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Wi l l s & Tr ust s

Fall 2007Professor Tate

I. Introductory Matters
Frp|as|s or po||cy. w|y ||e ru|es are ||e Way ||ey are.
loo| a| ur|lorr codes so W|||s are app||cao|e|erlorceao|e |r o||er s|a|es.
Intestacy: No W||| or W||| |s |rellec||ve.
Non-Probate Transfers: F.g., ||le |rsurarce, jo|r|-|erarcy proper|y, pers|or p|ars (s|ull ||a| doesr'| go ||roug| ||e
prooa|e process). |os| corror |ype |s proper|y pass|rg ||roug| a trust. very |rpor|ar|.
Tax policy: Fs|a|e |ax |s |rpor|ar| lor ||ose W||| a |o| ol rorey.
Trust: Texas |as ro| aoo||s|ed ||e bAl. 3av|rg c|ause |o ge| arourd. 3ore s|a|es |ave aoo||s|ed.
A. Policy Bases for Inheritance & Testamentary Freedom Caseooo|. 1-3, 10-30
1. w|y |r|er||arce? w|y car sore |eep proper|y al|er a persor d|es? lroper|y ||a| ||ey d|d ro| earr W|||
||e|r oWr |aoor.
a. efferson & Blac!stone say ||a| |||s r|g|| |s ro| |r|r|rs|c. T|e r|g|| |o pass proper|y a| dea|| Was re|||er a
ra|ura| r|g|| ror Was || cors|||u||ora||y pro|ec|ed. lrposed oy |urars. (`C|v|| b|g||' v|eW. lave |o dec|de W|y |||s
|s a good |||rg.) 0ead |ave ro r|g||s, r|g||s oe|org |o ||v|rg, r|g|| |o |r|er|| |s ro| a ra|ura| r|g|| - or|y grar|ed oy
pos|||ve |aW.
o. "oc!e says ||a| ||'s a ra|ura| r|g||. 8ecause c|||drer are |a||rg over lor ||e|r parer|s, ||a| c|||drer s|ou|d
|ave a ra|ura| r|g|| |o |r|er|| ||e proper|y ||a| oe|orgs |o ||e|r parer|s. ll c|oose ro| |o |r|er||, ||er ||a| goes
aga|rs| ||e |aW ol ra|ure. (`Na|ura| b|g||' v|eW)
c. #albach says ||a| ||ds are r|cer |o ||e|r parer|s |l ||ey |roW ||a| ||ey'|| ge| ar |r|er||arce. lreedor ol
|es|a||or W||| ercourage crea||v||y, |ard Wor|, sav|rgs, |r|||a||ve, ard o||er |||rgs ||a| oerel|| o||ers. ( lrcer||ve v|eW)
d. Professor "an$bein sa|d ||a| ros| ol ||e Wea||| |r ||e u.3. |s ro| rore|ary, ou| educa||ora| ard cu||ura|.
e. Ascher |rver|s ||e |rad|||ora| Way ol do|rg |||rgs. le says ||e delau|| s|ou|d oe ||a| every|||rg goes |o ||e
goverrrer| W||| excep||orsdeperder|s, e.g. T|e goa| |s equa|||y ol oppor|ur||y (|eve| p|ay|rg l|e|d) ard reduc|rg
||e del|c||. 0|ll|cu|| |o erlorce a dea||-|ax re|urr. leop|e Wou|d sperd rorey or |||rgs ||a| or|rg |rred|a|e
p|easure ra||er ||ar sav|rg || lor lu|ure gerera||ors, rore |r|er v|vos g|l|s. (`Corl|sca|ory' sc|ereTa|e says
`|orse |oc|ey.')
Freedom of Testation
lroro|es produc||ve oe|av|or, peop|e Wor| |arder, save rore
locus or W||| ol ||e |es|a|or.
2. 0ead lard lroo|er
T|e 0eceder| |s |ry|rg |o cor|ro| ||e s||ua||or lror ||e grave
%estatement of Property. loo| |o ||e donor&s intent goverrs |es|a|or docurer|s. ll || Was |o a||ac| a
cord|||or, ||er g|ve ellec| |o ||a| cord|||or. ll excep||or. ll || v|o|a|es puo po||cy, ||er cour| W||| ro| erlorce ||.
'hapira (. )nion National Ban!
*ommon Pleas *ourt of +ahonin$ *ounty
,-. N./.0d 10. 2-3456
Facts: JeW|s| la||er a||erp|ed |o so|ve a proo|er |r dea|| ||a| |e cou|d ro| W|||e or ear||. Tr|ed |o ge| ||s sors |o
rarry JeW|s| Worer. T|ey d|dr'|, so ||e doc|or's rorey Wer| |o ||e 3|a|e ol lsrae|. ls || appropr|a|e lor
soreore |o use rorey |o ercourage peop|e |o do cer|a|r |||rgs. Ta|e says We reed |o |ave c|ear ru|es aoou|
W|a| v|o|a|es ll, aro||er |||rgs |o say ||a| ||ese are a||oWed ard aro||er |o say ||a| ||ey're a good |dea. 8oo|
ra|es c|ear ||a| ||e la||er's rerory |s ro| er|arced oy |||s exper|erce.
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Rule: A |es|a|or ray va||d|y |rpose a res|ra|r| or ||e re||g|or ol ||e spouse ol a oerel|c|ary as a cord|||or preceder|
|o |r|er|||rg urder ||e W|||.
Held: A par||a| res|ra|r| ol rarr|age W||c| |rposes or|y reasorao|e res|r|c||ors |s ro| vo|d as v|o|a||ve ol puo||c po||cy.
ls ||e JeW|s| la||er a||oWed |o cor|ro| ||s sor lror ||e grave?
ll ||a| Was ||e |ssue ||a| ||e cour| rea||y locused upor, ||er || Wou|d ro| ra||er W|e||er |oW rary JeW|s| Worer Were
ava||ao|e, || Wou|d or|y ra||er W|e||er ||e la||er |s a||oWed.
w|a| aoou| ||e rary c|rcurs|arces al|er ||e JeW|s| la||er's dea||?
w|a| |s JeW|s|? w|a| |l ||e or|de |s a JeW lor Jesus? Cour| Wou|d |ave |o ra|e a re||g|ous dec|s|or.
w|a| |l ||e sor |ad a s|ar JeW|s| rarr|age?
w|a| aoou| |l ||e sor carro| l|rd a JeW|s| Worar ||a| W||| rarry ||r?
w|a| aoou| ||e c|rcurs|arces W|||e ||e JeW|s| la||er |s a||ve?
T|e sor or|rgs |ore a l|arcee ||a| |s c|arg|rg |o Juda|sr. wou|d ||e JeW|s| la||er a||oW |||s rarr|age? we dor'|
|roW roW, oecause |e |s dead, ou| rayoe |e Wou|d |ave a||oWed lor |||s Wedd|rg ard |r|er||arce.
%eal "ife78hat 9o :ou Tell the e;ish Father<.
lo|r| ou| ||e lssue|ay g|ve c||er|s exarp|es ol |oW ||e|r W|s|es ray |ave d|re corsequerces.
|ayoe a |rus| Wou|d oe ||e oes| rearsNo| a W|||8e ar adv|sor ard course|or (see ||e corsequerces)
0or'| ra|e || sourd |r ||e W||| |||e |ry|rg |o d|scourage or ercourage sore|||rg (rerarr|age or d|vorce), ou| ra|e ||
sourd |||e you are corcerred lor ||e|r We||oe|rg.
Cord|||ors |e|||rg peop|e ||a| ||ey ge| rorey |l ||ey ge| a d|vorce, or dor'| rerarry, cour| W||| ro| erlorce o|c dor'|
|oo| lavorao|y or |||rgs ||a| d|srup| lar||y ||le. 8e||er |o say ro| d|scourag|rg d|vorce, jus| War| |o |ave ||a| persor
prov|ded lor |r ||e ever| ol d|vorce.
C||er|s dor'| a|Ways |||r| ||roug| poss|o|e rega||ve corsequerces al|er ||ey d|e. |ay allec| |oW deceder| |s
||oug|| ol al|er dea||.
Incenti(e Trusts. ||e 8erel|c|ary ge|s a cer|a|r arour| ol $ or proper|y |l ||ey perlorr a cer|a|r cord|||or (go |o co||ege,
|ave c|||drer, e|c.). Ta|e Wro|e ar ar||c|e aoou| |rcer||ve |rus|s.
*o$niti(e dissonance. TWo groups ol ||dsore go| reWard lor draW|rg. 0||ers d|d ro| ge| ||e reWard ard ||ey
cor||rued |o draW al|er ||ey Were reWarded oecause ||e|r joy care lror draW|rg, ro| lror a reWard.
%acially restricti(e coverar|s'helley (. =ramer d|d ro| app|y oecause |||s Was ro| pro||o|||rg sor lror rarry|rg
ard Was ro| app|y|rg |o rary |r ||e popu|a||or. Jus| say|rg ||a| |e Was ro| go|rg |o ge| rorey.
Public Policy Rules and Constitutional Issues
T|ere are ro cors|||u||ora| proo|ers W||| p|ac|rg cord|||ors or g|l|s s|rce ||ere |s ro s|a|e ac||or or |ega| ellec|
ur||| prooa|ed |r cour| ard ||e cour| |s jus| g|v|rg ellec| |o a T's |r|er||ors. lrooa||rg a W||| does ro| r|se |o ||e
|eve| ol s|a|e ac||or lor v|o|a||ors ol ||e 14
arerdrer|, however, sore c|auses ray oe (oid for public
0|vorce. ll a W||| proro|es or ercourages d|vorce - usua||y vo|d s|rce ||'s aga|rs| puo||c po||cy. 0|l|s cord|||ored
or d|vorce are va||d |l ||e cord|||or |s |o prov|de lor ||e oerel|c|ary |r ||e ever| ol separa||or or d|vorce - ou| ro|
|l |o |rc||e d|vorce.
bace. ll W||| says you carro| rarry soreore ol a cer|a|r race (esp. v|c||rs ol d|scr|r|ra||or) - ray oe vo|d as
aga|rs| puo||c po||cy or urreasorao|e.
o ll a W||| says you rus| or rus| ro| rarry soreore ol a cer|a|r re||g|or = erlorceao|e (ur|ess ||ere are
very leW reroers ol ||a| re||g|or).
o ll W||| says `rus| rera|r |r good s|ard|rg |r ||e c|urc| ol 0|sc|p|es ol C|r|s|,' = a|ros| a|Ways up|e|d,
ur|ess ||'s d|v|s|ve ol lar|||es - suc| as ra|s|rg c|||drer |r a la||| d|llerer| ||ar your oWr.
C|arge ol rare. ll a W||| requ|res a daug||er-|r-|aW ro| |o use a |yp|era|ed rare = erlorceao|e.
C|ar||ao|e res|ra|r|s. up|e|d ur|versa||y
lersora| |ao||s res|ra|r|. rorra||y up|e|d ur|ess |oo vague
lage 2 ol 190
|arr|age. Total res|r|c||ors or rarr|age are pro||o||ed as aga|rs| puo||c po||cy, ou| sore par||a| res|ra|r|s are o|.
|ay oe ao|e |o res|r|c| a secord rarr|age oecause ||e ro||va||or r|g|| oe suppor|. A|so ray par||a||y res|ra|r
rarr|age oy cord|||or|rg g|l|s or ||e oerel|c|ary rarry|rg W||||r a par||cu|ar c|ass or la|||. 0|l|s cord|||ored or
a W|doW rera|r|rg s|rg|e are va||d |l purpose |s |o prov|de |er |r ||e ever| s|e rera|rs s|rg|e.
B. /thical *onsiderations>Issues
Ethical considerations rules
The Pri(ity %ule. T|ere |s a du|y ol reasorao|e care oe|Weer ar a||orrey ard ar |r|erded oerel|c|ary oecause
||ere |s loreseeao|e |arr ard oecause ol ||e |||rd par|y oerel|c|ary doc|r|re. Simpson
o C|a|rs car oe oroug|| |r |or| or |
o A||orrey |as continuing duty to correct errors rade dur|rg dral||rg ol ||e W||| (du|y ro| app||cao|e |o
c|arge ol c|rcurs|arce c|arge|errors)
o Texas does ro| lo||oW |||s ru|e
%ule of la;. |us| d|sc|ose re|evar| |rlorra||or aoou| oerel|c|ar|es||e|rs |o ||e par||es |rvo|ved, reed a Wa|ver
|l ||ere |s a corl||c| ol |r|eres|. A v. B
'tatute of "imitations: 3|a|u|e ol l|r||a||ors lor W|||-dral||rg errors does ro| oeg|r |o rur ur||| dea|| ol T -
|o||ed ur||| dea||
*ommon "a; Texas
A||orrey |as a du|y ol reasorao|e care |o ||e
oerel|c|ar|es o|c loreseeao|e |arr, desp||e ro
pr|v||y (this is an exception to the privity rule
Cor|rac| T|eory. 3
par|y oerel|c|ary doc|r|re
Tor| T|eory. loreseeao|e |rjured par|y
No pr|v||y o|W a||orrey ard oerel|c|ar|es
A||orrey |as ro du|y ol reasorao|e care |o ||e
lo||oWs |rad|||ora| ru|e ol cor|rac| pr|v||y
Texas Law on Ethical Considerations and the Privity Rule
Texas lo||oWs ||e |rad|||ora| ru|e ol pr|v||y. (N0 0u|y ol beasorao|e Care |o 8erel|c|ary!)
A |ac| ol pr|v||y ol cor|rac| o|W a||orrey ard oerel|c|ary prever|s a ra|prac||ce c|a|r oy ||e oerel|c|ar|es
aga|rs| ||e a||orrey.
A||orrey does N0T oWe a du|y ol reasorao|e care |o ||e oerel|c|ar|es.
'impson (. *ali(as
'upreme *ourt of Ne; #ampshire
?.@ A.0d ,-1 2-3356
lac|s. T|e a||orrey |r ||e W||| s|a|ed ||a| ||e la||er Was |eav|rg a ||le es|a|e |o ||e W|le lor ||e |ores|ead. 8u| || |s
ursure W|a| `|ores|ead' rear|, oecause ||ere are ru|||p|e proper||es. T|e sor argues ||a| ||e W|le Was or|y
due ||e ||le es|a|e or ||e |ore. T|e cour| ru|ed lor ||e W|le. T|e sor ooug|| ou| ||e W|le. T|e sor or|rgs
ra|prac||ce su|| aga|rs| a||orrey. T|e a||orrey |ep| a record ol W|a| ||e W||| s|ou|d |ave s|a|ed. Cour| grar|s
surrary judgrer| or grourd ol co||a|era| es|oppe|, ||er d|sr|ssed |aWsu|| or ||e grourd ||a| ||e a||orrey d|d
ro| oWe a du|y |o ||e |r|erded oerel|c|ar|es.
lssue. was ||ere a du|y |o ||e |r|erded oerel|c|ar|es? (le|d aga|rs| |oWer cour|, sa|d ||a| ||ere Was a du|y.) T|er,
W|e||er doc|r|re ol pr|v||y ol K prever|s co||a|era| es|oppe|.
le|d. A||orreys dral||rg W|||s oWe a du|y ol reasorao|e care |o ||e |r|erded oerel|c|ar|es.
lrooa|e cour|'s de|err|ra||or |s ||r||ed |o expressed (ro| ac|ua|) |r|er|. loo||rg a| construed |r|er| as rel|ec|ed
|r ||e W|||. Ary l|rd|rg ||a| ||e prooa|e cour| rade as |o ||e ac|ua| |r|er| Was |rre|evar|, oecause |||s cour| |s
|oo||rg |o ||e cors|rued |r|er|.
Fxcep||or |o ||e pr|v||y requ|rerer|.
lage 3 ol 190
B)T IN T/AA': 'trict pri(ity of = oe|Weer a||orrey ard |es|a|or. l|r||s W|o ||e a||orrey |as |o dea| W||| al|er
0's dea||. Barcelo v. Elliott, 923 S.W.2d 575
bFCFNT TX 3C CA3FFs|a|e car sue or oe|a|l ol ||e deceder| lor ra|prac||ce. (Belt v. Oppenheimer,
Blend, Harrison & Tate, Inc.
192 S.W.3d 780
Argurer|s lor |||s bu|e. beduces ourder or a||orrey, beduces ||||ga||or. Ta|e doesr'| |||e TX ru|e.
N0TF3. co||a|era| es|oppe|s - |l a cour| |as a|ready ru|ed or ||e sare |ssue, || carro| oe rue|d or aga|r
lrooa|e cour| ru|ed or W|a| lores|ead rear|.
T|e cour| re-|oo|ed a| || ||e prooa|e cour| |oo|ed a| cors|rued |r|er| ard ro| ac|ua| |r|er|
T||s area ol ||e |aW |s very lorra||s||c
3|rp|sor ru|e |s rajor||y - ||e a||orrey oWes a du|y |o ||e prospec||ve oerelac|ors
Texas |s |r ||e r|ror||y - s|r|c| pr|v||y
l|or|da ard loWa ru|e - car or|y sue lor ra|prac||ce |l || |s ra|prac||ce lror ||s |errs
F3TATF llANNlN0 |AllbACTlCF. wlll AlA8A|A
C0ubT3 bFlAX TlF lblvlT 8AbblFb?
Texas ru|e- |rad|||ora| pr|v||y doc|r|re, ou| |as evo|ved sore (see 0'0orre|| case)
0dorre|| - 3
par| ol ||e |r||ogy
Smith v. O'Donnell
288 S.W.3d 417
l|rs| case - 8arce||a - oppos||e dec|s|or as ||e s|rpsor case. Cour| Was Worr|ed aoou| a poss|o|e corl||c| ol
|r|eres| |l ||e a||orrey |s Worr|ed aoou| oe|rg sued oy d|s|r|er||ed
3ecord case - 8e|| v. opper|e|er - execu|er War|ed |o sue lor ra|prac||ce oecause || |ed |o a |uge |ax ||ao||||y.
C|. |e|d ||a| ||e execu|er cou|d sue (s|ards |r ||e s|oes ol ||e deceased persor - ary ac||or ||a| ||e persor
cou|d |ave oroug|| ||e execu|er cou|d or|rg)
T||rd case - 3r||| v. 0dorre||
o w|le passed aWay ard |e War|ed |o sp||| ||e corrur||y proper|y ol s|oc|s.
o C|- |||s la||s urder oe|| ro| oarce||a
T|e execu|er |s ||e l. ard ro| ||e c|||drer ard car go lorWard.
o upc 1-201 - del|r|||ors (oe|| proo|er |ax |rp||ca||ors) a||oWs W|||s |o oe c|arged
A vs. 8
lac|s - ru|ua| W|||s (|l ore d|es a|| ||e|r |r|ers| go |o ||e o||er)

lage 4 ol 190
A (. B 2N.. -3336
Corl||c| ol |r|eres|. lusoard ard W|le rade W||| a| sare ||re, rar|rg eac| o||er as oerel|c|ar|es. l||| wa||ac|
laW l|rr |s represer||rg oo|| |usoard ard W|le. lusoard |ad oas|ard c|||d ||a| W|le d|dr'| |roW aoou|.
ll W|le d|es, |usoard r|g|| |eave ||e proper|y (||a| orce oe|orged |o W|le) |o ||e sor. l|rr |oo| or aro||er case
||a| |usoard Was |rvo|ved |r regard|rg a pa|err||y su||. w|er l|rr rea||zed ||s corl||c|, || dropped ||e pa|err||y su||
ard ordered |usoard |o |e|| W|le.
Cour| ru|ed ||a| ||e l|rr cou|d |e|| ||e W|le aoou| ||e oas|ard c|||d. 0o ro| War| l|rr |o oe a par|y |o decep||or.
lF330N. l|rr s|ou|d |ave |o|d c||er|s |o d|sc|ose |||s |rlorra||or.
*. The Probate Process
Purpose of Probate
A||oWs s|a|e |o pro|ec| ||e r|g||s ard |r|er||or ol deceder| W|ere |e |s `d|sao|ed' oy dea|| |o erlorce ||s oWr
3uppor|s s|a|e goa| ol c|ear|rg ary c|ouds or ||||e
lro|ec|s cred||ors |r ar |rpar||a| lorur
Jurisdiction of Probate Courts
0or|c|||ary. Jur|sd|c||or ol lrooa|e Cour| |r W||c| deceder| d|ed
Arc|||ary. Jur|sd|c||or ol lrooa|e Cour| |r W||c| deceder| oWrs rea| proper|y
Role of probate court
3uoord|ra|e |o o||er cour|s
No| a |rad|||ora| cour| urder Ar|. lll ol ||e Cors|. (jud|c|a| orarc|)
l|r||ed scope - carro| rev|eW ev|derce ol `T's |rue |r|er||or' - ||ere |s ro co||a|era| es|oppe| lror a dec|s|or oy a
lC o|c a 0|s|r|c| Cour| car adr|| rore ev|derce (suc| as Was ||e s|de |ssue dec|ded |r Simpson v. !aliveras aoove)
Probate Matters
0|e W||| W|||Tes|a|e
0|e W|||ou| a w|||lr|es|a|e
Cour| proceed|rg requ|red
on!probate Matters
Terrs ol Cor|rac| (`layao|e upor dea||')
No cour| proceed|rg requ|red
Probate vocabulary
w|||s are revocao|e ard arou|a|ory (see oe|oW)
bevocao|e. W||| car oe revo|ed. No W||| |s o|rd|rg ur||| dea|| o|c T car a|Ways c|arge or ra|e aro||er ore.
Arou|a|ory. o|c ol aoso|u|e revocao||||y, ||e |rc|us|or ol soreore |r a W||| crea|es N0 |ega||y ves|ed |r|eres|
ur||| ||e dea|| ol T
0ev|se. rea| prop |s dev|sed oy T |o dev|see
8equea||. persora| prop (|.e. `persora||y') |s oequea||ed oy ||e T |o ||e |ega|ee
0escerd. lr |r|es|acy, prop passes lror ||e deceder| oy descer| |o ||e descerdar|s
T|ere are or|y |Wo |ypes ol persora| represer|a||ves.
Adr|r|s|er. persor appo|r|ed oy cour| as a persora| represer|a||ve (see oe|oW lor order ol e||g|o||||y)
Fxecu|or. persor rared |r W||| as a persora| represer|a||verorra||y execu|or rus| pos| oord, ||'s a good
|dea |o Wa|ve oord |l you |rus| ||e persor s|rce ||'s suc| a |ass|e
lage 5 ol 190
"rder of persons eligible to beco#e a personal representative
lersor rared W||| cores l|rs|, ||er surv|v|rg spouse, ||er dev|sees ard |ega|ees, ||e rex| ol ||r, ||er
cred||ors, ||er persors ol good c|arac|er |r corrur||y.
ll oerel|c|ar|es |||r| persora| rep |s do|rg a poor joo, ary |r|eres|ed persor car derard ar `accountin".' A|so
car see| |o |ave execu|or or adr|r|s|ra|or reroved.
$ifferent %inds of ad#inistration
|us| app|y lor |e||ers ol |es|arer|ary or |e||ers ol adr|r|s|ra||or |l you dor'| |ave a W||| W||||r 4 years.
ulC. lorra| v. |rlorra| prooa|e
Texas B -5. P* lrdeperder| v. cour| adr|r|s|ered adr|r|s|ra||or. (see oe|oW)
Independent Administration7Non-'uper(ised Administration
Texas law on probate procedure &Independent and '#all Estate Procedure(
lr Texas, car |ave independent administration or court administered administration.
lrdeperder|. (B -5.)
Texas Probate *ode B -5.. Independent Administration
(a) lrdeperder| adr|r|s|ra||or ol ar es|a|e ray oe crea|ed as prov|ded |r 3uosec||ors (o) ||roug| (e) ol |||s sec||or.
(o) Ary persor capao|e ol ra||rg a W||| may pro(ide in his ;ill that no other action shall be had |r ||e cour|y cour| |r re|a||or |o
||e se|||erer| ol ||s es|a|e ||ar ||e prooa||rg ard record|rg ol ||s W|||, ard ||e re|urr ol ar |rver|ory, appra|serer|, ard ||s| ol
c|a|rs ol ||s es|a|e.
(|) w|er ar |rdeperder| adr|r|s|ra||or |as oeer crea|ed, ard ||e order appo|r||rg ar |rdeperder| execu|or |as oeer er|ered
oy ||e cour|y cour|, ard ||e |rver|ory, appra|serer|, ard ||s| aloresa|d |as oeer l||ed oy ||e execu|or ard approved oy ||e
cour|y cour|, as |org as ||e es|a|e |s represer|ed oy ar |rdeperder| execu|or, further action of any nature shall not be had
in the county court excep| W|ere |||s Code spec|l|ca||y ard exp||c|||y prov|des lor sore ac||or |r ||e cour|y cour|.
o 0r|y |||rg ||a| cour| does |s ||e prooa||rg ol ||e W||| ard ||e re|urr ol ||e |rver|ory appra|serer| ard
||s| ol c|a|rs. lF W||| s|oW up, g|ve W|||, W||| |s prooa|ed, ge| |e||ers |es|arer|ary, ||er W||| g|ve ||s| ol ||e
es|a|e ard c|a|rs, ard says |e'|| |a|e care ol ||. T|a|'s ||. 0or'| |ave |o repor| |o cour| or a regu|ar
oas|s ur|ess sore|||rg's go|rg Wrorg.
o 8erel|c|a| - peop|e do ro| |ry so |ard |o avo|d prooa|eNo| expers|ve
o w|oever Wr||es a W||| ray c|oose ||e |rdeperder| adr|r|s|ra||or op||or |r Texas. 0r, |l ||e W||| does
ro| spec|ly, a|| oerel|c|ar|es car app|y lor |rdeperder| adr|r|s|ra||or.
o Ta|e advar|age ol Texas prooa|e W|||ou| cour| superv|s|or
o ll |r|es|a|e, ||e |e|rs car agree ||a| ||ey War| lrdeperder| Adr|r|s|ra||or. 0r, |l ro| rer||ored |r W|||,
|e|rs car agree. 0r|y car'| do |||s |l W||| loro|ds ||.
o B -53: ll lF ro| do|rg a good joo, |e|rs car as| lor ar accour||rg. ll lF ergag|rg |r |rappropr|a|e
oe|av|or, ||er oerel|c|ar|es car |ave lF reroved.
Texas Probate *ode B -53A. Accountin$
2a6 Interested Person +ay 9emand Accountin$. A| ary ||re al|er ||e exp|ra||or ol l|l|eer ror||s lror ||e da|e ||a| ar
|rdeperder| adr|r|s|ra||or Was crea|ed ard ||e order appo|r||rg ar |rdeperder| execu|or Was er|ered oy ||e cour|y cour|,
ary persor |r|eres|ed |r ||e es|a|e |A derard ar accour||rg lror ||e |rdeperder| execu|or. T|e |rdeperder| execu|or
s|a|| ||ereupor lurr|s| |o ||e persor or persors ra||rg ||e derard ar ex||o|| |r Wr|||rg, sWorr ard suoscr|oed oy ||e
|rdeperder| execu|or, se|||rg lor|| |r de|a||.
1. T|e proper|y oe|org|rg |o ||e es|a|e W||c| |as core |r|o ||s |ards as execu|or.
2. T|e d|spos|||or ||a| |as oeer rade ol suc| proper|y.
3. T|e deo|s ||a| |ave oeer pa|d.
4. T|e deo|s ard experses, |l ary, s|||| oW|rg oy ||e es|a|e.
5. T|e proper|y ol ||e es|a|e, |l ary, s|||| rera|r|rg |r ||s |ards.
o. 3uc| o||er lac|s as ray oe recessary |o a lu|| ard del|r||e urders|ard|rg ol ||e exac| cord|||or ol ||e es|a|e.
7. 3uc| lac|s, |l ary, ||a| s|oW W|y ||e adr|r|s|ra||or s|ou|d ro| oe c|osed ard ||e es|a|e d|s|r|ou|ed.
Ary o||er |r|eres|ed persor s|a||, upor derard, oe er||||ed |o a copy ol ary ex||o|| or accour||rg ||a| |as oeer rade oy ar
|rdeperder| execu|or |r corp||arce W||| |||s sec||or.
lage " ol 190
Texas Probate *ode B -53*. %emo(al of Independent /xecutor
(a) T|e cour|y cour|, as ||a| |err |s del|red oy 3ec||or 3 ol |||s code, or ||s oWr ro||or or or ro||or ol ary |r|eres|ed persor,
al|er ||e |rdeperder| execu|or |as oeer c||ed oy persora| serv|ce |o arsWer a| a ||re ard p|ace l|xed |r ||e ro||ce, |A
remo(e an independent executor W|er.
||e |rdeperder| execu|or la||s |o re|urr W||||r r|re|y days al|er qua||l|ca||or, ur|ess suc| ||re |s ex|erded oy order ol ||e
cour|, ar inventory o# the property ol ||e es|a|e ard ||s| ol c|a|rs ||a| |ave core |o ||e |rdeperder| execu|or's |roW|edge,
sull|c|er| grourds appear |o suppor| oe||el ||a| ||e |rdeperder| execu|or |as r|sapp||ed or eroezz|ed, or ||a| ||e |rdeperder|
execu|or |s aoou| |o r|sapp|y or eroezz|e, a|| or ary par| ol ||e proper|y corr|||ed |o ||e |rdeperder| execu|or's care,
(3) ||e |rdeperder| execu|or la||s |o ra|e ar accour||rg W||c| |s requ|red oy |aW |o oe rade,
(4) ||e |rdeperder| execu|or la||s |o ||re|y l||e ||e all|dav|| or cer||l|ca|e requ|red oy 3ec||or 128A ol |||s code,
||e |rdeperder| execu|or |s proved |o |ave oeer gu|||y ol gross r|scorduc| or gross r|sraragerer| |r ||e perlorrarce
ol ||e |rdeperder| execu|or's du||es, or
||e |rdeperder| execu|or oecores ar |rcapac||a|ed persor, or |s ser|erced |o ||e per||er||ary, or lror ary o||er cause
oecores |ega||y |rcapac||a|ed lror proper|y perlorr|rg ||e |rdeperder| execu|or's l|duc|ary du||es.
(o) T|e order ol rerova| s|a|| s|a|e ||e cause ol rerova| ard s|a|| d|rec| oy order ||e d|spos|||or ol ||e asse|s rera|r|rg |r ||e rare
or urder ||e cor|ro| ol ||e reroved execu|or. T|e order ol rerova| s|a|| requ|re ||a| |e||ers |ssued |o ||e reroved execu|or s|a||
oe surrerdered ard ||a| a|| |e||ers s|a|| oe carce|ed ol record. ll ar |rdeperder| execu|or |s reroved oy ||e cour| urder |||s
sec||or, ||e cour| ray, or app||ca||or, appo|r| a successor |rdeperder| execu|or as prov|ded oy 154A ol |||s code.
(c) Ar |rdeperder| execu|or W|o delerds ar ac||or lor ||s rerova| |r good la|||, W|e||er successlu| or ro|, 3lAll oe a||oWed ou|
ol ||e es|a|e ||s necessary expenses and disbursements, |rc|ud|rg reasorao|e a||orrey's lees, |r ||e rerova| proceed|rgs.
(d) Cos|s ard experses |rcurred oy ||e par|y see||rg rerova| |rc|der| |o rerova| ol ar |rdeperder| execu|or appo|r|ed W|||ou|
oord, |rc|ud|rg reasorao|e a||orrey's lees ard experses, ray oe pa|d ou| ol ||e es|a|e.
#:PC: If li(e and die in TAD ;ould you pro(ide in ;ill for IA< 0or'| |ave |o. T||s |s a o|g advar|age ol TX prooa|e.
lr o||er s|a|es, lrooa|e |s very cos||y ard expers|ve ard peop|e go |o grea| |erg||s |o avo|d ||. `T|e rora| ol ||e s|ory
|s, dor'| d|e |r CT. N|ce p|ace |o v|s||, ou| dor'| d|e ||ere.'
o Process: ||s| c|a|rs ol es|a|e, avo|ds cos|s, de|ays ard |ass|es ol cour| superv|s|or, a|| ||ey |ave |o do
|s l||e ||e reques|, ||er ||ere |s ro cour| superv|s|or ur|ess soreore oojec|s.
o lrdeperder| execu|or rus|. (1) g|ve oord |l ro| Wa|ved ard (2) g|ve ro||ce |o cred||ors.
|us| g|ve ro||ce |o secured cred||ors W||||r o0 days- carro| jus| puo||s| |r a reWspaper, rus|
g|ve d|rec| ro||ce |r Wr|||rg.
lor ursecured cred||ors - dor'| |ave |o g|ve persora| ro||ce. ll you do g|ve ursecured cred||ors
persora| ro||ce - you car acce|era|e ||e process. T|ey |ave lour ror||s lror rece|v|rg ro||ce |o preser| ||e|r c|a|r - |||s
exped||es ||e process. (0rder or payrer| lor cred||ors - lroo. 320, 322)
9uties: lay oll cred||ors, |oc| |ouse (ge| |eys), d|s|r|ou|e proper|y. l||e |rver|ory.
Ei(e notice to creditors. lor gerera| cred||ors, jus| g|ve a reWspaper ro||ce (|ega| ro||ces). 8u|
lor secured cred||ors, |ave |o Wr||e ||er a |e||er. Cred||ors |ave ur||| ||e es|a|e |s c|osed |o l||e
c|a|rs ur|ess oarred oy 30l, ou| ever al|er es|a|e |s c|osed, car s|||| g|ve l||e c|a|rs ur||| 30l.
0|ve persora| ro||ce |o uC, ||ey or|y |ave l0ub ror||s |o l||e ||e c|a|r. ll la|| |o l||e |r ||a| 4
ror||s, ||ey |ose ||e|r c|a|r. 0|ll|cu|| c|o|ce |l ||ere's a |o| ol deo|.
BB ,0@D ,00: Priority of payments: lurera| experses, a||ys lees, ledera| goverrrer| c|a|rs
ou|rar| every|||rg excep| lurera| experses ard lar||y a||oWarce. lar||y a||oWarce |s spec|a| lor
surv|v|rg spouse ard c|||drer, g|ves ||er eroug| |o surv|ve or lor a year |l ||ey dor'| |ave
eroug| |o surv|ve or ||e|r oWr. lores|ead a|so pro|ec|ed. Texas |s very gererous |r
|ores|ead prov|s|ors.
Texas Probate *ode B ,0@. Crder of Payment of *laims and Allo;ances
2a6 Priority of Payments. lersora| represer|a||ves, W|er ||ey |ave lurds |r ||e|r |ards oe|org|rg |o ||e es|a|e, s|a|| pay |r ||e
lage # ol 190
lo||oW|rg order.
(1) lurera| experses ard experses ol |as| s|c|ress |r ar arour| ro| |o exceed l|l|eer T|ousard 0o||ars (>$1500.00).
(2) A||oWarces rade |o ||e surv|v|rg spouse ard c|||drer, or |o e|||er.
Fxperses ol adr|r|s|ra||or ard ||e experses |rcurred |r ||e preserva||or, sale|eep|rg, ard raragerer| ol ||e es|a|e.
(4) 0||er c|a|rs aga|rs| ||e es|a|e |r ||e order ol ||e|r c|ass|l|ca||or.
Texas Probate *ode B ,00. *lassification of *laims A$ainst /states of 9ecedent
C|a|rs aga|rs| ar es|a|e ol a deceder| s|a|| oe c|ass|l|ed ard |ave pr|or||y ol payrer|, as lo||oWs.
C|ass 1. Funeral expenses ard expenses of last sic!ness lor a reasorao|e arour| |o oe approved oy ||e cour|, ro| |o exceed a
|o|a| ol l|l|eer T|ousard 0o||ars, W||| ary excess |o oe c|ass|l|ed ard pa|d as o||er ursecured c|a|rs.
C|ass 2. /xpenses of administration ard experses |rcurred |r ||e preserva||or, sale|eep|rg, ard raragerer| ol ||e es|a|e,
|rc|ud|rg lees ard experses aWarded urder 243 ol |||s code, ard urpa|d experses ol adr|r|s|ra||or aWarded |r a
guard|ars||p ol ||e deceder|.
C|ass 3. 'ecured claims lor rorey urder 30o(a)(1), |rc|ud|rg |ax ||ers, so lar as ||e sare car oe pa|d ou| ol ||e proceeds ol
||e proper|y suojec| |o suc| ror|gage or o||er ||er, ard W|er rore ||ar ore ror|gage, ||er, or secur||y |r|eres| s|a|| ex|s|
upor ||e sare proper|y, ||ey s|a|| oe pa|d |r order ol ||e|r pr|or||y.
C|ass 4. C|a|rs lor ||e pr|rc|pa| arour| ol ard accrued |r|eres| or delinFuent child support ard c|||d suppor| arrearages ||a|
|ave oeer corl|rred ard reduced |o rorey judgrer|, as de|err|red urder 3uoc|ap|er l, C|ap|er 157, lar||y Code.
C|ass 5. C|a|rs lor taxesD penaltiesD and interest due urder T|||e 2, Tax Code, C|ap|er 8, T|||e 132, bev|sed 3|a|u|es, 81.111,
Na|ura| besources Code, ||e |ur|c|pa| 3a|es ard use Tax Ac| (C|ap|er 321, Tax Code), 451.404, Trarspor|a||or
Code, or 3uoc|ap|er l, C|ap|er 452, Trarspor|a||or Code.
C|ass o. C|a|rs lor ||e cost of confinement es|ao||s|ed oy ||e |rs|||u||ora| d|v|s|or ol ||e Texas 0epar|rer| ol Cr|r|ra| Jus||ce
urder 501.017, 0overrrer| Code.
C|ass 7. C|a|rs lor repayment of medical assistance payments made by the state urder C|ap|er 32, lurar besources Code,
|o or lor ||e oerel|| ol ||e deceder|.
C|ass 8. All other claims.
