ③

(1.104)

where:
AF = area of the face of the element
gi = acceleration in the i direction
Ci = ith component of the normal to the face of the element
This results in adding springs from each node to ground, with the spring constants being positive on
the top of the element, and negative on the bottom. For an interior node, positive and negative effects
cancel out and, at the bottom where the boundary must be fixed to keep the fluid from leaking out,
the negative spring has no effect. If KEYOPT(2) = 1, positive springs are added only to faces located at
z = 0.0.

1.11.5. Other Assumptions and Limitations
The surface springs tend to retard the hydrostatic motions of the element from their correct values.
The hydrodynamic motions are not changed. From the definition of bulk modulus,
✁ =

(1.105)

where:

270

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FLUID80 - 3-D Contained Fluid
us = vertical motion of a static column of fluid (unit cross-sectional area)
H = height of fluid column
P = pressure at any point
z = distance from free surface
The pressure is normally defined as:

(1.106)

But this pressure effect is reduced by the presence of the surface springs, so that
=ρ − s s =ρ
− s

(1.107)

Combining Equation 1.105 (p. 270) and Equation 1.107 (p. 271) and integrating,
  =


ρ  ✷
−   




(1.108)

or
ρ

✁ =

+

ρ

(1.109)

If there were no surface springs,
✄ =

ρ

(1.110)

Thus the error for hydrostatic effects is the departure from 1.0 of the factor (1 / (1+Hρg/K)), which is
normally quite small.
The 1 x 1 x 1 integration rule is used to permit the element to “bend” without the bulk modulus resistance
being mobilized, i.e.
Figure 1.11: Bending Without Resistance

While this motion is permitted, other motions in a static problem often result, which can be thought
of as energy-free eddy currents. For this reason, small shear and rotational resistances are built in, as
indicated in Equation 1.99 (p. 268).

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1.12. FLUID81 - Axisymmetric-Harmonic Contained Fluid
L

t

K

Y (or axial)
s

X (or radial)

Matrix or Vector

Geometry

Shape Functions

Integration Points

1 for bulk strain effects
Equation 12.159, Equa2 x 2 for shear and rotational
tion 12.160, and Equation 12.161 resistance effects

Quad
Stiffness and Damping Matrices; and
Thermal Load Vector
Triangle

1 for bulk strain effects
Equation 12.151, Equa3 for shear and rotational
tion 12.152, and Equation 12.153 resistance effects

Quad

Equation 12.120, Equation 12.121, and Equation 12.122

2x2

Triangle

Equation 12.100, Equation 12.102, and Equation 12.103

3

Mass Matrix

Pressure Load Vector

J

I

Same as stiffness matrix, specialized to the
face

Load Type

2

Distribution

Element Temperature

Average of the four nodal temperatures is used throughout the
element

Nodal Temperature

Same as element temperature distribution

Pressure

Linear along each face

1.12.1. Other Applicable Sections
Structures describes the derivation of element matrices and load vectors. The fluid aspects of this element
are the same as described for FLUID80 - 3-D Contained Fluid (p. 267) except that a consistent mass
matrix is also available (LUMPM,OFF).

1.12.2. Assumptions and Restrictions
The material properties are assumed to be constant around the entire circumference, regardless of
temperature dependent material properties or loading.

272

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PLANE82 - 2-D 8-Node Structural Solid

1.12.3. Load Vector Correction
When ℓ (input as MODE on MODE command) > 0, the gravity that is required to be input for use as a
gravity spring (input as ACELY on ACEL command) also is erroneously multiplied by the mass matrix
for a gravity force effect. This erroneous effect is cancelled out by an element load vector that is automatically generated during the element stiffness pass.

