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# Properties of Predicates

1. Introduction
This paper will talk about properties of predicate in semantics. As we know that
Semantics is the study of meaning communicated through language. Properties of predicates are
part of semantics. Predicate (seem to) denote or epress properties and Properties are whate!er
are the meanings of predicates . It means that properties and predicates influence each other.
Predicates are commonly described as one"place# two"place# three"place# etc. according to the
number of arguments they take. Properties of predicates are part of semantic sub\$ect that eplains
about the sense of predicates. In this paper# the writer will eplain about the definition and the
eample of si senses of properties of predicates. According to %uford# &e can think that
properties of predicates are as aspects of the meanings of each predicate. In semantics# the
properties of predicates are di!ided into three groups and each group is di!ided into two groups.
The three groups of properties of predicates are 'symmetry(# 'reflei!ity(# and 'transiti!ity(.
Symmetry is di!ided into two groups# they are symmetric and asymmetric. )eflei!ity is di!ided
into two groups# they are reflei!e and irreflei!e. Transiti!ity is also di!ided into two groups#
they are transiti!e and intransiti!e.

*ach group on that diagram has its own sense. In this paper# the writer will eplain further about
each sense and the eample.
+. ,iscussion
2.1 Symmetry
According to %uford# the definition of Symmetry is- gi!en a two"place predicate P# if# for
any pair of referring epressions . and / . In symmetry# there are two referring epressions in
a sentence. Symmetry is di!ided into two groups. They are symmetric and asymmetric.
2.1.1 Symmetric
The definition of symmetric according to %uford is- 0i!en a two"place predicate P# if# for
any pair of referring epressions . and /# the sentence .P/ *1TAI2S the sentence /P.#
then P is S/33*T)I4.. It means that there are two referring epression in a sentence and
the P here still can gi!e the same sense when we change the sub\$ect become the ob\$ect or the
ob\$ect become the sub\$ect. &e ha!e two referring epression in a sentence. &e can tell them
as . and /. in symmetric# the P here still ha!e the same sense when we put . as the sub\$ect
and / as the ob\$ect or / as the sub\$ect and . as the ob\$ect. &e can say whether a word
symmetric or not based on the meaning postulate.
*ample5 3o\$okerto is different from Solo
. P /
Solo is different from 3o\$okerto
/ P .
The word 6,ifferent7 here is Symmetric predicate# because the sentence .P/
*1TAI2S the sentence /P.. The sense of the word 6,ifferent7 in the sentence
63o\$okerto is different from Solo7 and 6Solo is different from 3o\$okerto7 is same.
The other eamples are5
1. ,oni is marry to 3itha *1TAI2S 3itha is marry to ,oni """"" the word 3arry is
symmetric predicate
+. )io is as old as )erend *1TAI2S )erend is old as )io """""the word as old as is
symmetric predicate
2.1.2 Asymmetric
The definition of asymmetric according to %uford is- 0i!en a two"place predicate
P# if the sentence .P/ is a 481T)A,I4T8)/ of /P.# then P is an AS/33*T)I4
predicate . It means that there are two referring epression in a sentence. They are . and
/. if the sentence .P/ is a contradictory of the sentence /P.# it means that P is
Asymmetric predicate. An asymmetric predicate is the opposite of symmetric predicate.
*ample 5 3itra is taller than Ayu
/ P .
Ayu is taller than 3itra
. P /
The word 6taller than7 here is asymmetric predicate# because the sentence /P. is
481T)A,I4T8)/ of the sentence .P/. The sense of the sentence73itra is taller than
Ayu7 and the sentence 6Ayu is taller than 3itra7 is different or contradictory. If 3itra is
taller than Ayu# it is impossible that Ayu is taller than 3itra.
The other eamples5
1. yanto is a ser!ant of Irma""""the word ser!ant as is asymmetric predicate.
2. The cat is under the table"""""the word under is asymmetric predicate.
2.2 )eflei!ity
According to %uford# The definition of reflei!ity is- 0i!en a two"place predicate P# if
for any single referring epression . (or for any pair of referring epressions . and / which
ha!e the same referent). It means that one sentence has any pair of referring epression . and /#
and / refers to .. both of them has the same referent. )eflei!ity is di!ided into two groups.
They are reflei!e and irreflei!e.
2.2.1. Reflexive
)eflei!e is- 0i!en a two"place predicate P# if for any single referring epression . (or
for any pair of referring epressions . and / which ha!e the same referent# e.g. 9ohn and
himself)# the sentence .P. (or the sentence .P/) is A1A2/TI4# then P is a )*:2*.I;*
predicate it means that a predicate can be a reflei!e predicate if . and / has the same