B 3,: T|ree years |o or|rg up sore|||rg |o ||e cour| |l ||ere's a cor|es|. 8u| |l oased or lraud,
r|srepreser|a||or, lorgery, ||er |ave 2 years lror ||re ||'s d|scovered.
Texas Probate *ode B 3,. Period for *ontestin$ Probate
Al|er a W||| |as oeer adr|||ed |o prooa|e, any interested person |A |rs|||u|e su|| |r ||e proper cour| |o cor|es| ||e va||d||y
||ereol, ;ithin t;o years al|er suc| W||| s|a|| |ave oeer adr|||ed |o prooa|e, ard ro| al|erWard, excep| ||a| ary |r|eres|ed persor
ray |rs|||u|e su|| |r ||e proper cour| |o carce| a W||| lor lorgery or o||er lraud W||||r |Wo years al|er ||e d|scovery ol suc| lorgery or
lraud, ard ro| al|erWard. lrov|ded, |oWever, ||a| |rcapac||a|ed persors s|a|| |ave |Wo years al|er ||e rerova| ol ||e|r d|sao|||||es
W||||r W||c| |o |rs|||u|e suc| cor|es|.
Cour| appo|r|ed|superv|sed. A dra|r or ||e es|a|e, car oe a oad s||ua||or. TX avo|ds || ||roug| ||e op||or ol
|rdeperder| adr|r|s|ra||or.
Texas 'mall /state Procedure.
o TPB* BB -,4 & -,1
o Car or|y oe used W|er deceder| d|ed |r|es|a|e (W|o a W|||) ard ro ore |as oeer appo|r|ed |o |a|e ||e
o Car or|y oe used |l er||re es|a|e's asse|s are |ess ||ar $50| (ro|. |rc|ud|rg exerp| proper|y ard
o 0|s|r|ou|ee (|.e. spouse or |e|r) car l||e a `sra|| es|a|e all|dav||' lor co||ec||or ol sra|| es|a|es
)P* Texas
lorra| prooa|e
lrlorra| lrooa|e
lrdeperder| adr|r|s|ra||or
Cour|-adr|r|s|ered adr|r|s|ra||or
3ra|| es|a|e procedure
lage $ ol 190
lage 9 ol 190
Texas Probate *ode B -,4. *ollection of 'mall /states )pon Affida(it
(a) T|e d|s|r|ou|ees ol ||e es|a|e ol a deceder| W|o d|es |r|es|a|e s|a|| oe er||||ed ||ere|o, |o ||e ex|er| ||a| ||e asse|s, exc|us|ve
ol |ores|ead ard exerp| proper|y, exceed ||e |roWr ||ao|||||es ol sa|d es|a|e, exc|us|ve ol ||ao|||||es secured oy |ores|ead
ard exerp| proper|y, W|||ou| aWa|||rg ||e appo|r|rer| ol a persora| represer|a||ve W|er.
(1) No pe||||or lor ||e appo|r|rer| ol a persora| represer|a||ve |s perd|rg or |as oeer grar|ed, ard
(2) T||r|y days |ave e|apsed s|rce ||e dea|| ol ||e deceder|, ard
T|e va|ue ol ||e er||re asse|s ol ||e es|a|e, ro| |rc|ud|rg |ores|ead ard exerp| proper|y, does ro| exceed $50,000, ard
T|ere |s l||ed W||| ||e c|er| ol ||e cour| |av|rg jur|sd|c||or ard verue ar all|dav|| sWorr |o oy |Wo d|s|r|eres|ed W||resses, oy a||
suc| d|s|r|ou|ees ||a| |ave |ega| capac||y, ard, |l ||e lac|s Warrar|, oy ||e ra|ura| guard|ar or rex| ol ||r ol ary r|ror or ||e
guard|ar ol ary o||er |rcapac||a|ed persor W|o |s a|so a d|s|r|ou|ee, W||c| all|dav|| s|a|| oe exar|red oy ||e judge ol ||e cour|
|av|rg jur|sd|c||or ard verue, ard
T|e all|dav|| s|oWs ||e ex|s|erce ol ||e lorego|rg cord|||ors ard |rc|udes a ||s| ol a|| ol ||e |roWr asse|s ard ||ao|||||es ol
||e es|a|e, ||e rares ard addresses ol ||e d|s|r|ou|ees, ard ||e re|evar| lar||y ||s|ory lac|s corcerr|rg |e|rs||p ||a|
s|oW ||e d|s|r|ou|ees' r|g||s |o rece|ve ||e rorey or proper|y ol ||e es|a|e or |o |ave suc| ev|derces ol rorey, proper|y,
or o||er r|g||s ol ||e es|a|e as are lourd |o ex|s| |rarslerred |o ||er as |e|rs or ass|grees, ard
T|e judge, |r ||e judge's d|scre||or, l|rds ||a| ||e all|dav|| corlorrs |o ||e |errs ol |||s sec||or ard approves ||e all|dav||, ard
A copy ol ||e all|dav||, cer||l|ed |o oy sa|d c|er|, |s lurr|s|ed oy ||e d|s|r|ou|ees ol ||e es|a|e |o ||e persor or persors
oW|rg rorey |o ||e es|a|e, |av|rg cus|ody or possess|or ol proper|y ol ||e es|a|e, or ac||rg as reg|s|rar, l|duc|ary or
|rarsler ager| ol or lor ev|derces ol |r|eres|, |rdeo|edress, proper|y, or o||er r|g|| oe|org|rg |o ||e es|a|e.
(o) T||s sec||or does ro| allec| ||e d|spos|||or ol proper|y urder ||e |errs ol a W||| or o||er |es|arer|ary docurer| ror, excep| as
prov|ded oy 3uosec||or (c) ol |||s sec||or, does || |rarsler ||||e |o rea| proper|y.
(c) T|||e |o a deceder|'s |ores|ead ||a| |s ||e or|y rea| proper|y |r a deceder|'s es|a|e ray oe |rarslerred or ar all|dav|| ||a|
ree|s ||e requ|rerer|s ol |||s sec||or. Ar all|dav|| ||a| |s used |o |rarsler ||||e |o a |ores|ead urder |||s sec||or rus| oe
recorded |r ||e deed records ol a cour|y |r W||c| ||e |ores|ead |s |oca|ed. A oora l|de purc|aser lor va|ue ray re|y or a
recorded all|dav|| urder |||s sec||or. A oora l|de purc|aser lor va|ue W|||ou| ac|ua| or cors|ruc||ve ro||ce ol ar |e|r W|o |s ro|
d|sc|osed |r a recorded all|dav|| urder |||s sec||or acqu|res ||||e |o a |ores|ead lree ol ||e |r|eres|s ol ||e urd|sc|osed |e|r, ou|
||e oora l|de purc|aser rera|rs suojec| |o ary c|a|r a cred||or ol ||e deceder| |as oy |aW. A purc|aser |as cors|ruc||ve
ro||ce ol ar |e|r W|o |s ro| d|sc|osed |r a recorded all|dav|| urder |||s sec||or |l ar all|dav||, judgrer| ol |e|rs||p, or ||||e
|rarsac||or |r ||e c|a|r ol ||||e |r ||e deed records |der||l|es ||e |e|r ol ||e deceder| W|o |s ro| d|sc|osed |r ||e all|dav|| as ar
|e|r ol ||e deceder|. Ar |e|r W|o |s ro| d|sc|osed |r a recorded all|dav|| urder |||s sec||or ray recover lror ar |e|r W|o
rece|ves cors|dera||or lror a purc|aser |r a |rarsler lor va|ue ol ||||e |o a |ores|ead pass|rg urder ||e all|dav||.
Texas Probate *ode B -,1. /ffect of Affida(it
T|e persor ra||rg payrer|, de||very, |rarsler or |ssuarce pursuar| |o ||e all|dav|| descr|oed |r ||e preced|rg 3ec||or s|a|| oe
re|eased |o ||e sare ex|er| as |l rade |o a persora| represer|a||ve ol ||e deceder|, ard s|a|| ro| oe requ|red |o see |o ||e app||ca||or
||ereol or |o |rqu|re |r|o ||e |ru|| ol ary s|a|erer| |r ||e all|dav||, ou| ||e d|s|r|ou|ees |o W|or payrer|, de||very, |rarsler, or |ssuarce
|s rade s|a|| oe arsWerao|e ||erelor |o ary persor |av|rg a pr|or r|g|| ard oe accour|ao|e |o ary persora| represer|a||ve ||ereal|er
appo|r|ed. lr add|||or, ||e persor or persors W|o execu|e ||e all|dav|| s|a|| oe ||ao|e lor ary darage or |oss |o ary persor W||c|
ar|ses lror ary payrer|, de||very, |rarsler, or |ssuarce rade |r re||arce or suc| all|dav||. ll ||e persor |o W|or suc| all|dav|| |s
de||vered reluses |o pay, de||ver, |rarsler, or |ssue ||e proper|y as aoove prov|ded, suc| proper|y ray oe recovered |r ar ac||or
oroug|| lor suc| purpose oy or or oe|a|l ol ||e d|s|r|ou|ees er||||ed ||ere|o, upor prool ol ||e lac|s requ|red |o oe s|a|ed |r ||e all|dav||.
lage 10 ol 190
*lass #ypothetical
Tate o;es Blac!acre in fee simple 2no ri$ht of sur(i(orship6. Tate dies this mornin$ at -0:@-. At -0:@0D ;ho o;ns
le|rs (|l |r|es|a|e) or dev|sees (|l W|||) oWr || urder B ,4 ol lrooa|e Code.
`No arour| ol ||re s|or|er ||ar ||e dea|| ol decerder| ard pass|rg ol ||||e |o |e|rs or dev|sees.'
ll persora| proper|y, ||er ||'s oeques|. ll rea| proper|y, ||'s dev|sed.
0or'| |roW |l Ta|e d|ed W||| W||| or ro|.
laWyer |as W|||. B 4., a||orrey |as |o de||ver || |o ||e C|er| ol ||e Cour|.
|arr|ed. las| payc|ec| a| 3|u. loW does s|e ge| ||e rorey?
o urder B -?@, W|le car execu|e ar all|dav|| ||a| s|e's ||e surv|v|rg spouse ard ro adr|r|s|ra||or |s
perd|rg, |a|e || |o ||e l|rarce oll|ce, ard ||ey'|| re|ease ||e c|ec| |o |er.
las a |o| ol deo|s.
o lersora| rep appo|r|ed |o W|rd up Ta|e's alla|rs. ll ||ere's a W|||, ||er ||'s de||vered l|rs|, ard ||er lb |s
o ll |as a W|||, ||er lb |s `execu|or.' ll |r|es|a|e, ||er lb |s `adr|r|s|ra|or.'
o 8o|| serve sare purpose. rarage proper|y, d|s|r|ou|e ||, ard payoll ||e cred||ors.
o 0rce lb |s appo|r|ed, ||a| persor |as ||e r|g|| |o possess Ta|e's proper|y ever ||oug| TlTlF |as ves|ed
|r le|rs or 0ev|sees, PC''/''ICN goes |o ||e lb. lr TX, say `execu|r|x' or `adr|r|s|ra|r|x' W||c| reler
|o lF|AlF lbs.
B 44: 0|ves order ol peop|e W|o are qua||l|ed |o serve as lbs.
1. lersor rared |r W|||
2. 3urv|v|rg spouse
3. 0ev|sees or |ega|ees
4. Nex| ol ||r (re|a|ed ou| ro| dev|sees recessar||y)
5. Cred||ors
o. Ary persor ol good c|arac|er res|d|rg |r ||e cour|y.
Ary ol ||ese car Wa|ve ||e|r r|g|| |o serve. ll Wa|ve, passes |o ||e rex| |r ||re. ll 2 peop|e equa||y
er||||ed |o serve, ||e cour| c|ooses aryore W|o car do || oe||er (advar|ageous|y).
lb |as |o pos| oord. 8uT s|ardard c|ause |r ||e W||| ||a| `ro oord rus| oe lurr|s|ed oy ||e
execu|or.' 0ood |dea |o Wa|ve || so ||a| ||ey dor'| |ave |o ge| |rsurarce or pos| oord.
B 41: 0|squa||l|ed |o serve as lbs
o Nor-res|der|s W|o la||ed |o appo|r| a res|der| ager| |r ||e cour|y
o Corv|c|ed le|ors
o lrcapac||a|ed peop|e
o F|c.
B 45: lave lour years lror persor's dea|| |o app|y lor |e||ers |es|arer|ary.
o Al|er 4 yrs, cou|d s|||| prooa|e W|||, ou| car'| |ave ar adr|r|s|ra||or (ge| |e||ers |es|arer|ary). ur|ess ||'s
|o ge| rorey oWed oy ||e es|a|e (?).
lage 11 ol 190
#:PCT#/TI*A"7Probate not al;ays necessary7Pa$e ,1-,3
Aaron married to +artha and died ;ith the follo;in$ property:
FurnitureD tan$ibles $10,000
o lasses au|ora||ca||y
'a(in$s account in Aaron&s name 5,000
o ll jo|r| |erarcy, ||er passes au|ora||ca||y |o |
o lave |o go |o prooa|e cour| |o ge| |||s $.
B-,4: `3ra|| es|a|e procedure.' le|rs car s|oW up ard l||| ou| ar all|dav|| ||a| W||| oe sull|c|er| |o
|rarsler oar| acc| W|||ou| lb |av|rg |o oe appo|r|ed (8Ab ). 8es| lor |.
B51: |ore d|ll|cu||. Appo|r| a||y ad |||er. 8es| |o avo|d |||s.
oint chec!in$ ;> +artha 1,500
o lasses au|ora||ca||y
/mployer&s pension planD namin$ +artha as beneficiary l|le Arru||y
o | serds dea|| cer||l|ca|e |o pers|or lor || |o pass
Eo(ernment bonds payable to Aaron or +artha 5,000
o lasses au|ora||ca||y`0r dea|| ol ore, ||er |o ||e o||er'
Crdinary life insurance policy namin$ +artha as beneficiary 25,000
o lasses au|ora||ca||y (ror-prooa||ve)
Ford car 7,500
o lr Texas |o|or ve||c|es dor'| reed prooa|e |o pass ||||e
And the follo;in$ debts:
u|||||y o|||s (3) $40
v|sa (2) 300
0ep|. s|ore card (2) 125
Fxxor card (2) 35
lurera| o||| (1) 1,225
Cere|ary |o| (1) 300
o | car pay ||ese a|| oll or |er oWr o|c ro| Wor|| || |o ||re a |aWyer |o go |o prooa|e cour| ard serd ro||ces
|o cred||ors ||ar || Wou|d cos| lor |er |o pay ||ese |erse|l.
o No |axes or ||e es|a|e o|c We|| oe|oW ||e ledera| exerp||or.
Problem G0
Aaron>+artha Ereen Problem continuedH
No| a|Ways recessary |o prooa|e a W||| W|er ||e es|a|e |s sra|| ard ||ere are leW deo|s. 3urv|v|rg JT doesr'| reed
ary|||rg lror prooa|e cour| |o access lurds|proper|y. No ||||e-reg|s|ra||or cer||l|ca|e lor lurr||ure, so || au|ora||ca||y
ves|s |r |e|rs|dev|sees. lroper|y Wou|d a|ready oe|org |o |ar||a. |ar||a Wou|d or|y go |o ||e cour| |l ||ere's
sore|||rg ||a| s|e reeds.
3ra||-es|a|e procedure. le|rs l||| ou| all|dav|| say|rg ||a| ||ey're ||e |e|rs ard ||ey are ||e oWrers ol ||e proper|y.
Ta|e || |o ||e oar|, |ave oar| |rarsler ||||e.
ur|roWr |e|rs. Cour| appo|r|s a||orrey ad |||er |o de|err|re ur|roWr |e|rs. |ore corp||ca|ed ||ar 3Fl, ard |ave |o
pay AAl.
Problem G,
B 132a6: `Fxc|ud|rg deo|s secured oy ||ers or rea| es|a|e'
B 132c6: Car |ave W||| adr|||ed |o prooa|e as a rur|rer| only. use W||| as prool oy ||e cour| W|o ||e rea| es|a|e
goes |o.
o w|er you prooa|e a W|||, a|Ways ge| a rur|rer| ol ||||e.
lage 12 ol 190
lage 13 ol 190
9. Formalism in the "a; of 'uccession: The 'layer %ule Caseooo|. 12o-31
The 'layer Rule
o %ule of "a;>+ahoney %ule for (oluntary !illin$ . ll ||ere |s a voluntary |||||rg, ||er ||e s|ayer (rorra||y a spouse) |o|ds a
cors|ruc||ve |rus| ol ||e asse|s lor ||e o||er |e|rs|rex| ol ||r. T||s Way ||e rorey W||| pass |o ||e |rrocer| peop|e (||e rex| ol
||r||e|rs). T|e s|ayer |s ro| a||oWed |o prol|| lror ||s or |er Wrorg do|rg, ou| ||e |rrocer| s|ou|d ro| oe pur|s|ed.
o lrvo|ur|ary |||||rg. ll ||ere Was ar involuntary |||||rg|rars|aug||er (|.e. s|ayer Was |rsare), ||er s|ayer Wou|d s|||| ge| ||e
asse|s. T|ere |s a d|s||rc||or o|W vo|ur|ary ard |rvo|ur|ary.
o Terar| |r corror. ll ||e s|ayer Was a |erar| |r corror, ||er s|e Wou|d a|ready |ave a ves|ed |r|eres| ard Wou|d |a|e ||e
asse|s (ro| as a cors|ruc||ve |rus|ee). Jo|r| |erarcy Wou|d requ|re d|ves|||ure ol a geru|re ves|ed prop r|.
o |os| s|a|es |ave slayer statutes |o |eep cour|s lror jurp|rg ||oug| |oops |o |eep rurderer lror |r|er|||rg urder |r|es|a|e
o 3u|c|de. ll spouses |eaves |er separa|e proper|y a|| |o |er parer|s |r |er W||| oelore s|e corr||s su|c|de, ||ey s|ou|d s|||| ge|
||a| proper|y - ||'s ro| ||e joo ol ||e lC |o ascer|a|r |r|er|.
o Nor-Corv|c||or. T|e cour| |oo|s a| ||e ra||er urder ||e lbFl0N0FbANCF 0l TlF Fvl0FNCF 3TAN0Ab0. Ar acqu|||a|
or d|sr|ssa| are ro| d|spos|||ve.
o 3|ardard |r cr|r|ra| case |s ||g| o|c pro|ec| ||e accused. 0|llerer| |ssue W||| a W|||.
In re /state of +ahoney
'upreme *ourt of IermontD -3??
00@ A.0d 54.
lac|s. T|e W|le Was corv|c|ed ol rars|aug||er |r ||e dea|| ol |er |usoard. T|e prooa|e cour| decreed ||a| ||e deceder|'s
es|a|e Was |o go |o ||s parer|s, oecause a W|doW corv|c|ed |r ||e dea|| ol |er |usoard carro| |r|er|| ||s es|a|e.
0eceder| appea|ed ||e prooa|e cour|'s dec|s|or.
le|d. A corv|c||or ol vo|ur|ary rars|aug||er d|sao|es ||e par|y lror |a||rg urder ||e deceder|'s W||| or ||roug| |r|es|a|e success|or.
lr order |o oe cors|s|er| W||| ||e |aW ol |e|rs||p ||e cour| l|rds ||a| ||e ||||e passes |o ||e spouse, ou| ||e s|ayer
|s or|y ||e |rus|ee ol a cors|ruc||ve |rus| oecause ||e |ega| ||||e (s|ayer) |o|der carro| |r good corsc|erce re|a|r ary
oerel|c|a| |r|eres|.
T%)'T: lega| dev|ce W|ereoy proper|y |s raraged oy a |rus|ee or oe|a|l ol oerel|c|ar|es. Norra||y a |rus| |s vo|ur|ary, ou| |ere,
||'s |rvo|ur|ary (|rposed or C|ar|o||e aga|rs| |er W|s|es.)
J*onstructi(eK |s a |rarsparer| ||e ro| |o v|o|a|e sore|||rg, ard W|a| ||e cour| doesr'| War| |o v|o|a|e |s ||e |es|acy s|a|u|e.
ll s|e ard |usoard |ad oeer |erar|s |r corror, W|ere eac| |e|d ar |r|eres| |r proper|y, ou| ||e dea|| ol ore caused ||a|
por||or |o go |o ||e |e|rs|dev|sees. 3|e Wou|d |a|e or|y |a|l, ro| a||.
Case rerarded, proceed|rgs s|ayed. wou|d |ave |o g|ve proper|y |o loWard's parer|s o|c |l gave |o C's parer|s, c|arce
||a| ||ey'd g|ve || oac| |o |er W|||e s|e's s|||| a||ve.
)P*: Trea| as ||oug| ||ey d|sc|a|red, does ro| requ|re a cr|r|ra| corv|c||or. w|y? Cour| de|err|res urder a
preporderarce ol ||e ev|derce s|ardard (|oWer o|c de|err|r|rg urder a c|v|| s|a|u|e, ro| a cr|r|ra| ore.
3|ayer |rea|ed as |av|rg d|sc|a|red ||e es|a|e (reluse |o |a|e your s|are ol ||e |r|er||arce).
o ulC. 3oreore W|o d|sc|a|rs ard es|a|e |s |rea|ed |as |av|rg pre-deceased ||e deceder|.
o ll cr|r|ra| corv|c||or, ||a|'s corc|us|ve ev|derce urder ||e ulC, ou| car s|||| app|y s|a|ue |l s|oWr ||a| persor
corr|||ed ||e Wrorglu| ac| oy a preporderarce ol ||e ev|derce.
o 3|ardard |r cr|r|ra| case |s ||g| o|c pro|ec| ||e accused. 0|llerer| |ssue W||| a W|||.
o TX. 8erel|c|ary urder ||le |rsurarce po||cy W|o s|ays ||e rared persor W||| ro| |a|e, W||| go |o o||er oerel|c|ary or
|o |e|r. App||es cors|ruc||ve |rus| doc|r|re ||a|'s |r |a|orey.
)P* T/AA'
0|sc|a|rer ru|e. Trea|s a s|ayer as a persor W|o
d|sc|a|red ||e proper|y or |as predeceased ||e v|c||r.
0oes ro| cors|der ||e s|ayer as |o|d|rg a
bu|e ol |a|orey |s |aW |r Texas
ll ||ere |s a voluntary |||||rg, ||er ||e s|ayer (rorra||y a
spouse) |o|ds a cors|ruc||ve |rus| ol ||e asse|s lor ||e o||er
lage 14 ol 190
cors|ruc||ve |rus|. |e|rs|rex| ol ||r.
lage 15 ol 190
II. Intestate Succession
A. 'tatues of 9escent & 9istribution
1. T|e 8as|c 3c|ere pp 59-o5, 73-83, Fx||o|| 2A
%ules of Intestacy 29efault "a;6
App||es W|er soreore op|s lor a d|llerer| sc|ere ol d|s|r|ou||or
|os| corror|c|eares| case. 0or'| |ave a W|||, ou| car a|so |apper W|er ||ere's a W||| |l ||e W||| or|y d|sposes ol
a por||or ol your proper|y, ||er car |ave partial intestacy. laWyer's dea| W||| |||s W||| a `res|duary c|ause' (F.g.,
`l |eave ||e rera|rder ol ry es|a|e |o ry oro||er.').
Car a|so core up W|er ||e W||| |s |rva||d. No| execu|ed |r corp||arce W||| ||e W||| ac| lorra||||es. ll ro va||d W|||,
||er go |o |r|es|acy ru|es as |l ||ere Was ro W||| a| a||.
|ay |ave par||a| |r|es|a|e |l you do ro| spec|ly W|a| |appers |o par| ol your proper|y (|aWyers rorra||y avo|d |||s
par||a| |r|es|a|e proo|er oy say|rg `l |eave ||e res| ol ry es|a|e |o X')
3ore peop|e oe||eve ||a| |l a persor does ro| Wr||e a W||| || s|ou|d go s|ra|g|| |o ||e s|a|e. A `o||| ol corl|sca||or'
Wou|d crea|e a |o| ol reverue lor ||e s|a|es 0b Wou|d lorce peop|e |o Wr||e a W|||.)
we |ave ||ese ru|es oecause ol assurp||or ||a| |l ||ere Wou|d |ave oeer a W|||, || Wou|d |ave |el| ||e Wea||| |o
peop|e W||| c|oses| re|a||ors||p.
'eparate Property 'tates and the )P* on Intestacy lr ros| separa|e proper|y s|a|es, ||e spouse ge|s
ro|||rg urder |r|es|acy, ou| ||e ulC |s rore gererous |o 3l |rd|v|dua|s - see oe|oW oox.
*ommunity Property 'tates and the )P* on Intestacy ulC 2-102A g|ves a|| ol deceder|'s |r|eres| |r
corrur||y proper|y |o ||e surv|v|rg spouse. T||s |s |r add|||or |o regu|ar |r|es|acy ru|es. T||s rears ||a| l|rs|
||e corrur||y proper|y |s reroved lror cors|dera||or - ||er ulC 2-102A |r|es|acy ru|es are app||ed |o ||e
remainin" separate property.
o lersora| lroper|y. |aW ol s|a|e W|ere deceder| was domiciled at death goverrs d|spos|||or ol persora|
o bea| lroper|y. |aW ol s|a|e W|ere ||e deceder|'s real property was located goverrs d|spos|||or ol ||
urder $%! &'()*, ary s|are |r separa|e proper|y not passin$ to sur(i(in$ spouse urder $%! + &'()& goes |o.
o (
,-escerdar|s oy represer|a||or ge| W|o|e |||rg
o &
,ll rore, ||er |o parer|s equa||y or |o ||e surv|v|rg parer| ge| W|o|e |||rg
o *
,ll rore, |o descerdar|s ol deceder|'s parer|s oy represer|a||or (s|o||rgs, r|eces, rep|eWs)
o .
,la|l |o parer|a| grardparer|s, |a|l |o ra|erra| grardparer|s or |o descerder|s ||ereol (or er||re |o
ore s|de |l or|y s|de ex|s||rg) |rc. aur|s, urc|es, l|rs| cous|rs
o ST/%, lur||es| you go urder ulC |s ||e grardparer|s. 0rea|-grardparer|s do ro| |a|e ard secord
cous|rs do ro| s|rce ||ey are ro| descerder|s ol ||e grardparer|s ol deceder|. T|er esc|ea|s |o
Policy Issues:
o w|y |ave ||e ru|es g|v|rg |r|er||arce |o peop|e ||a| d|dr'| ever recessar||y expec| || oecause ||ere Was
ro W|||? w|y doesr'| ||e 3|a|e |a|e || ard do good?
T|e deceder| oWred ||e proper|y ard |as ||e lreedor ol proper|y.
o Need |o |a|e care ol c|||drer ard spouse
o 8u| W|a| aoou| d|s|ar| re|a||ves? w|y s|ou|d ||ey rece|ve a W|rdla||?
Texas law on intestacy
3ee *#A%T CN N/AT PAE/ if there is a sur(i(in$ spouse.
lage 1" ol 190
la|l-s|o||rgs ge| |ess
lard rus| go |o a re|a||ve - || rever esc|ea|s |o ||e s|a|e
Tl8C does ro| ra|e d|s||rc||ors oased or separa|e proper|y lor |r|es|acy, ex|s|erce ol add|||ora| c|||drer
allec|s ||e ||ds' s|are - ou| ro| ||e spouse's s|are.
laug||rg |e|rs. Texas does N0T draW ||e ||re a| grardparer|s, |||e ||e ulC, ||ere are |rl|r||e # ol descerder|s
Tl8C ra|es ro d|s||rc||or |o W|a| rarr|age ||e c|||drer are lror, as |org as ||ey are c|||drer ol ||e deceder|.
urder TP* B ,12a6D if the decedent left no sur(i(in$ spouseD the decedent&s property passes as described
belo; (No|e - T||s d|s|r|ou||or order a|so app||es |o ||e ore-|a|l |r|eres| |r ||e deceder|'s |ard ||a| does ro|
pass |o ||e surv|v|rg spouse urder TlC 38(o)(2)).
1. C|||drer ard ||e|r descerdar|s.
2. ll rore, |o la||er ard ro||er |r equa| s|ares. (|l 80Tl parer|s a||ve, s|o||rgs do ro| |a|e)
ll one parer| |s deceased, s|||| d|v|de ard pass |o oro||ers ard s|s|ers, ard ||e|r descerdar|s.
ll ro s|o||rgs or descerdar|s ol s|o||rgs, ||er surv|v|rg parer| |a|es a||.
3. ll ro surv|v|rg la||er or ro||er, ||er |o s|o||rgs ard |o ||e|r descerdar|s. (r|eces ard rep|eWs)
No|e - T|e process s|ops |ere W||| respec| |o ||e |r|eres| |r ||e deceder|'s |ard ||a| does
ro| pass au|ora||ca||y |o ||e surv|v|rg spouse urder TlC 38(o)(2). ll ||e deceder| |as ro
surv|v|rg parer|, s|o||rg, r|ece, or rep|eW, ||er ||e proper|y goes |o ||e surv|v|rg spouse.
4. ll ro parer|s, oro||ers, s|s|ers, or ||e|r descerdar|s, ||er d|v|de |r|o |a|ves - 1|2 |o ra|erra|
grardparer|s, 1|2 |o pa|erra| grardparer|s.
ll or|y ore pa|erra| (or ra|erra|) grardparer| |s ||v|rg, d|v|de s|are
ard g|ve |a|l |o grardparer| ard |a|l |o descerder|s ol deceased grardparer|.
ll ro descerder|s, surv|v|rg grardparer| |a|es W|o|e s|are .
ll ro surv|v|rg AN grardparer|, ||er er||re|y |o descerdar|s ol
grardparer|s, ard so or w)o end.
Problems p. ?5-?.
/lecti(e 'hare concept: ll soreore d|es |eav|rg a W||| |r ros| s|a|es ard surv|ved oy a spouse, ||e spouse |s er||||ed
|o a s|are |r ||e es|a|e, ever |l deceder| |el| every|||rg |o ||s oro||er, ||e W|le r|g|| oe ao|e |o e|ec| |o |a|e aga|rs| ||e
W||| (sore percer|age ol ||e va|ue ol ||e es|a|e). urder ||e ulC, ||ere's a s||d|rg sca|e lor |||s. T|e percer|age
deperds or |oW |org ||e rarr|age |as|ed. ll || |as|ed lor 1 year, ||er 3, ||er |rcreases ur||| || reac|es 50. TX
(Corrur||y lroper|y 3|a|e) does ro| |ave ar e|ec||ve s|are o|c surv|v|rg spouse |s presurao|y |a|er care ol oy ||e Cl
0ood chance that i# older, then one has a child #rom a prior marria"e.
lage 1# ol 190
)P* B 0--@0 Texas TPB* B ,1
)P* does NCT distin$uish b>; real and personal
propertyL |os| peop|e preler ulC over TX re||od.
No c|||drer, ou| surv|v|rg parer| ol deceder|. spouse
|a|es l|rs| $300| + oa|arce, parer| ge|s res| ulC 2-102(2)
3|o||rgs ard spouse surv|ve. 3pouse ge|s every|||rg |l
deceder| d|es |r|es|a|e (ard ro descerder|s) ard s|o||rgs ge| 0
|l ||ds are lror sare parer|s. ulC 2-102(1)
larer|, spouse, ard s|o||rgs surv|ves. spouse ge|s ||e
l|rs| $300| + ol ary rera|r|rg oa|arce ol ||e es|a|e, parer|s
ge|s ||e oa|arce, s|o||rgs ge|s 0 (|l ||ere are ro descerder|s)
ulC 2-102(2)
No c|||drer, ro parer| ol deceder|. spouse ge|s
every|||rg per ulC 2-102(1)(|)
3are c|||drer, parer|, spouse, ard s|o||rgs surv|ves.
spouse ge|s every|||rg ard ||ds ge| ro|||rg s|rce ||e ||ds are
a|| ||e|r ||ds 2-102(1)(||)
3urv|v|rg spouse |ad aro||er c|||d ou|s|de |||s
rarr|age (ard deceder| d|d ro|). spouse ge|s l|rs| $150 +
oa|arce, ge|s |ess (ou|s|de c|||d ge|s ro|||rg) 2-102(3)
0eceder| |ad aro||er c|||d, ou|s|de ol |||s rarr|age.
spouse ge|s ||e l|rs| $100| + oa|arce ol es|a|e, ||e
rera|r|rg ||ds (|rc. ||e ore W|o |s ro| spouse's c|||d, ou| ||e
deceder|'s ||d) sp||| rera|r|rg es|a|e ever|y 2-102(4)
0eceder| Was ||e or|y descerdar| ol ||s grardparer|s
ard everyore e|se d|es. es|a|e W||| esc|ea| |o ||e es|a|e, ||e
lur||es| you go urder ||e ulC |s ||e grardparer|s ard ||e
descerdar|s (grea| grardparer|s |a|e ro|||rg)
la|l-o|ood v. lu||-o|ood s|o||rgs. ulC does ro|
d|s||rgu|s| o|W |a|l-o|oods ard lu||-o|oods (|a|l-s|o||rgs)
Cous|rs. l|rs| cous|rs are descerder|s ol grardparer|s,
so ||ey car |a|e, |oWever a l|rs| cous|r twice reroved |s a
descerder| ol a grea|-grardparer| |rs|ead ard ray ro| |a|e
ulC 2-103, 3ee |ao|e ol corsargu|r||y or p. 79.
These B/"C8 apply to the remainin$ separate property CN": (A||
||e Cl goes |o ||e spouse as |org as All ||e ||ds are lror oo|| ||ese
spouses. ll ||d ol ||e deceder| |s ro| a c|||d ol surv|v|rg spouse, ||er Cl
|s sp||| W| spouse ge|||rg ol Cl & deceder|'s s|are pass|rg |o All
||ds ol deceder|.)
No c|||drer, ou| surv|v|rg parer| ol deceder| 3pouse ge|s All
persora| es|a|e + |ard, |l 80Tl parer|s surv|ved, parer|s sp||| o||er
|ard, s|o||rgs ge| 0. ll or|y ore parer| surv|ves ard ||ere are s|o||rgs.
s|o||rgs ge| |ard (ro ra||er # ol s|o||rgs, sp||| |||s), & parer| ge|s
|ard (|l ro descerder|s) Tl8C 38(o)(2)
3|o||rgs ard spouse surv|ve. 3pouse ge|s a|| persora| es|a|e +
|ard ard s|o||rgs ge| |l deceder| d|es |r|es|a|e (|l ||ere are ro
descerder|s) - Texas `|eeps |ard |r ||e lar||y'
0re parer|, spouse, ard s|o||rgs surv|ves. 3pouse ge|s All
persora| es|a|e + |ard, s|o||rgs ge| |ard (ro ra||er |oW rary
s|o||rgs, ||ey sp||| |||s), & parer| ge|s |ard (|l ||ere are ro
descerder|s) Tl8C 38(o)(2) No|e. ll 80Tl parer|s surv|ved, parer|s
sp||| ||e |ard, s|o||rgs ge| 0.
No c|||drer, ro parer| ol deceder|. spouse s|ares W| ||v|rg
s|o||rgs ol decer|. 3pouses ge|s All persora| prop + |ard. 3|o||rgs
(ro ra||er |oW rary) ge| |ard.
3are c|||drer, parer|, spouse, ard s|o||rgs surv|ves. |l ||ere
are descerder|s, surv|v|rg spouse a|Ways ge|s 1|3 ol persora| es|a|e
ard 1|3 ||le es|a|e |r |ard, ||ds sp||| ||e res| (2|3 ol persora|, 2|3 ol |ard)
& |ave rera|rder |r ||e 1|3 ||le es|a|e |r |ard. F.g., |l 2 ||ds, spouse
ge|s 1|3 persora| es|a|e ard ||le es|a|e |r 1|3 |ard, ||ds ge| 2|3 persora|
es|a|e (1|3 eac|) ard ge| 2|3 ol |ard aoso|u|e|y (1|3 eac|) ard
rera|rder |r 1|3 ||e|r parer| |as (1|o rera|rder eac|). larer| & s|o||rg
ge| 0 |ere.
3urv|v|rg spouse |ad aro||er c|||d ou|s|de |||s rarr|age.
sare as aoove, ou|s|de c|||d doesr'| c|arge s||ua||or (ou|s|de c|||d
ge|s 0)
0eceder| |ad aro||er c|||d, ou|s|de ol |||s rarr|age. spouse
ge|s 1|3 ||le es|a|e |r ||e |ard ard 1|3 persora| es|a|e, ||ds sp|||
rera|r|rg es|a|e ever|y (sp||| persora| & rea| es|a|e ever|y) +
0eceder| Was ||e or|y descerdar| ol ||s grardparer|s ard
everyore e|se d|es. || W||| ro| go |o ||e s|a|e rorra||y - |eep |oo||rg lor
add|||ora| re|a||ves ur||| you l|rd soreore (|rl|r||e # ol lar||y reroers
car |r|er|| `|aug||rg |e|rs'
la|l-o|ood v. lu||-o|ood s|o||rgs. |a|l-o|ood s|o||rg (s|ep-s|o||rg)
ge|s as ruc| as lu||-o|ood s|o||rg, ou| |l a|| are |a|l-s|o||rgs ||er ||ey
|ave W|o|e por||ors Tl8C 41(o)
Cous|rs. cous|rs ray |a|e, |rl|r||e ruroer ol descerder|s |r
TX, doesr'| ra||er |l re|a|ed ||roug| grardparer|s or grea|-
lage 1$ ol 190
lage 19 ol 190
Texas Probate *ode B ,1. Persons 8ho Ta!e )pon Intestacy
2a6 Intestate "ea(in$ No #usband or 8ife. w|ere ary persor, |av|rg ||||e |o ary es|a|e, rea|, persora| or r|xed, s|a|| d|e |r|es|a|e, |eav|rg ro
|usoard or W|le, || s|a|| descerd ard pass |r parcerary |o ||s ||rdred, ra|e ard lera|e, |r ||e lo||oW|rg course.