1.13. PLANE82 - 2-D 8-Node Structural Solid
K

t

O
N

s

L
J

Y,v
P
M
X,R,u
I

Matrix or Vector

Geometry

Shape Functions

Integration Points

Mass, Stiffness and
Stress Stiffness Matrices;
and Thermal Load Vector

Quad

Equation 12.134 and Equation 12.135

2x2

Triangle

Equation 12.112 and Equation 12.113

3

Pressure Load Vector

Same as stiffness matrix, specialized to the face

Load Type

2 along face

Distribution

Element Temperature

Same as shape functions across element, constant thru thickness
or around circumference

Nodal Temperature

Same as element temperature distribution

Pressure

Linear along each face

Reference: Zienkiewicz

1.13.1. Other Applicable Sections
Structures describes the derivation of structural element matrices and load vectors as well as stress
evaluations.

1.13.2. Assumptions and Restrictions
A dropped midside node implies that the face is and remains straight.

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273

Archived Theory Element Library

1.14. SOLID92 - 3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Structural Solid
L

R

P
Y,v

Q

O

K
N

I

M

X,u
Z,w

J

Matrix or Vector

Shape Functions

Integration Points

Stiffness, Mass, and
Stress Stiffness Matrices;
and Thermal Load Vector

Equation 12.182, Equation 12.183, and Equation 12.184

4

Pressure Load Vector

Equation 12.182, Equation 12.183, and Equation 12.184 specialized to the face

6

Load Type

Distribution

Element Temperature

Same as shape functions

Nodal Temperature

Same as shape functions

Pressure

Linear over each face

Reference: Zienkiewicz

1.14.1. Other Applicable Sections
Structures describes the derivation of structural element matrices and load vectors as well as stress
evaluations.

274

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SOLID95 - 3-D 20-Node Structural Solid

1.15. SOLID95 - 3-D 20-Node Structural Solid

r
X P
M
Y,v

Z,w

Y
X,u

I

U B
T

Geometry

Matrix or Vector

Stiffness, Mass, and
Stress Stiffness
Matrices; and
Thermal Load Vector

Pressure Load Vector

Z

O
V

N

L

Q

t

W

A

S
R

J

s

K

Shape Functions

Integration Points

Brick

14 if KEYOPT(11) = 0
Equation 12.230 , Equation 12.231, and Equation 12.232 2 x 2 x 2 if KEYOPT(11) = 1

Wedge

Equation 12.206, Equation 12.207, and Equation 12.208

3x3

Pyramid

Equation 12.190, Equation 12.191, and Equation 12.192

2x2x2

Tet

Equation 12.182, Equation 12.183, and Equation 12.184

4

Quad

Equation 12.84 and Equation 12.85

3x3

Triangle

Equation 12.57 and Equation 12.58

6

Load Type

Distribution

Element Temperature

Same as shape functions thru element

Nodal Temperature

Same as shape functions thru element

Pressure

Bilinear across each face

Reference: Zienkiewicz

1.15.1. Other Applicable Sections
Structures describes the derivation of structural element matrices and load vectors as well as stress
evaluations. If KEYOPT(3) = 1, the mass matrix is diagonalized as described in Lumped Matrices.

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275

276

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Chapter 2: Hydrodynamic Loads on Line Elements
Hydrodynamic effects may occur because the structure moves in a motionless fluid, the structure is
fixed but there is fluid motion, or both the structure and fluid are moving. The fluid motion consists of
two parts: current and wave motions. The current is input by giving the current velocity and direction
(input as W(i) and θ(i)) at up to eight different vertical stations (input as Z(i)). (All input quantities referred
to in this section not otherwise identified come from the TBDATA commands used with TB,WATER).
The velocity and direction are interpolated linearly between stations. The current is assumed to flow
horizontally only.
The information in this section applies to the legacy PIPE59 element.
The following topic is available:
2.1. Wave Theory

2.1. Wave Theory
The wave may be input using one of four wave theories in the following table (input as KWAVE via
TB,WATER).
Table 2.1: Wave Theory Table
KWAVE TB,WATER Input

Description of Wave Theory
Small amplitude wave theory, unmodified (Airy wave theory), (Wheeler)

1

Small amplitude wave theory, modified with empirical depth decay function,
(Wheeler)

0

Stokes fifth order wave theory, (Skjelbreia et al.)