referent and the sentence .P.(or the sentence .P/) is analytic.
*ample5 &idya is as tall as herself
. P /
In this sentence# the word 6as tall as7 is reflei!e predicate# because 6&idya7 and 6herself7
ha!e the same referent and the sentence 6&idya is as tall as herself7 is analytic.
The other eample5
1. I am as old as myself """"" the word as old as is reflei!e predicate
+. )ama is identical to herself """"the word identical to is reflei!e predicate
+.+.+. Irreflei!e
0i!en a two"place predicate P# if for any single referring epression . (or for any pair of
referring epressions . and / which ha!e the same referent# e.g. 9ohn and himself) the sentence
.P. (or the sentence .P/) is a 481T)A,I4TI81# then P is an I))*:2*.I;* predicate..
Irreflei!e is the opposite of reflei!e. It means that a predicate can be a reflei!e predicate if .
and / has the same referent and the sentence .P.(or the sentence .P/) is a contradiction.
*ample5 1ana is different from herself
. P /
The word 6different from7 is irreflei!e predicate. The word 61ana7 and the word 6herself7
ha!e the same referent# but the sentence 61ana is different from herself7 is a contradiction. It is
impossible if 1ana is different from herself.
The other eample5
1. Irul is shorter than himself """"the word shorter than is irreflei!e predicate.
+. &iro is taller than himself """"" the word taller than is irreflei!e predicate.
2.3. Transitivity
The definition of transiti!ity according to %uford is- 0i!en a two"place predicate P# if for
any trio of referring epressions .# / and <. It must be in compound sentence. it means that
there are three reffering epressions in a sentence and the sentence must be in compound
sentence. Transiti!ity is di!ided into two groups. They are transiti!e and intransiti!e.
+.=.1. Transiti!e
Transiti!e is- 0i!en a two"place predicate P# if for any trio of referring epressions .# /#
and < the compound sentence .P/ and /P< *1TAI2S the sentence .P<# then P is
T)A1SITI;*. . It means that a word can be called as transiti!e predicate if there are three
reffering epression (.#/ and <) in a compound sentence and the sentence .P/ and /P<
entails the sentence .P<.
*ample5 the bird is in the cage# the cage is in the home entails the bird is in the home.
. / <
In this sentence# the predicate in is transiti!e because that compound sentence consist of three
referring epressions (bird# cage and home) and the sentence 6the bird is in the cage7 and 6the
cage is in the home7 entails the sentence 6the bird is in the home7.
The other eample5
1. The dog is under the tree# the tree is under the sky entails the dog is under the sky.""""the word
under is transiti!e predicate.
+. ,ina is as old as dora# ,ora is as old as mona entails ,ina is as old as mona """" the word as
old as is transiti!e predicate.
+.=.+. Intransiti!e
the definition of intransiti!ity is- 0i!en a two"place predicate P# if for any trio of referring
epressions .# /# and <# the compound sentence .P/ and /P< is a 481T)A,I4T8)/ of
.P<# then P is I1T)A1SITI;*. it means that a word can be called as transiti!e predicate if
there are three reffering epression (.#/ and <) in a compound sentence and the sentence .P/
and /P< is contradictory of the sentence .P<.
*ample5 9ohn is the father of >ill and >ill is the father of Sue so 9ohn is the father of Sue#
in this sentence# the word father of is intransiti!e because the sentence \$ohn is the father of sue
and the sentence bill is the father of sue is incompatible with \$ohn is the father of sue.
The other eample5
1. pu\$i is the grandchild o mr udin and mr.udin is the grandchild of mr maulana so pu\$i is the
grandchild of mr.maulana"""" grandchild of is intransiti!e predicates
+. wndi is two inches taller than adul and adul is two inches taller than mimi. &endi is two
inches taller than mimi"""" two inches taller than is intransiti!e predicates.
=. conclusion
The conclussion of this paper is- in semantic there are si Senses properties of predicates.
Propeerties of predicates is how the predicates can make a sense in a sentence based on that
meaning. Sense of predicates is di!ided into three groups# they are- symmetry# reflei!ity and
transiti!ity. *ach group is di!ided into three groups. Symmetry is di!ided into symmetry and
asymmetry# reflei!ity is di!ided into reflei!e and irreflei!e# transiti!ity is di!ided into
transiti!e and intransiti!e. *ach group has its own sense.

)eferences
Cruse, Alan. (2000). Meaning in Language; An Introduction to Semantics and
Pragmatics.
Ne !or"# \$%&ord 'ni(ersit) Press.
*u&ord, +ames ,. (200-). Semantics : a Coursebook. Cam.ridge# Cam.ridge
'ni(ersit) Press.
I.Saeed, +o/n. (2000). semantics. 1ictoria# 2lac"ell Pu.lis/ing.
Moltmann, 3riederi"e. (2004). Predicates in Linguistic Semantics and in \$ntolog). 9,
154.