1. To ||s c|||drer ard ||e|r descerdar|s.
ll ||ere oe ro c|||drer ror ||e|r descerdar|s, ||er |o ||s la||er ard ro||er, |r equa| por||ors. 8u| |l or|y ||e la||er or ro||er surv|ve
||e |r|es|a|e, ||er ||s es|a|e s|a|| oe d|v|ded |r|o |Wo equa| por||ors, ore ol W||c| s|a|| pass |o suc| surv|vor, ard ||e o||er |a|l s|a||
pass |o ||e oro||ers ard s|s|ers ol ||e deceased, ard |o ||e|r descerdar|s, ou| |l ||ere oe rore suc|, ||er ||e W|o|e es|a|e s|a|| oe
|r|er||ed oy ||e surv|v|rg la||er or ro||er.
ll ||ere oe re|||er la||er ror ro||er, ||er ||e W|o|e ol suc| es|a|e s|a|| pass |o ||e oro||ers ard s|s|ers ol ||e |r|es|a|e, ard |o ||e|r
ll ||ere oe rore ol ||e ||rdred aloresa|d, ||er ||e |r|er||arce s|a|| oe d|v|ded |r|o |Wo ro|e||es, ore ol W||c| s|a|| go |o ||e pa|erra| ard
||e o||er |o ||e ra|erra| ||rdred, |r ||e lo||oW|rg course. To ||e grardla||er ard grardro||er |r equa| por||ors, ou| |l or|y ore ol ||ese oe
||v|rg, ||er ||e es|a|e s|a|| oe d|v|ded |r|o |Wo equa| par|s, ore ol W||c| s|a|| go |o suc| surv|vor, ard ||e o||er s|a|| go |o ||e descerdar|
or descerdar|s ol suc| deceased grardla||er or grardro||er. ll ||ere oe ro suc| descerdar|s, ||er ||e W|o|e es|a|e s|a|| oe |r|er||ed
oy ||e surv|v|rg grardla||er or grardro||er. ll ||ere oe ro surv|v|rg grardla||er or grardro||er, ||er ||e W|o|e ol suc| es|a|e s|a|| go |o
||e|r descerdar|s, ard so or W|||ou| erd, pass|rg |r |||e rarrer |o ||e reares| ||rea| arces|ors ard ||e|r descerdar|s.
2b6 Intestate "ea(in$ #usband or 8ife. w|ere ary persor |av|rg ||||e |o ary es|a|e, rea|, persora| or r|xed, o||er ||ar a corrur||y es|a|e, s|a||
d|e |r|es|a|e as |o suc| es|a|e, ard s|a|| |eave a surv|v|rg |usoard or W|le, suc| es|a|e ol suc| |r|es|a|e s|a|| descerd ard pass as lo||oWs.
ll ||e deceased |ave a c|||d or c|||drer, or ||e|r descerdar|s, ||e surv|v|rg |usoard or W|le s|a|| |a|e ore-|||rd ol ||e persora| es|a|e,
ard ||e oa|arce ol suc| persora| es|a|e s|a|| go |o ||e c|||d or c|||drer ol ||e deceased ard ||e|r descerdar|s. T|e surv|v|rg
|usoard or W|le s|a|| a|so oe er||||ed |o ar es|a|e lor ||le, |r ore-|||rd ol ||e |ard ol ||e |r|es|a|e, W||| rera|rder |o ||e c|||d or c|||drer
ol ||e |r|es|a|e ard ||e|r descerdar|s.
ll ||e deceased |ave ro c|||d or c|||drer, or ||e|r descerdar|s, ||er ||e surv|v|rg |usoard or W|le s|a|| oe er||||ed |o a|| ||e persora| es|a|e,
ard |o ore-|a|l ol ||e |ards ol ||e |r|es|a|e, W|||ou| rera|rder |o ary persor, ard ||e o||er |a|l s|a|| pass ard oe |r|er||ed accord|rg |o ||e
ru|es ol descer| ard d|s|r|ou||or, prov|ded, |oWever, ||a| |l ||e deceased |as re|||er surv|v|rg la||er ror ro||er ror surv|v|rg oro||ers or
s|s|ers, or ||e|r descerdar|s, ||er ||e surv|v|rg |usoard or W|le s|a|| oe er||||ed |o ||e W|o|e ol ||e es|a|e ol suc| |r|es|a|e.
)niform Probate *ode B 0--@0. 'hare of 'pouse.
T|e |r|es|a|e s|are ol a deceder|'s surv|v|rg spouse |s.
(1) ||e er||re |r|es|a|e es|a|e |l.
(|) ro descerdar| or parer| ol ||e deceder| surv|ves ||e deceder|, or
a|| ol ||e deceder|'s surv|v|rg descerdar|s are a|so descerdar|s ol ||e surv|v|rg spouse ard ||ere |s ro o||er descerdar| ol ||e
surv|v|rg spouse W|o surv|ves ||e deceder|,
(2) ||e l|rs| [$200,000|, p|us ||ree-lour||s ol ary oa|arce ol ||e |r|es|a|e es|a|e, |l ro descerdar| ol ||e deceder| surv|ves ||e deceder|, ou| a
parer| ol ||e deceder| surv|ves ||e deceder|,
(3) ||e l|rs| [$150,000|, p|us ore-|a|l ol ary oa|arce ol ||e |r|es|a|e es|a|e, |l a|| ol ||e deceder|'s surv|v|rg descerdar|s are a|so descerdar|s
ol ||e surv|v|rg spouse ard ||e surv|v|rg spouse |as ore or rore surv|v|rg descerdar|s W|o are ro| descerdar|s ol ||e deceder|,
(4) ||e l|rs| [$100,000|, p|us ore-|a|l ol ary oa|arce ol ||e |r|es|a|e es|a|e, |l ore or rore ol ||e deceder|'s surv|v|rg descerdar|s are ro|
descerdar|s ol ||e surv|v|rg spouse.
Texas Probate *ode B ,3. No 9istinction Because of PropertyMs 'ource
T|ere s|a|| oe ro d|s||rc||or |r regu|a||rg ||e descer| ard d|s|r|ou||or ol ||e es|a|e ol a persor dy|rg |r|es|a|e oe|Weer proper|y W||c| ray |ave
oeer der|ved oy g|l|, dev|se or descer| lror ||e la||er, ard ||a| W||c| ray |ave oeer der|ved oy g|l|, dev|se or descer| lror ||e ro||er, ard a||
||e es|a|e |o W||c| suc| |r|es|a|e ray |ave |ad ||||e a| ||e ||re ol dea|| s|a|| descerd ard ves| |r ||e |e|rs ol suc| persor |r ||e sare rarrer
as |l |e |ad oeer ||e or|g|ra| purc|aser ||ereol.
Texas Probate *ode B 5-. +atters Affectin$ and Not Affectin$ the %i$ht to Inherit
2b6 #eirs of 8hole and #alf Blood. lr s||ua||ors W|ere ||e |r|er||arce passes |o ||e co||a|era| ||rdred ol ||e |r|es|a|e, |l par| ol suc| co||a|era|
oe ol ||e W|o|e o|ood, ard ||e o||er par| oe ol ||e |a|l o|ood or|y, ol ||e |r|es|a|e, eac| ol ||ose ol |a|l o|ood s|a|| |r|er|| or|y |a|l so ruc|
as eac| ol ||ose ol ||e W|o|e o|ood, ou| |l a|| oe ol ||e |a|l o|ood, ||ey s|a|| |ave W|o|e por||ors.
Texas Property *ode B 4-.@@-. /scheat
(a) ll ar |rd|v|dua| d|es |r|es|a|e ard W|||ou| |e|rs, ||e rea| ard persora| proper|y ol ||a| |rd|v|dua| |s suojec| |o esc|ea|.
(o) Fsc|ea| rears ||e ves||rg ol ||||e |o proper|y |r ||e s|a|e |r ar esc|ea| proceed|rg urder 3uoc|ap|er 8.
Texas Property *ode B 4-.@@,. Presumption of Intestacy74 :/A%'
lage 20 ol 190
Ar |rd|v|dua| |s presured |o |ave d|ed |r|es|a|e |l, or or oelore ||e sever|| arr|versary ol ||e da|e ol ||e |rd|v|dua|'s dea||, ||e |rd|v|dua|'s W|||
|as ro| oeer recorded or prooa|ed |r ||e cour|y W|ere ||e |rd|v|dua|'s proper|y |s |oca|ed.
lage 21 ol 190
4. 0rea|-0rea|
3. 0rea|
5. 0rea|-0rard
2. 0rardparer|s
4. 0rea|
o. 1
Cous|rs TW|ce
1. larer|s 3. urc|es|Aur|s
5. 1
0rce beroved
7. 2
Cous|rs 0rce
2. 8ro||ers|3|s|ers 4. 1
Cous|rs o. 2
8. 3
1. C|||drer
5. 1
0rce beroved
7. 2
0rce beroved
9. 3
Cous|rs 0rce
2. 0rard C|||drer
4. 0rard
o. 1
TW|ce beroved
8. 2
TW|ce beroved
10. 3
Cous|rs TW|ce
3. 0rea|-0rard
5. 0rea|-0rard
7. 1
T|r|ce beroved
9. 2
T|r|ce beroved
11. 3
T|r|ce beroved
lage 22 ol 190
Per 'tirpes * Three basic syste#s for distributing an intestate+s estate
/n$lish Per 'tirpes 2/P'6: -0 states follo;7'T%I*T P/% 'TI%P/'
o 0|v|de a| |eve| ol deceder|'s c|||drer - W|e||er or ro| ||ose c|||drer are dead or a||ve, o||ers |a|e oy represer|a||or - sp|||
a| eac| |eve| ol c|||drer. C|||drer |a|e accord|rg |o ||e|r parer|s' s|are.
o /xampleArr |as 2 ||ds, 8oo & Ca|. 8o|| c|||drer are dead. 8oo |as 1 surv|v|rg ||d, 0ar. Ca| |as |Wo surv|v|rg ||ds,
Fr|c & lay. urder ||e Fl3 sys|er, A's proper|y |s d|v|ded |r|o 2 s|ares a| ||e |eve| ol Arr's c|||drer. 0ar |a|es 8oo's oy
represer|a||or ard Fr|c & lay sp||| C's oy represer|a||or (so ||ey ge| eac|).
o /xampleArr |as 2 ||ds, 8oo & Ca|. 8oo d|es oelore Arr, |eav|rg c|||d, 0ar. Ca| d|es oelore Arr, |eav|rg 2 ||ds, Fr|c & lay.
Fr|c d|es oelore Arr, |eav|rg 2 ||ds, 0eorge & larry. urder Fl3, 0ar ge|s , lay ge|s , 0eorge & larry eac| ge| ar 1|8.
+odern Per 'tirpes 2+P'6 Texas follows:
o 0|v|de a| ||e l|rs| |eve| ol ||v|rg c|||drer|descerdar|s (s|ar| d|v|d|rg a| l|rs| gerera||or W|ere soreore |s a||ve) - sp||| a| ||a|
|eve|, descerdar|s ol dead W||| |r|er|| ||e por||or ol ||e|r parer|s.
o loo|s |o see W|e||er ary c|||drer surv|ved deceder|. ll ary c|||drer d|d surv|ve deceder|, ||er ||e d|s|r|ou||or |s |der||ca|
|o ||a| urder Fl3. ll ro c|||drer surv|ve ||e deceder|, ||er ||e es|a|e |s d|v|ded equa||y a| ||e l|rs| gerera||or |r W||c| ||ere are
||v|rgTexas has this system ard ||e ori"inal ulC adop|ed |||s ore, |||s |s ||e rajor||y ol s|a|es' approac|
o /xampleArr |as 3 ||ds, 8oo, Ca|, & 0ar. 8oo & Ca| are dead. 8oo |as 1 surv|v|rg ||d, 0arry. Ca| |as |Wo surv|v|rg ||ds,
Fr|c & lay. urder |l3 sys|er, Arr's es|a|e |s d|v|ded equa||y |r|o |||rds oe|Weer 0ar, Ca| (F 1|o & l 1|o), & 0. (eac| ge| 1|3)
o /xampleArr |as 2 ||ds, 8oo & Ca|. 8oo d|es oelore Arr, |eav|rg c|||d, 0ar. Ca| d|es oelore Arr, |eav|rg 2 ||ds, Fr|c &
lay. Fr|c d|es oelore Arr, |eav|rg 2 ||ds, 0eorge & larry. urder |l3, 0ar ge|s 1|3, 0eorge & larry eac| ge| 1|o, lay ge|s 1|3.
Per *apita At /ach Eeneration 2P*A/E6:
o 0|v|de |r|||a||y a| ||e l|rs| ||v|rg gerera||or |eve|, ||er |a|e ||e rera|r|rg par|s ard d|v|de ||ose equa||y a| ||a| gerera||or, a||
gerera||ors ge| ||e sare, s|r||ar |o roderr per s||rpes12ually 3ear, e2ually dear4
o -33@ )P* has no; adopted this one (11 s|a|es)
o /xample7Arr d|es |r|es|a|e. Arr |as 3 ||ds - 8oo, Ca|, & 0ar. 0r|y 0ar |s a||ve. 8oo |ad 1 ||d, Fr|c. Ca| |ad 2 ||ds,
lay & 0reg 0ar ge|s 1|3. F, l, & 0 d|v|de up 2|3.
o /xample7Arr |as 2 ||ds, 8oo & Ca|. 8oo d|es oelore Arr, |eav|rg c|||d, 0ar. Ca| d|es oelore Arr, |eav|rg 2 ||ds, Fr|c &
lay. Fr|c d|es oelore Arr, |eav|rg 2 ||ds, 0eorge & larry. urder lCAF0, 0ar ge|s 1|3, 0 & l ge| 1|o eac|, l ge|s 1|3 (sare as
|l3 Wou|d oe |r |||s |rs|arce.)
lage 23 ol 190
8oo Ca|
Fr|c (1|4) lay (1|4) 0ar(1|2)
8oo Ca|
Fr|c lay () 0ar (1|2)
larry (1|8)
0eorge (1|8)
8oo (1|3) Ca| (1|3)
Fr|c (1|o) lay (1|o) 0arry (1|3)
0ar (1|3)
8oo Ca|
Fr|c lay (1|3) 0ar (1|3)
larry (1|o)
0eorge (1|o)
8oo Ca|
0reg (2|9) lay (2|9) Fr|c (2|9)
0ar (1|3)
lage 24 ol 190
8oo Ca|
Fr|c lay (3) 0ar (1|3)
larry (1|o)
0eorge (1|o)
Texas Probate *ode B 5,. 9etermination of Per *apita and Per 'tirpes 9istribution7+C9/%N P/% 'TI%P/'
w|er ||e |r|es|a|e's c|||drer, descerdar|s, oro||ers, s|s|ers, urc|es, aur|s, or ary o||er re|a||ves ol ||e deceased s|ard|rg |r ||e l|rs| or sare
degree a|ore core |r|o ||e d|s|r|ou||or upor |r|es|acy, ||ey s|a|| |a|e per cap||a, rare|y. oy persors, ard, W|er a par| ol ||er oe|rg dead ard
a par| ||v|rg, ||e descerdar|s ol ||ose dead s|a|| |ave r|g|| |o d|s|r|ou||or upor |r|es|acy, suc| descerdar|s s|a|| |r|er|| or|y suc| por||or ol
sa|d proper|y as ||e parer| ||roug| W|or ||ey |r|er|| Wou|d oe er||||ed |o |l a||ve.
'pecial Intestacy Issues
lu|a||ve spouse
o 0el|red as ore W|o |s ro| a |ega| spouse ou| W|o proceeded urder good la||| oe||el ||a| ||ey are
o |os| s|a|es & ulC g|ve pu|a||ve spouse |r|es|acy r|g||s ||a| are a||r |o spouses lor |r|es|a|e
o 8u|, |l 5i"amous marria"e, secord W|le ray ro| ge| ary|||rg. ler rarr|age ray ro| oe va||d.
o No| rarr|ed, ou| promised to ta6e care ol |er - c|a|r urder cor|rac|, ou| ro| urder |r|es|acy.
lerd|rg d|vorce (separa|ed spouses s|||| rarr|ed!)
o ulC says ur||| d|vorce |s l|ra||zed, ||e spouses are s|||| |ega| spouses ard s|||| |r|er|| urder
urrarr|ed co|ao||ers
o ll common law marria"e (deperd|rg or |aW |r ||e s|a|e), W||| oe cors|dered spouses W||| rorra|
spouse r|g||s. (Texas |s ore ol |We|ve s|a|es ||a| recogr|ze Cl rarr|age)
o ll ro| rarr|ed oy Cl rarr|age, d|llerer| approac|es.
1. A78 sugges|s |rea||rg a|| peop|e W|o co|ao|| ard |ave a corror c|||d lor |Wo years as
|av|rg sare |ega| r|g||s ol rarr|ed peop|e. ll ro c|||d, ||er ||ree years |s requ|red.
2. Formal. |l ro| rarr|ed - ro r|g||s. C|ear & s|rp|e. lreserves expec|a||ors.
3. !onstructive trust. cour| ray crea|e a cors|ruc||ve |rus| |r lavor ol ||e co|ao||er
4. !ontract. erlorce ||e par||es' expec|a||ors as de|err|red oy.
a. 1xpress written 6 ol s|ar|rg |r asse|s a| dea||. sore s|a|es requ|re |||s |o
erlorce expec|a||ors, o||erW|se co|ao||er W||| |ave ro r|g||s W|a|soever
o. 8mplied 6. sore s|a|es W||| |rp|y a | ard W||| |ear ev|derce |o de|err|re ||e
par||es' expec|a||ors
c. 9eretricious 6. |l pr|rary purpose ol co|ao||a||or Was sex s|a|es W||| ro|
erlorce ||ese |x ol co|ao||a||or
Problems7Pa$e 4?-44
-. A has t;o childrenD B & *. B dies lea(in$ - childD 9. * dies ;ith 0 childrenD / & F. / dies ;ith 0 children E & #.
TX. lo||oW roderr per s||rpes. 0 = 1|3, l = 1|3, [0 = 1|o, l = 1|o|
1990 ulC. 0 = 1|3, l = 1|3, [0 = 1|o, l = 1|o|
Frg||s|. 0=1|2, l=1|4, [0=1|8, l=1|8|
ler Cap||a. 0 = 1|3, l = 1|3, 0 = 1|o, l = 1|o (sare as roderr per s||rpes)
8hat if B marries '< 9oes ' ha(e any expectancy<
3 carro| |r|er|| lror A, |er ro||er-|r-|aW.
2. A has three childrenD BD *D & N. B dies lea(in$ - childD 9. * dies ;ith 0 childrenD / & F. / dies ;ith 0
children E & #. F is still ali(e and has one childD I.
0oes ro| c|arge ary|||rg.
l = ge|s ro|||rg o|c parer|, l, |s s|||| a||ve (dor'| |a|e or ||e dea|| ol your parer|'s arces|or), Z = ||re d|ed ou|, so
ge|s ro|||rg
Problems7Pa$e 10
-. +om and 9ad had three !idsO 'ueD 'idneyD BobO Bob had t;o !ids: Fred and Ted. 2'idney dies and is
sur(i(ed by his motherD sisterD and t;o nephe;s6
lage 25 ol 190
)P*: 2-103(2)|or |r|er||s every|||rg, desp||e lac| ||a| s|s|er ard rep|eW surv|ved.
TP*: 38(a)(2)|or ge|s ol es|a|e, 43. 3ue ge|s , Ted ard lred eac| ge| 1|8.
0. 'idney sur(i(ed by a -
cousin on mother&s side and 0 -
cousins on father&s side.
)P*: Fs|a|e d|v|ded |r|o |Wo ro|e||es, ore goes |o la||er's s|de, o||er |a|l goes |o ro||er's s|de.
TP*: 38(a)(4)3A|F A3 ulC, |o pa|erra| ||rdred, |o ra|erra| ||rdred.
,. 9escendent is sur(i(ed by A 2First *ousin of 9escendent&s +other6 and B 2Eranddau$hter of 9escendents
First *ousin6.
A |s a l|rs| Cous|r 0rce beroved. 8 |s l|rs| Cous|r TW|ce beroved.
)P*: 8 Wou|d ge| every|||rg. ulC does ro| a||oW |r|er||arce oeyord ||e 0rardparer|s, so A cou|d ro|
rece|ve ary |r|er||arce.
A Wou|d ge| every|||rg. T|e reares| arces|or Wou|d ge| every|||rg.
5. +om had 0 husbands. #ad - child ;ith husband - 2Alice6O 0 children ;ith husband 0 2Betty and *arolO *arol
diesO ho; ;ould her estate be distributed<6O
)P*: A||ce ard 8e||y ge| |a|l (doesr'| |rea| |a|l-s|o||rgs d|llerer||y lror W|o|e s|o||rgs)
B 5-2b68e||y ge|s 2|3 ard A||ce ge|s 1|3, la|l s|o||rg ge|s |a|l as ruc| as ||e lu|| s|o||rg.
2. Corrur||y lroper|y 417-19, 455-58, Fx. 28, 2C
*onstitution of the 'tate of Texas
Art. AIID B -.. 'eparate and community property of husband and ;ife
A|| proper|y, oo|| rea| ard persora|, ol a spouse oWred or c|a|red oelore rarr|age, ard ||a| acqu|red al|erWard oy g|l|, dev|se or descer|, s|a||
oe ||e separa|e proper|y ol ||a| spouse, ard |aWs s|a|| oe passed rore c|ear|y del|r|rg ||e r|g||s ol ||e spouses, |r re|a||or |o separa|e ard
corrur||y proper|y, prov|ded ||a| persors aoou| |o rarry ard spouses, W|||ou| ||e |r|er||or |o delraud pre-ex|s||rg cred||ors, ray oy Wr|||er
|rs|rurer| lror ||re |o ||re par||||or oe|Weer ||erse|ves a|| or par| ol ||e|r proper|y, ||er ex|s||rg or |o oe acqu|red, or exc|arge oe|Weer
||erse|ves ||e corrur||y |r|eres| ol ore spouse or lu|ure spouse |r ary proper|y lor ||e corrur||y |r|eres| ol ||e o||er spouse or lu|ure
spouse |r o||er corrur||y proper|y ||er ex|s||rg or |o oe acqu|red, W|ereupor ||e por||or or |r|eres| se| as|de |o eac| spouse s|a|| oe ard
cors|||u|e a par| ol ||e separa|e proper|y ard es|a|e ol suc| spouse or lu|ure spouse, spouses a|so ray lror ||re |o ||re, oy Wr|||er
|rs|rurer|, agree oe|Weer ||erse|ves ||a| ||e |rcore or proper|y lror a|| or par| ol ||e separa|e proper|y ||er oWred or W||c| ||ereal|er r|g||
oe acqu|red oy or|y ore ol ||er, s|a|| oe ||e separa|e proper|y ol ||a| spouse, |l ore spouse ra|es a g|l| ol proper|y |o ||e o||er ||a| g|l| |s
presured |o |rc|ude a|| ||e |rcore or proper|y W||c| r|g|| ar|se lror ||a| g|l| ol proper|y, spouses ray agree |r Wr|||rg ||a| a|| or par| ol ||e|r
corrur||y proper|y oecores ||e proper|y ol ||e surv|v|rg spouse or ||e dea|| ol a spouse, ard spouses ray agree |r Wr|||rg ||a| a|| or par| ol
||e separa|e proper|y oWred oy e|||er or oo|| ol ||er s|a|| oe ||e spouses' corrur||y proper|y.
Art. AIID B .0. 9escent and distribution of homesteadO restrictions on partition
0r ||e dea|| ol ||e |usoard or W|le, or oo||, ||e |ores|ead s|a|| descerd ard ves| |r |||e rarrer as o||er rea| proper|y ol ||e deceased, ard
s|a|| oe goverred oy ||e sare |aWs ol descer| ard d|s|r|ou||or, ou| || s|a|| ro| oe par||||ored arorg ||e |e|rs ol ||e deceased dur|rg ||e ||le||re
ol ||e surv|v|rg |usoard or W|le, or so |org as ||e surv|vor ray e|ec| |o use or occupy ||e sare as a |ores|ead, or so |org as ||e guard|ar ol
||e r|ror c|||drer ol ||e deceased ray oe perr|||ed, urder ||e order ol ||e proper cour| |av|rg ||e jur|sd|c||or, |o use ard occupy ||e sare.
Texas Family *ode
B ,.@@-. 'eparate Property
A spouse's separa|e proper|y cors|s|s ol.
(1) ||e proper|y oWred or c|a|red oy ||e spouse oelore rarr|age,
(2) ||e proper|y acqu|red oy ||e spouse dur|rg rarr|age oy g|l|, dev|se, or descer|, ard
(3) ||e recovery lor persora| |rjur|es sus|a|red oy ||e spouse dur|rg rarr|age, excep| ary recovery lor |oss ol earr|rg capac||y dur|rg rarr|age.
B ,.@@0. *ommunity Property
Corrur||y proper|y cors|s|s ol ||e proper|y, o||er ||ar separa|e proper|y, acqu|red oy e|||er spouse dur|rg rarr|age.
B ,.@@,. Presumption of *ommunity Property
(a) lroper|y possessed oy e|||er spouse dur|rg or or d|sso|u||or ol rarr|age |s presured |o oe corrur||y proper|y.
(o) T|e degree ol prool recessary |o es|ao||s| ||a| proper|y |s separa|e proper|y |s c|ear ard corv|rc|rg ev|derce.
B 5.-@0. Partition or /xchan$e of *ommunity Property
A| ary ||re, ||e spouses ray par||||or or exc|arge oe|Weer ||erse|ves a|| or par| ol ||e|r corrur||y proper|y, ||er ex|s||rg or |o oe acqu|red,
as ||e spouses ray des|re. lroper|y or a proper|y |r|eres| |rarslerred |o a spouse oy a par||||or or exc|arge agreerer| oecores ||a| spouse's
separa|e proper|y. T|e par||||or or exc|arge ol proper|y ray a|so prov|de ||a| lu|ure earr|rgs ard |rcore ar|s|rg lror ||e |rarslerred proper|y
s|a|| oe ||e separa|e proper|y ol ||e oWr|rg spouse.
lage 2" ol 190
B 5.0@0. A$reement to *on(ert to *ommunity Property
A| ary ||re, spouses ray agree ||a| a|| or par| ol ||e separa|e proper|y oWred oy e|||er or oo|| spouses |s corver|ed |o corrur||y proper|y.
B 5.0@,. Formalities of A$reement
(a) Ar agreerer| |o corver| separa|e proper|y |o corrur||y proper|y.
(1) rus| oe |r Wr|||rg ard.
(A) oe s|gred oy ||e spouses,
(8) |der||ly ||e proper|y oe|rg corver|ed, ard
(C) spec|ly ||a| ||e proper|y |s oe|rg corver|ed |o ||e spouses' corrur||y proper|y, ard
(2) |s erlorceao|e W|||ou| cors|dera||or.
(o) T|e rere |rarsler ol a spouse's separa|e proper|y |o ||e rare ol ||e o||er spouse or |o ||e rare ol oo|| spouses |s ro| sull|c|er| |o
corver| ||e proper|y |o corrur||y proper|y urder |||s suoc|ap|er.
Texas Probate *ode
B 5.. *ommunity /state
(a) 0r ||e |r|es|a|e dea|| ol ore ol ||e spouses |o a rarr|age, ||e corrur||y proper|y es|a|e ol ||e deceased spouse passes |o ||e surv|v|rg
spouse |l.
(1) ro c|||d or o||er descerdar| ol ||e deceased spouse surv|ves ||e deceased spouse, or
a|| surv|v|rg c|||drer ard descerdar|s ol ||e deceased spouse are a|so c|||drer or descerdar|s ol ||e surv|v|rg spouse.
(o) 0r ||e |r|es|a|e dea|| ol ore ol ||e spouses |o a rarr|age, |l a c|||d or o||er descerdar| ol ||e deceased spouse surv|ves ||e deceased
spouse ard ||e c|||d or descerdar| |s ro| a c|||d or descerdar| ol ||e surv|v|rg spouse, ore-|a|l ol ||e corrur||y es|a|e |s re|a|red oy ||e
surv|v|rg spouse ard ||e o||er ore-|a|l passes |o ||e c|||drer or descerdar|s ol ||e deceased spouse. T|e descerdar|s s|a|| |r|er|| or|y
suc| por||or ol sa|d proper|y |o W||c| ||ey Wou|d oe er||||ed urder 3ec||or 43 ol |||s code. lr every case, ||e corrur||y es|a|e passes
c|arged W||| ||e deo|s aga|rs| ||.
%)"/: 8ecause lusoard & w|le are |r a par|rers||p, W|a|ever eac| spouse earrs |s Corrur||y lroper|y ol ||e
lusoard & w|le. 8u| proper|y acqu|red oecause rarr|age or acqu|red dur|rg rarr|age oy g|l|, dev|se, or
d|sser|, |s ||e 3epara|e lroper|y ol ||e spouse W|o acqu|red ||.
Aro|gu||y. lresure ||a| ||'s Cl. Car overcore W||| c|ear & corv|rc|rg ev|derce.
*ommunity property. ary proper|y ||a| |s ro| separa|e (|l douo| sore|||rg |s separa|e,
assure || |s corrur||y)
o ulC 2-102A g|ves a|| ol deceder|'s |r|eres| |r corrur||y proper|y |o ||e surv|v|rg spouse. T||s |s |r add|||or
|o regu|ar |r|es|acy ru|es. T||s rears ||a| l|rs| ||e corrur||y proper|y |s reroved lror cors|dera||or - ||er
ulC 2-102A |r|es|acy ru|es are app||ed |o ||e remainin" separate property.
o lr Texas, |rcore lror spouse's separa|e proper|y l3 corrur||y proper|y. (ro| |rue W||| a|| Cl s|a|es)
o !ommin"lin". lo||oW ||e `corrur||y ou| l|rs| ru|e' - |l ||ere |s a corr|rg|ed oar| accour|, presure ||e
corrur||y lurds Were |a|er ou| l|rs|.
o ba||ora|e oe||rd corrur||y proper|y. W|er par||es are spouses, ||ey are acqu|r|rg prop dur|rg ||e|r rarr|age
ard ||er ||a| prop |s s|ared
'eparate property.
o proper|y acqu|red oelore ||e rarr|age, or agreerer| ol ||e par||es or proper|y acqu|red oy g|l|,
dev|se, or descer|, $ recovered lror persora| |rjur|es lor pa|r ard suller|rg (ur|ess ||'s lor |oss ol Wages or
earr|rg capac||y or red|ca| o|||s dur|rg ||e rarr|age)
o lrcep||ors ol ||||e ru|e. T|e c|arac|er ol ||e asse| |s de|err|red W|er ||e asse| |s acqu|red. ll ge|
||||e oelore ||e rarr|age, ||er ||'s separa|e proper|y. ll Cl lurds |a|er sper|, doesr'| ra||er, ou| |l acqu|re ||||e
al|er rarr|age, ||er presurp||ve|y Cl. (app||es |o ||le |rsurarce!)
o lr ros| separa|e proper|y s|a|es, ||e spouse ge|s ro|||rg urder |r|es|acy (ulC |s rore gererous
|o 3l |rd|v|dua|s).
C|arg|rg c|arac|er ol proper|y. 3pouses car agree |o c|arge ||e c|arac|er ol proper|y - car
par||||or|corver| proper|y e|||er Way |o corrur||y or |o separa|e (al|er you are rarr|ed).
lage 2# ol 190
0|l|s oy spouse. 3pouse ray ra|e reasorao|e g|l|s |o o||er peop|e as |org as lraud |s ro| occurr|rg.
(ll g|l| |s |o a ror-re|a||ve |||s W||| |ear |oWard lraud. T|e grea|er ||e s|ze ol a g|l| |s aro||er lac|or ||a| |ears |oWard
0eo| |s corrur||y deo|.
ou car c|arge separa|e proper|y |r|o corrur||y proper|y or v|ce versa |r Texas. T|e proper|y |as |o oe spec|l|c
proper|y. lersors aoou| |o rarry car c|arge proper|y ||ey a|ready |ave ard W||| |ave.
Texas law on co##unity property
%ule of la;: Al|er ||e separa|e proper|y |s d|soursed accord|rg |o B ,1 aoove, ||er ||e corrur||y proper|y
rus| oe d|vv|ed ou|. ll a|| ||e surv|v|rg c|||drer ol ||e deceder| are a|so c|||drer ol ||e surv|v|rg spouse (or |l
||ere are ro c|||drer), ||e surv|v|rg spouse ge|s ||e entire corrur||y proper|y es|a|e. ll ||e deceder| does
|ave c|||drer ou|s|de ol |||s rarr|age, ||er ||e surv|v|rg spouse ge|s , ard ||e c|||drer (ro ra||er |oW rary
||ere are) sp||| ||e o||er ever|y.
lrcore lror separa|e proper|y |s cors|dered Cl (s|rce || |s |rcore rade dur|rg ||e rarr|age), e.g., d|v|derds,
o 8u| |l spouses dor'| |||e ||a| ard War| ||e proper|y |o re|a|r ||s qua|||y, car par||||or so ||a| || rera|rs
separa|e (car do |r ||e prerup). Car ever par||||or a|| |rcore.
o Car'| c|arge sore|||rg |r|o Cl oelore rarr|age, ou| car do || al|er (or oelore |o |apper a| a cer|a|r ||re?)
As ol 2000 (c|arge s|rce ||e pr|r||rg ol |||s ooo|), you car corver| 3l |r|o Cl (TX Cors|. Arerd.)
o 3uc| as agreerer| rus|. (1) oe |r Wr|||rg, (2) oe s|gred oy ||e par||es, (3) agreerer| rus| oe rade
durin" rarr|age
o leop|e aoou| |o ge| rarr|ed car c|arge corrur||y proper|y |r|o separa|e proper|y oy vo|ur|ary
agreerer|, ou| ||ey car'| c|arge separa|e proper|y |r|o corrur||y proper|y. l.e., ||ey ray War| |o
agree ||a| |rcore lror eac| o||er's 3l s|a|| rera|r separa|e proper|y |rs|ead ol ||e |rcore lror 3l
oe|rg cors|der Cl.
3pouses car agree |o c|arge separa|e proper|y |r|o corrur||y proper|y orce ||ey ge| rarr|ed
(ou| ro| oelore) oy Wr|||er agreerer|, e|c.
o Car par||||or corrur||y proper|y oelore you ge| rarr|ed ard car agree ||a| |rcore lror separa|e
proper|y W||| re|a|r ||s separa|e s|a|us. T||s app||es |o lu|ure corrur||y proper|y.
TX. Inception of Title %uleua|||y ol ||e asse| |s de|err|re wlFN || |s acqu|red. ll acqu|red o|4 rarr|age, ||er
3l. Al|er, ||er presured Cl (ur|ess sper| 3l $ |o acqu|re ||). ll |a|e ou| a |oar us|rg 3l as 0l ard us|rg C cred|| lor res|,
||er presurp||or ||a| Cl.
o l|le lrsurarce. ll |r|||a| prer|ur o|4 rarr|age, ||er 3l, ever |l |a|er use Cl lurds |o pay lor add|||ora|
CF |as equ||ao|e c|a|r lor re|rourserer|.
TX. Fb or|y lor ac|ua| ar| ol ||e prer|urs (ro ups|de, ro add|||ora| proceeds ||a| exceed W|a|
Was pa|d ou|). Arguao|y, CF s|ou|d ge| sore ol ||e ups|de, ou| 3F |oo| ou| ear||er, so s|ou|d oe
er||||ed |o ||e ups|de as We||.
Cl used |o pay doWr secured deo| or ar 3l asse|, ro c|a|r lor Fb, ou| lor cor|r|ou||or (corp||ca|ed lorru|a).
Cl |rea|ed d|llerer||y urder TX |r|es|acy |aWs, |l ro surv|v|rg descerdar|s or a|| ol deceder|'s descerdar|s are
descerdar|s ol surv|v|rg spouse, ||er 33 ge|s a|| proper|y. 8|C ourdersore lor 33 |o |ave |o ge| guard|ars||p
ol c|||drer ard repor| |o cour| |l s|e War|s |o se|| ||e asse|, oe||er |o oWr ou|r|g||, presure ||a| s|e W||| |a|e care
ol |er oWr c|||drer.
o No s|r||ar ru|e lor 3l. 8|C TX prelererce lor |eep|rg sore prop W||| ||e lar||y, presured |o |ave oeer
|r|er||ed lror ||s parer|s, so |eep W|||s lar, ro| W||| 33 W|o r|g|| rerarry, g|ve |o soreore e|se.
o |AlN bFA30N l0b 0llFbFNCF lN bulF 8FTwFFN lllF lN3ubANCF AN0 l0|F FulTTo
ca|cu|a|e W|a| a ||le |rsurarce po||cy Wou|d |ave cos|s |ad |e Wa||ed ur||| rarr|age |s d|ll|cu|| |o ca|cu|a|e, W|ereas pr|ce ol
|ore car oe rore eas||y ca|cu|a|ed
lage 2$ ol 190
3. 3|ru||areous 0ea|| Caseooo|. o7-o8 (|op), Fx|. 3 (Tl8C 41(a), 47)
%ule of "a; under the )niform 'imultaneous 9eath Act. ll ro su##icient evidence ol W|o d|ed l|rs| ard ||e |Wo
d|ed |oge||er, assure ||e oerel|c|ary pre-deceased ||e doror. T|us, re|||er |r|er||s lror ||e o||er.
o A|so, |l |Wo JTs or |Wo peop|e |o|d a |erarcy oy ||e er||re|y or corrur||y proper|y ard ||ey d|e
s|ru||areous|y, proper|y |s d|s|r|ou|ed as |l ||e l|rs| ore surv|ved, ard proper|y |s d|s|r|ou|ed as |l ||e
o||er ore surv|ved.
o Cour|s |ad a |ard ||re del|r|rg W|a| cors|||u|es `sull|c|er| ev|derce' lor purpose ol ||e order ol ||e dea||s
o T||s proo|er cores up |r W|||s, |r|es|acy, |rus|s, |rsurarce po||c|es, & o||er ror-prooa|e |rarslers (rorra||y
peop|e dral| ||e|r W|||s so ||a| ||e o||er does ro| |a|e |l ||ey d|e |r a corror d|sas|er)
"ife Insurance. W|er ||e |rsured ard ||e oerel|c|ary d|e s|ru||areous|y, ||e proceeds are d|s|r|ou|ed as |l ||e
|rsured surv|ved ||e oerel|c|ary (es|a|e goes |o |e|rs ol |rsured or a cor||rger| oerel|c|ary)
)P* 2minority6: 2-104(&) hour rulea W||| oerel|c|ary ||a| la||s |o surv|ve a oerel|c|ary oy 120 |ours |s |rea|ed
as |l s|e predeceased ||e |es|a|or, aoser| a spec|l|c c|ause |r W||| |o ||e cor|rary
o lrpor|ar|. ur|ess ||e W||| ra|es a cor|rary prov|s|or. `.|l |e surv|ves re.' ||c|s ||e 120 |r. ru|e ou| ol p|ay
ard ary ev|derce ol surv|va| rears surv|va|.