2

Stream function wave theory, (Dean)

3

The free surface of the wave is defined by

◆✇

◆✇ ✐
✐ =✶

ηs = ∑ η✐ = ∑

✐ =✶

β✐

(2.1)

where:
ηs = total wave height
♥✉♠❜❡r ♦❢ ✁❛✈❡✂
  = ♥✉♠❜❡r ♦❢ ✁❛✈❡ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t✂ = ✺

✄☎ ❑ ✆ ≠ ✷
✄☎ ❑ ✆ = ✷

Kw = wave theory key (input as KWAVE with TB,WATER)
ηi = wave height of component i
✎✏✓✟✑ q✟☛✏✑✎✑② ❍✭✭✎✮ ✍✏ ✑❤✌ ❖❈❚❆❇▲❊ ☞✍✒✒☛✏❞
✝ = ✞✟✠✡☛☞✌ ☞✍✌✡✡✎☞✎✌✏✑ ✭☞✍✒✓✍✏✌✏✑ ❤✌✎❣❤✑✮ = ❞✌✠✎✖✌❞ ✡✠✍✒ ✍✑❤✌✠ ✎✏✓✟✑

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✎✡ ✔ ✗ ❂ ✵ ✍✠ ✕
✎✡ ✔ ✘ ❂ ✙
277

Hydrodynamic Loads on Line Elements


φ✐ 
 π − +

 λ✐ τ✐



 π  − + φ✐ 

 λ✐ τ✐


β✐ = 
 π


 π
−

 π

 ❢ ▲

 ❢ ▲

 ❢ ▲

 ❢ ▲

 ❢ ▲

 ❢ ▲

❂ ✵

❛♥❞ ❑

❂ ✵

❛♥❞ ❑

❂ ✵ ♦r ✶

❂ ✷ ♦r ✸

❂ ✶

❂ ✷

❂ ✸

❂ ✹

R = radial distance to point on element from origin in the X-Y plane in the direction of the
wave
λi = wave length = input as WL(i) if WL(i) > 0.0 and if Kw = 0 or 1 otherwise derived from
Equation 2.2 (p. 278)
t = time elapsed (input as TIME on TIME command) (Note that the default value of TIME is
usually not desired. If zero is desired, 10-12 can be used).
✂✟♣✉t ☎s ❚✭✂✮ ✝✟ t❤❡ ❖❈❚❆❇✠❊ ❝✝♠♠☎✟✞
τ✁ = ✄☎✈❡ ♣❡✆✂✝✞ = 
✞❡✆✂✈❡✞ ✡✆✝♠ ✝t❤❡✆ ✂✟♣✉t

✂✡ ☛
✂✡ ☛


≠✌
=✌

ϕi = phase shift = input as ϕ(i)
If λi is not input (set to zero) and Kw < 2, λi is computed iteratively from:
 π 
λ✍ = λ✍✎✏✑✒✓ 

 λ✍ 

(2.2)

where:
λi = output quantity small amplitude wave length
τ✔ ✖
= ✗✘✙✚✘✙ q✘✛✜✙✢✙② ✣✤✤✚ ✥✛✙✤✦ ✥✛✧✤ ❧✤✜❣✙★
π
g = acceleration due to gravity (Z direction) (input on ACEL command)
d = water depth (input as DEPTH via TB,WATER)
λ✔✕ =

Each component of wave height is checked that it satisfies the “Miche criterion” if Kw ≠3. This is to
ensure that the wave is not a breaking wave, which the included wave theories do not cover. A breaking
wave is one that spills over its crest, normally in shallow water. A warning message is issued if:
> ❜
(2.3)

where:

=

 π 
λ✫ ✬✯✰✱ 
 = ✱✲✳✴✱✬ ✺✻ ✼✽✲✯❦✳✰✴ ✾✯✿✲
 λ✫ 

When using wave loading, there is an error check to ensure that the input acceleration does not change
after the first load step, as this would imply a change in the wave behavior between load steps.