Texas law on si#ultaneous death
%ule of la;. ll |Wo peop|e d|e s|ru||areous|y or W||||r 120 |ours ol eac| o||er, ||e cour| W|||
d|s|r|ou|e l's s|are as |l |e surv|ved ard d|s|r|ou|e w's s|are as |l s|e |ad surv|ved
ll w ard l d|e rore ||ar 120 |ours apar| (ever |l s|err|rg
lror ||e sare car acc|der|), ||er ||e usua| |r|es|acy ru|es app|y as |l ||e ore W|o d|ed secord a|ready
|r|er||ed lror ||e ore W|o d|ed l|rs|.
'imultaneous death (s. 'ur(i(al by -0@ hours. lurpose. dor'| War| |o |o|d up ||e proceed|rgs ard g|ve proper|y |o
soreore W|o car |a|e ||. leg|s|a|ure dec|ded or |||s ruroer. ll dral||rg a W|||, dor'| War| |o ra|e |||s surv|vors||p
per|od |oo |org (Ta|e sugges|s 30 days, ro| 90 days) o|c War| sore l|ra|||y ard ro| a |o| ol Wa|||rg arourd.
Texas Probate *ode B 54. %eFuirement of 'ur(i(al by -0@ #ours
(a) 3urv|va| ol le|rs. A persor W|o la||s |o surv|ve ||e deceder| oy 120 |ours |s deered |o |ave predeceased ||e deceder| lor purposes ol
|ores|ead a||oWarce, exerp| proper|y, ard |r|es|a|e success|or, ard ||e deceder|'s |e|rs are de|err|red accord|rg|y, excep| as
o||erW|se prov|ded |r |||s sec||or. ll ||e ||re ol dea|| ol ||e deceder| or ol ||e persor W|o Wou|d o||erW|se oe ar |e|r, or ||e ||res ol
dea|| ol oo||, carro| oe de|err|red, ard || carro| oe es|ao||s|ed ||a| ||e persor W|o Wou|d o||erW|se oe ar |e|r |as surv|ved ||e
deceder| oy 120 |ours, || |s deered ||a| ||e persor la||ed |o surv|ve lor ||e requ|red per|od. T||s suosec||or does ro| app|y W|ere ||s
app||ca||or Wou|d resu|| |r ||e esc|ea| ol ar |r|es|a|e es|a|e.
(o) 0|sposa| ol Corrur||y lroper|y. w|er a |usoard ard W|le |ave d|ed, |eav|rg corrur||y proper|y, ard re|||er ||e |usoard ror W|le surv|ved
||e o||er oy 120 |ours, ore-|a|l ol a|| corrur||y proper|y s|a|| oe d|s|r|ou|ed as |l ||e |usoard |ad surv|ved, ard ||e o||er ore-|a|l ||ereol
s|a|| oe d|s|r|ou|ed as |l ||e W|le |ad surv|ved. T|e prov|s|ors ol |||s suosec||or app|y |o proceeds ol ||le or acc|der| |rsurarce W||c| are
corrur||y proper|y ard oecore payao|e |o ||e es|a|e ol e|||er ||e |usoard or ||e W|le, as We|| as |o o||er ||rds ol corrur||y proper|y.
(c) 3urv|va| ol 0ev|sees or 8erel|c|ar|es. A dev|see W|o does ro| surv|ve ||e |es|a|or oy 120 |ours |s |rea|ed as |l |e predeceased ||e |es|a|or,
ur|ess ||e W||| ol ||e deceder| cor|a|rs sore |arguage dea||rg exp||c|||y W||| s|ru||areous dea|| or dea||s |r a corror d|sas|er, or
requ|r|rg ||a| ||e dev|see surv|ve ||e |es|a|or or surv|ve ||e |es|a|or lor a s|a|ed per|od |r order |o |a|e urder ||e W|||. ll proper|y |s so
d|sposed ol ||a| ||e r|g|| ol a oerel|c|ary |o succeed |o ary |r|eres| ||ere|r |s cord|||ora| upor ||s surv|v|rg aro||er persor, ||e oerel|c|ary
s|a|| oe deered ro| |o |ave surv|ved ur|ess |e or s|e surv|ves ||e persor oy 120 |ours. loWever, |l ary |r|eres| |r proper|y |s g|ver
a||erra||ve|y |o ore ol |Wo or rore oerel|c|ar|es, W||| ||e r|g|| ol eac| |o |a|e oe|rg deperder| upor ||s surv|v|rg ||e o||er or o||ers, ard
a|| s|a|| d|e W||||r a per|od ol |ess ||ar 120 |ours, ||e proper|y s|a|| oe d|v|ded |r|o as rary equa| por||ors as ||ere are oerel|c|ar|es, ard
||ose por||ors s|a|| oe d|s|r|ou|ed respec||ve|y |o ||ose W|o Wou|d |ave |a|er |r ||e ever| ||a| eac| oerel|c|ary |ad surv|ved.
(d) Jo|r| 0Wrers. ll ary rea| or persora| proper|y, |rc|ud|rg corrur||y proper|y W||| a r|g|| ol surv|vors||p, s|a|| oe so oWred ||a| ore ol |Wo
jo|r| oWrers |s er||||ed |o ||e W|o|e or ||e dea|| ol ||e o||er, ard re|||er surv|ves ||e o||er oy 120 |ours, ||ese asse|s s|a|| oe d|s|r|ou|ed
ore-|a|l as |l ore jo|r| oWrer |ad surv|ved ard ||e o||er ore-|a|l as |l ||e o||er jo|r| oWrer |ad surv|ved. ll ||ere are rore ||ar |Wo jo|r|
oWrers ard a|| |ave d|ed W||||r a per|od ol |ess ||ar 120 |ours, ||ese asse|s s|a|| oe d|v|ded |r|o as rary equa| por||ors as ||ere are jo|r|
oWrers ard ||ese por||ors s|a|| oe d|s|r|ou|ed respec||ve|y |o ||ose W|o Wou|d |ave |a|er |r ||e ever| ||a| eac| jo|r| oWrer surv|ved.
(e) lrsured ard 8erel|c|ary. w|er ||e |rsured ard a oerel|c|ary |r a po||cy ol ||le or acc|der| |rsurarce |ave died ;ithin a period of less
than -0@ hours, ||e |rsured s|a|| oe deered |o |ave surv|ved ||e oerel|c|ary lor ||e purpose ol de|err|r|rg ||e r|g||s urder ||e po||cy ol
||e oerel|c|ary or oerel|c|ar|es as suc|. T|e prov|s|ors ol |||s suosec||or s|a|| ro| prever| ||e app||ca||or ol suosec||or (o) aoove |o ||e
proceeds ol ||le or acc|der| |rsurarce W||c| are corrur||y proper|y.
lage 29 ol 190
(l) lrs|rurer|s lrov|d|rg 0|llerer| 0|spos|||or. w|er prov|s|or |as oeer rade |r ||e case ol W|||s, ||v|rg |rus|s, deeds, or cor|rac|s ol
|rsurarce, or ary o||er s||ua||or, lor d|spos|||or ol proper|y d|llerer| lror ||e prov|s|ors ol |||s 3ec||or, |||s 3ec||or s|a|| ro| app|y.
lage 30 ol 190
4. 0p||rg 0u|. Nega||ve w|||s & 0|s|r|er||arce p. 77-78
#o; it happens: T doesr'| War| a par||cu|ar persor|persors |a||rg urder ||e W|||, ye| doesr'| dev|se a|| ol ||s proper|y.
egative disinheritance
Fxpress prov|s|or |r a W||| say|rg your proper|y ray ro| go |o soreore |r par||cu|ar, |.e. d|s|r|er|||rg a c|||d.
lr ros| s|a|es you carro| do |||s, rus| dev|se a|| ol your proper|y |o o||er peop|e, |.e. your c|||d, ever |l you
d|s|r|er||ed ||r, W||| |r|er|| ur|ess you dev|se all your prop. ou|. ll ||ere |s par||a| |r|es|acy, ||e c|||d W||| |a|e.
ll your s|a|e does ro| a||oW, you ray o||erW|se d|s|r|er|| your ||ds oy |eav|rg a|| your proper|y |o your spouse.
ulC a||oWs rega||ve d|s|r|er||arce. 8arred c|||d |s |rea|ed as |l |e d|sc|a|red ||s |r|es|a|e s|are, W||c| rears |e
|s |rea|ed as |av|rg predeceased ||e deceder|.
Texas and -PC .oth /llow $isinheritance
Nega||ve d|s|r|er||arce |s a||oWed. T ray express|y d|s|r|er|| soreore.
Texas Probate *ode B .1. Interests 8hich +ay Pass )nder a 8ill
(o) A persor W|o ra|es a |as| W||| ard |es|arer| ray.
(1) d|s|r|er|| ar |e|r, ard
(2) d|rec| ||e d|spos|||or ol proper|y or ar |r|eres| pass|rg urder ||e W||| or oy |r|es|acy.
Issues ;ith 9isinheritance7'TAT/ 8#: 9I'IN#/%ITINE AN9 8#AT TC 9C 8IT# P%CP/%T:
Ta|e says ro| a good |dea |o d|s|r|er|| ore persor W|||ou| say|rg W|a| you War| |o |ave |apper |o ||e res| ol your
proper|y, c|||drer ro| guarar|eed ary|||rg |r a|| s|a|es ou| lA.
A d|s|r|er||ed c|||d r|g|| c|a|r ||a| ||e W||| |s |rva||d. Jur|es syrpa||e||c |o c|||drer W|o |ave oeer d|s|r|er||ed
lror ||e|r parer|'s W|||.
ll jury |||r|s ||ey're urla|r|y d|s|r|er||ed, cou|d s|r||e doWr ||e W|||. 0pers door |o W||| cor|es| ard persor W||| asser|
||a| you Were de|us|ora||ol ursourd r|rd. Cou|d sugges| ||a| you Werer'| ol sourd r|rd, ard dor'| War| par| ol
your es|a|e |o pass oy |r|es|acy aryWay, War| |o dev|se |o soreore.
ll you 00 d|s|r|er||, you dor'| War| |o pu| |arguage |r ||ere wl you're d|s|r|er|||rg (pu| || |r a separa|e docurer|
||a| W||| ro| oe prooa|ed).
B. 'uccession Problems %e$ardin$ *hildren
1. |ear|rg|Aro|gu|||es ol `C|||drer' pp. 83-94, 99-113, Fx|. 4 (Tl8C 3(o) & (jj), 40, 42(a)-(o))
Texas Family *ode B -?0..@4. /ffect of Adoption
(a) T|e adop|ed adu|| |s ||e sor or daug||er ol ||e adop||ve parer|s lor a|| purposes.
(o) T|e adop|ed adu|| |s er||||ed |o |r|er|| lror ard ||roug| ||e adop|ed adu||'s adop||ve parer|s as ||oug| ||e adop|ed adu|| Were ||e
o|o|og|ca| c|||d ol ||e adop||ve parer|s.
(c) T|e adop|ed adu|| ray ro| |r|er|| lror or ||roug| ||e adu||'s o|o|og|ca| parer|. A o|o|og|ca| parer| ray ro| |r|er|| lror or ||roug| ar adop|ed
Texas Probate *ode B ,. 9efinitions and )se of Terms
Fxcep| as o||erW|se prov|ded oy C|ap|er Xlll ol |||s Code, W|er used |r |||s Code, ur|ess o||erW|se apparer| lror ||e cor|ex|.
(o) C|||d |rc|udes ar adop|ed c|||d, W|e||er adop|ed oy ary ex|s||rg or lorrer s|a|u|ory procedure or oy ac|s ol es|oppe|, ou|, ur|ess
express|y so s|a|ed |ere|r, does ro| |rc|ude a c|||d W|o |as ro presured la||er.
(j) Nex| ol ||r |rc|udes ar adop|ed c|||d or ||s or |er descerder|s ard ||e adop||ve parer| ol ||e adop|ed c|||d.
)P*: BB 0---, & 0---5: *annot inherit from adopti(e parents.
TA: *an inherit from natural and adopti(e parents in any case 2exception: adult adoption6.
lage 31 ol 190
o Adop|ed c|||drer |ave ||e sare r|s |o |r|er|| #rom ard throu"h adop||ve parer|s as o|o|og|ca| c|||drer, ou|
||ere are var|a||ors as |o W|e||er ||ey car also |r|er|| lror ||e|r 5iolo"ical parer|s.
o Adop|ed c|||drer are par| ol a c|ass g|l| ur|ess |r|er| |o exc|ude ||er |rd|v|dua||y |s |r W|||.
*" & Adoption: ro recogr|||or ol adop||or a| Cl, adop||or |aW |s corp|e|e|y s|a|u|ory
)P* %ule about Adoption. orce a c|||d |s adop|ed, |e or s|e car or|y |r|er|| lror ||e|r
adop||ve parer|s ard ary r|g||s re|a|ed |o ||e ra|ura| parer|s are severed. Fxcep||or. ray a|so |r|er|| lror s|ep-
parer| W|o adop|s ||e|r s|ep-c|||d as ||e|r oWr o|c dor'| War| |o prever| s|epparer|s lror adop||rg ||e|r s|ep-
c|||drer ard |rea||rg ||er as ||e|r oWr. ulC 2-114
Adult adoption. ros| s|a|es |rea| c|||d ard adu|| adop||or ||e sare
o ulC 2-705. |l ||e adop||ve parer| |s ro| ||e deceder|, ||er ||e
adop|ed persor |s ro| cors|dered ar |e|r ol ||e deceder| oy adop||or ur|ess ||e adop|ed persor ||ved (e|||er
oelore or al|er adop||or) W||| ||e adop||ve parer| as a minor.
o The ;hole point of adult adoption cannot be to create an heir
under a ;ill.
o Car adop| your spouse - ou| ||a| doesr'| rear ||ey W||| oe
cors|dered ar |e|r |r order |o ge| ||e|r parer|-|r-|aW's es|a|e.
o 3ore||res gay rer W||| adop| ||e|r gay |over |o ersure ||a| ||e|r
es|a|e W||| go |o ||er ard ro| o||er |e|rs (W|o ray c|a||erge ||r |eav|rg every|||rg |o ||s gay |over |r ||s W|||)
Texas Law on /doption
Tl8C 40 adop|ed c|||drer |ave sare r|g||s as o||er c|||drer
Car |r|er|| lror o|o|og|ca| AN0 adop||ve parer|s. 0oesr'| ra||er |l s|ep-parer| or ro|, car a|Ways |r|er|| lror
Texas rorra||y does ro| recogr|ze adu|| adop||or |l || |rvo|ves adop||or ol a spouse or |over. (adop||rg adu||
c|||drer Wou|d prooao|y oe o|ay)
Texas Probate *ode B 5@. Inheritance by and From an Adopted *hild
lor purposes ol |r|er||arce urder ||e |aWs ol descer| ard d|s|r|ou||or, ar adop|ed c|||d s|a|| oe regarded as ||e c|||d ol ||e parer| or parer|s oy
adop||or, suc| adop|ed c|||d ard ||s descerdar|s |r|er|||rg lror ard ||roug| ||e parer| or parer|s oy adop||or ard ||e|r ||r ||e sare as |l suc|
c|||d Were ||e ra|ura| c|||d ol suc| parer| or parer|s oy adop||or, ard suc| parer| or parer|s oy adop||or ard ||e|r ||r |r|er|||rg lror ard ||roug|
suc| adop|ed c|||d ||e sare as |l suc| c|||d Were ||e ra|ura| c|||d ol suc| parer| or parer|s oy adop||or. T|e ra|ura| parer| or parer|s ol suc|
c|||d ard ||e|r ||r s|a|| ro| |r|er|| lror or ||roug| sa|d c|||d, ou|, excep| as prov|ded oy 1o2.507(c), lar||y Code, ||e c|||d s|a|| |r|er|| lror ard
||roug| ||s ra|ura| parer| or parer|s. No|||rg |ere|r s|a|| prever| ary parer| oy adop||or lror d|spos|rg ol ||s proper|y oy W||| accord|rg |o |aW.
T|e preserce ol |||s 3ec||or spec|l|ca||y re|a||rg |o ||e r|g||s ol adop|ed c|||drer s|a|| |r ro Way d|r|r|s| ||e r|g||s ol suc| c|||drer, urder ||e
|aWs ol descer| ard d|s|r|ou||or or o||erW|se, W||c| ||ey acqu|re oy v|r|ue ol ||e|r |rc|us|or |r ||e del|r|||or ol c|||d W||c| |s cor|a|red |r |||s
*lass #ypothetical
The +ays and the T;i$s both ha(e dau$hters. Prior to lea(in$ the hospital the children are mixed up. =imberly
$oes home ;ith the T;i$sD but is actually the +ays biolo$ical child. =imberly e(entually lea(es the T;i$s and
li(es ;ith the +ays. 9oes =imberly ha(e a ri$ht to the T;i$s estate and to the +ays<
T|e cour|s Wou|d prooao|y l|rd ||a| ||ere |as oeer a cors|ruc||ve adop||or. T|ere Was ro| ar ac|ua| adop||or, ou|
lor ||e sa|e ol equ||y, ||e cour| W||| prooao|y l|rd ||a| a cors|ruc||ve adop||or occurred. K|roer|y |as a rora| c|a|r
or ||e |ays, ou| || W||| oe d|ll|cu|| |o s|oW ar equ||ao|e adop||or.
lr Texas, || does ro| ra||er W|e||er ||ere |s ar equ||ao|e adop||or, oecause a|| K|roer|y |as |o s|oW |s ||a| |rs. |ay
|s |er ro||er.
T|e |ays |ave ro| oper|y |rea|ed ||e|r daug||er as ||ere oWr, so ||e |ays cou|d ro| |r|er|| lror K|roer|y's es|a|e,
so ary es|a|e Wou|d go |o ||e 3|a|e.
lr Texas, ||e |aW per|a|r|rg |o adop||or |s ||e vo|ur|ary g|v|rg up ol a c|||d.
lage 32 ol 190
#ypothetical7Pa$e 30
After T&s deathD son 2A6 has ;ife and natural son 2B6O 8 remarries # and # later adopts B.
ll s|r|c| ru|e ||a| c|||drer carro| |r|er|| lror or ||roug| ra|ura| parer|. T Wou|d |ave lNTFN0F0 8 |o |r|er|| lror
||r (ra|e lNTFNT argurer| or ||e exar!!).
lr TX Wou|d |ave |r|er||ed lror oo|| ra|ura| ard adop||ve parer|.
lage 33 ol 190
#all (. Iallandin$ham
*ourt of 'pecial Appeals of +arylandD -311
4. +d. App. -14D .5@ A.0d --?0
lac|s. Far| va||ard|rg|ar d|ed, surv|ved oy ||s W|le, F||zaoe||, ard ||e|r lour c|||drer. F||zaoe|| rarr|es J|r K|||gore.
K|||gore adop|ed a|| lour c|||drer. Far|'s oro||er, w||||ar, d|ed c|||d|ess, urrarr|ed, ard |r|es|a|e. l|s so|e |e|rs
Were ||s surv|v|rg oro||ers, ard ||s r|eces ard rep|eWs. Far|'s c|||drer oe||eved ||ey Were er||||ed |o
d|s|r|ou||or ol ||e es|a|e.
besu||. Ar adop|ed c|||d |as ro r|g|| |o |r|er|| lror ||e es|a|e ol a ra|ura| parer| W|o d|es |r|es|a|e, || lo||oWs ||a| ||e
sare c|||d ray ro| |r|er|| ||roug| ||e ra|ura| parer| oy Way ol represer|a||or.
le|d. Ar adop|ed c|||d |s ro |orger cors|dered a c|||d ol e|||er ra|ura| parer| ard |oses or adop||or a|| r|g||s ol
|r|er||arce lror ||s ra|ura| parer|s.
beasor|rg. Adop|ed c|||drer s|ou|dr'| |ave super|or r|g||s |o o|o c|||drer ol adop||ve parer|s or lror o|o parer|s.
)P* (s. TP* on this:
o )P*: Car adop| lror ra|ura| parer| |l adop|ed oy a s|ep-parer|. 8u| does ro| a||oW adop|ed ||d |o |r|er||
W|er a s|rarger or ror-o|o|og|ca| parer| adop|s.
lr ro case car ||e 8|o larer|s |r|er|| lror|||roug| ||e adop|ed c|||d. T|e oro||er Wou|d ro| |ave
oeer ao|e |o |r|er|| lror ||ese ||ds |l ore |ad d|ed |r|es|a|e. No| la|r, says Ta|e. Car see W|y
Wou|d War| |o cu| oll o|o parer|s (W|y s|ou|d ||ey oerel|| |l ||ey c|ose |o cu| oll ||e|r ||d?), ou| ||e
parer|s' re|a||ves arer'| ||e ore ||a| pu| ||e ||d up lor adop||or.
8es| |r|eres| ol ||e c|||d |s ro| ||e po||cy |r |||s c|ass. we War| |o g|ve allec| |o ||e ac|ua| |r|er| ol
||e deceder|.
o TP*: A||oWs adop|ed ||d |o |r|er|| lror oo|| se|s ol parer|sra|ura| ard adop|ed. usua||y ro ques||or ||a|
||e ||d car |r|er|| lror adop||ve parer|s. 8u| |ssue |s usua||y car ||ey |r|er|| lror o|o|og|ca| parer|s.
8|o parer|s oroug|| ||d |r|o Wor|d, so ||e c|||d s|ou|d |ave sore rora| c|a|r or ||e|r proper|y. lroo|er.
C|||drer car oe d|s|r|er||ed oy o|o|og|ca| parer|s. No| c|ear ||a| ||ere's a rora| c|a|r or |||s proper|y. ll |oo||rg a| |r|er| ol
deceder|, ro| c|ear ||a| ||e |yp|ca| o|o parer| Wou|d War| a c|||d ||a| ||ey pu| up lor adop||or |o |r|er|| lror|||roug| ||er.
+inary 2P6 (. *itiQens Fidelity Ban! & Trust *o. 2R6
*ourt of Appeals of =entuc!yD -3?4
5-3 '.8.0d ,5@
lac|s. Are||a ||rary p|aced proper|y |r |rus| lor ever|ua| d|s|r|ou||or `|o [|er| ||er-surv|v|rg |e|rs,' W||c| |s |er ||ree
sors. 0re ol Are||a's sors adop|ed ||s oWr W|le, ou| ||e 8ar| relused |o d|s|r|ou|e ||e |rus| proper|y |o ||e
W|le ol Are||a's |e|r.
le|d. 0re W|o adop|s a spouse or o||er adu|| carro| ||ereoy ra|e ||e adop|ee ar |e|r |o ar es|a|e crea|ed oy ar
ex|s||rg |es|arer|ary |rs|rurer| execu|ed oy ar arces|or ol ||e adop|er.
lr |||s case, po||cy oas|s ol War||rg |o g|ve ellec| |o ||e se|||or's |r|er| ||a| Are||a rear| lor |||s |o go |o
descerdar|s, ro| spouses ol |er descerdar|s. No| c|ear W|a| |er |r|er| Wou|d |ave oeer.
`3|rarger |o ||e adop||or bu|e'. Car |r|er|| #rom ou| ro| throu"h ar adop||ve parer|.
o bu|e c|arged |r 1953, roW car |r|er|| ||roug| adop||ve parer|s.
3|ou|d you oe ao|e |o adop| your spouse? 3eers |rces|uous.
Are||a's |rus| crea|ed |r 1932. T|e |rus| W||| oe |r|erpre|ed oy ||e |aWs |r lorce a| ||e ||re ||e |as| oerel|c|ary d|es.
%ule: loo| |o |r|er| ol doror.
laWyer W|o dral|ed ||e W||| d|d ro| ar||c|pa|e ||e |aW c|arg|rg.
lrov|s|or ol TA Fam. *ode says ||a| ar adop|ed adu|| carro| |r|er|| lror ||a| persor's o|o|og|ca| parer|s. No
excep||or lor adu|| adop|ed oy a s|epparer|. Car |ead |o a o|zarre adu||.
lage 34 ol 190
*hildren .orn after 9eath of their father or outside of marria$e.
los||urous c|||d. c|||d |s corce|ved oelore, ou| oorr al|er |er la||er's dea||
ur|lorr larer|age Ac| (ulA) bu|e. C|||d oorr |o a deceder|'s W|le W||r 300 days al|er a rar's dea|| |s
presured |o oe ||s c|||d ard W||| |r|er|| |r|es|a|e or W||| oe |rea|ed lavorao|y urder a W|||
Cl ru|e. Trea|ed as |l ||ey Were |r oe|rg lror ||re ol corcep||or (|o |e|p c|||d |r|er||). ll o|r|| |s 280 days (-10
ror||s) or rore al|er ||e c|a|red corcep||or, carro| |r|er|| lror e|||er parer|, ou| ||e ourder roves |o ||e
reWoorr c|||d |o reou| ||e presurp||or (300 days |r TX).
lrozer eroryos. |||s presurp||or ru|e does ro| app|y |o lrozer eroryos ur|ess ||ey are oorr W||r 300 days
al|er ||e dea||
ulA or pos||urous corcep||or. A pos||urous|y conceived c|||d (lror lrozer eroryos or lrozer sperr) W||| ro|
|r|er|| urder |r|es|acy ur|ess ||e deceder| corser|s.
b3T or pos||urous corcep||or. rore re|axed ||ar ulA, pos||urous|y conceived c|||drer W||| oe cors|dered
c|||drer lor |r|es|acy |l ||ey are lror ||e sare gere||c ra|er|a|
Texas Probate *ode B 5-. +atters Affectin$ and Not Affectin$ the %i$ht to Inherit
(a) lersors No| |r 8e|rg. No r|g|| ol |r|er||arce s|a|| accrue |o ary persors o||er ||ar |o c|||drer or ||rea| descerdar|s ol ||e |r|es|a|e, ur|ess
||ey are |r oe|rg ard capao|e |r |aW |o |a|e as |e|rs a| ||e ||re ol ||e dea|| ol ||e |r|es|a|e.
Texas Probate *ode B 50. Inheritance %i$hts of *hildren
(a) |a|erra| lr|er||arce. lor ||e purpose ol |r|er||arce, a c|||d |s ||e c|||d ol ||s o|o|og|ca| or adop|ed ro||er, so ||a| |e ard ||s |ssue s|a||
|r|er|| lror ||s ro||er ard lror ||s ra|erra| ||rdred, oo|| descerdar|s, ascerdar|s, ard co||a|era|s |r a|| degrees, ard ||ey ray |r|er||
lror ||r ard ||s |ssue.
(o) la|erra| lr|er||arce. (1) lor ||e purpose ol |r|er||arce, a c|||d |s ||e c|||d ol ||s o|o|og|ca| la||er |l ||e c|||d |s oorr urder c|rcurs|arces
descr|oed oy 1o0.201, lar||y Code, |s adjud|ca|ed |o oe ||e c|||d ol ||e la||er oy cour| decree as prov|ded oy C|ap|er 1o0, lar||y Code, Was
adop|ed oy ||s la||er, or |l ||e la||er execu|ed ar ac|roW|edgrer| ol pa|err||y as prov|ded oy 3uoc|ap|er 0, C|ap|er 1o0, lar||y Code, or a
|||e s|a|erer| proper|y execu|ed |r aro||er jur|sd|c||or, so ||a| |e ard ||s |ssue s|a|| |r|er|| lror ||s la||er ard lror ||s pa|erra| ||rdred, oo||
descerdar|s, ascerdar|s, ard co||a|era|s |r a|| degrees, ard ||ey ray |r|er|| lror ||r ard ||s |ssue. A persor c|a|r|rg |o oe a o|o|og|ca| c|||d
ol ||e deceder|, W|o |s ro| o||erW|se presured |o oe a c|||d ol ||e deceder|, or c|a|r|rg |r|er||arce ||roug| a o|o|og|ca| c|||d ol ||e deceder|,
W|o |s ro| o||erW|se presured |o oe a c|||d ol ||e deceder|, ray pe||||or ||e prooa|e cour| lor a de|err|ra||or ol r|g|| ol |r|er||arce. ll ||e
cour| l|rds oy c|ear ard corv|rc|rg ev|derce ||a| ||e purpor|ed la||er Was ||e o|o|og|ca| la||er ol ||e c|||d, ||e c|||d |s |rea|ed as ary o||er c|||d
ol ||e deceder| lor ||e purpose ol |r|er||arce ard |e ard ||s |ssue ray |r|er|| lror ||s pa|erra| ||rdred, oo|| descerdar|s, ascerdar|s, ard
co||a|era|s |r a|| degrees, ard ||ey ray |r|er|| lror ||r ard ||s |ssue. T||s sec||or does ro| perr|| |r|er||arce oy a purpor|ed la||er ol a c|||d,
W|e||er recogr|zed or ro|, |l ||e purpor|ed la||er's parer|a| r|g||s |ave oeer |err|ra|ed.
3|rce 2007 Texas cour|s |ave ||e poWer |o ex|ure a oody |o de|err|re pa|err||y.
los||urous ||rea| descerdar|s car |r|er||, ou| does ro| |rea| co||a|era| re|a||ves as oe|rg |r ex|s|erce a| corcep||or.
(0ppos||e ol Cl ru|e). A pos||urous c|||d ol a T W||| oe |rc|uded |r a T's W||| s|rce |e |s a ||rea| descerder|.
o beasor|rg lor bu|e. 0or'| War| adr|r|s|ra||or |o go or lorever, so dor'| War| peop|e cor|rg `ou| ol ||e
WoodWor|' say|rg ||a| ||ey're er||||ed |o |r|er||. No| as |ard W||| ||rea| descerdar|s.
o 1xception. |||s ru|e does ro| app|y |o co||a|era| ||r W|o are uroorr a| ||e ||re ol T's dea||. |.e. a
pregrar| s|s|er-|r-|aW's lu|ure oaoy W||| ro| |r|er|| as ||s rep|eW lror T's W||| ever |l s|e Was pregrar|
a| ||e ||re |e Was a||ve
urder TX ur|lorr larer|age Ac||Tl8C 42, a c|||d |s a c|||d ol ||s o|o|og|ca| la||er |l.
o K|d |s adjud|ca|ed |o oe ||e c|||d ol ||e la||er oy a cr| decree
o C|||d Was adop|ed oy la||er
o la||er execu|ed ar ac|roW|edgerer| ol pa|err||y 0b
o |ar |s presured |o oe ||e la||er ol a c|||d (car oe reou||ed) |l.
le |s rarr|ed |o ||e ro||er ol ||e c|||d ard c|||d |s oorr dur|rg ||e rarr|age
le |s rarr|ed |o ||e ro||er ol ||e c|||d ard c|||d |s oorr before the ,@-
day al|er ||e da|e
||e rarr|age |s |err|ra|ed follows 011!day rule unli%e CL 231 day rule4
le |s rarr|ed |o ||e ro||er oelore ||e o|r|| ol |e c|||d
le |s rarr|ed |o ||e ro||er ol ||e c|||d al|er ||e o|r|| ol ||e c|||d ard vo|ur|ar||y asser|ed ||s
pa|err||y ol ||e c|||d.
lage 35 ol 190
A pos||urous|y conceived c|||d (lror lrozer eroryos or lrozer sperr) W||| ro| |r|er|| urder |r|es|acy ur|ess
||ey corser| |r Wr|||rg - ro| jus| |es||rory aoou| ora| corversa||ors. (TX lar Code)
ll you're oorr ol a Worar, a||oWed |o |r|er|| |l s|e d|es |r|es|a|e regard|ess ol W|e||er s|e Was rarr|ed. ll rar
rarr|ed ||e ro||er al|er ||e c|||d's o|r||, |ad |o vo|ur|ar||y asser| ||a| |e Was ||e la||er, pror|sed |r Wr|||rg |o
suppor| ||e c|||d as ||s oWr or res|ded |r ||e c|||d's |ouse|o|d lor l|rs| |Wo years ol ||e c|||d's ||le ard
represer|ed |o o||ers ||a| |e Was ||e la||er, ||er c|||d car |r|er|| lror ||a| persor. ll c|a|r |o oe soreore's
c|||d, car sue dur|rg ||s ||le |o prove |||s. Al|er dea||, car pe||||or ||e prooa|e cour|. 8urder ol prool |s c|ear &
corv|rc|rg ev|derce.
on Marital vs4 Marital Children
Cl presurp||or. l ol a ro||er |s ||e c|||d's la||er lor purposes ol |r|es|acy. No reed |o prove pa|err||y.
o 0|d ru|e. do ro| v|eW ev|derce |o ||e cor|rary, |rreou||ao|e
o |oderr ru|e. presurp||or car oe reou||ed oy CCF, ou|, |r ros| s|a|es, |||s presurp||or car oe
reou||ed or|y |r ar ac||or oy ||e c|||d, ro||er, or persor c|a|r|rg |o oe ||e o|o|og|ca| la||er, N0T oy ||e
l ||rse|l
Nor-rar||a| c|||drer. ||ds oorr ol ror-rarr|ed parer|s, |aW used |o oe s|r|c|, ou| roW rore lorg|v|rg.
o To|a| pro||o|||ors or `oas|ards'' |r|er||arce are urcors|.
-: # dies intestateO ? mos. laterD child born to his ;ido;D 8. No Fuestion that it&s his child. If he had 'eparate
PropertyD ;hat happens<
C|||d |s a ||rea| descerdar|, so W||| ge| l's 3l.
0: #an! and his brotherD Fran!D died to$ether in accident. 'ix months laterD Fran!D r. born to F&s ;ido;. # had
no spouse or descendants. *an Fran!D r. inherit from #an!&s estate<
Carro| |r|er|| lror urc|e's es|a|e, jus| ||s la||er's es|a|e. A pos| dea|| oorr c|||d car |r|er|| lror a parer| (||rea|
descerder|), ou| a co||a|era| descerder| (r|ece|rep|eW) carro| |r|er|| ur|ess oorr oelore ||e dea||.
8ood;ard (. *ommissioner of 'ocial 'ecurity
'upreme udicial *ourt of +assachusettsD 0@@0
5,. +ass. .,?D 4?@ N./.0d 0.4
lac|s. woodWard soug|| surv|vor oerel||s lor |erse|l ard |er c|||drer, W|o Were corce|ved us|rg |er deceased
|usoard's prev|ous|y preserved serer.
le|d. A c|||d resu|||rg lror pos||urous reproduc||or ray erjoy ||e |r|er||arce r|g||s ol `|ssue' urder ||e |r|es|acy
s|a|u|e W|ere ||ere |s a gere||c re|a||ors||p oe|Weer ||e c|||d ard ||e deceder| ard ||e deceder| corser|ed |o
pos||urous corcep||or ard |o ||e suppor| ol ary resu|||rg c|||d.
`lssue' rears a|| gere||c descerdar|s ard oo|| rar||a| ard ror-rar||a| descerder|s.
%ule of "a;. lrospec||ve doror rus| c|ear|y ard urequ|voca||y corser| |o (1) pos||urous reproduc||or AN0 (2)
|o ||e suppor| ol ary resu|||rg c|||d. (8e||er |l |||s |s pu| |r Wr|||rg.)8urder res|s or surv|v|rg spouse or parer| or
||e c|||d's o||er |ega| rep |o prove ||e deceased parer| corser|ed |o oo|| ||e reproduc||or ard ||e suppor|.
C| l0l0lN0. 3ays sore||res a c|||d corce|ved pos||urous|y car |r|er||. 8a|arce s|a|e interests:
o Best interest of child: lr oes| |r|eres| ol ||e c|||drer |o rece|ve rorey lror ||s es|a|e, W|a| aoou|
c|||drer ro| corce|ved |a|er? lo|er||a| corl||c||Wo se|s ol ||ds. Cour| says ||a| a|| c|||drer |ave oy
v|r|ue ol oe|rg c|||drer ol ||e|r parer|s |s ||e r|g|| |o |r|er|| sore|||rg lror ||e|r parer|s' es|a|e. 0re
argurer|. No| ra|ura| r|g||, grar|ed oy ||e s|a|e (|r ||e u3, parer|s car d|s|r|er||, so ro |r|erer| r|g||.)
o 'tate&s interest of orderly administration of estates. Adr|r|s|ra||ve goa|s ol ||e |r|es|acy s|a|u|e are
|r|erlered W||| o|c
o Parent&s reproducti(e ri$hts: la||er r|g|| |ave |ad sperr lrozer lor reasors o||er ||ar |o |ave
c|||drer al|er ||s dea||. |ayoe |e or|y War|ed |o |ave ||ds dur|rg ||s ||le||re |l |e surv|ved ar
opera||or, r|g|| ro| |ave War|ed c|||drer |o oe oorr ||a| |e cou|dr'| |ave oeer ||ere |o |a|e care ol
||er. 0eceder| s|ou|d oe ao|e |o cor|ro| |||s.
lage 3" ol 190
TA Fam. *ode lo||oWs parer|age ac| ||a| says ||a| la||er |ad |o |ave corser|ed |r Wr|||rg |o ||e pos||urous
corcep||or ol c|||drer.
o *A probate code says ||a| ||e Wr|||rg |as |o oe W||ressed. A|so says ||a| c|||d |as |o oe corce|ved
W||r 2 years ol la||er's dea||.
o %est. of Property doesr'| requ|re corser|, says c|||d |as |o oe oorr W||r reasorao|e ||re |r
c|rcurs|arces |rd|ca||rg ||a| ||e la||er Wou|d |ave approved, ||er ||e c|||d car |r|er|| lror ||e la||er
ever |l ro Wr|||er corser|.
2. Advarcerer|s |o C|||drer oelore 0ea|| ol larer| pp. 114-1o, Fx|. 5
Texas Probate *ode B 55. Ad(ancements
(a) ll a deceder| d|es |r|es|a|e as |o a|| or a por||or ol ||e deceder|'s es|a|e, proper|y ||e deceder| gave dur|rg ||e deceder|'s ||le||re |o a
persor W|o, or ||e da|e ol ||e deceder|'s dea||, |s ||e deceder|'s |e|r, or proper|y rece|ved oy a deceder|'s |e|r urder a ror|es|arer|ary
|rarsler urder C|ap|er Xl ol |||s code |s ar advarcerer| aga|rs| ||e |e|r's |r|es|a|e s|are or|y |l.
||e deceder| dec|ared |r a cor|erporareous Wr|||rg or ||e |e|r ac|roW|edged |r Wr|||rg ||a| ||e g|l| or ror|es|arer|ary |rarsler |s ar
advarcerer|, or
||e deceder|'s cor|erporareous Wr|||rg or ||e |e|r's Wr|||er ac|roW|edgrer| o||erW|se |rd|ca|es ||a| ||e g|l| or ror|es|arer|ary |rarsler |s
|o oe |a|er |r|o accour| |r corpu||rg ||e d|v|s|or ard d|s|r|ou||or ol ||e deceder|'s |r|es|a|e es|a|e.
(o) lor purposes ol 3uosec||or (a) ol |||s sec||or, proper|y ||a| |s advarced |s va|ued a| ||e ||re ||e |e|r care |r|o possess|or or erjoyrer| ol
||e proper|y or a| ||e ||re ol ||e deceder|'s dea||, W||c|ever occurs l|rs|.
(c) ll ||e rec|p|er| ol ||e proper|y la||s |o surv|ve ||e deceder|, ||e proper|y |s ro| |a|er |r|o accour| |r corpu||rg ||e d|v|s|or ard d|s|r|ou||or ol
||e deceder|'s |r|es|a|e es|a|e, ur|ess ||e deceder|'s cor|erporareous Wr|||rg prov|des o||erW|se.
)P* B 0--@3. Ad(ancements.
(a) ll ar |rd|v|dua| d|es |r|es|a|e as |o a|| or a por||or ol ||s [or |er| es|a|e, proper|y ||e deceder| gave dur|rg ||e deceder|'s ||le||re |o ar
|rd|v|dua| W|o, a| ||e deceder|'s dea||, |s ar |e|r |s |rea|ed as ar advarcerer| aga|rs| ||e |e|r's |r|es|a|e s|are or|y |l (|) ||e deceder|
dec|ared |r a cor|erporareous Wr|||rg or ||e |e|r ac|roW|edged |r Wr|||rg ||a| ||e g|l| |s ar advarcerer| or (||) ||e deceder|'s
cor|erporareous Wr|||rg or ||e |e|r's Wr|||er ac|roW|edgrer| o||erW|se |rd|ca|es ||a| ||e g|l| |s |o oe |a|er |r|o accour| |r corpu||rg ||e
d|v|s|or ard d|s|r|ou||or ol ||e deceder|'s |r|es|a|e es|a|e.
(o) lor purposes ol suosec||or (a), proper|y advarced |s va|ued as ol ||e ||re ||e |e|r care |r|o possess|or or erjoyrer| ol ||e proper|y or
as ol ||e ||re ol ||e deceder|'s dea||, W||c|ever l|rs| occurs.
(c) ll ||e rec|p|er| ol ||e proper|y la||s |o surv|ve ||e deceder|, ||e proper|y |s ro| |a|er |r|o accour| |r corpu||rg ||e d|v|s|or ard d|s|r|ou||or ol ||e
deceder|'s |r|es|a|e es|a|e, ur|ess ||e deceder|'s cor|erporareous Wr|||rg prov|des o||erW|se.
l|le||re g|l|s, |l advarcerer|s, are |a|er |r|o accour| W|er d|s|r|ou||rg ||e es|a|e ol soreore W|o d|es |r|es|a|e. T|e
ar| |s pu| |r|o `|odge po|' W||| ||e res| ol ||e es|a|e. 0|v|de ||a| oy ||e ruroer ol |e|rs, ||er suo|rac| ||e ar| ol ||e
|rves|rer| W||| ||e ar| g|ver |o eac| |e|r.
Cl presurp||or. a c|||d ||a| rece|ved a ||le||re g|l| oelore ||e|r parer|s' dea|| (ar `advarcerer|') |as |o prove ||
Was ro| ar advarcerer| |r order |o |eep ||e g|l|, c|||d |as ||e ourder ol prov|rg || Was ar aoso|u|e g|l| ard ro|
|r|erded |o cour| aga|rs| ||e|r s|are ol ||e es|a|e (goa| |s equa|||y ard la|rress) urder Cl, ||ere's ar assurp||or
||a| a |arge sur ol cas| |s ar advarcerer|.
o burs cor|rary |o |r|er| ol deceder|, usua||y. 0l|er deceder| g|ves rorey dur|rg ||le |o poorer c|||drer, so
|||s |s proo|era||c W|er ||ey |a|e |||||e or ro|||rg urder ||e W|||.
o Fxcep||ors. d|sao|ed c|||d, cu||ura| rorrs |||e Wedd|rgs, urdergrad |u|||or are a|| cors|dered regu|ar g|l|s or
spec|a| c|rcurs|arces ard ro| advarcerer|s (grad sc|oo| ray oe cors|dered ar advarcerer|)
)P*: ur|ess pu| |r Wr|||rg oy 0 ||a| |||s Was |r|erded as ar advarcerer|, ||er || |s ro|. lresures ||a| ||le g|l|s are
ro| advarcerer|s.
TP* 2556: 3are as ulC. ur|ess |r Wr|||rg ||a| ||'s a |rarsler, ||er ro| ar advarcerer|. (1993) 8elore ||a|, TX
lo||oWed Cl. T||s reW ore appears |o oe re|roac||ve, ever ||oug| ro| exp||c|| |r ||e s|a|u|e.
8o|| s|a|u|es are ||e sare.
lage 3# ol 190
w|er g|l| rec|p|er| d|es oelore 0, ||er ||e advarcerer| |s |grored. ur|ess 0 sa|d, `T||s |s ar advarcerer| ard ||
|s o|rd|rg or a|| suosequer| |e|rs.' (A |ad |Wo c|||drer, 0 & F, ard |Wo s|o||rgs, 8 & C. A's la||er gave ||r ar
advarcerer|, ard ||er A d|ed. w|er la||er d|es, ||e advarcerer| |s ro| |a|er |r|o accour|.)
"oo! at ori$inal (alue ol W|a| || Was TlFN (ro| roW).
ll adv |s grea|er ||ar W|a| ||ey Wou|d |ave go||er, ||'s 0Kdor'| |ave |o pay ||a| rorey oac|.
*ommon "a; )P* Texas
lre-dea|| g|l|
presured |o oe ar
Tu|||or ray oe
cors|dered ar advarcerer| |l
|| |s lor grad sc|oo| =
ex|raord|rary g|l|
lre-dea|| g|l| |s ro| ar
advarcerer|, ur|ess dec|ared
so |r Wr|||rg. 2-109 p. 115
3are as Texas.
lre-dea|| g|l| |s ro| ar
advarcerer|, ur|ess dec|ared so |r
3are as ulC.
lage 3$ ol 190
=ids: AD BD *7.@= to A durin$ lifeO S0.@= estate
$100K |o 8 & C, $50K |o A (A|| ge| sare arour| |l you |a|e |r|o accour| ||e ||le||re g|l|s ||a| Were rade.)
#ypotheticals7Pa$e --.
(. C has 0 !idsD A & B. A o;ns a successful business. B is a sin$le parent stru$$lin$ to ma!e ends meet. C
$i(es B $ifts durin$ C&s lifetime. C&s lifetime transfers to B are deemed to be ad(ancementsD then B $ets less than
A ;hen C dies.
%ro5a5ly not what / wanted.
!7 -octrine o# Advancements may run counter to intent here.
&. C has 0 !ids to his first marria$e and ? !ids from second marria$e. Before deathD $i(es land to children by
the first marria$e. Are these ad(ancements<
9ay5e that 5elon"ed to their mother: so they should "et the land and it should not have "one to children o# second wi#e: he
would not have wanted it to 5e an advancement.
*. C has , !idsO one dau$hter li(es ;ith C until C dies 2A6. Before C&s deathD he deeds the farm to AD says it&s
not an ad(ancementD but a $ift for extraordinary ser(ices.
%olicy: ;ant to encoura"e children to care #or parents durin" their lives, so incentive argu#ent.
,4 C $a(e son B S0@=. B needs S to care for family. 'ame as -.
<. C&s dau$hter *D $oes to :ale +edD C pays tuition 2S-,@=6O is that an ad(ancement<
Slippery slope ar"ument. 8# we say tuition payments are advancements, then could loo6 at other thin"s li6e 5irthday party
expenses, cars, etc. Ar"ument: -idn=t "o to the child, went to the school.
%urpose o# pro5lems: !7 doctrine o# advancements doesn=t #urther the intent o# the avera"e decedent.
A go| a louse. $100K ard $30K oelore ||s dad's dea||.
A| dea||. es|a|e |s $500K, A's |ouse |s $300K (|||s va|ue doesr'| ra||er), A's car a| dea|| |s $1K (|||s va|ue doesr'|
loo| a| va|ue W|er rec|p|er| care into possess|or or day ol dea|| (W||c|ever care l|rs|).
Fac| c|||d ge|s $210K, s|rce A a|ready go| |ouse ard car Wor|| $130K, so A or|y ge|s $80K.
0|ll|cu|| ev|der||ary proo|er. lrov|rg ||a| a g|l| Was rade (|l a p|ece ol jeWe|ry), persor ge|||rg ||e g|l| prooao|y Wor'|
|es||ly ||a| |e go| ||.
lo||cy. A s|ou|d oerel|| lror |er ous|ress acurer or suller lror ||e |ac| ||ereol, |||s |s ||e reasor We |oo| a| ||e va|ue
ol ||e proper|y W|er ||e rec|p|er| care |r|o possess|or.
*. 9isclaimer pp. 132-35, Fx|. o
w|er soreore lorra||y dec||res |o |a|e ||e proper|y ||a| ||ey are er||||ed |o urder |r|er||arce |aWs (e|||er ||roug|
|r|es|acy or oy W|||).
+odern %ule: Trea|ed as |l ||ey predeceased ||e deceder|.
ba||ora|e lor d|sc|a|r|rg. Tax reasors, jud|c|a| ||ers or proper|y ||a| you |ave or acqu|re, dor'| |||e ||e persor W|o
gave || (rora| oojec||ors)
o Tax: ll you |a|e ||e proper|y ard ||'s suojec| |o s|a|e |ax, ard ||er you g|ve |o your c|||drer, |ave |o pay
|axes 2x. ll you d|sc|a|r, ||er drops d|rec||y |o rex| gerera||or ard es|a|e |axes or|y |ev|ed orce.
o *reditors: 0or'| War| ||er |o ge| ||e proper|y, ||er |rea|ed urder be|a||or-8ac| doc|r|re as |l you rever
rece|ved ||. lroper|y goes d|rec||y |o W|orever Wou|d |a|e || al|er you d|sc|a|r ||.
o TlC. 0||er ||ar c|ar||ao|e orgar|za||ors or s|a|e agercy |as 3 months to file a disclaimer. lave |o
execu|e a ro|ar|zed rero ard serd copy |o ||e persora| represer|a||ve or W|oever |o|ds ||e proper|y.
|us| oe r|re ror||s |o oe qua||l|ed d|sc|a|rer lor |ax purposes.
lage 39 ol 190
ulC. ll ar |e|r d|sc|a|rs proper|y, ||e cour| W||| |rea| ||e d|sc|a|rar| as |av|rg pre-deceased ||e deceder|. (Trea|
||e persor d|sc|a|r|rg as |l ||ey are dead.) 0r|y ||e par||cu|ar d|sc|a|red |r|eres| |r d|sc|a|red, ro| ||e er||re
es|a|e. T|e deceder|'s prop does ro| pass |o ||e d|sc|a|rar| a| a|| ard ||e d|sc|a|rar| ray ro| |rarsler ||.
leop|e ray d|sc|a|r proper|y |o save or |axes or avo|d cred||ors.
0|sc|a|rer s|a|u|es. 8|c d|sc|a|rer re|a|es oac| |o ||e da|e ol deceder|'s dea||, ord|rary cred||ors carro| reac| ||a|
persor's s|are.
'layer cases: ll you s|ay ||e deceder|, ||er you're |rea|ed as |av|rg predeceased ||e deceder|.
ll es|a|e suojec| |o |ax, ||er good |dea |o |ave |e|r d|sc|a|r so ||a| ||e descerder| ol ||e |e|r ge|s ||e g|l| ard or|y
pays |ax 0NCF (ro| |W|ce, |||e you Wou|d lor ||e |e|r ard ||er ||s c|||d).
Car Al30 avo|d c|a|rs ol cred||ors |||s Way. `be|a||or-oac|' 0oc|r|red|sc|a|rer re|a|es oac| |o ||e da|e ol ||e
deceder|'s dea||, |||e ||e |e|r rever go| ||e proper|y.
Texas law on disclai#er
3are as ulC. 0|sc|a|r|rg |e|r |rea|s ||e d|sc|a|rar| as |av|rg pre-deceased ||e deceder|. 0r|y ||e proper|y
suojec| |o ||e d|sc|a|rar| passes, ro| ||e W|o|e es|a|e. Tl8C 37(a)
Problem p. -,5
C had A and B. A ali(e and has 5 !ids. B deceased but had one !id. A disclaims.
ll A |ad ac|ua||y d|ed, ||er urder roderr per s||rpes (or per cap||a), Wou|d drop doWr ard eac| ol ||e ||ds Wou|d ge|
20. 8uT ||e d|sc|a|red |r|eres| doesr'| lo||oW ||e per cap||a d|s|r|ou||or. No| very la|r |o |e| A do ||a| oecause
|rs|ead ol |av|rg ||s ||ds s|are or|y |a|l, ||ey roW s|are 80. TX 37(a)(c)'hall pass as |l ||e persor d|sc|a|r|rg
|ad predeceased. 0|llerer| lror sec. 43 ||e prov|s|or or represer|a||or says, `shall ta!e' 8ased or ||a|
d|s||rc||or, TX cour|s ru|e ||a| C's s|are ur|ouc|ed (doesr'| c|arge).
9rye (. )nited 'tates
'upreme *ourt of the )nited 'tates 2-3336
.01 ).'. 53
lac|s. 3or |r|er||s lror ro||er. 3or oWes lu0F |ax o|||. 3or d|sc|a|rs proper|y so || W||| pass |o ||s daug||er, ard
||us ||e cred||or carro| see| ||e |r|er||arce.
le|d. T|e d|sc|a|r|rg |e|r |rev||ao|y exerc|ses dor|r|or over ||e proper|y. le de|err|red W|o W||| rece|ve ||e
proper|y, so ||us ||e sor |ad |e|d ||e `proper|y,' so || |s suojec| |o ||e |ax ||er. l| Was a proper|y r|g|| ||a| ||e
gov. cou|d se|ze.
worar W|o d|ed s|ou|d |ave Wr|||er a W||| ard sa|d, `To b |l |e |s so|ver|, ard |l ro|, ||er |o T.' 0r s|e cou|d |ave
|el| every|||rg |o T W||| a reques| ||a| T g|ve sore ol || |o b (|er la||er) |l |e Was so|ver|.
0|scre||orary Trus|. |rus|ee |as ||e d|scre||or |o sperd or T ard b as |e saW l||.
o Carro| oe se|zed ever oy ||e lb3 (cor||rger|)
3ecre| Trus|. |l T pror|sed |o suppor| b, ||e gov ray |ave ar |r|eres|.
o 8e||er |o rera|r s||er| or ary oo||ga||ors
9isclaimin$ for medicaid is tric!y.
Texas Probate *ode B ,4A. +eans of /(idencin$ 9isclaimer or %enunciation of Property or Interest %ecei(able From a 9ecedent
2a6 Persons 8ho +ay 9isclaim. Ary persor, or ||e guard|ar ol ar |rcapac||a|ed persor, ||e persora| represer|a||ve ol a deceased persor,
or ||e guard|ar ad |||er ol ar uroorr or urascer|a|red persor, W||| pr|or cour| approva| ol ||e cour| |av|rg, or W||c| Wou|d |ave,
jur|sd|c||or over suc| guard|ar, persora| represer|a||ve, or guard|ar ad |||er, or ary |rdeperder| execu|or ol a deceased persor, W|||ou|
pr|or cour| approva|, or ar a||orrey |r lac| or ager| appo|r|ed urder a durao|e poWer ol a||orrey au||or|z|rg d|sc|a|rers ||a| |s execu|ed oy
a pr|rc|pa|, W|o ray oe er||||ed |o rece|ve ary proper|y as a oerel|c|ary ard W|o |r|erds |o ellec| d|sc|a|rer |rrevocao|y or or al|er
3ep|eroer 1, 1977, ol ||e W|o|e or ary par| ol suc| proper|y s|a|| ev|derce sare as |ere|r prov|ded.
2b6 /ffecti(e 9ate of 9isclaimer. A d|sc|a|rer ev|derced as prov|ded oy |||s sec||or s|a|| oe ellec||ve as ol ||e dea|| ol deceder| ard s|a||
re|a|e oac| lor a|| purposes |o ||e dea|| ol ||e deceder| ard |s ro| suojec| |o ||e c|a|rs ol ary cred||or ol ||e d|sc|a|rar|.
2c6 /ffect of 9isclaimer. ur|ess ||e deceder|'s W||| prov|des o||erW|se, ||e proper|y suojec| |o ||e d|sc|a|rer s|a|| pass as |l ||e persor
d|sc|a|r|rg or or W|ose oe|a|l a d|sc|a|rer |s rade |ad predeceased ||e deceder| ard a lu|ure |r|eres| ||a| Wou|d o||erW|se |a|e ellec| |r
lage 40 ol 190
possess|or or erjoyrer| al|er ||e |err|ra||or ol ||e es|a|e or |r|eres| ||a| |s d|sc|a|red |a|es ellec| as |l ||e d|sc|a|r|rg oerel|c|ary |ad
predeceased ||e deceder|.
2d6 Ineffecti(e 9isclaimer. la||ure |o corp|y W||| ||e prov|s|ors ol |||s sec||or s|a|| rerder suc| d|sc|a|rer |rellec||ve excep| as ar
ass|grrer| ol suc| proper|y |o ||ose W|o Wou|d |ave rece|ved sare |ad ||e persor a||erp||rg ||e d|sc|a|rer d|ed pr|or |o ||e deceder|.
2e6 9efinitions. T|e |err proper|y as used |r |||s sec||or s|a|| |rc|ude a|| |ega| ard equ||ao|e |r|eres|s, poWers, ard proper|y, W|e||er preser|
or lu|ure, W|e||er ves|ed or cor||rger|, ard W|e||er oerel|c|a| or ourdersore, |r W|o|e or |r par|. T|e |err d|sc|a|rer as used |r |||s
sec||or s|a|| |rc|ude rerurc|a||or. lr |||s sec||or oerel|c|ary |rc|udes a persor W|o Wou|d |ave oeer er||||ed, |l ||e persor |ad ro| rade
a d|sc|a|rer, |o rece|ve proper|y as a resu|| ol ||e dea|| ol aro||er persor oy |r|er||arce, urder a W|||, oy ar agreerer| oe|Weer spouses lor
corrur||y proper|y W||| a r|g|| ol surv|vors||p, oy a jo|r| |erarcy W||| a r|g|| ol surv|vors||p, or oy ary o||er surv|vors||p agreerer|,
accour|, or |r|eres| |r W||c| ||e |r|eres| ol ||e deceder| passes |o a surv|v|rg oerel|c|ary, oy ar |rsurarce, arru||y, erdoWrer|,
erp|oyrer|, delerred corpersa||or, or o||er cor|rac| or arrargerer|, or urder a pers|or, prol|| s|ar|rg, ||r|l|, s|oc| oorus, ||le |rsurarce,
surv|vor |rcore, |rcer||ve, or o||er p|ar or prograr prov|d|rg re||rerer|, We|lare, or lr|rge oerel||s W||| respec| |o ar erp|oyee or a se|l-
erp|oyed |rd|v|dua|.
2f6 'ubseFuent 9isclaimers. No|||rg |r |||s sec||or s|a|| oe cors|rued |o prec|ude a suosequer| d|sc|a|rer oy ary persor W|o s|a|| oe
er||||ed |o proper|y as a resu|| ol a d|sc|a|rer.
2$6 Form of 9isclaimer. lr ||e case ol proper|y rece|vao|e oy a oerel|c|ary, ||e d|sc|a|rer shall be e(idenced by a ;ritten memorandum,
ac|roW|edged oelore a ro|ary puo||c or o||er persor au||or|zed |o |a|e ac|roW|edgerer|s ol corveyarces ol rea| es|a|e.
2h6 Filin$ of 9isclaimer. ur|ess ||e oerel|c|ary |s a c|ar||ao|e orgar|za||or or goverrrer|a| agercy ol ||e s|a|e, a Wr|||er rerorardur ol
d|sc|a|rer d|sc|a|r|rg a preser| |r|eres| shall be filed not later than nine months after the death of the decedent ard a Wr|||er
rerorardur ol d|sc|a|rer d|sc|a|r|rg a lu|ure |r|eres| ray oe l||ed ro| |a|er ||ar r|re ror||s al|er ||e ever| de|err|r|rg ||a| ||e |a|er ol
||e proper|y or |r|eres| |s l|ra||y ascer|a|red ard ||s |r|eres| |s |rdeleas|o|y ves|ed. ll ||e oerel|c|ary |s a c|ar||ao|e orgar|za||or or a
goverrrer|a| agercy ol ||e s|a|e, a Wr|||er rerorardur ol d|sc|a|rer d|sc|a|r|rg a preser| or lu|ure |r|eres| s|a|| oe l||ed ro| |a|er ||ar ||e
l|rs| arr|versary ol ||e da|e ||e oerel|c|ary rece|ves ||e ro||ce requ|red oy 3ec||or 128A ol |||s code, or ||e exp|ra||or ol ||e s|x-ror|| per|od
lo||oW|rg ||e da|e ||e persora| represer|a||ve l||es ||e |rver|ory, appra|serer|, ard ||s| ol c|a|rs due or oW|rg |o ||e es|a|e, W||c|ever
occurs |a|er. T|e Wr|||er rerorardur ol d|sc|a|rer s|a|| oe l||ed |r ||e prooa|e cour| |r W||c| ||e deceder|'s W||| |as oeer prooa|ed or |r
W||c| proceed|rgs |ave oeer correrced lor ||e adr|r|s|ra||or ol ||e deceder|'s es|a|e or W||c| |as oelore || ar app||ca||or lor e|||er ol
||e sare, prov|ded, |oWever, |l ||e adr|r|s|ra||or ol ||e deceder|'s es|a|e |s c|osed, or al|er ||e exp|ra||or ol ore year lo||oW|rg ||e da|e ol
||e |ssuarce ol |e||ers |es|arer|ary |r ar |rdeperder| adr|r|s|ra||or, or |l ||ere |as oeer ro W||| ol ||e deceder| prooa|ed or l||ed lor
prooa|e, or |l ro adr|r|s|ra||or ol ||e deceder|'s es|a|e |as oeer correrced, or |l ro app||ca||or lor adr|r|s|ra||or ol ||e deceder|'s es|a|e
|as oeer l||ed, ||e Wr|||er rerorardur ol d|sc|a|rer s|a|| oe l||ed W||| ||e cour|y c|er| ol ||e cour|y ol ||e deceder|'s res|derce, or, |l ||e
deceder| |s ro| a res|der| ol |||s s|a|e ou| rea| proper|y or ar |r|eres| ||ere|r |oca|ed |r |||s s|a|e |s d|sc|a|red, a Wr|||er rerorardur ol
d|sc|a|rer s|a|| oe l||ed W||| ||e cour|y c|er| ol ||e cour|y |r W||c| suc| rea| proper|y or |r|eres| ||ere|r |s |oca|ed, ard recorded oy suc|
cour|y c|er| |r ||e deed records ol ||a| cour|y.
2i6 Notice of 9isclaimer. ur|ess ||e oerel|c|ary |s a c|ar||ao|e orgar|za||or or goverrrer|a| agercy ol ||e s|a|e, cop|es ol ary Wr|||er
rerorardur ol d|sc|a|rer s|a|| oe de||vered |r persor |o, or s|a|| oe ra||ed oy reg|s|ered or cer||l|ed ra|| |o ard rece|ved oy, ||e |ega|
represer|a||ve ol ||e |rarsleror ol ||e |r|eres| or ||e |o|der ol |ega| ||||e |o ||e proper|y |o W||c| ||e d|sc|a|rer re|a|es ro| |a|er ||ar r|re
ror||s al|er ||e dea|| ol ||e deceder| or, |l ||e |r|eres| |s a lu|ure |r|eres|, ro| |a|er ||ar r|re ror||s al|er ||e da|e ||e persor W|o W|||
rece|ve ||e proper|y or |r|eres| |s l|ra||y ascer|a|red ard ||e persor's |r|eres| |s |rdeleas|o|y ves|ed. ll ||e oerel|c|ary |s a c|ar||ao|e
orgar|za||or or goverrrer| agercy ol ||e s|a|e, ||e ro||ces requ|red oy |||s sec||or s|a|| oe l||ed ro| |a|er ||ar ||e l|rs| arr|versary ol ||e
da|e ||e oerel|c|ary rece|ves ||e ro||ce requ|red oy 3ec||or 128A ol |||s code, or ||e exp|ra||or ol ||e s|x-ror|| per|od lo||oW|rg ||e da|e
||e persora| represer|a||ve l||es ||e |rver|ory, appra|serer|, ard ||s| ol c|a|rs due or oW|rg |o ||e es|a|e, W||c|ever occurs |a|er.
2T6 Po;er to Pro(ide for 9isclaimer. No|||rg |ere|r s|a|| prever| a persor lror prov|d|rg |r a W|||, |rsurarce po||cy, erp|oyee oerel||
agreerer|, or o||er |rs|rurer| lor ||e ra||rg ol d|sc|a|rers oy a oerel|c|ary ol ar |r|eres| rece|vao|e urder ||a| |rs|rurer| ard lor ||e
d|spos|||or ol d|sc|a|red proper|y |r a rarrer d|llerer| lror ||e prov|s|ors |ereol.
2!6 Irre(ocability of 9isclaimer. Ary d|sc|a|rer l||ed ard served urder |||s sec||or s|a|| oe |rrevocao|e.
2l6 Partial 9isclaimer. Ary persor W|o ray oe er||||ed |o rece|ve ary proper|y as a oerel|c|ary ray d|sc|a|r suc| proper|y |r W|o|e or |r
par|, |rc|ud|rg ou| ro| ||r||ed |o spec|l|c poWers ol |rvas|or, poWers ol appo|r|rer|, ard lee es|a|e |r lavor ol ||le es|a|es, ard a par||a|
d|sc|a|rer or rerurc|a||or, |r accordarce W||| ||e prov|s|ors ol |||s sec||or, s|a|| oe ellec||ve W|e||er ||e proper|y so rerourced or
d|sc|a|red cors|||u|es a por||or ol a s|rg|e, aggrega|e g|l| or cors|||u|es par| or a|| ol a separa|e, |rdeperder| g|l|, prov|ded, |oWever, ||a|
a par||a| d|sc|a|rer s|a|| oe ellec||ve or|y W||| respec| |o proper|y express|y descr|oed or relerred |o oy ca|egory |r suc| d|sc|a|rer, ard
prov|ded lur||er, ||a| a par||a| d|sc|a|rer ol proper|y W||c| |s suojec| |o a ourdersore |r|eres| crea|ed oy ||e deceder|'s W||| s|a|| ro| oe
ellec||ve ur|ess suc| proper|y cors|||u|es a g|l| W||c| |s separa|e ard d|s||rc| lror urd|sc|a|red g|l|s.
2m6 Partial 9isclaimer by 'pouse. w|||ou| ||r|||rg 3uosec||or (|) ol |||s sec||or, a d|sc|a|rer oy ||e deceder|'s surv|v|rg spouse ol a |rarsler oy
||e deceder| |s ro| a d|sc|a|rer oy ||e surv|v|rg spouse ol a|| or ary par| ol ary o||er |rarsler lror ||e deceder| |o or lor ||e oerel|| ol ||e
surv|v|rg spouse, regard|ess ol W|e||er ||e proper|y or |r|eres| ||a| Wou|d |ave passed urder ||e d|sc|a|red |rarsler passes oecause ol ||e
d|sc|a|rer |o or lor ||e oerel|| ol ||e surv|v|rg spouse oy ||e o||er |rarsler.
2n6 9isclaimer After Acceptance. No d|sc|a|rer s|a|| oe ellec||ve al|er ||e accep|arce ol ||e proper|y oy ||e oerel|c|ary. lor ||e purpose ol
|||s suosec||or, accep|arce s|a|| occur or|y |l ||e persor ra||rg suc| d|sc|a|rer |as prev|ous|y |a|er possess|or or exerc|sed dor|r|or
ard cor|ro| ol suc| proper|y |r ||e capac||y ol oerel|c|ary.
lage 41 ol 190
2o6 Interest in Trust Property. A oerel|c|ary W|o accep|s ar |r|eres| |r a |rus| |s ro| cors|dered |o |ave a d|rec| or |rd|rec| |r|eres| |r |rus|
proper|y ||a| re|a|es |o a ||cersed or perr|||ed ous|ress ard over W||c| ||e oerel|c|ary exerc|ses ro cor|ro|. 0|rec| or |rd|rec| oerel|c|a|
oWrers||p ol ro| rore ||ar l|ve percer| ol ary c|ass ol equ||y secur|||es ||a| |s reg|s|ered urder ||e 3ecur|||es Fxc|arge Ac| ol 1934 s|a||
ro| oe deered |o oe ar oWrers||p |r|eres| |r ||e ous|ress ol ||e |ssuer ol suc| secur|||es W||||r ||e rear|rg ol ary s|a|u|e, pursuar|
3uppor| |rus|s cores up |a|er
lage 42 ol 190
III. Wills: Formalities & Forms
A. /xecution of 8ills
1. A||es|ed w|||s
a. lurc||or ol lorra||||es 199-203
%eFuirements for /xecution of a Ialid 8ill (laW |ears |eav||y |oWards lorra||sr)
ulC 2-502(a) ard TX prooa|e 59
8ills Act Formalities 28AF6
1. wr|||rg
2. 3|gra|ure oy |es|a|or
3. A||es|a||or oy W||resses
Four Functions of the 8ills Act Formailities
1. %itual>*autionary functionwar| peop|e |o |roW W|a| ||ey're do|rg W|er ||ey Wr||e a W|||, ro| jus| specu|a||rg
as |o W|a| W||| |apper W|er ||ey d|e, ou| dec|d|rg exac||y W|a| W||| |apper. 3o, g|ve ||er a procedure |o lo||oW o|c a
so|err|ser|ous urder|a||rg.
2. /(identiary functionCarro| as| soreore al|er ||ey d|ed W|e||er ||e|r W||| Was va||d ard |l ||ey Were ol
sourd r|rd W|er ||ey crea|ed ||. A|Ways requ|re a| lFA3T a s|gra|ure so ||a| || car oe corpared |o o||er
|||rgs ||a| ||e |es|a|or |ad Wr|||er. A|so requ|re W||resses W|o car |es||ly |o ||e lac| ||a| ||e |es|a|or crea|ed ||
W|er |e|s|e Was ol sourd r|rd.
3. Protecti(e functionleop|e sore||res Wr||e W|||s or ||e|r dea||oed. 0or'| War| |o ra|e || easy lor peop|e |o
exerc|se |rl|uerce over ||ose peop|e a| ||e erd ol ||e|r ||ves. bequ|re lorra| docurer| |o pro|ec| ||e |es|a|or.
3ore argue ||a| |||s |s |ess re|evar| |oday, ou| Ta|e |||r|s ||a| |||s |s s|||| |rpor|ar| o|c peop|e s|||| do |||s.
4. *hannelin$ function3|ardard|za||or, ur|lorr||y |r W|||s so ||a| We dor'| |ave |o guess W|e||er sore|||rg |s
a W|||, ou| see |l ||e requ|rerer|s |ave oeer sa||sl|ed. wAl are ro| ||e or|y Way |o ra|e || so ||a| ||ese
lurc||ors are served. T||s |s c|ear|y a r||ua| (|||e W|er peop|e oea| ||e|r ||ds W|er a cor|rac| lorred||ard so|d
so ||a| ||e ||ds rereroer). lave |o or|rg |r 3
par|y |o W||ress ||e ever|. C|ear W|er proper|y |as oeer
|rarslerred o|c |roW ||a| |||s r||ua| perlorred.
%eason for the formalities:
0re a||erra||ve. go |o ||e prooa|e cour|, l||| ou| a lorr |r ||e preserce ol a cour| oll|c|a|, doWrs|de. peop|e or ||e|r
dea||oeds cou|dr'| ra|e a W|||.
|a|e so ||a| ||'s va||d ro| jus| |r your jur|sd|c||or, ou| |r o||ers, |oo.
%eFuirements in different urisdictions:
)P* 0-.@0: , reFuirements
1. lr Wr|||rg
2. 3|gred oy |es|a|or or oy soreore e|se a| ||e |es|a|or's d|rec||or |r ||e |es|a|or's preserce.
3. Car oe s|gred oy aro||er |l you are urao|e ard || |s |r your preserce (corsc|ous preserce)
4. lave |o |ave a| |eas| 2 W||resses W|o |ave |o s|gr within a reasona5le time al|er W||ress|rg s|gr|rg ol ||e
W||| 0b ar ac|roW|edgerer| ol ||e s|gra|ure or ol ||e W|||. (ro r|r. age, ou| rus| oe corpe|er|, ro
preserce requ|red). 0b car oe ro|or|zed
TP*: , %eFuirements:
1. lr Wr|||rg (||ere's ar excep||or)
lage 43 ol 190
2. 3|gred oy |es|a|or or oy soreore e|se oy ||e T's d|rec||or |r ||s preserce. (sare as ulC)
3. ur|ess |o|ograp||c (Wr|||er corp|e|e|y |r ||e |es|a|or's |ardWr|||rg) W|||, |as |o oe a||es|ed |o oy a| |eas| 2
W||resses aoove ||e age ol 14 W|o |ave |o s|gr in the T=s presence. |us| oe 14 yrs or o|der. 8o|| rus|
W||ress, ou| reed ro| s|gr a| ||e sare ||re |oge||er.
9ifference bet;een statutes:
o ulC doesr'| say W|o car or car'| oe a W||ress, TlC does cor|a|r ar age requ|rerer| (14 yr).
Aro||er ulC prov|s|or says ||ey |ave |o oe corpe|er|, ou| doesr'| spec|ly age.
uses age lor a proxy lor corpe|erce |r TX. Car argue ||a| TX ru|e |as ||s advar|ages.
o Bi$ Cne: ulC W||resses dor'| |ave |o s|gr |r ||e T's preserce, jus| |r a reasorao|e ||re. TP*D ha(e to
si$n in T&s presence.
urder ulC, W||resses car W||ress ||e W||| AlTFb ||e T d|es (says so |r Correr|). As |org as
||ey W||ress ||e s|gr|rg ard ac|roW|edgerer| ol ||e W|||, 0K.
T|ere cou|d oe |arper|rg a| ary||re.oelore or al|er ws s|gr.
o urder ulC W||resses dor'| |ave |o s|gr |r preserce ol eac| o||er. TX. 0or'| |ave |o s|gr |r ||e preserce
ol ||e o||er W||ress. Fac| jus| |rdeperder||y car W||ress ard s|gr.
o Ne|||er s|a|u|e spec|l|es wlFbF ||e W||ress reeds |o s|gr or ||e W|||l|rs| page, |op, oo||or. No| sure
||a| || Was read a|| ||e Way ||roug|. bu|es rade |o g|ve sore |eeWay |o ||ose W|o dor'| see| proper |ega|
o 2-50o - urder ||e ulC |l your W||| Was va||d W|er execu|ed |r ||a| s|a|e ||er || |s va||d |r ||e ulC
T||s W||| |ypo||e||ca||y oe vo|ded or ||e exar (|oo easy |o arsWer)
o w||| car oe ro|ar|zed ard dor'| reed aro||er W||ress.
lr |ex. T|ey car oe a W||ress ou| s|||| reed aro||er.
o ulC |as |o ac|roW|eds ||e W|||, |x doesr'| |ave |o say |||s |s a W||| or your s|gra|ure
o Ne|||er requ|res ||a| ws ac|ua||y see T s|gr ||e W|||jus| |ave |o see ||e T ac|roW|edge ||e W|||.
o ws dor'| |ave |o s|gr |r eac| o||er's preserce or ever |ave |o ree| eac| o||er, urder TlC |ave |o s|gr |r
T's preserce.
o 3|gra|ure doesr'| |ave |o oe a| ||e erd ol ||e W|||||eore||ca||y cou|d s|gr aryW|ere. (No| ||a| ||'s a good
o 0or'| requ|re ||e |Wo W||resses s|gr |r eac| o||er's preserce
ll you sa||sly ||e Texas requ|rerer|s ard rove |o aro||er s|a|e, ||e ulC W||| up|o|d your W||| ever |l you do ro| lu||y
corp|y W||| ||e ulC.