278

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Wave Theory
For Kw = 0 or 1, the particle velocities at integration points are computed as a function of depth from:

= ∑

= ∑
 

(2.4)

=✶


π
η +
τ

ηɺ

 

(2.5)

 

=✄

 

where:
= radial particle velocity

= vertical particle velocity
ki = 2π/λi

= height of integration point above the ocean floor = d+Z
ηɺ = time derivative of η
i

= drift velocity (input via TB,WATER)



=
 +η

=

=

✟❢ ❑

✟❢ ❑

✵ ✭✠♠❛❧❧ ❛♠♣❧✟t✉❞❡ ✡❛✈❡ t❤❡♦r②✮

☛ ✭❲ ❤❡❡❧❡r✭✸✺✮✮

s

The particle accelerations are computed by differentiating
ɺ


= ∑

ɺ


= ∑

with respect to time. Thus:
(2.6)

 π  π
 τ 
η − ηɺ 

−

 π 
 τ  τ

=✘

and

 π

 η − ηɺ
 τ 

=✓

(2.7)

where:

Π
ηɺ
λ
=


✛✜ ✢

=

✣ ✤✥✦✧★★ ✧✦✩★✛✪✫✬✯ ✰✧✱✯ ✪✲✯✳✴✹✻

=


✛✜ ✢

✤✾ ✲✯✯★✯✴✤✿❀✻✻

Expanding equation 2.29 of the Shore Protection Manual for a multiple component wave, the wave
hydrodynamic pressure is:




∑η

=❇



 π 
 λ 


 πλ 


(2.8)

However, use of this equation leads to nonzero total pressure at the surface at the crest or trough of
the wave. Thus, Equation 2.8 (p. 279) is modified to be:

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279

Hydrodynamic Loads on Line Elements


 π

 λ✐ + ηs 


 π 
 λ✐ 

◆ 

♦ = ρ ✇ ∑ η✐
✐ =✶

(2.9)

which does result in a total pressure of zero at all points of the free surface. This dynamic pressure,
which is calculated at the integration points during the stiffness pass, is extrapolated to the nodes for
the stress pass. The hydrodynamic pressure for Stokes fifth order wave theory is:


 π 
 λ☎ 


 π 
 λ☎ 



✁ = ρ ✄ ∑ η☎
☎ =✆

(2.10)

Other aspects of the Stokes fifth order wave theory are discussed by Skjelbreia et al.. The modification
as suggested by Nishimura et al.has been included. The stream function wave theory is described by
Dean.
If both waves and current are present, the question of wave-current interaction must be dealt with.
Three options are made available through Kcr (input as KCRC via TB,WATER):
For Kcr = 0, the current velocity at all points above the mean sea level is simply set equal to Wo, where
Wo is the input current velocity at Z = 0.0. All points below the mean sea level have velocities selected
as though there were no wave.
For Kcr = 1, the current velocity profile is “stretched” or “compressed” to fit the wave. In equation form,
the Z coordinate location of current measurement is adjusted by
+ η✝
′ =
+ η✝
(2.11)
where:
Z(j) = Z coordinate location of current measurement (input as Z(j))

= adjusted value of Z(j)
For Kcr = 2, the same adjustment as for Kcr = 1 is used, as well as a second change that accounts for
“continuity.” That is,

=

(2.12)

+ η✞

where:
W(j) = velocity of current at this location (input as W(j))

= adjusted value of W(j)
These three options are shown pictorially in Figure 2.1: Velocity Profiles for Wave-Current Interactions (p. 281).