)P* Texas
3|gred oy T
3|gred oy 2 peop|e within a reasonable ti#e
after W||ress|rg ||e T s|gr ||e W||| /R T
ac|roW|edged ||e W||| or ||e s|gra|ure as ||
oe|rg ||s W||||s|gra|ure (preserce ro| requ|red)
3oreore e|se car s|gr lor T |l T carro| s|gr ||e
W|||. (sare)
Age. No r|r. age, ou| rus| oe corpe|er|
ws do ro| |ave |o oe |r preserce ol eac| o||er
8uT rus| W||ress T's s|gra|ure or ac|roW|edge
3|gred oy T
3|gred oy 2 peop|e while in the presence of the
testator (preserce |s requ|red)
3oreore e|se car s|gr lor T |l T carro| s|gr ||e W|||.
Age. |us| oe 14 years o|d.
ws do ro| |ave |o oe |r preserce ol eac| ard dor'|
|ave |o oe a| ||e loo| ol ||e W|||. (sare)
lage 44 ol 190
ol ||e W|||. No requ|rerer| lor ||e s|gra|ure |o
oe a| ||e loo| ol ||e docurer|. (sare)
)P*: ll W||| does ro| sa||sly ||e wA requ|rerer|s, car s|||| prooa|e a W||| ||roug| dispensin$ po;er. A|so app||es |o
docurer|s ||a| revo|e a W|||. Jus| reed clear and convincin" evidence (CCF).
w|er ||'s c|ear ||a| a docurer| does ro| sa||sly a requ|rerer| ol ||e W|||s ac|, a TX c| W||| ro| |oo| a| ex|r|rs|c ev|derce.
F.g., |l |ac|s a s|gra|ure, a TX cour| Wou|d ro| er|er|a|r |es||rory ||a| ever ||oug| |e d|dr'| s|gr, |e rear| lor || |o oe
||s W|||. 8uT |l ||ere's a va||d ques||or as |o W|e||er ||e W|||s ac| |s sa||sl|ed, ||ey r|g|| |oo| a| ex|r|rs|c ev|dercee.g.,
s|gred `la|' |rs|ead ol `la|r|c|'cou|d corpare s|gra|ure |o o||ers |o see |l || Was a corp|e|e s|gra|ure.
ll ||e T d|d ro| |r|erd lor ||e docurer| |o oe a W|||, cou|d poss|o|y |r|roduce ex|r|rs|c ev|derce lor ||a|. 8u| |l c|ear|y
||e ru|es Were ro| lo||oWed, ||er TX cour|s Wor'| |oo| a| ex|r|rs|c ev|derce.
ulC |s d|llerer|. w||| a|Ways |oo| a| ex|r|rs|c ev|derce (?)
lage 45 ol 190
Problems p.0@1:
5a. T&s attorney ta!es T&s ;ill to T&s homeD ;here T si$ns the ;ill and the attorney attests as a ;itness. The attorney
returns to her office ;ith the ;ill and has her secretary call T on the phone. By phoneD T reFuests that she be a ;itness to
his ;ill. *an you attest to a ;ill o(er phone<
TlC. Need `corsc|ous preserce' |r TX||a|'s ro| W|a| ||e T ac|ua||y saW, ou| |ave |o oe CAlA8lF ol see|rg || s|gred, ever
|l you d|dr'|. lere, ro Way ||a| T cou|d |ave seer ||e sec'y s|gr ||e W|||.
ulC. ?
?. A sic! man had a ;ill prepared. )nder the si$nature line ;as typed his nameD JPatric! +an$eriK. #e si$ned an A for his
si$natureD because he ;as too sha!y to ri$ht his name. *an the T si$n ;ith an A<
lr ros| p|aces, X qua||l|es as a s|gra|ure ll ||'s |r|erded |o oe a s|gra|ure. 3o yes, ||'s 0K.
Car `la|' oe s|gred lor `la|r|c| |ergar|?' es ll || Was |r|erded as ||a|. 8u| |l |e'd s|opped Wr|||rg ||s s|gra|ure (c|arged
||s r|rd), ||er car'| do ||.
laW |asr'| caug|| up |o roderr |ec|ro|ogy. Car a c||er| v|deo |ape ||s W||| or ra|e || or a corpu|er? 0|g|||zed W||| s|gra|ure?
ll ||ey War|, ||ey car execu|e a rorra| W||| ard |ave a v|deo |ape, |oo.
'ignature and witness issues
Te|ep|ore w||ress = ro| a||oWed
3|gr|rg W||| ar `X' = rorra||y a||oWed (|r Texas, dor'| reed rare as s|gra|ure)
N|c|rare = a||oWed as s|gra|ure |l ||a| W|a| you |r|erded as your s|gra|ure
la|l-Wr|||er rare o|c ol |r|errup||or = ro| a||oWed
TypeWr|||er s|gra|ure = a||oWed |r sore s|a|es
F|ec|ror|c s|gra|ure = ro| sure |l |||s W||| oe a||oWed - |ave |o oe sure ||ere Wasr'| |arper|rg
buooers|arp s|gra|ure = rorra||y a||oWed
v|deo|aped W||| |r lror| ol 2 ws = s|||| reed s|gra|ures ol ||e ws, ro| sure |l |||s Wou|d qua||ly as a W|||
3oreore |e|ps s|gr W||| s|rce |ards s|a|y = o| as |org as || Was a| T's d|rec||or - ||e persor |e|p|rg rus| or|y
oe |e|p|rg a| ||e T's reques|. T||s |s ro| cors|dered a s|gra|ure |l ||e persor |e|ps W|o oe|rg as|ed |o |e|p.
No|ary ac||rg as a w = |r TX, ro|ary car ac| as a w as |org as ||ey intend |o ac| as a w (Wou|d s|||| reed ||e 2
requ|red w ||oug|)
Ta||rg W||| doWr ||e |a|| lor |as| w |o s|gr = ro| a||oWed |r Texas s|rce ro| |r preserce ol T
In re Eroffman p. 001
#i$h *ourt of usticeD /n$land 2-3?36
Facts: w|doW c|a||erged W||| s|rce |er l |el| every|||rg |o ||e|r |Wo ||ds or ||e oas|s ||a| ||ey (||e ws) Were ro| |r
||e sare roor a| ||e sare ||re. T|e T Was ro| preser| W||| both W||resses (|oge||er a| ||e sare ||re) W|er |e
ac|roW|edged ||s s|gra|ure.
Holdin": lr Frg|ard, |ave |o oe preser| a| ||e sare ||re. 8u|, urder ||e ulC ard TlC, ws do ro| |ave |o s|gr in
each other=s presence.
%ule of la; . urder ulC, w jus| |as |o s|gr W||r a reasorao|e ||re ard urder ||e TlC, ws jus| |ave |o s|gr |r ||e
preserce ol ||e T, ro| eac| o||er.
'te(ens (. *asdorph
8est Iir$inia 'upreme *ourt of AppealsD -331
0@, 8.Ia. 5.@D .@1 './.0d ?-@
Facts. T d|dr'| s|gr |r lror| ol ||e ws, ||oug| ||ey Were |r ||e rex| roor, ws d|dr'| |ec|r|ca||y see ||r s|gr ||e W|||,
ror d|d ||ey s|gr |r T's preserce
T!. 3a|d ||ere Was suos|ar||a| corp||arce W||| ||e s|a|u|e o|c everyore |reW W|y T Was a| ||e oar|. l|us, ro
ev|derce ol lraud, coerc|or, or urdue |rl|uerce. le|d ||a| W||| s|ou|dr'| oe vo|ded ever ||oug| ||e |ec|r|ca| aspec|s
Werer'| lo||oWed.
wade v. wade- 8o|| ws s|gr ou| ||ey d|d ro| see eac| o||er s|gr. 0re ol ||er rere|y ac|roW|edged |er
s|gra|ure. Cour| uses suos|ar||a| corp||arce.
lage 4" ol 190
T||s case |s s|r||ar |o ||e s|ep-c|||drer case.
urder ulC ||e ws rus| see ||e |es|a|or s|gr ou| ||e |es|a|or does ro| |ave |o see ||e ws s|gr. ulC |s ros| |ax.
Holdin". To oe va||d, a W||| rus| |ave oeer s|gred oy ||e |es|a|or |r ||e preserce ol |Wo corpe|er| W||resses W|o
||er rus| s|gr ||e W||| |r ||e preserce ol ||e |es|a|or ard eac| o||er.
-issent. `3|av|s||y Wors||p|rg lorr over suos|arce.' 3a|d rajor||y crea|es a |ars| ard |requ||ao|e resu|| ||a| goes
aga|rs| ||e sp|r|| ard |r|er| ol ||e |aW. 8|c ||e c|a||erge |s or|y over corp||arce W||| ||e s|a|u|e ard ro| |rcapac||y,
lraud, urdue |rl|uerce, urcorsc|ous|y or ur|r|er||ora||y corvey|rg proper|y. 0oes aga|rs| ||e dral|ers' |r|er|.
o.T|e wAl |r Ac||or. 3e|l-lrov|rg All|dav||s, lr|eres|ed w||resses, &
lurg|rg 3|a|u|es pp. 203-25
Texas says ar `X' cors|||u|es a s|gra|ure |l |||s Was ||e |es|a|or's |r|er|.
3uos|ar||a| corp||arce doc|r|re (ro| par| ol ulC or TlC) as |org as || |s c|ose || W||| oe a va||d W|||.
w|a| does preserce rear
lr Texas ||ere |s corsc|ous, ard |as |o oe ao|e |o see || or ao|e |o see || W||| r|r|ra| ellor| (|urr |ead) W|||ou|
ass|s|arce (la|r|y or|g||||re ru|e)
No|e. ||e rear|rg ol s|gra|ure - p. 234.a|| aoou| |r|er|
Pur$in$ 'tatutes
3aves a W||| ||a| Wou|d o||erW|se oe |rva||d oecause ore ol ||e w||resses rece|ved sore|||rg |r ||e W|||.
urder ||e corror |aW a W||| car oe va||d |l ||e W||| |s purges ||e |r|eres|ed W||resses s|are.
ll ore or oo|| ws rece|ve a g|l|, l3 doesr'| |rva||da|e ||e W|||, jus| |rva||da|es ||e 0llT3 ol ||e w. lr|eres|ed
W||resses are |urred |r|o d|s|r|eres|ed ores.
8u| s|||| |e|s w ge| W|a| |e|s|e Wou|d |ave go||er |ad ||e T d|ed |r|es|a|e (|eep ||e|r |r|es|a|e s|are). 8uT do ro|
ge| |0bF ||ar W|a| T gave |r ||e W|||.||e |esser ol ||e ar| ||a| w Wou|d |ave |a|er or |r|es|acy r|rus W|a| ||ey
Wou|d |a|e urder ||e W|||.
0oesr'| say ||a| ||ere |as |o oe 2 d|s|r|eres|ed persors s|gr, ou| ||'s oes| so ||ey |ave ro s|a|e |r ||e W|||.
/state of +orea
0eorge ge|s 1|8 ol ||e |arg|o|e persora| proper|y. Kev|r ge|s |ess urder ||e W||| ||ar urder |r|es|acy. T|ere |s a |||rd
d|s|r|eres|ed W||ress. T|e proo|er |s ||a| |Wo ol ||e W||resses are |a||rg urder ||e W|||. 0r|y ||e ex|ra oerel|| |s
purged. Kev|r |s |rea|ed as a d|s|r|eres|ed W||ress. lro|ec||ve lurc||or |s a| ||e roo| ol |||s case oecause ||e cour|
does ro| War| ||e |es|a|or |o oe urdu|y |rl|uerced. T|ere |s ro |rcer||ve lor Kev|r |o corr|| lraud.

/state of Parsons
*alifornia *ourt of AppealD First 9istrictD -31@
-@, *al.App.,d ,15D -?, *al.%ptr. 4@
8ssue: Car a suoscr|o|rg w W|o |s a|so a oerel|c|ary d|sc|a|r |er |r|eres| al|er ||e T's dea||?
o Statute: lrooa|e Code 51. g|l| |o a w |s vo|d ur|ess ||ere are Tw0 o||er ard d|s|r|eres|ed ws.
Facts. 2 ol ||e 3 ws |o a W||| Were oerel|c|ar|es
T!: argurer| ||a| ||e w's [W|o d|sc|a|red| |r|eres| Was |rva||d oased or lC 51. 0r appea|, say ||a| a suosequer|
d|sc|a|rer (al|er T d|ed) carro| |urr |er |r|o a d|s|r|eres|ed persor o|c s|e Was a| l|rs| |r|eres|ed.
o Respondent Ar"ues. Too |ec|r|ca| ard d|sregards T's |r|er|. 3ay ||a| lC sec. 109.o says ||a| ||e d|sc|a|rer
(|r every case) re|a|es oac| lor a|| purposes |o ||e date of the creation of the interest [W|er T d|es|.
o urder re|a||or-oac| doc|r|re, as |l w rever go| ary|||rg |o oeg|r W|||.
Holdin". C| says ||a| ||e 8Fl0bF ||e W||| |s ollered lor prooa|e |s W|er s|e s|ou|d |ave d|sc|a|red. w|er ||e W|||
Was execu|ed ard a||es|ed, or|y ||e ore d|s|r|eres|ed w ex|s|ed, so ||e g|l|s |o ||e o||er 2 ws Were vo|d oy
lage 4# ol 190
opera||or ol |aW. 3o, W|er ||e w d|sc|a|red, ||ere Was ro |r|eres| |o d|sc|a|r. A w |s |r|eres|ed or d|s|r|eres|ed a|
||e ||re ||e W||| Was s|gred, ro| a| ||e ||re ol prooa|e. lr|eres|s are crea|ed upor dea||. lC 51 doesr'| care aoou|
T's |r|er|.
Held. A suoscr|o|rg W||ress |o a W||| W|o |s rared |r ||e W||| as a oerel|c|ary does ro| oecore a d|s|r|eres|ed
suoscr|o|rg W||ress oy l|||rg a d|sc|a|rer ol ||s |r|eres| al|er ||e |es|a|or's dea||.
%ule of la;: judge W|e||er a w |s ar |r|eres|ed W||ress a| ||e ||re ||ey Were a w, ro| a| ||e ||re T d|ed
)P*. 2-505 Ary corpe|er| persor car oe a w ard ||e W||| |sr'| |rva||d |l ar |r|eres|ed w s|grs ||. T|ere |s ro
pro||o|||or ol a W||ress rece|v|rg a oeques||rposes a reou||ao|e presurp||or ||a| ||e dev|se |o ar |r|eres|ed
W||ress Was `procured oy duress, rerace, lraud, or urdue |rl|uerce.'
*"A''. w|er W||| |s execu|ed, ||e persors |ave ro |r|eres|, or|y W|er ||e T d|es |s ar |r|eres| crea|ed. T|e s|a|u|e's
purpose Was |o prever| lraud. T||s |s rore ol a corcerr W|er ||e W||| |s execu|ed. 0|l| a|ready |rva||d oy v|r|ue ol ||e s|a|u|e
oelore ||e |r|eres| |s crea|ed.
TP* ?-car s|||| oerel|| |l you Were a||oWed sore|||rg urder |r|es|acy.
Texas Probate *ode B ?-. BeFuest to 8itness
3|ou|d ary persor oe a suoscr|o|rg W||ress |o a W|||, ard a|so oe a |ega|ee or dev|see ||ere|r, |l ||e W||| carro| oe
o||erW|se es|ao||s|ed, suc| oeques| s|a|| oe vo|d, ard suc| W||ress s|a|| oe a||oWed ard corpe||ed |o appear ard g|ve
||s |es||rory |r |||e rarrer as |l ro suc| oeques| |ad oeer rade. 8u|, |l |r suc| case ||e W||ress Wou|d |ave oeer
er||||ed |o a s|are ol ||e es|a|e ol ||e |es|a|or |ad ||ere oeer ro W|||, |e s|a|| oe er||||ed |o as ruc| ol suc| s|are as
s|a|| ro| exceed ||e va|ue ol ||e oeques| |o ||r |r ||e W|||
TP* ?0. ll you car ge| |rdeperder| corrooora||or lror aryore (|||e ||e |aWyer), ||er g|l| ro| purged |r Texas.
Texas Probate *ode B ?0. *orroboration of Testimony of Interested 8itness
lr ||e s||ua||or covered oy ||e preced|rg 3ec||or, ||e oeques| |o ||e suoscr|o|rg W||ress s|a|| ro| oe vo|d |l ||s |es||rory prov|rg ||e W||| |s
corrooora|ed oy ore or rore d|s|r|eres|ed ard cred|o|e persors W|o |es||ly ||a| ||e |es||rory ol ||e suoscr|o|rg W||ress |s |rue ard correc|, ard
suc| suoscr|o|rg W||ress s|a|| ro| oe regarded as ar |rcorpe|er| or ror-cred|o|e W||ress urder 59 ol |||s Code.
ulC. ll soreore ac|ua||y War|s |o corr|| lraud, ||ey are ro| |||e|y |o s|gr ||e W||| as a W||ress
*lass #ypothetical
Tate li(es in *aliforniaD ;hich follo;s the Purging rule.
In 0@@5D Tate ri$hts a ;ill that $i(es S-@@@ to Alfred 20 disinterested ;itnesses6 and the rest to B and *.
In 0@@.D Tate ri$hts an amendment $i(in$ S0@@@ to Alfred 2Alfred is - of 0 ;itnesses6 and the rest to 9
and /.
In 0@@4D Alfred&s intestate 2;ithout the ;ill6 share is S.@@.
8hat ;ill Alfred $et under the Purging rule<
Al#red would "et the amount in the #irst will instead o# the intestate amount. The reason this amount is "iven is in order
to encoura"e Al#red to accurately testi#y as to the &))< ;ill, so other devisees "et what they were supposed to "et
under the &))< ;ill.
%elation-bac! doctrineO d|sc|a|rer re|a|es oac| W|er ||e |r|eres| crea|ed (|.e., W|er deceder| d|es). 8ecause
or|y |ad ar expec|arcy ol ar |r|eres|, ro| ar ac|ua| |r|eres| W|er ||e W||| Was crea|ed.
o lurpose ol s|a|u|e |s |o pro|ec| T lror lraud or urdue |rl|uerce.
o lrva||da||or occurs W|er ||e W||| |s execu|ed (W|er ||e W||| |s Wr|||er).
o TA Pur$in$ 'tatute: le|s you save ||e g|l| |l ||ere |s soreore W|o car |es||ly ||a| |||s |s |rue ard correc|
(||e |es||rory ol ||e |r|eres|ed W||ress). No| recessary ||a| || oe aro||er suoscr|o|rg w |o corrooora|e ||e
|es||rory, car oe soreore e|se (ever W|o d|d ro| W||ress ||e W|||, e.g., ||e |aWyer W|o Was preser|).
lF330N. 0or'| |e| a W||ress W|o |s ge|||rg sore|||rg urder ||e W||| s|gr as a W||ress.
'elf-pro(in$ Affida(its
lage 4$ ol 190
All|dav|| ||a| a||ac|es |o a W||| so ||a| ||e ws' |es||rory |s ro| recessar||y recessary |o prove up ||e W|||, |||s |s
good |r case ||e ws d|e l|rs| or carro| oe |oca|ed, ||ere |s a |os|||e w, or ||e w |as a oad rerory.
T||s all|dav|| s|ou|d a|Ways oe par| ol a|| ||e execu||rg cererory, so ||e W||| car oe au|ora||ca||y adr|||ed |o
A se|l-prov|rg all|dav|| ray oe erlorceao|e ever |l ||ere are sore r|s|a|es as |org as || |s |r su5stantial compliance
W||| ||e s|a|u|e.
TWo |ypes ol se|l-prov|rg all|dav||s (urder oo|| ||e T doesr'| |ave |o s|gr |r ||e preserce ol ||e s|gror. 8u|, ||e w
|ave |o W||ress ||e ac6nowled"ment ol ||e s|gra|ure).
1. coro|red a||es|a||or c|ause ard se|l-prov|rg all|dav|| so ||a| ||e T ard ||e ws (ard ||e ro|ary) s|gr ||e|r
rares or|y orce - ore-s|ep se|l-prov|rg all|dav||, ore s|gra|ure serves oo|| lurc||ors (ore s|ep)
2. )P* B 0-.@52b6 au||or|zes a se|l-prov|rg all|dav|| |o oe all|xed |o a W||| a|ready s|gred ard a||es|ed, ar
all|dav|| ||a| rus| oe s|gred oy ||e T ard ws |r lror| ol a ro|ary a#ter ||e T |as s|gred ||e W||| ard ||e ws
|ave s|gred ||e a||es|a||or c|ause. (|Wo-s|ep|recorrerded process)
perr|||ed |r rore s|a|es s|rce || |s a coro|red a||es|a||or c|ause ard se|l-prov|rg all|dav||. Texas
uses ||e |Wo-s|ep vers|or. bereroer |o ge| everyore |o s|gr || |W|ce. w||resses, |es|a|or, ard
lage 49 ol 190
Texas Probate *ode B .3. %eFuisites of a 8ill
(a) Fvery |as| W||| ard |es|arer|, excep| W|ere o||erW|se prov|ded oy |aW, s|a|| oe |r Wr|||rg ard s|gred oy ||e |es|a|or |r persor
or oy aro||er persor lor ||r oy ||s d|rec||or ard |r ||s preserce, ard s|a||, |l ro| W|o||y |r ||e |ardWr|||rg ol ||e |es|a|or, oe
a||es|ed oy |Wo or rore cred|o|e W||resses aoove ||e age ol lour|eer years W|o s|a|| suoscr|oe ||e|r rares ||ere|o |r ||e|r
oWr |ardWr|||rg |r ||e preserce ol ||e |es|a|or. 3uc| a W||| or |es|arer| ray, a| ||e ||re ol ||s execu||or or a| ary suosequer|
da|e dur|rg ||e ||le||re ol ||e |es|a|or ard ||e W||resses, oe rade se|l-proved, ard ||e |es||rory ol ||e W||resses |r ||e
prooa|e ||ereol ray oe rade urrecessary, oy ||e all|dav||s ol ||e |es|a|or ard ||e a||es||rg W||resses, rade oelore ar oll|cer
au||or|zed |o adr|r|s|er oa||s urder ||e |aWs ol |||s 3|a|e. lrov|ded ||a| ro|||rg s|a|| requ|re ar all|dav|| or cer||l|ca|e ol ary
|es|a|or or |es|a|r|x as a prerequ|s||e |o se|l-prool ol a W||| or |es|arer| o||er ||ar ||e cer||l|ca|e se| ou| oe|oW. T|e all|dav||s
s|a|| oe ev|derced oy a cer||l|ca|e, W||| oll|c|a| sea| all|xed, ol suc| oll|cer a||ac|ed or arrexed |o suc| W||| or |es|arer| |r lorr
ard cor|er|s suos|ar||a||y as lo||oWs.
!/$3T? /F @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
Be#ore me, the undersi"ned authority, on this day personally appeared @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@, @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@, and
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@, 6nown to me to 5e the testator and the witnesses, respectively, whose names are su5scri5ed to
the annexed or #ore"oin" instrument in their respective capacities, and, all o# said persons 5ein" 5y me duly sworn,
the said @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@, testator, declared to me and to the said witnesses in my presence that said instrument
is his last will and testament, and that he had willin"ly made and executed it as his #ree act and deed: and the said
witnesses, each on his oath stated to me, in the presence and hearin" o# the said testator, that the said testator had
declared to them that said instrument is his last will and testament, and that he executed same as such and wanted
each o# them to si"n it as a witness: and upon their oaths each witness stated #urther that they did si"n the same as
witnesses in the presence o# the said testator and at his re2uest: that he was at that time ei"hteen years o# a"e or
over (or 5ein" under such a"e, was or had 5een law#ully married, or was then a mem5er o# the armed #orces o# the
$nited States or o# an auxiliary thereo# or o# the 9aritime Service and was o# sound mind: and that each o# said
witnesses was then at least #ourteen years o# a"e.
S803AT$R1S A3- 3/TAR? 83F/R9AT8/3
(o) Ar all|dav|| |r lorr ard cor|er| suos|ar||a||y as prov|ded oy 3uosec||or (a) ol |||s sec||or |s a se|l-prov|rg all|dav||. A W||| W|||
a se|l-prov|rg all|dav|| suoscr|oed ard sWorr |o oy ||e |es|a|or ard W||resses a||ac|ed or arrexed |o ||e W||| |s a se|l-proved
W|||. 3uos|ar||a| corp||arce W||| ||e lorr ol suc| all|dav|| s|a|| sull|ce |o cause ||e W||| |o oe se|l-proved. lor |||s purpose,
ar all|dav|| ||a| |s suoscr|oed ard ac|roW|edged oy ||e |es|a|or ard suoscr|oed ard sWorr |o oy ||e W||resses Wou|d sull|ce as
oe|rg |r suos|ar||a| corp||arce. A s|gra|ure or a se|l-prov|rg all|dav|| |s cors|dered a s|gra|ure |o ||e W||| |l recessary |o
prove ||a| ||e W||| Was s|gred oy ||e |es|a|or or W||resses, or oo||, ou| |r ||a| case, ||e W||| ray ro| oe cors|dered a se|l-
proved W|||.
(c) A se|l-proved W||| ray oe adr|||ed |o prooa|e W|||ou| ||e |es||rory ol ary suoscr|o|rg W||ress, ou| o||erW|se || s|a|| oe |rea|ed
ro d|llerer||y ||ar a W||| ro| se|l-proved. lr par||cu|ar ard W|||ou| ||r|||rg ||e gerera|||y ol ||e lorego|rg, a se|l-proved W||| ray
oe cor|es|ed, or revo|ed or arerded oy a cod|c|| |r exac||y ||e sare las||or as a W||| ro| se|l-proved.
Texas Probate *ode B 15. Proof of 8ritten 8ill Produced in *ourt
(a) 3e|l-lroved w|||. ll a W||| |s se|l-proved as prov|ded |r |||s Code, ro lur||er prool ol ||s execu||or W||| ||e lorra||||es ard
so|err|||es ard urder ||e c|rcurs|arces requ|red |o ra|e || a va||d W||| s|a|| oe recessary.
(o) A||es|ed wr|||er w|||. ll ro| se|l-proved as prov|ded |r |||s Code, ar a||es|ed Wr|||er W||| produced |r cour| ray oe proved.
(1) 8y ||e sWorr |es||rory or all|dav|| ol ore or rore ol ||e suoscr|o|rg W||resses ||ere|o, |a|er |r oper cour|.
(2) ll a|| ||e W||resses are ror-res|der|s ol ||e cour|y, or ||ose W|o are res|der|s are urao|e |o a||erd cour|, oy ||e sWorr
|es||rory ol ary ore or rore ol ||er oy depos|||or, e|||er Wr|||er or ora|, |a|er |r ||e sare rarrer ard urder ||e sare ru|es
as depos|||ors |a|er |r o||er c|v|| ac||ors, or, |l ro oppos|||or |r Wr|||rg |o suc| W||| |s l||ed or or oelore ||e da|e se| lor |ear|rg
||ereor, ||er oy ||e sWorr |es||rory or all|dav|| ol |Wo W||resses |a|er |r oper cour|, or oy depos|||or |r ||e rarrer prov|ded
|ere|r, |o ||e s|gra|ure or ||e |ardWr|||rg ev|derced ||ereoy ol ore or rore ol ||e a||es||rg W||resses, or ol ||e |es|a|or, |l |e
s|gred ||e W|||, or, |l || oe s|oWr urder oa|| |o ||e sa||slac||or ol ||e cour| ||a|, d|||ger| searc| |av|rg oeer rade, or|y ore
W||ress car oe lourd W|o car ra|e ||e requ|red prool, ||er oy ||e sWorr |es||rory or all|dav|| ol suc| ore |a|er |r oper
cour|, or oy depos|||or |r ||e rarrer prov|ded |ere|r, |o suc| s|gra|ures or |ardWr|||rg.
(3) ll rore ol ||e W||resses |s ||v|rg, or |l a|| ol suc| W||resses are reroers ol ||e arred lorces ol ||e ur||ed 3|a|es ol
Arer|ca or ol ary aux|||ary ||ereol, or ol ||e arred lorces reserve ol ||e ur||ed 3|a|es ol Arer|ca or ol ary aux|||ary ||ereol,
or ol ||e |ar|||re 3erv|ce, ard are oeyord ||e jur|sd|c||or ol ||e cour|, oy |Wo W||resses |o ||e |ardWr|||rg ol ore or oo|| ol
||e suoscr|o|rg W||resses ||ere|o, or ol ||e |es|a|or, |l s|gred oy ||r, ard suc| prool ray oe e|||er oy sWorr |es||rory or
all|dav|| |a|er |r oper cour|, or oy depos|||or, e|||er Wr|||er or ora|, |a|er |r ||e sare rarrer ard urder ||e sare ru|es as
depos|||ors |a|er |r o||er c|v|| ac||ors, or, |l || oe s|oWr urder oa|| |o ||e sa||slac||or ol ||e cour| ||a|, d|||ger| searc| |av|rg
lage 50 ol 190
oeer rade, or|y ore W||ress car oe lourd W|o car ra|e ||e requ|red prool, ||er oy ||e sWorr |es||rory or all|dav|| ol suc|
ore |a|er |r oper cour|, or oy depos|||or |r ||e rarrer prov|ded |ere|r, |o suc| s|gra|ures or |ardWr|||rg.
lage 51 ol 190
T|e all|dav|| does ro| |ave |o oe or a separa|e s|ee| ol paper, ou| rus| oe a separa|e Wr|||rg
TP* B .32b6: as |org as ||e s|gra|ure oy ||e ws are or ||e se|l-prov|rg all|dav||, ||e all|dav|| |s sull|c|er| |o prooa|e
||e W|||. 8u|, |l a s|gra|ure |s used lor ||e purpose ol prov|rg ||a| ||e T s|gred ||e W|||, ||er || ray ro| oe cors|dered
a sel#'proved W||| aga|r.
TPB* B .32c6: se|l-proved W||| ray oe adr|||ed |o prooa|e W|||ou| |es||rory ol ary suoscr|o|rg w - o||erW|se ||'s
jus| |||e a regu|ar W||| (car add a cod|c||)TX ard ulC |ave |||s |r corror.
o Frao|es you |o s||p over d|ll|cu|| proo|ers ol prool |l ore ol ||e ws carro| go |o cour| or ||ey are deceased.
o lr order |o prove ||e W|||, reed sore |es||rory.
TP* B 152b62-6. Car or|rg |r e|||er w |o |es||ly |r c| ||a| ||e W||| Was du|y execu|ed.
o ll re|||er w car core, car |a|e a depos|||or, or, |l ro oppos|||or, car or|rg ws |o |es||ly ||a| ||e s|gra|ure |s
|r ||e deceder|'s |ardWr|||rg.
o ur|ess a w deceased or serv|rg |r arred lorces, ||er |ave |o |a|e a depo.
o ll ||e w |s deceased or |r ||e arred lorces, car or|rg |r |es||rory |o s|oW ||a| || |s |r ||e w's |ardWr|||rg.
T||s |s |o oe avo|ded |l poss|o|e.
B .32a6: lorr ||a| ||e 3lA |s supposed |o |a|e. T|e ws ard T appear oelore ar oll|c|a|, usu. a ro|ary, ard T
ac|roW|edges ||s W|||.
;hat happens i# the S%A doesn=t ta6e this #orm, 5ut su5stantially complies, is that /AB
B .32b6: 0K |o suos|ar||a||y corp|y. 8u| dor'| |es| ||e ||r||s ol ||e s|a|u|e.
T;o cases of s;itched ;ills: ues||or ol W|e||er ||ey car adr|| ||e s|gred W||| |o prooa|e, ever ||oug| ||s
prov|s|ors are d|llerer| lror W|a| Was rear|.
o Pa(lin!o: d|d ro| a||oW W||| |o oe prooa|ed
o 'nide: a||oWed ex|r|rs|c ev|derce |o va||da|e ||e W|||.
o w|y g|ve ellec| |o soreore's W||| W|er || seers ||a| ||e|r |r|er| |s ro| rel|ec|ed |r || oecause ||ey d|d ro| ever
read ||?
l0llC Ab03. 0l|er, peop|e dor'| read docurer|s g|ver |o ||er. A|so, |||s coup|e |ad d|scussed
||e cor|er|s ol ||e W|||s W||| ||e|r a||orrey, so ||ey jus| assured ||a| W|a| Was d|scussed |ad oeer
pu| |r ||e W|||. lac| ||a| ||ey d|d ro|||rg s|oWs ||a| ||ey ||oug|| ||e W||| Was va||d.
In re Pa(lin!o&s /state
'upreme *ourt of Pennsyl(aniaD -3.3
,35 Pa. .?5D -51 A.0d .01
w|le ol T d|ed o years oelore |er |usoard (T), w ard T |radver|er||y s|gred eac| o||er W|||s, |rs|ead ol ||e|r oWr
W|||. T|e res|duary |ega|ee (?) Was le||er (T)'s oro||er.
lrocedure. lrooa|e Was relused oy ||e reg|s|er ol w|||s, ||er ||e 0rp|ars cour| all|rred.
Facts: 8y r|s|a|e, eac| s|gred ||e Wrorg W||| (||e W||| ol eac| o||er), sec'y d|dr'| spea| ||e |arguage, so ||ere Was
ro corversa||or. w|er W|le d|ed, ro prooa|e, so used as ex||o|| |ere.
#eld: A cour| ray ro| reWr||e a c|ear ard uraro|guous W||| ever lor ||e purpose ol |rp|erer||rg ||e oov|ous
|r|er||ors ol ||e |es|a|or.
9issent: 0|dr'| ra||er W|o s|gred W|a| o|c ||e W|||s Were `corp|erer|ary ol eac| o||er.' w|le |el| proper|y |o l, l
|el| |o w. A|so |ad ||e sare res|duary |ega|ee. A|||oug| sore prov|s|ors ro| ellec||ve o|c ol ||e r|s|a|e, ||a|
s|ou|dr'| oar ||e |ega|||y ard va||d||y ol ||e res|duary c|ause, W||c| |s corp|e|e (ard W|y |||s s|ou|dr'| ra||er).
*lass notes: usua||y cour|s app|y s|a|u|es s|r|c||y |||e |||s. 8u| cou|d say ||a| ||'s |rrora| |o |e| cer|a|r peop|e |a|e
urder |r|es|acy, W|er ||e T c|ear|y War|ed ||a| proper|y |o go |o soreore e|se. wou|d || oe a good |dea |o crea|e a
cors|ruc||ve |rus| ard |ave ||er |o|d ||e es|a|e lor ||e oro||er-|r-|aW? |ayoe.
lage 52 ol 190
In re 'nide
*ourt of Appeals of Ne; :or!D -31-
.0 N.:.09 -3,D 5-1 N./.0d ?.?D 5,4 N.:.'.0d ?,
Turrs ou| ||e oppos||e Way ||a| lav||r|o d|d.
`T||s |s a case ol geru|re r|s|a|e.'
C|||d's guard|ar ad |||er argues ||a| l |ac|ed ||e requ|red |r|er| o|c rever |r|erded |o execu|e ||e doc ||a| |e
ac|ua||y s|gred.
Cour| says, every|||rg |r eac| W||| Was ||e sare excep| rares. w|a| Was |r|erded |s very c|ear. Ad|ered |o ||e
requ|rerer|s|ad capac||y, oo|| execu|ed W||r ||e s|a|u|e, sare W||resses, sare execu||or cererory. No darger
ol lraud. `0ec||re |||s urjus| course.'
*lass notes: |us| |ave assured ||a| ||ey |ad a va||d W||| o|c re|||er |oo| s|eps |o correc|. 3ugges||or lor cur|rg
|||s s||ua||or. 3|ou|d appo|r| a corserva|or lor T (soreore W|o |as poWer |o rarage T's proper|y) W|o car ra|e a
|rus| lor T. Fver ||oug| ||e corserva|or carro| ra|e a W|||, |e|s|e car ra|e a |rus|.
o 'ho;s that cour|s s|||| a||oW W|||s |o oe prooa|ed ever W|er ru|es ro| s|r|c||y corp||ed W|||.
o ll ||e par||es |ad read ||e W|||s, W|y d|dr'| ||ey ca|c| ||e r|s|a|e? 3o ||ere |s a ques||or as |o W|e||er ||e
W||| |s ||e |r|er| ol ||e par||es?
o 3|r||ar |o 00CTblNF 0l 3u83TANTlAl C0|lllANCF

c. Cura||ve 0oc|r|res pp. 225-35
$ispensing Power $octrine | -PC 5 2!6107"T '-.'T/TI/L C"MPLI/CE
larr|ess Frror bu|e urder ||e ulC. ll ||ere |s C|ear ard Corv|rc|rg Fv|derce, ||a| a docurer| |s intended |o oe a
W||| - ||er ||e cour|s car use ||e|r `d|spers|rg poWer' |o va||da|e ||e docurer|. 0|ves cour|s poWer |o d|sperse
W||| lorra||||es.
T||s rears ||a| ||e ulC Wou|d a||oW |o|ograp||c W|||s |r every s|a|e s|rce || esser||a||y aoo||s|es ||e a||es|a||or
b3T 3
. s|ou|d ro| exar|re eac| lorra|||y |r |so|a||or
'ubstantial Co#pliance $octrine8 9ill can still be probated if the T substantially co#plied4
ll ||ere |s C|earCF ||a| ||e purposes ol lorra||||es ol ||e (1) cau||orary, (2) ev|der||ary, (3) pro|ec||ve, ard (4)
c|arre||rg lurc||ors are served - ||er a cour| car va||da|e a W||| desp||e a delec||ve execu||or.
T||s Was ||e 19o9 ulC approac| - c|arged |o d|spers|rg poWer (aoove) |r 1990.
Texas Probate *ode B .3. %eFuisites of a 8ill
(o) Ar all|dav|| |r lorr ard cor|er| suos|ar||a||y as prov|ded oy 3uosec||or (a) ol |||s sec||or |s a se|l-prov|rg all|dav||. A W||| W||| a se|l-
prov|rg all|dav|| suoscr|oed ard sWorr |o oy ||e |es|a|or ard W||resses a||ac|ed or arrexed |o ||e W||| |s a se|l-proved W|||. 3uos|ar||a|
corp||arce W||| ||e lorr ol suc| all|dav|| s|a|| sull|ce |o cause ||e W||| |o oe se|l-proved. lor |||s purpose, ar all|dav|| ||a| |s suoscr|oed
ard ac|roW|edged oy ||e |es|a|or ard suoscr|oed ard sWorr |o oy ||e W||resses Wou|d sull|ce as oe|rg |r suos|ar||a| corp||arce. A
s|gra|ure or a se|l-prov|rg all|dav|| |s cors|dered a s|gra|ure |o ||e W||| |l recessary |o prove ||a| ||e W||| Was s|gred oy ||e |es|a|or or
W||resses, or oo||, ou| |r ||a| case, ||e W||| ray ro| oe cors|dered a se|l-proved W|||.
TX does N0T use ||e suos|ar||a| corp||arce |es| aoove, 5ut, 5y statute, a si"nature on a sel#'provin" a##idavit can
count as a si"nature on the will.
o TX |as suos|ar||a| corp||arce W||| ||e se|l-prov|rg all|dav|| or|y
T|ere |s N0T a d|spers|rg-poWer s|a|u|e |r Texas.
Texas prooao|y Wou|dr'| a||oW a W||| ||a| Was W||ressed oy jus| ore w s|rce ||a| does ro| corp|y W||| ||e purpose
ol lorra||||es.
'hould Texas enact a dispensin$-po;er statute<
0l |a|es ||e locus oll ||e wA, ra|es us |oo| a| ||e ques||or, `w|a| Was |||s |r|erded |o oe?'
|ayoe correc| app||ca||or ol |||s poWer Wou|d oe sore ||rd ol W||ress|rg ol ||e W||| (or W||ress T |a|||rg aoou|
||s||er |r|er|). Needs |o oe |r|erpre|ed rore oroad|y.
lage 53 ol 190
Case-oy-Case oas|s? 0|ll|cu|| |o app|y.
Cura||ve 0oc|r|res |ave oeer app||ed |o sa|vage W|||s W|er ore ol ||e requ|rerer|s ol ||e w|||s Ac| |s ro| sa||sl|ed,
|l sore|||rg Wrorg W||| ||e execu||or ol ||e W|||.
o %anney. App||ed su5stantial compliance doctrine, |l ||e W||| suos|ar||a||y corp||es W||| ||e w|||s Ac|, ||er
car oe adr|||ed |o prooa|e. laWyers used ||e |Wo-s|ep vers|or W|er ||ey ||oug|| ||ey Were us|rg ||e ore-
s|ep. T|e W||resses or|y s|gred orce |rs|ead ol |W|ce. 8|erded lar||y W||| a d|sgrur||ed W|doW. T|e W|doW
War|s ||e |ard |r lee s|rp|e |rs|ead ol a ||le es|a|e. ou reed a||es|a||or ard all|dav||. T||s cour| lavors
suos|arce over lorr.
o Boren (. Boren arerded sec. 59(o) so roW car oe adr|||ed |o prooa|e so ||a| a s|gra|ure or ||e all|dav||
|s |rea|ed |||e ||e s|gra|ure or ||e W||| (ou| ||er |ose ||e all|dav|| s|gra|ure).
o TP*. does ro| lo||oW 3C0.
o #all. -ispensin" %ower -octrine. A||'y |o|d ||e Ts ||a| |e cou|d ro|ar|ze ||e W||| lor ||er (d|dr'| |ave 2
W||resses). lssue. Cou|d || oe adr|||ed |o prooa|e? Cour| sa|d yes, urder ||e 0l0. ll clear and convincin"
evidence ||a| || Was rear| |o oe a W|||, || car oe adr|||ed |o prooa|e, ever |l || d|dr'| corp|y W||| ||e w|||s
Ta|e |s |es||ar| |o adr|| a dral| |o prooa|e. T||r|s ||ere Was eroug| ev|derce ||a| || Was |r|erded
|o oe a W||| |r ||e rear||re.
Judge W|o care |o |a|| |o us Wou|d ro| |ave prooa|ed |||s W|||.
In re 8ill of %anney
'upreme *ourt of Ne; erseyD -33-
-05 N.. -D .13 A.0d -,,3
Facts. busse|| (l) gave 8e||y (w) ||le es|a|e |r ||e ap| o|dg, w cor|es|ed ||e W||| o|c || la||ed |o corp|y |||era||y W|||
||e s|a|u|e's lorra||||es. W||| |s s|gred oy T, ||ere |s a se|l-prov|rg all|dav|| s|gred oy T ard 2 ws, ou| W||| ||se|l |s ro|
s|gred oy ||e ws (||ere Was or|y a par| lor ||er |o s|gr or ||e all|dav||, ro| ||e ac|ua| W|||)
Attestation !lause. ws' s|a|erer|s ||a| ||ey W||ressed T s|gr ||e W||| (|r ||e preser| |erse). `we are a||es||rg |o
|||s W|||.' 3|r||ar |o ||e 3lA. ll ||e w |sr'| arourd |o |es||ly, |ave pr|ra lac|e ev|derce ||a| |||s occurred.'
o 3C. las 2 separa|e lorrs lor 3lA.
!A: 3a|d ||a| ||e all|dav|| Was a par| ol ||e W|||, so ||e w's s|gra|ures or ||e all. Ac|ed |||e s|gra|ures or ||e W|||.
T||s c| d|sagrees ard says ||a| || d|d ro| |||era||y corp|y, ou| ra||er, suos|ar||a||y corp||ed.
'elf-Pro(in$ affida(it (s. attestation clause
o S%A: sWorr s|a|erer|s oy eyeW||resses ||a| ||e W||| Was du|y execu|ed. 0oes every|||rg ar AC does, p|us
|as ||e lur||er ellec| ol perr||||rg prooa|e W|||ou| requ|r|rg ||e appeararce ol e|||er W||ress.
o A!: lac||||a|e prooa|e oy prov|d|rg pr|ra lac|e ev|derce ||a| ||e T vo|ur|ar||y s|gred |r ||e preserce ol a w.
lerr||s ||e prooa|e ol a W||| W|er ||e w lorge|s aoou| ||a| or d|es oelore T.
o -i##erences:
AC. ||e a||es|ar| expresses ||e preser| |r|er| |o ac| as a w, ou| |r ||e all|dav||, ||e all|ar| sWears
||a| ||e W||| |as a|ready oeer W||ressed.
Holdin". All|rred ou| a|so rerarded. 3uos|ar||a| corp||arce |es| s|ou|d oe used |o cure ||e |requ||y cause oy ||e
`|ars| ard re|er||ess lorra||sr' ol W||| |aW. Cour| ser| oac| |o prooa|e |o dec|de |l ||e W||| suos|ar||a||y corp||ed
W||| ||e lorra||||es | s|a|u|ory requ|rerer|s.
!lass 3otes. loWer cour| sa|d ||a| ||e s|gra|ures or ||e 3lA |||era||y sa||sl|ed. T||s cour| d|sagrees, ou| says ||a|
0K o|c suos|ar||a||y corp||es.
o Duestion. w|a| d|d ||e ws |r|erd?
o How would this case have 5een decided in T>? TX doesr'| |ave suos|ar||a| corp||arce. 8orer v. 8orer,
or s|r||ar lac|s, ws |ad s|gred 3lA, ou| ro| ||e W||| ||se|l, ou| |r 1991, |eg. arerded sec. 59(o) ard sa|d
||a| s|gra|ure or ||e 3lA car cour| as a s|gra|ure or ||e W||| |l recessary |o prove ||e W|||. lr ||a| case,
lage 54 ol 190
||e W||| |s ro| cors|dered se|l-proved. Fver ||oug| TX doesr'| |ave ||e suos|'| corp||arce, ||ere |s a
doc|r|re ||a| says ||a| ||ey W||| |rea| |||s as a s|gra|ure or ||e W|||.
lage 55 ol 190
/state of I(erson
T|e W||| cor|es| |s oroug|| oy ||e c|||drer ol ||s l|rs| rarr|age. lversor gave a|| ||s proper|y |o ||s secord ex-W|le.
Nooody s|gred |||s W||| o||er ||ar ||e ro|ary. T|e cour| says ||e W||| suos|ar||a||y corp||es W||| ||e s|a|ue. T|e |r|a|
cour| prooa|ed ||e W|||. T|e appea|s cour| sa|d suos|ar||a| corp||arce |s or|y lor se|l-prov|rg all|dav||s ard ro|
a||es|a||or. T|e W||| |s |rva||d. Case reversed. T|e cour| War|s ||e |eg|s|a|ure |o ra|e ||e |aW rore spec|l|c so ||ey do
ro| |ave |o guess. T|e |eg|s|a|ure ac|ua||y ray agree W||| ||e cour| or ray ro| oe sull|c|er||y ro||va|ed |o c|arge |||s
In the /state of #all
'upreme *ourt of +ontanaD 0@@0
,-@ +ont. 51?D .- P.,d --,5
Facts. laWyer dral|ed a jo|r| W||| (ro| a ru|ua| W|||, W||c| |s a separa|e W||| lor eac| ||a| |s |der||ca|). T|ey eac|
|ad a W||| ||a| ||ey Were revo||rg W||| ||e jo|r| W|||. 3o, ||ey rar|ed up ||e|r or|g|ra| W|||, ard |aWyer Was go|rg |o
ro|ar|zed ||e W||| (W|a| |e rear| Was ||a| |e Was W||ress|rg ||e W|||). 0aug||er lror prev|ous rarr|age c|a||erges
||e W|||. w||| Was proper|y s|gred, ou| ||e |aWyer Was ac||rg as a ro|ary ard ro| a w. Judge |e|s W||| oe prooa|ed
o|c c|ear ||a| || Was rear| |o oe ||e|r W|||.
Duestion. loW car |||s oe a |as| W||| W|er ||e coup|e |r|erded |o s|gr a reW W||| orce ||e a||y l|xed |||s ore up (re-
|yped W||| ||e c|arges). T|e 0|d w||| W||| s|ard ur||| ||e rex| W||| |s execu|ed. 0|d ||e cour| correc||y app|y ||s
d|spers|rg poWer |r |||s case? T|e oas|s lor prooa||rg ||e W||| Was ||e |es||rory ol ||e W|le W|o |r|erded ||e W||| |o
s|ard ever ||oug| || Wasr'| ||e l|ra| vers|or. 8u| W|le |s ar |r|eres|ed par|y, s|e W||| |a|e urder ||e W|||, ou| or ||e
o||er |ard, urla|r |o ro| prooa|e W|er T rear| lor || |o oe ||s W|||.
o 8n Texas i# the will is not witnessed, it is no "ood. 3|ou|d TX |ave a d|spers|rg poWer? Texas re||es rore
or ||e ev|der||ary lurc||or |o pro|ec| aga|rs| lraud. l||-adv|sed |es|a|or W|ose W||| does ro| corp|y W||| W|||
requ|rerer|s War|s ||e |arr|ess error doc|r|re ard d|spers|rg poWer. T|e ulC pro|ec|s ||e |||-adv|sed.
T|e We||-adv|sed persor War|s a or|g|| ||re ru|e, so ||ere |s pred|c|ao||||y.
o T||s |s oelore ||e ulC a||oWed W|||s |o s|rp|y oe ro|ar|zed.
Holdin". l| |s |rre|evar| ||a| a docurer| ollered lor prooa|e as a W||| |as ro| oeer proper|y W||ressed W|ere c|ear
ard corv|rc|rg ev|derce es|ao||s|es ||e |es|a|or's |r|er| ||a| ||e docurer| oe ||e |es|a|or's W|||.
/state of Teal- T|e cour| l|rds ||a| ||e ro|ary served as a W||ress oecause s|e as|ed ||r a |o| ol ques||ors aoou|
||s |r|er|. T|e ro|ary |es||l|ed s|e Was or|y s|gr|rg as a ro|ary. T|e |r|a| cour| adr|||ed ||e W||| |o prooa|e. urder
ulC, ||ere Wou|d oe ro proo|er |r |||s case. Ta|e |||r|s |av|rg sore|||rg ro|ar|zed |s pre||y ruc| ||e sare as
|av|rg |Wo W||resses.
2. lo|ograp||c (W|o|e ard Wr|||er) w|||s
Texas Probate *ode B ?@. /xception Pertainin$ to #olo$raphic 8ills
w|ere ||e W||| |s Wr|||er W|o||y |r ||e |ardWr|||rg ol ||e |es|a|or, ||e a||es|a||or ol ||e suoscr|o|rg W||resses ray oe d|spersed W|||. 3uc| a W|||
ray oe rade se|l-proved a| ary ||re dur|rg ||e |es|a|or's ||le||re oy ||e a||ac|rer| or arrexa||or ||ere|o ol ar all|dav|| oy ||e |es|a|or |o ||e
ellec| ||a| ||e |rs|rurer| |s ||s |as| W|||, ||a| |e Was a| |eas| e|g||eer years ol age W|er |e execu|ed || (or, |l urder suc| age, Was or |ad oeer
|aWlu||y rarr|ed, or Was ||er a reroer ol ||e arred lorces ol ||e ur||ed 3|a|es or ol ar aux|||ary ||ereol or ol ||e |ar|||re 3erv|ce), ||a| |e
Was ol sourd r|rd, ard ||a| |e |as ro| revo|ed suc| |rs|rurer|.
Texas Probate *ode B 15. Proof of 8ritten 8ill Produced in *ourt
2c6 #olo$raphic 8ill. ll ro| se|l-proved as prov|ded |r |||s Code, a W||| W|o||y |r ||e |ardWr|||rg ol ||e |es|a|or ray oe proved oy |Wo
W||resses |o ||s |ardWr|||rg, W||c| ev|derce ray oe oy sWorr |es||rory or all|dav|| |a|er |r oper cour|, or, |l suc| W||resses are ror-
res|der|s ol ||e cour|y or are res|der|s W|o are urao|e |o a||erd cour|, oy depos|||or, e|||er Wr|||er or ora|, |a|er |r ||e sare rarrer ard
urder ||e sare ru|es as depos|||ors |a|er |r o||er c|v|| ac||ors.
A |o|ograp||c W||| |s |r ||e T's |ardWr|||rg ard s|gred oy T. (0oes oac| |o arc|er| borar |aW. a||oW so|d|ers |o carve
||e|r W||| W|er |ead|rg oll |o War.)
lo|ograp||c W|||s d|sperse W||| ||e w|||s Ac| requ|rerer|s W|er ||e W||| |s er||re|y |r T's |ardWr|||rg.
lo|ograp||c W|||. A W||| ||a| does ro| |ave |o oe W||ressed |l Wr|||er |r oWr |ardWr|||rg ard s|gred.
Aoou| ||e s|a|es recogr|ze ||er, |rc|ud|rg TX.
lage 5" ol 190
T|ese W|||s cause a |o| ol ||||ga||or - c||er| |as rore ol a sale |aroor W|er lo||oW wA.
8hy #a(e This /xception<
Fv|der||ary lurc||or ol ||e W|||s ac|
8u| o||er W|||s ac| lurc||ors ro| served. (1) procedure|r||ua|, (2) lree|y g|ver, (3) C|arre||rg lurc||or
lave |||s ru|e lor ||e ureduca|ed persors W|o War| |o ra|e a W||| ou| do ro| |ave ||e |roW|edge or adv|se reeded
Pre-Printed Forms7Three 9ifferent %ules
First "eneration - rus| oe er||re|y Wr|||er, [s|gred, ard da|ed| |r T's |ardWr|||rg (every s|rg|e Word rus| oe |r
|ardWr|||rg, ro l|||-|r-||e-o|ar| lorrs). (Texas bu|elo||oWs 3urp|usage T|eorylgrore W|a|ever |s ro| Wr|||er |r
Tes|a|or's |ardWr|||rg)
Second "eneration statutes - (19o9 ulC) - or|y ra|r provisions |ave |o oe |r oWr |ardWr|||rg. l|||-|r-||e-o|ar|
lorrs prooao|y do ro| la|| |r|o |||s ca|egory, ur|ess you car scrap ||e pre-pr|r|ed s|ull ard s|||| |ave a va||d W||| W|
W|a| |s |el| |r ||e T's |ardWr|||rg.
Third "eneration statutes - (1990 ulC) - or|y ra|er|a| portions |ave |o oe |r oWr |ardWr|||rg, ex|r|rs|c ev|derce |s
a||oWed. l|||-|r-||e-o|ar| lorrs |||e|y la|| |r |||s ca|egory.
'urplusa$e 9octrine: Fx|rareous pr|r|ed Words ro| recessary |o corp|e|e ||e W||| do ro| |eep ||e W||| lror prooa|e
o|c a|| ||e recessary W||| s|ull |s |ardWr|||er. ll you g|ve ellec| |o ||e pr|r|ed Word, or |l you do ro|, || |s ol ro
corsequerce so || doesr'| ra||er |oW you |rea| ||ese |||rgs.
=immel&s /state
'upreme *ourt of Pennsyl(aniaD -305
041 Pa. 5,.D -0, A. 5@.
`Keep |||s |e||er, |oc| || up, || ray |e|p you ou|.'
o |ay |rd|ca|e ||a| |||s |s a |e||er, ro| a W|||. ls || |es|arer|ary?
3|gred s|rp|y, `la||er.' - Cour| says ||a| |||s Was a|Ways used |r |e||ers suc| as ||ese.
o |a|es ro serse |o Ta|e o|c o||er |e||ers ||a| are ro| W|||s are s|gred |||e |||s. ll |e s|gred o||er lorra|
docurer|s as la||er, |||s ev|derce ra|es rore serse.
ls ||ere |es|arer|ary |r|er|?
o T|e la||er |s cor|erp|a||rg ||s dea||. le |s ro| jus| crea||rg a |rus|. le d|sposes ol ||s es|a|e.
o le rer||ors `|rpor|ar| papers.' |ayoe ||e papers are ||s ac|ua| W|||, ard |||s |e||er |s |srp|y a surrary ol
||s W|s|es.
#eld: Ar |rlorra| docurer| ev|derc|rg |r|er| ol a cord|||ora| g|l| ard ar |r|er| |o execu|e ray serve as a
|es|arer|ary docurer|.
Policies behind 8ills Act: 2#C8 TC ANA":N/ CN /AA+6
1. Ritual Function. Tes|a|or |roWs ||a| |e's crea||rg a W|||. was |||s lurc||or served oy |||s |e||er? No| lorc|rg
||e reader |o recogr|ze ||a| |||s |s a W|||. No r||ua| |r |||s |e||er, jus| a casua| docurer|.
2. 1videntiary Function. T||s serves ||e ev|der||ary lurc||or oecause ||e er||re docurer| |s |r ||s |ardWr|||rg.
T||s lurc||or Was served oy |||s |e||er. 0Nl lurc||or c|ear|y served oy ||e |e||er.
3. %rotective Function. 0or'| |roW ||e c|rcurs|arces surrourd|rg ||e Wr|||rg ol ||e |e||er. w|er ||ere are ro
d|s|r|eres|ed peop|e Wa|c||rg ||e W||| oe|rg crea|ed, |ard |o serve |||s lurc||or.
4. !hannelin" Function. T||s |e||er |s very |rlorra|, ro| s|ardard|zed. we War| every|||rg |o |oo| ||e sare.
lr Texas cord|||ora| W|||s s|||| s|ard ever |l ||e persor does ro| d|e as spec|l|ca||y s|a|ed.
ll you do sore|||rg |d|osyrcra||c W|er Wr|||rg your W||| you are oper|rg up ||e door |o ||||ga||or.

lage 5# ol 190
/state (. EonQaleQ U |es|a|or rade a W||| oelore |e Wer| |o l|or|da. le l|||s |r a lorr ard s|grs ||. T|er, |e dec|des |o
re-Wr||e ||e W|||, ou| |e ge|s ||e W||resses |o s|gr ||e o|ar| lorr.
lr Texas |||s W||| |s ro| proper|y a||es|ed oy |Wo W||resses, ou| || cou|d oe cors|dered a |o|ograp||c W|||. T|ere |s ro
|arr|ess error ru|e |ere.
*ases 2AN casesO li!e TA6
1. |u|||rs. AZ c| app||es 1
ger approac|, ou| says ||a| ||'s a W|||. lroper|y c|ear|y go|rg |o X.
2. Jo|rsor. w||| says `To Jo|r, 1|8 ol ry es|a|e..' lere, ||e cour| says ro| a W||| o|c ||e |ardWr|||er por||or
does ro| c|ear|y es|ao||s| |es|arer|ary |r|er|.
3. |uder. `|y W|le.proper|y.a|| o||er ear|||y possess|ors..' C| says |||s |s eroug| |o es|ao||s| |es|arer|ary
Are ||ese cases cors|s|er|?
Ta|e says ro. T||r|s ||a| Cohnson s|ou|d oe a W||| |l Auralt |s cors|dered a W|||.
Jus| |oo| a| |ardWr|||rg says, ro| every|||rg (|rc|ud|rg pre-pr|r|ed |arguage)
gerera||or (TFXA3)
Fr||re|y W|r||er, s|gred, ard da|ed
s|gra|ure ard ra|er|a| prov|s|ors |r |ardWr|||rg
gerera||or (ulC)
s|gra|ure ard ra|er|a| por||ors (ard you car |oo| |o ex|r|rs|c ev|derce. ll ||e ra|er|a| por||ors are ro| |r ||e |es|a|ors
|ardWr|||rg, use ||e |arr|ess error ru|e.
/state of +ul!ins
53? P.0d ?@. 2AriQ. App. -3406
Held. Texas cour|. w||| s|ou|d oe er||re|y |r ||e T's |ardWr|||rg, s|gred ard da|ed. 3urp|usage ||eory - |l ||e por||or |r
|es|a|or's |ardWr|||rg |s sull|c|er| |o cors|||u|e a W|||, o||er pr|r|ed ra|er|a| |s |rea|ed as surp|usage.
/state of ohnson
?,@ P.0d -@,3 2AriQ. -31-6
Facts. Fsser||a||y sare lac|s as ||e Kura|| case aoove, ou| d|llerer| ou|core
7aw: App|y|rg 19o9 ulC
Held. Cour| d|d ro| l|rd a |o|ograp||c W|||, |ac|s |es|arer|ary |r|er|
lage 5$ ol 190
/state of +uder
1?. P.0d 334 2AriQ. -3116
Facts: lorr W|||, ou| ||e |es|a|or s|a|ed spec|l|ca||y W|a| |e gave |o ||s W|le.
Held: No ques||or ol |es|a|or's |r|er|, so ||e W||| |s up|e|d.
Tate: 0oes ro| urders|ard W|y Jo|rsor |s ro|, W|er |u|||rs ard |uder are. le |||r|s ||ere |s a oe||er argurer| lor
Jo|rsor, ||ar |uder.
In re /state of =uralt
'upreme *ourt of +ontanaD 0@@@
,@, +ont. ,,.D -. P.,d 3,-
Facts. wro|e |e||er |o r|s|ress pror|s|rg |er proper|y, rer||ored |a|||rg |o ar a||orrey, lorra| W||| dral|ed ||a|
d|d ro| cover ||e rea| proper|y
Holdin". Cour| lourd a |o|ograp||c cod|c|| |ere, |e||er Was a cod|c|| (add|||or) |o ||e lorra| W||| o|c || rade a
spec|l|c oeques| ol ||e proper|y ard d|d ro| purpor| |o oequea|| ||e er||re|y ol ||e es|a|e.
Tate thin!s this case ;as decided ;ron$ly. #e belie(es that this ;as a misapplication of the )P*
doctrine since the testa#entary intent is missin$. The letter Tust says there&s an intent to tal% to an atty.
#ypothetical7Pa$e 0.@-.-
/state of 8on$
lac|s. `W|||' sa|d `A|| Ta|-K|r worg's X| Z|ao (||s g|r|lr|erd) (s|gred & da|ed oy Ta|-K|rg worg)
lo|d|rg. ar arroW does ro| sa||sly ||e |es|arer|ary |r|er| or |ardWr|||er W||| requ|rerer|. (8u| sore
jur|sd|c||ors W||| a||oW ex|r|rs|c ev|derce, |||e a corversa||or, |o prove T's |r|er|.)
/state of /sther
Facts. es|a|e Was |el| |o ||ds v|a a ro|e |o ar a||y as||rg ||r |o ra|e a W|||, ||e |e||er sa|d es|a|e `|s |o oe |el|' ra||er
||ar `|eave ry es|a|e |o' - Words ol lu|ure
Holdin". Cour| sa|d |||s Was ro| a |o|ograp||c W||| s|rce ||e a||orrey d|dr'| |rea| || |||e a W||| - || Was ro| pu| |r a sale
p|ace, Was s|ap|ed, r|g|| Words Were ro| used.
|a|prac||ce c|a|r. T||s a||orrey s|ou|d oe sued lor ra|prac||ce. le s|ou|d |ave dral|ed ||e W||| soorer - s|x
ror||s |s ro| a reasorao|e ||re |o |a|e |o dral| a persor's W|||.
0r|y recogr|zed |r aoou| 20 s|a|es ard |r ex|rere|y ||r||ed c|rcurs|arces.
usua||y ora| W|||s are or|y a||oWed |r `||e |as| s|c|ress' ard rus| oe u||ered oelore ||ree peop|e.
A W||| |s ro| l|ra||zed |ec|r|ca||y ur||| a T d|es. A W||| spea|s a| dea|| - || car oe c|arged, revo|ed or rep|aced
er||re|y oelore dea||.
Texas law
Tl8C. rus| oe |r `|as| s|c|ress' ard rus| oe proved oy ||ree ws |l over $30 ard car or|y oe lor persora| proper|y
Tl8C o4, o5, 59
Carro| oe used |o dev|se rea| prop! (oar ques||or)
ll War| |o dev|se rea| prop or your dea||oed, Wr||e a W|||. ll dor'| |ave s|rerg||, |ave a W||| |yped up ard |ave
soreore e|se s|gr lor ||r a| ||s d|rec||or |l |e carro| s|gr lor ||rse|l.
3. Nurcupa||ve (0ra|) w|||s pp. 202, r.2
||ror||y ol s|a|es perr|| urder vFb ||r||ed c|rcurs|arces
T|e W||| rus| oe u||ered oelore ||ree persors, W|o rus| reduce ||e dec|ara||or |o Wr|||rg W||||r a spec|l|ed per|od
las| 3|c|ressdev|se persora| proper|y ol sra|| va|ue
|||||ary persorre| are sore||res grar|ed pr|v||ege ol ra||rg ora| W|||s
lage 59 ol 190
B. %e(ocation of 8ills
1. 8y wr|||rg or l|ys|ca| Ac| 251-59, 218-19, Fx|. 9
Two ways to revo%e a will
1. Crea|e a suosequer| ;ritin$ ||a| revo|es a|| or par| ol ||e W||| 0b
2. lerlorr a re(ocatory act or ||e W|||, suc| as p|ys|ca||y des|roy|rg or carce|||rg a W|||
3upp|erer| or add|||or |o a W||| ||a| doesr'| rep|ace a W|||, ou| supp|erer|s ||. l| does ro| recessar||y d|spose ol ||e
er||re es|a|e, ou| rod|ly|rg, exp|a|r|rg, or o||erW|se qua||ly|rg ||e W||| |r sore Way. w|er adr|||ed |o prooa|e, a
cod|c|| oecore par| ol ||e W|||
bu|e aoou| revo||rg cod|c||s. ll a W||| |s revo|ed ard |as cod|c||s, ||er a|| ||e cod|c||s are revo|ed. bevo||rg a
cod|c||, ||oug|, does ro| revo|e a W|||! (ulC - |oo| |o |r|er| ol T, see |l |e |r|erded |o |eep ||e or|g|ra| W||| ard jus|
des|roy ||e cod|c||)
loo| |o see |l ||e suosequer| Wr|||rg ra|es a corp|e|e d|spos|||or ol ||e |es|a|or's es|a|e W|er dec|d|rg |l a Wr|||rg
|s a ror-revo||rg cod|c|| or |l || |s a revo||rg cod|c||.
9ill cannot be found
ll ||e W||| carro| oe lourd ard || Was |r ||e T's possess|or, ||er ||e presurp||or |s ||a| ||e W||| |s revo|ed oy ||e T.
8u|, |||s car oe reou||ed oy ||e par|y W|o War|s ||e W||| erlorced oy ev|derce ||a| ||ere |s sore o||er reasor ||e
W||| |s r|ss|rg.
Probating a will without the original
A W||| car s|||| oe adr|||ed |o prooa|e |l ||s cor|er|s are proved oy a copy, aoser| a s|a|u|e ||a| oars suc|.
ll lor exarp|e a W||| |s |os|, des|royed W|||ou| corser|, or ro| |r corp||arce W||| a revoca||or s|a|u|e, a W||| car s||||
oe prooa|ed W||| a copy (ur|ess |aW says o||erW|se).
0or'| |ave ru|||p|e or|g|ra|s 3|ou|d or|y execu|e ore W||| ard a|| cop|es s|ou|d oe c|ear|y |aoe|ed copy. ll ||ere
are ru|||p|e or|g|ra|s, ||ere car oe |o|s ol ||||ga||or. 8u|, ||ere |s a presurp||or ||a| a persor |s revo||rg a|| o||er
or|g|ra|s W|er ||ere are ru|||p|e or|g|ra| W|||s.
)niform Probate *ode 2-33@6
B0-.@4. %e(ocation by 8ritin$ or by Act.
(a) A W||| or ary par| ||ereol |s revo|ed.
(1) oy execu||rg a suosequer| W||| ||a| revo|es ||e prev|ous W||| or par| express|y or oy |rcors|s|ercy, or
oy perlorr|rg a revoca|ory ac| or ||e W|||, |l ||e |es|a|or perlorred ||e ac| W||| ||e lNTFNT ard lor ||e lubl03F ol re(o!in$ the
;ill or par| or |l aro||er |rd|v|dua| perlorred ||e ac| |r ||e |es|a|or's corsc|ous preserce ard oy ||e |es|a|or's d|rec||or. lor purposes
ol |||s paragrap|, `revoca|ory ac| or ||e W|||' |rc|udes ourr|rg, |ear|rg, carce||rg, oo|||era||rg, or des|roy|rg ||e W||| or ary par| ol ||. A
ourr|rg |ear|rg, or carce||rg |s a `revoca|ory ac| or ||e W|||,' or W|e||er or ro| ||e ourr, |ear, or carce||a||or |ouc|ed ary ol ||e Words
or ||e W|||.
Texas Probate *ode B ?,. %e(ocation of 8ills
No W||| |r Wr|||rg, ard ro c|ause ||ereol or dev|se ||ere|r, s|a|| oe revo|ed, excep| oy a suosequer| W|||, cod|c||, or dec|ara||or |r Wr|||rg,
execu|ed W||| |||e lorra||||es, or oy ||e |es|a|or des|roy|rg or carce||rg ||e sare, or caus|rg || |o oe dore |r ||s preserce.
Texas Probate *ode B 1.. Proof of 8ritten 8ill Not Produced in *ourt
A Wr|||er W||| W||c| carro| oe produced |r cour| s|a|| oe proved |r ||e sare rarrer as prov|ded |r ||e preced|rg 3ec||or lor ar a||es|ed Wr|||er
W||| or ar |o|ograp||c W|||, as ||e case ray oe, ard ||e sare arour| ard c|arac|er ol |es||rory s|a|| oe requ|red |o prove suc| W||| as |s
requ|red |o prove a Wr|||er W||| produced |r cour|, ou|, |r add|||or ||ere|o, ||e cause ol ||s ror-produc||or rus| oe proved, ard suc| cause rus|
oe sull|c|er| |o sa||sly ||e cour| ||a| || carro| oy ary reasorao|e d|||gerce oe produced, ard ||e cor|er|s ol suc| W||| rus| oe suos|ar||a||y
proved oy ||e |es||rory ol a cred|o|e W||ress W|o |as read ||e W|||, |as |eard ||e W||| read, or car |der||ly a copy ol ||e W|||.
|us| |ave. (1) intent |o revo|e a W||| + (2) a revocatory act you reed oo|| (|r|er| + ac|)
lage "0 ol 190
bevoca|ory ac|s |rc|ude. ourr|rg, |ear|rg, oo|||era||rg, or des|roy|rg (l|ys|ca| ac| rus| oe dore |o ||e
or|g|ra| ard ro| a copy.)
lar||a| revoca||or |s a||oWed, |||e cross|rg ou| a ||re
lage "1 ol 190
Texas Law about revo%ing a will
lr|er| ro| reeded per s|a|u|e (ou| case|aW says ||'s reeded), revo||rg W||| oy r|s|a|e doesr'| resu|| |r revoca||or
Car revo|e oy a suosequer| W|||, des|roy|rg, or carce|||rg
lar||a| revoca||or oy p|ys|ca| ac| |s ro| a||oWed (suc| as cross|rg ou| a ||re |r a W|||), unless || |s a |o|ograp||c
W|||. A s|r||e-ou| or a |o|ograp||c W||| |s a|so o|ay, ever |l || |s ro| s|gred.
Car revo|e W||| a dec|ara||or |r Wr|||rg W| r|g|| lorra||||es Tl8C o3
o w|y |ave |||s ru|e? lu|s pressure or |r|er-ol-lac|, oecause ex|r|rs|c ev|derce Wou|d oe used |o prove
W|e||er ||e ac| Was |r|erded |o oe a revoca||or. Cu|s |r|o W|||s ac| oas|s W|er ex|r|rs|c ev|derce |as
|o oe used.
Three!step process to proving a lost will not produced in court Tl8C 85 |ave |o go ||roug| |||s
process |l |ry|rg |o prove deperder| re|a||ve revoca||or (0bb)
1. prove due execu||or - your ws |ave |o |es||ly |o ||e execu||or ro ra||er W|a| - ur|ess || Was a se|l-prov|rg
2. prove cause ol ||e |oss ol ||e W||| or prove cause ol ror-produc||or - o|c you |ave |o overcore ||e
presurp||or ol revoca||or
3. cor|er|s ol ||e W||| oy ||e |es||rory ol a w W|o |as read || or |eard || read. (TX = suos|ar||a| prool)
)P* Texas
Need |r|er|
Need a sra|| ac| |o revo|e. 8urr|rg a correr
or s||g|| s|rg|rg |s revoca|ory ac| (ever |l ||e
s|rg|rg doesr'| |ouc| ||e Words!)
lar||a| revoca||or |s a||oWed
Cross-ou|s are va||d, ever |l urW||ressed
s|rce ||ose are cors|dered par||a| revoca||or
oy a p|ys|ca| ac| 2-507
0or'| reed |r|er| per s|a|u|e, ou| do reed |r|er| per
Need a |arger ac| |o revo|e. 8urr|rg a correr or
s|rg|rg are N0 a revoca|ory ac| (reed |o rea||y des|roy
or carce| ||)
lar||a| revoca||or N0T a||oWed 5y physical act,
ur|ess |o|ograp||c W||| (|l War| |o revo|e par| ol ror-
|o|ograp||c - rus| |ave a reW |rs|rurer|)
Car par||a||y revo|e W| a s|r||e-ou| or a |o|ograp||c
W||| or|y
bevo||rg a W||| oy r|s|a|e W||| ro| revo|e a W||| (ever
||oug| |r|er| |s ro| ar e|erer|)
Car revo|e W| dec|ara||or |r Wr|||rg W| lorra||||es (or
suosequer| W||| or cod|c||) Tl8C o3
Problem: %e(ocation by Inconsistency
0@@, V T executes a ;ill that $i(es all property to A.
0@@5 V T executes a ;ill that $i(es diamond ri$ht to B and car to *. 2No ;ords of re(ocation6
2a6 In early 0@@.D T destroys the 0@@5 codicil ;ith the intention of re(o!in$ itO T later dies in 0@@.. The 0@@, ;ill
is offered for probate. 'hould it be admitted< T|e cod|c|| car oe revo|ed W|||ou| ||e W||| oe|rg revo|ed.
2b6 'uppose that T destroys the 0@@, ;ill ;ith the intention of re(o!in$ it. After T&s deathD the codicil is offered
for probate. 'hould it be admitted< T|ere |s a presurp||or ||a| W|er ||e W||| |s revo|ed, a|| cod|c||s are a|so
revo|ed. l| rus| oe prover oy a preporderarce ol ||e ev|derce ||a| ||e cod|c|| rear| |o s|ard |rdeperder||y.
lage "2 ol 190
T|ere |s ro cura||ve doc|r|re |r Texas. ulC a||oWs a W||| |o oe ro|ar|zes ra||er ||a| W||resses.
T|e ev|der||ary lurc||or |s served oy |o|ograp||c W|||s. T|ese W|||s do ro| |ave |o oe a||es|ed. urder ulC, you car use
ex|r|rs|c ev|derce |o prove ||e W|||.
Texas. bevoca||or. o3 1) suosequer| W|||| cod|c||| dec|ara||or |r Wr|||rg ||a| sa||sl|es w|||s a\Ac| requ|rerer|s 2) |es|a|or
des|roys or carce|s or soreore e|se does || a| ||e d|rec||or ard |r ||e preserce ol |es|a|or. lr|er| = jud|c|a|
ulC. ou do ro| |ave |o ress up ary ol ||e Words W||| your revoca||or, you car jus| ourr ||e edge ol your W|||. le|ps
||e |||-adv|sed |es|a|or. Cour| |as d|scre||or. Texas. ou |||era||y |ave |o des|roy, you carro| jus| ourr ard edge ol ||e
lg. 287
A) 2008 W||| |s a cod|c|| |o ||e 2003 W|||. Tes|a|or des|roys cod|c|| ard d|es. T|e W||| |s ro| revo|ed.