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Wave Theory
Figure 2.1: Velocity Profiles for Wave-Current Interactions
Z
Water Surface

Mean Water
Surface
Constant (K CR = 0)
Stretch (K CR = 1)
Continuity (K CR = 2)
Nonlinear Stretch (K CR = 3)
Mud Line

Horizontal arrows represent
input velocities

ɺ
ɺ
To compute the relative velocities ( ♥ , t ), both the fluid particle velocity and the structure velocity
must be available so that one can be subtracted from the other. The fluid particle velocity is computed
using relationships such as Equation 2.4 (p. 279) and Equation 2.5 (p. 279) as well as current effects. The
structure velocity is available through the Newmark time integration logic (see Transient Analysis).
Finally, a generalized Morison's equation is used to compute a distributed load on the element to account
for the hydrodynamic effects:
π ✷ ɺ
❡ ɺ
❞ = ❉ρ ✇
  ɺ   + ▼ρ ✇

 
(2.13)

ɺ✁ ɺ✁
+ ❚ ρ✇
where:
{F/L}d = vector of loads per unit length due to hydrodynamic effects
CD = coefficient of normal drag (see below)
ρw = water density (mass/length3) (input as DENSW on MP command with TB,WATER)
De = outside diameter of the pipe with insulation (length)
ɺ✂

= normal relative particle velocity vector (length/time)
CM = coefficient of inertia (input as CM on the R command)
ɺ✄

= normal particle acceleration vector (length/time2)
CT = coefficient of tangential drag (see below)
ɺ☎

= tangential relative particle velocity vector (length/time)

Two integration points along the length of the element are used to generate the load vector. Integration
points below the mud line are simply bypassed. For elements intersecting the free surface, the integration
points are distributed along the wet length only.
The coefficients of drag (CD,CT) may be defined in one of two ways:
• As fixed numbers (via both the R and RMORE commands), or
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281

Hydrodynamic Loads on Line Elements
• As functions of Reynolds number.
The dependency on Reynolds number (Re) may be expressed as:
❉= ❉

(2.14)

where:
fD = functional relationship (input on the water motion table as RE, CDy, and CDz via TB,WATER)
❡ρ✇

= ɺ♥

µ

µ = viscosity (input as VISC on MP command)
and
❚ = ❚

(2.15)

where:
fT = functional relationship (input on the water motion table as RE and CT via TB,WATER)
= ɺt

 ρ✁

µ

Temperature-dependent quantity may be input as µ, where the temperatures used are those given by
input quantities T(i) of the water motion table.
When the MacCamy-Fuchs corrections are requested to account for diffraction effects, especially for
large diameter objects with shorter wave lengths, two things occur:
1. The coefficient of inertia is adjusted:

′ =

π ✷

[

✶′

]✷ + [

✶′

]✷

where:
=

π ✂
λ✄

☎′

= ♦

− ☎

✝′

= ✆

− ✝

J0 = zero order Bessel function of the first kind
J1 = first-order Bessel function of the first kind
Y0 = zero order Bessel function of the second kind
Y1 = first-order Bessel function of the second kind
2. The phase shift is added to ϕi (before the Wc correction, if used):

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Wave Theory

ϕ′✐ = ϕ✐ + ❛r❝t❛♥

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Chapter 3: Reduced Method for Modal Analysis
For the reduced procedure (accessed with MODOPT,REDUC), the system of equations is first condensed
down to those degrees of freedom associated with the master degrees of freedom by Guyan reduction.
The set of n master degrees of freedom characterize the natural frequencies of interest in the system.
The selection of the master degrees of freedom is similar to that used in a substructure analysis.
This technique preserves the potential energy of the system but modifies, to some extent, the kinetic
energy. The kinetic energy of the low frequency modes is less sensitive to the condensation than the
kinetic energy of the high frequency modes. The number of master degrees of freedom selected should
usually be at least equal to twice the number of frequencies of interest. This reduced form may be expressed as:

φ✐ = λ✐

(3.1)

φ✐

where:
 

= reduced stiffness matrix (known)

φ✂

= eigenvector (unknown)
λi = eigenvalue (unknown)

= reduced mass matrix (known)
Next, the actual eigenvalue extraction is performed by using a standard eigensolver internally.

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