8) ll T des|roys ||e 2003 W||| ard ||e cod|c|| |s prooa|ed, ||e presurp||or |s ||a| ||e cod|c|| |s a|so revo|e d, ou| ||e
presurp||or car oe reou||ed.
#arrison (. Bird
'upreme *ourt of AlabamaD -33,
?0- 'o.0d 340
Facts. A||orrey |ore up W||| a| c||er|'s reques|, ou| ro| |r preserce ol c||er|. T|e |orr w||| Was ro| lourd a| ||e
|es|a|or's dea||, ou| ||e a||orrey's |e||er W||c| rer||ored |orr up p|eces Was lourd |r ||e c||er|'s l||es. larr|sor
ollered a dup||ca|e or|g|ra| lor prooa|e.
Holdin". Froug| ev|derce ||a| || Was |er |r|er| |o revo|e ||e W|||, ||ere |s a presurp||or ||a| a W||| |s revo|ed |l
|| carro| oe lourd, |ere || Was ro| lourd. bevoca||or oy proxy rus| oe a| ||e T's d|rec||or ard rus| oe |r ||e
T's preserce.
Held. A reou||ao|e presurp||or ol revoca||or ex|s|s W|ere a W||| carro| oe lourd arorg a deceased's persora|
%ules of la;.
o w|er W||| |s |r |es|a|or's possess|or, ou| ro| lourd, ||er ||ere |s a presurp||or ||a| ||e |es|a|or
revo|ed ||e W|||. T|e ore ||a| War|s erlorcerer| ol ||e W||| rus| reou| ||e presurp||or. T|e
presurp||or Was ro| reou||ed |ere. (A||y ray oe ||ao|e lor ra|prac||ce |l |orr p|eces are lourd o|c |e
s|ou|d |ave |roWr ||a| |e reeded |o do || |er preserce.)
o ll ar a||y |s go|rg |o revo|e a W||| || rus| oe |r T's preserce ard a| T's d|rec||or. (l|ore does ro| cour|,
rus| oe |r persor!)
o pg.289 1) larr|ess error prov|s|ors app||es |l ||ere |s a docurer|. lu|||rg ||e W||| |r a l||e |aoe|ed
revo|ed W||| cou|d cour| |l ||ere |s c|ear ard corv|rc|rg ev|derce.
Texas |s or|y ||ao|e |o ||e c||er|, ||e ||ers carro| sue lor ra|prac||ce |r |||s case.
A W||| car s|rp|y revo|e a pr|or W||| W|||ou| d|spers|rg W||| proper|y.
Thompson (. %oyall
'upreme *ourt of Iir$iniaD -3,5
-?, Ia. 530D -4. './. 451
Facts: A||orrey Wro|e `ru|| ard vo|d' or ||e 8ACK 0l TlF wlll. T|e W||| a|so |ad a cod|c||.
T|e Wr|||rg Was ro| |r ||e T's |ardWr|||rg. (T||s |s ro| a |o|ograp||c W||| s|rce || Was ro| |r |er |ardWr|||rg.)
w||resses d|d ro| s|gr || e|||er.
Holdin": w||| Was |e|d |o oe va||d s|rce ro| || proper|y revo|ed. T|e s|a|u|e requ|red Wr|||rg or
||e lror| ol ||e W||| ard ||ere Was or|y Wr|||rg or ||e oac| ol |||s W|||. (ll a||oWed Wr|||rg or ||e oac| - cou|d
po|er||a||y revo|e a W||| W| aro||er docurer|.)
Held: bevoca||or ol a W||| oy carce||a||or |s ro| accorp||s|ed ur|ess ||e Wr|||er Words ol ||e
docurer| are ru|||a|ed or o||erW|se |rpa|red.
lage "3 ol 190
%ule of la;. Carce|||rg a W||| |s a revoca|ory ac| urder ||e ulC ard Tl8C, ou| |r |||s case
||ere Was ro| a |rue carce||a||or. T|e Wr|||rg s|ou|d |ave ac|ua||y |ouc|ed ||e W||| (|rs|ead ol jus| oe|rg Wr|||er or
||e oac| ol ||e W|||).
Problem ,7Pa$e 0.1
+rs. =roll&s ;ill had attached to it a self-pro(in$ affida(it and that the notation si$ned by +rs. =roll had been
;ritten across the self-pro(in$ affida(it. #as the cancellation touched any ;ords of the ;ill<
ll you car cour| a se|l-prov|rg all|dav|| |o ra|e a W||| |rue ard l|| |r|o ||e s|a|u|e, ||er |l ||e se|l-prov|rg all|dav|| |s
revo|ed ||e W||| |s revo|ed. 0ood argurer| |o |ry |r Texas. use 3ec||or 59(o).
Problem 57Pa$e 0.1
+rs. =roll&s ;rote on the left mar$in7J*ancelled. -3>3>,0. +. =roll.K Is this a (alid re(ocation<
T||s |s ro| a va||d revoca||or ur|ess |||s |s a |o|ograp||c W|||.
T V AD BD *D 9
Car T par||a||y revoca|e ||e W||| oy ex|ud|rg 0? T|e proo|er |s ||a| aryore cou|d ra|e a c|arge |o ||e W||| ro| jus| ||e
|es|a|or. Fver |l ||e W||| |s |o|ograp||c, ||er 0's s|are W||| go |o ||e res|duary oerel|c|ar|es. ll ||e cross-ou| ra|es ||
|rposs|o|e lor || |o oe |roWr W|o ||e o||er dev|see Was, ||er ||a| ur|roWr dev|see's s|are goes |o ||e |e|rs ol T.
lage "4 ol 190
2. 0eperder| be|a||ve bevoca||or & bev|va| (0bb) Caseooo|. 259-o9
Revocation by #ista%e
ll T Wou|d ro| |ave revo|ed ||e W||| ou| lor a r|s|a|er oe||el, ||er ||e revoca||or |s ro| ellec||ve.
bevoca||ors are ro| recogr|zed |l ||ey Were rade oy r|s|a|e, ard ||us, ||e W||| s|||| s|ards.
Revival of a revo%ed will under -PC 5 2!61:
ll a secord W||| wholly revo|es ||e l|rs| W||| ard ||er ||e secord W||| |s revo|ed oy a revoca|ory|p|ys|ca| ac|, ||er ||e
l|rs| W||| rera|rs revo|ed ur|ess ||ere Was ev|derce ||a| ||e revoca||or ol ||e secord W||| Was |r|erded |o rev|ve ||e
l|rs| W|||. No W|||s |el| a| |||s po|r|.
ll or|y partial revoca||or ol ||e l|rs| W||| ||roug| a secord W||| - ||er revo|ed par| ol l|rs| W||| is revived ur|ess
ev|derce ||a| |es|a|or d|d ro| |r|erd lor || |o |a|e ellec| or oe rev|ved.
lr o||er Words, |l ||ere a |||rd W||| revo|es a secord W||| (so, ro| oy a p|ys|ca| ac|), ||er ||e |||rd W||| does not rev|ve
||e very l|rs| W||| ur|ess ||'s c|ear |r ||e |ex| ||a| ||ey |r|erded ||e l|rs| W||| |o |a|e ellec|. (Aoserce prool |r ||e
docurer|, ||e |a|es| W||| s|ards. Fver |l revoca||or ol ||e secord W||| |ad oeer oy p|ys|ca| ac|, ||e l|rs| W||| |s s||||
ro| re|rs|a|ed ur|ess ||ere's ev|derce ||a| ||a| |s W|a| ||e T |r|erded.) This does not apply in Texas since ;e
don&t reco$niQe the ri$ht of re(i(alL
$ependent Relative Revocation $octrine &$RR(
use |||s doc|r|re W|er ||e l|rs| W||| |s |ess screWed up (or ro| screWed up a| a||) ard rore |r ||re W||| ||e T's |r|er|,
W|||e ||e secord W||| |s |rva||d or rore screWed up. T||s |s a doc|r|re ol equ||y.
0bb a good Way |o ree| |es|arer|ary |r|er|. T|e oes| Way Wou|d oe |o prooa|e ||e |a|er W|||, ou| s|rce ||a| ore |s
screWed up lor sore reasor, rev|ve ||e lorrer W||| |rs|ead as a secord oes| so|u||or. or|y use |||s op||or W|er ||
cores c|oser |o W|a| ||e T ac|ua||y |r|erded |o do! (2
oes| so|u||or ||eory)
bu|e. ll W|er ||e T des|royed ||e lorrer W||| || Was prer|sed or or deperder| upor sore r|s|a|e, ||er ||e lorrer
W||| |s rev|ved. lr o||er Words, |l T's |r|er| |o revo|e |s |a|r|ed o|c T r|s|a|er|y oe||eves ||a| |e |as a reW W||| ard |l
|e |ad |roWr ||e |rue s||ua||or, |e Wou|d ro| |ave revo|ed ||e l|rs| W||| - ||er ||e lorrer W||| |s re|rs|a|ed. T
execu|es ore W||| ard ||ereal|er a||erp|s |o revo|e || oy ra||rg a |a|er |es|arer|ary d|spos|||or W||c| lor sore
reasor proves |rellec||ve - so go oac| |o l|rs| W|||.
o Fx. ||s|a|er oe||el ||a| soreore |s dead, so you cross |er ou| ol your W||| (W|e||er or ro| ||e reasor |s
Wr|||er |r ||e W|||). T|a| persor ge|s ||e or|g|ra| ar| a||o||ed |o |er W|er 0bb |s app||ed. (or|y app||es |l
ou| ol ||e pecu||ar |roW|edge ol T)
Ar urusua| s||ua||or ol 0bb |s W|er a cr| rerders a revoca||or |rellec||ve W|ere ||e T a||erp|s |o revo|e a W|||
urder a r|s|a|er oe||el ||a| oy do|rg so |e |s re|rs|a||rg a pr|or W|||
+ust $o throu$h three-part analysis>process ol |os| W|||s W|er d|scuss|rg 0bb (see aoove), Tl8C 85
Fx. ore ol ||e persors rece|v|rg a oeques| Was a|so a W||ress = W||| |s purged (||roWr ou|). 8u|, 0bb ray oe
|rvo|ed |o sus|a|r a g|l| |o ||a| persor.
Cl v. ulC v. TX
o urder Cl ru|e, ro rev|va| ol revo|ed W|||s ur|ess ||ere |s re-s|gr|rg, re-W||ress|rg or puo||s||rg a |a|er cod|c|| |o
||e or|g|ra| W|||.
o urder ulC, ro rev|va| ur|ess ev|derce |s preser|ed a| prooa|e ||a| T |r|erded |o rev|ve ||e W|||.
o lr Texas, |es||rory lror a w |s recessary. w car oe s|oWr a copy ol a W||| ard |es||ly ||a| ||a| |s ||e
|arguage ||ey read.
Texas law on $RR; no law on doctrine or revival
Texas does ro| recogr|ze ||e doc|r|re ol rev|va| Car or|y car use 0bb |r Texas (see aoove).
Ta|e doesr'| |||r| ||a| |r TX ex|r|rs|c ev|derce Wou|d oe used |o cors|rue a W||| |l ||e |arguage c|ear or ||s lace.
lage "5 ol 190
lage "" ol 190
/x .1w||| |eaves $ |o Judy, ||er cod|c|| says, l revo|e ||e |egacy |o Judy o|c s|e |s dead. T|a| c|ear|y s|a|es W|a| ||e
r|s|a|e |s, so ||'s easy |o app|y 0bb, r|s|a|e s|a|ed |r ||e W|||, sore|||rg ||a| T cou|d eas||y oe r|s|a|er aoou|.
/x.07Jl revo|e ||e |egacy |o Judy o|c l've a|ready g|ver |er $5K.' lr |||s case, cou|d pu| Judy or ||e s|ard |o say ||a|
s|e d|dr'| rece|ve ||e rorey, ou| app|y|rg 0bb |r |||s c|rcurs|arce |s a oad |dea o|c |||s |roW|edge |s lFCullAbl |r
||e r|rd ol ||e T.
/x.,7Car oe dec|ded oy ex|r|rs|c ev|derce. Jus| says, `l revo|e |egacy |o Judy.' 0|ves ro reasor, ou| |o|d ||a| Judy
Was dead. lr |||s case, |ave |o re|y or |earsay ev|derce |o de|err|re W|a| Was a||eged|y sa|d |o ||e T. 3ore ooo|s
say ||a| 0bb |s app||ed ard |oo| a| ex|r|rs|c ev|derce. lr TX, cour| prooao|y Wou|dr'| app|y 0bb or ||ese lac|s. TX
cour|s |ave ac|roW|edged ||e 0bb doc|r|re. 8u| ar |rpor|ar| oac|grourd pr|rc|p|e |s ||a| cour|s dor'| |erd |o |oo| |o
ex|r|rs|c ev|derce W|er ||e W||| |s uraro|guous. lr |||s case, ro rea| aro|gu||y |r ||e W|||, doesr'| rea||y ra||er.
)P*: Three different scenarios
1. w||| ro. 2 W|o||y revo|es W||| ro. 1, W||| ro. 2 Was revo|ed oy a p|ys|ca| ac|. a. (A|ourr case.)
a. Presumption: ulC 2-509prev|ous W||| remains re(o!ed ur|ess || |s rev|ved. lresure ||a| ||'s ro|
rev|ved ur|ess you car s|oW ||a| || |s rev|ved ||roug| sore c|rcurs|arce ol ||e revoca||or ol ||e
suosequer| W||| or T's s|a|erer|s (||a| s|e |r|erded |o rev|ve ||e l|rs| W|||).
2. w||| ro. 2 par||a||y revo|es W||| ro. 1, ||er w ro. 2 revo|ed oy a p|ys|ca| ac|.
a. Presumption: T|a| W||| |s re(i(ed.
3. w||| ro. 2 revo|es W||| ro. 1, ard ||er w ro. 2 revo|ed oy w ro. 3. (lardes| case lor rev|va|.)
a. lresurp||or. lrev|ous W||| revo|ed ur|ess rev|ved. lave |o s|oW |r reW W||| |r ||s |errs ||a| || |s
rev|v|rg W||| ro. 1. Car'| jus| s|oW ||roug| c|rcurs|arces or ||a| T sa|d so.
Problem-7Pa$e 0?0
T&s type;ritten ;ill pro(ides: JI beFueath the sum of S-= to my nephe;D *harles Bla!e.K T later crosses out the
S-= and puts S-..= and initials.
a. Is this a (alid holop$rahic codicil<
T||s |s ro| a va||d |o|opgra||c cod|c||
b. 8hat result in a state that does not permit partial re(ocation by physical act<
lr Texas, W||c| does ro| perr|| par||a| revoca||or, C|ar|es Wou|d s|||| car ge| ||s $1K, oecause ||e W||| |as ro| oeer
c. 8hat result in a state that permits partial re(ocation by physical act<
C|ar|es Wou|d s|||| ge| $1K, ever ||oug| ||e W||| |ad oeer |ec|r|ca||y revo|ed.
8n a $%! Eurisdiction, !harles would "et F(.<A 5ecause there is testamentary intent and dispensary power.
T&s heir is #. There&s a -33. ;ill that $i(es e(erythin$ to AO then a -33? ;ill that $i(es e(erythin$ to B. Then a
-333 document that saysD JI re(o!e my -33? ;ill.K
|os| |||e|y resu||. l W||| |a|e urder |r|es|acy.
"a*roix (. 'enecal
'upreme *ourt of *onnecticutD -3.,
-5@ *onn. ,--D 33 A.0d --.
Facts. T ||oug|| a cod|c|| g|v|rg a persor a g|l| Was va||d, ou| || Was ac|ua||y |rva||d o|c ore ol ||e W||resses Was ore
ol ||e peop|e s|e Was g|v|rg ||e g|l| |o - so ||e g|l| Was purged (ro| recogr|zed ard dec|ared vo|d).
Holdin". 0bb saved |||s g|l| s|rce r|s|a|e Was ||a| |||s cod|c|| Wou|d oe va||d. (ou|, |l ||e cod|c|| |ad c|arged a
rare er||re|y ||er 0bb cou|d ro| save |||s)
lage "# ol 190
%ule of la;. 0bb ray oe |rvo|ed |o sus|a|r a g|l| oy W|||, W|er suc| g|l| |as oeer revo|ed |r a cod|c|| W||c|
suos|ar||a||y reall|rred ||e g|l| ou| Was vo|d as |o || urder (s|a|e s|a|u|e) oy reasor ol ||e |r|eres| ol a suoscr|o|rg
Pg 2:3! 2( -PC8 8t is hard to say the material portions are in the testatorGs handwrittin" 5ecause the handwritin" does
not say who the money is #or.
There are not any -RR cases in T>. $%! only tal6s a5out revival. -RR is a Eudicial doctrine.

/state of Alburn7Illustrates difference between $RR < $octrine of Revival
'upreme *ourt of 8isconsinD -3?,
1955 |||Wau|ee w|||- g|ves |o v, 0, l, ard 0. 0r|y v |s a re|a||ve, s|e |s ||e grard re|ce.
1959 Kar|a|ee w|||- g|ves |o b, 0, l, ard 0. b |s |er oro||er.
19o0 3|e |ears up ||e Kar|a|ee W|||.
lACT3. v|o|a ge|s sore ||ers, ||er res| sp||| oe|Weer v ard 3 o||ers. lr 1959, T roves aWay ard Wr||es aro||er
W||| ||a| |eaves ro|||rg |o v, ou| |eaves a sra|| g|l| |o booer|, ou| |eaves ||e res| |o ||e sare 3 o||er peop|e (|r |||s
W|||, s|e express|y revo|es ||e ear||er W||| |r Wr|||rg). 8u| |r 19o0, roves oac| |o w|scors|r ard revo|es ||e
prev|ous W||| oy a p|ys|ca| ac| (|ears || up, dor'| reed W||resses |o revo|e a W|||).
lb08lF|. T ||oug|| ||a| oy |ear|rg up |as| W|||, ||e ear||er W||| Wou|d oe re|rs|a|ed. Car s|e rev|ve ||e ear||er W|||?
A| ||a| ||re, s|e cou|dr'| do ||a|. (T|e |aW |as s|rce c|arged.)
l0l0lN0. lrvo|e 0bb. T||s Was a r|s|a|e ol |aWs|e ||oug|| ||a| oy revo||rg ||e |a||er, s|e Wou|d |rvo|e ||e
o||er. No| poss|o|e |o rev|ve ||e |||Wau|ee W||| |r w|scors|r, ou| N0w w|scors|r recogr|zes ||e r|g|| ol rev|va| so
|||s case Wou|d oe dec|ded d|llerer| |oday.
ll ||e W||| |ad rared a d|llerer| se| ol oerel|c|ar|es, ||e cour| ray |ave ru|ed d|llerer||y ard a||oWed ||e |r|es|a|e
success|or |o go lorWard, ou| |r |||s case, ||ere Was or|y 1 d|llerer| oerel|c|ary |r ||e reWer W||| (||a| Was revo|ed).
TX does N0T recogr|ze ||e doc|r|re ol rev|va|. (ou car'| |ear up ore ard |e| ||e o|d ore s|ard.)
0or'| app|y 0bb or bev|va|, s|e d|es |r|es|a|e o|c oo|| W|||s revo|ed. Cour| car'| app|y ||e 0 ol bev|va| o|c
w|scors|r d|dr'| |ave || ||er, so || app||ed 0bb ard |grored revoca||or ol ||e secord W|||, as |l || |ad rever oeer
Texas cour|s |ave ||e sare c|o|ce. 0oesr'| recogr|ze 0 ol bev|va|, ou| does recogr|ze 0bb.
urder ||e ulC, |l T revo|es suosequer| W||| W||| ||e |r|er| |o rev|ve ||e pr|or W|||, car rev|ve ||e pr|or W|||.
lresurp||or. lr|or W||| rera|rs revo|ed, ou| |l you car reou| ||a| presurp||or, |||e |r |||s case, W|ere ||e T sa|d s|e
War|ed ||e 1
W||| |o s|ard, ||er car app|y rev|va|.
ls ||ere rea||y a p|ace lor 0bb? Ta|e |sr'| sure. 0re ol ||e ulC doc|r|res W||| ge| you |o W|ere you War| |o oe ard
0bb |s a secord-oes| so|u||or. T|e T's |r|er| |s |o rev|ve. lroo|er. A |o| ol s|a|es |aver'| adop|ed oo|| ulC
prov|s|ors, so |r TX 0bb |s our oes| oe|..
urder ulC you cou|d rev|ve ||e ||| W||| ard g|ve v|o|a |er s|are.
3. bevoca||or oy 0pera||or ol laW. C|arge |r lar||y C|rcurs|arces pp. 305
Revocation by operation of law b)c of changes in fa#ily circu#stances
0|vorce (TX & ulC. Trea| ex-spouse as |av|rg predeceased T)
8|r|| ol c|||drer urder Cl (N0T urder ulC & Tl8C)
Texas Probate *ode B ?3. 8ill Pro(isions +ade Before 9issolution of +arria$e
(a) lr |||s sec||or, `re|a||ve' rears ar |rd|v|dua| W|o |s re|a|ed |o aro||er |rd|v|dua| oy corsargu|r||y or all|r||y, as de|err|red urder 3ec||ors
573.022 ard 573.024, 0overrrer| Code, respec||ve|y.
(o) ll, al|er ra||rg a W|||, ||e |es|a|or's rarr|age |s d|sso|ved, W|e||er oy d|vorce, arru|rer|, or a dec|ara||or ||a| ||e rarr|age |s vo|d, a||
prov|s|ors |r ||e W|||, |rc|ud|rg a|| l|duc|ary appo|r|rer|s, s|a|| oe read as |l ||e lorrer spouse ard eac| re|a||ve ol ||e lorrer spouse W|o
|s ro| a re|a||ve ol ||e |es|a|or la||ed |o surv|ve ||e |es|a|or, ur|ess ||e W||| express|y prov|des o||erW|se.
lage "$ ol 190
(c) A persor W|ose rarr|age |o ||e deceder| |as oeer d|sso|ved, W|e||er oy d|vorce, arru|rer|, or a dec|ara||or ||a| ||e rarr|age |s vo|d, |s
ro| a surv|v|rg spouse ur|ess, oy v|r|ue ol a suosequer| rarr|age, ||e persor |s rarr|ed |o ||e deceder| a| ||e ||re ol dea|| ard ||e
suosequer| rarr|age |s ro| dec|ared vo|d urder 3ec||or 47A ol |||s code.
)P* B 0-1@5. %e(ocation of Probate and Nonprobate Transfers by 9i(orceO No %e(ocation by other *han$es of *ircumstances.
(a) [0el|r|||ors.|0|lTTF0
(o) [bevoca||or upor 0|vorce.| Fxcep| as prov|ded oy ||e express |errs ol a goverr|rg |rs|rurer|, a Cour| 0rder, or a cor|rac| re|a||rg |o ||e
d|v|s|or ol ||e rar||a| es|a|e rade oe|Weer ||e d|vorced |rd|v|dua|s oelore or al|er ||e rarr|age, d|vorce, or arru|rer|, ||e d|vorce or
arru|rer| ol a rarr|age.
revo|es ary revocao|e (|) d|spos|||or or appo|r|rer| ol proper|y rade oy a d|vorced |rd|v|dua| |o ||s [or |er| lorrer spouse |r a
goverr|rg |rs|rurer| ard ary d|spos|||or or appo|r|rer| crea|ed oy |aW or |r a goverr|rg |rs|rurer| |o a re|a||ve ol ||e d|vorced
|rd|v|dua|'s lorrer spouse, (||) prov|s|or |r a goverr|rg |rs|rurer| corlerr|rg a gerera| or rorgerera| poWer ol appo|r|rer| or ||e
d|vorced |rd|v|dua|'s lorrer spouse or or a re|a||ve ol ||e d|vorced |rd|v|dua|'s lorrer spouse, ard (|||) ror|ra||or |r a goverr|rg
|rs|rurer|, ror|ra||rg a d|vorced |rd|v|dua|'s lorrer spouse or a re|a||ve ol ||e d|vorced |rd|v|dua|'s lorrer spouse |o serve |r ary
l|duc|ary or represer|a||ve capac||y, |rc|ud|rg a persora| represer|a||ve, execu|or, |rus|ee, corserva|or, ager|, or guard|ar, ard
severs ||e |r|eres|s ol ||e lorrer spouses |r proper|y |e|d oy ||er a| ||e ||re ol ||e d|vorce or arru|rer| as jo|r| |erar|s W||| ||e
r|g|| ol surv|vors||p |rarslorr|rg ||e |r|eres|s ol ||e lorrer spouses |r|o equa| |erarc|es |r corror.
(c) [Fllec| ol 3everarce.|0|lTTF0
(d) [Fllec| ol bevoca||or.| lrov|s|ors ol a goverr|rg |rs|rurer| are g|ver ellec| as |l ||e lorrer spouse ard re|a||ves ol ||e lorrer spouse
d|sc|a|red a|| prov|s|ors revo|ed oy |||s sec||or or, |r ||e case ol a revo|ed ror|ra||or |r a l|duc|ary or represer|a||ve capac||y, as |l ||e
lorrer spouse ard re|a||ves ol ||e lorrer spouse d|ed |rred|a|e|y oelore ||e d|vorce or arru|rer|.
(e) [bev|va| |l 0|vorce Nu|||l|ed.| 0|lTTF0
(l) [No bevoca||or lor 0||er C|arge ol C|rcurs|arces.| No c|arge ol c|rcurs|arces o||er ||ar as descr|oed |r |||s sec||or ard |r 2-803
ellec|s a revoca||or.
$ivorce under -PC
bevo|es ary g|l| g|ver |o a lorrer spouse
w|er |es|a|or d|vorces ||s or |er spouse, ||e lorrer spouse |s |rea|ed as |av|rg pre-deceased ||e o||er spouse urder
ulC ard Texas.
ulC 2-804 app||es |o prooa|e ard ror-prooa|e
Texas & ulC. 8eques| |o lorrer spouse |s vo|ded upor d|vorce (|rea|ed as pre-deceased)
ulC - a|so |rva||da|es oeques| |o re|a||ves ol lorrer spouse, ro| |rue |r Texas!
lr|es|acy ge|s lorrer spouses' s|are
Texas Law on divorce
Texas app||es |o prooa|e, ||le |rsurarce, ard l|duc|ary appo|r|rer|s, ou| ro| |rus|s
Texas & ulC. 8eques| |o lorrer spouse |s vo|ded upor d|vorce (|rea|ed as pre-deceased)
Texas a||oWs oeques|s |o re|a||ves ol lorrer spouse - ||'s s||er| or ||e |ssue.
lr|es|acy ge|s lorrer spouses' s|are
TX lar. Code |as a ||le |rsurarce prov|s|or ||a|'s s|r||ar.
TX lroo. Code |as a prov|s|or or revocao|e |rus|s ||a|'s s|r||ar.
3ec||or 472- Nor-|es|arre|ary |rarslers.
3ec||or o9 arerded |r 2007. w|||s- d|spos|||ors are revo|ed |o spouse ard re|a||ves ol spouse. A|| o||er g|l|s are
or|y revo|ed lror ||e spouse.
lg. 30o T|e s|epsor does ro| |a|e ary|||rg urder ||e reW arerdrer|.
urder ulC 2-301, W|er |es|a|or rerarr|es, ||e or|||ed spouse |s er||||ed |o |r|es|a|e s|are - W|a|ever |e or s|e
Wou|d |ave go||er or |r|es|acy W| regard |o prop ||a| Was ro| dev|sed |o ||e T's c|||drer lror aro||er rarr|age.
o ur|ess || |s appears lror ||e W||| ||a| ||e W||| Was rade |r cor|erp|a||or ol ||e rarr|age or
lage "9 ol 190
o ur|ess W||| Was ellec||ve as |s ever |l |e or s|e go| rerarr|ed or
o ur|ess ||e T prov|ded lor ||e spouse ou|s|de ol ||e W||| oy a ror-prooa|e |rarsler ||a| Was rear| as a
suos|||u|ed ard ||s or |er |r|er| are c|ear
o T||s does N0T |rc|ude ror-prooa|e, |||e |rus|s. (T||s s|a|u|e ro| app||cao|e |o ||ese |||rgs.)
urder ||e ulC, rarr|age does ro| |ec|r|ca||y revo|e ar er||re W|||, ou| || |r ellec| revo|es ||e W||| |o ||e ex|er| ol
||e spouse's |r|es|a|e s|are.
lr TX, a rarr|age does ro| revo|e a W|||. Texas |as corrur||y proper|y.
lr rary s|a|es, rarr|age revo|es a W||| er||re|y.
A|so see e|ec||ve s|are s|a|u|e |a|er |r |||s ou|||re. 3pouse ray oe er||||ed |o s|are urder corror |aW. we do ro|
|ave lorced s|ares |r Texas.
8|r|| ol c|||drer does N0T revo|e a W||| urder ulC. (sare) l| ray g|ve ||e c|||d a pre|err|||ed c|||d s|are.
8|r|| ol c|||drer al|er a rarr|age revo|es a W||| urder ||e Cl.
Texas law on #arriage and children
lr Texas, marria"e does N0T revo|e a W|||.
Birth o# children does N0T revo|e a W|||. (sare)
Texas does ro| |ave ar or|||ed spouse s|a|u|e |||e ulC 2-301, ou| |r Texas ||e or|||ed spouse car ge| (1) ||e
|ores|ead ard (2) a lar||y a||oWarce er|||||rg |er |o ||e arour| reeded lor suppor| lor ore year ard (3) s|e car
ge| a persora| se|-as|de (a|||oug| ||a| Wou|dr'| oe very ellec||ve |l ||e es|a|e |s |rso|ver|).
Texas does ro| g|ve ||e spouse a lu|| s|are. Jus| |||e o||er corrur||y proper|y s|a|es.
lage #0 ol 190
Pretermitted spouse statutes
3ore s|a|es |ave ||ese (ro| Texas).
laW par||a||y revo|es a W||| Wr|||er oelore a rarr|age |l || does ro| |rc|ude a spouse. lresurp||or |s ||a| ||e spouse
Wou|d War| |o g|ve proper|y |o spouse, ou| jus| d|dr'| ge| arourd ||.
T|e or|y c|a||erges are oased or |r|er| - |r|er| rus| oe c|ear|y rar|les|ed |r ||e W|||. lssue ||a| |s ||||ga|ed |s
W|e||er ||ere Was sull|c|er| ev|derce ol T's |r|er|.
9ifference bet;een )P* & TP*
Prob. -D p.04@7All to ;ifeD and if ;ife doesn&t sur(i(e himD to the stepson. T di(orces the ;ife and T dies
2his heirs are children from a pre(ious marria$e6.
o TX. 0r|y |o d|spos|||ors |r lavor ol a lorrer spouse are reroved.
o ulC. No| jus| d|spos|||ors |r lavor ol a lorrer spouse, ou| a|so d|spos|||ors |o a bFlATlvF ol a lorrer
spouse are reroved.
o TX. 3urv|v|rg spouse or|y er||||ed |o |er s|are ol ||e corrur||y proper|y. (??) ll. w|er soreore |as
or|y oeer rarr|ed lor a s|or| ||re oelore ||ey d|e, ||e presured |r|er| |s ||a| ||ey dor'| War| ||e surv|v|rg
spouse |o ge| a|| ol ||e|r asse|s.
o ulC. 3ays ||a| ||e s|are |rcreases over ||e course ol ||e rarr|age.
lorced s|are (?). 3urv|v|rg spouse, |r ros| s|a|es, |s er||||ed |o a cer|a|r arour| ol ||e es|a|e,
ever |l T |el| rore or a|| |o soreore e|se.
Cl s|a|es (|||e TX) dor'| |ave e|ec||ve s|are. 3o |r TX, ||e or|y |r|eres| ||a| ||e surv|v|rg spouse
|as |s |r ||e Cl.
o C|||drer. 8o|| s|a|u|es |ave c|||d prov|s|or. ll c|||d |s oorr al|er ||e execu||or ol ||e W|||, c|||d ray |ave ar
|r|eres| |r ||e W|||.
%e(ocation by "a;
ou d|dr'| revo|e, ou| ||e cour| W||| |rea| as |l || Was revo|ed, a| |eas| |r par|.
F.g., rarr|ed a| ||re ol execu||or ol ||e W|||, ou| ||er ge|s d|vorced ou| doesr'| c|arge ||e W|||.
)P*: d|spos|||ors |o ||e lorrer spouse are revo|ed ard |rea| d|vorced spouse as |av|rg predeceased ||e T.
l|le |rsurarce, bevocao|e |rus|s, sare ru|e app||es.
BeFuest to a relati(e of a former spouse: TX says ||a| or|y spousa| g|l|s revo|ed, ou| |r ||e ulC, || avo|ds g|l|s |o
oo|| ||e lorrer spouse ard re|a||ves ol lorrer spouse ||a| arer'| re|a||ves ol ||e deceder|.
Aro||er exarp|e. A| ||re ol W||| execu||or, ro| rarr|ed
o )P*: 3urv|v|rg spouse er||||ed |o |er |r|es|a|e s|are, ge|s W|a| s|e'd |ave go||er |l T d|ed |r|es|a|e.
o TA: |arr|age does N0T revo|e a W|||. 0r|y pro|ec||or a surv|v|rg spouse Wou|d |ave |s Cl. ll persor
d|es s|or||y al|er rarr|age, spouse doesr'| ge| ruc|.
)P* Texas
8eques| |o lorrer spouse |s vo|ded upor d|vorce
lorrer spouse |s |rea|ed as |av|rg predeceased ||e
deceder| ard g|l| |s vo|d or d|vorce (sare)
App||es |o prooa|e ard ror-prooa|e ra||ers (so ex-
spouse car'| |a|e urder |rus|s or ||le |rs. e|||er)
lrva||da|es oeques|s |o a lorrer spouse's re|a||ves
(d|llerer|). ulC goes lur||er ||ar rary s|a|u|es
lr|es|acy ge|s lorrer spouses' s|are (sare)
|arr|age does ro| er||re|y revo|e a W|||, spouse
rece|ves ar| Wou|d rece|ve urder |r|es|acy (so
8eques| |o lorrer spouse |s vo|ded upor d|vorce (sare)
ou| ||e W||| ||se|l |s va||d.
lorrer spouse |s |rea|ed as |av|rg predeceased ||e
deceder| ard g|l| |s vo|d or d|vorce (sare)
0|vorce ru|e app||es |o prooa|e ard ||le |rsurarce (v|a ||e
lar||y code), ou| ro| |o |rus|s
Texas va||da|es, oy ||e|r s||erce, oeques|s |o re|a||ves ol
a lorrer spouse. (va||da|es)
lr|es|acy ge|s lorrer spouses' s|are (sare)
|arr|age does ro| revo|e a W|||
0r|||ed spouse car ge| (1) |ores|ead & (2) lar||y
lage #1 ol 190
revo|ed |o ||a| ex|er|) 3ee e|ec||ve s|are ard pre-
|err|||ed sec||ors.
8|r|| ol c|||drer does ro| revo|e a W|||
a||oWarce er|||||rg |er |o ar| reeded lor suppor| lor 1-yr
& (3) a persora| se|-as|de
8|r|| ol c|||drer does ro| revo|e a W|||
lage #2 ol 190
*. 8ill *omponents 271-78, 285-8o, Fx|.11A
Texas Probate *ode B .1. Interests 8hich +ay Pass )nder a 8ill
(c) A |egacy ol persora| proper|y does ro| |rc|ude ary cor|er|s ol ||e proper|y ur|ess ||e W||| d|rec|s ||a| ||e cor|er|s are |rc|uded |r ||e
|egacy. A dev|se ol rea| proper|y does ro| |rc|ude ary persora| proper|y |oca|ed or or assoc|a|ed W||| ||e rea| proper|y or ary cor|er|s ol
persora| proper|y |oca|ed or ||e rea| proper|y ur|ess ||e W||| d|rec|s ||a| ||e persora| proper|y or cor|er|s are |rc|uded |r ||e dev|se.
(d) lr |||s sec||or.
Cor|er|s rears |arg|o|e persora| proper|y, o||er ||ar ||||ed persora| proper|y, lourd |rs|de ol or or a spec|l|ca||y oequea||ed or
dev|sed ||er. T|e |err |rc|udes c|o|||rg, p|c|ures, lurr||ure, co|r co||ec||ors, ard o||er ||ers ol |arg|o|e persora| proper|y ||a| do ro|
requ|re a lorra| |rarsler ol ||||e ard ||a| are |oca|ed |r aro||er ||er ol |arg|o|e persora| proper|y suc| as a cedar c|es| or o||er
T|||ed persora| proper|y |rc|udes a|| |arg|o|e persora| proper|y represer|ed oy a cer||l|ca|e ol ||||e, cer||l|ca|e ol oWrers||p, Wr|||er
|aoe|, rar||rg, or des|gra||or ||a| s|gr|l|es oWrers||p oy a persor. T|e |err |rc|udes a ro|or ve||c|e, ro|or |ore, ro|orooa|, or
o||er s|r||ar proper|y ||a| requ|res a lorra| |rarsler ol ||||e.
9octrine of Inte$ration: A|| papers preser| W|er ||e W||| |s execu|ed ||a| are |r|erded |o oe par| ol ||e W||| ard are
present at the will=s execution are |r|egra|ed |r|o ||e W|||ll ro| preser| a| W|||'s execu||or, car oe incorporated 5y
re#erence. lroo|er |l ||e papers are ro| s|ap|ed |oge||er or ||e |arguage |s ro| ||e sare or a|| pages.
Incorporation by %eference
urder ||e *", ary Wr|||rg that was in existence at the time o# the writin" o# the W||| ray oe `|rcorpora|ed oy
relererce' |l ||e |arguage ol ||e W||| rar|les|s |||s |r|er| ard descr|oes ||e Wr|||rg sull|c|er||y |o perr|| ||s
ulC. TWo d|llerer| prov|s|ors ||a| oear or |||s.--bFTAlNF0 Cl l0b bFAl lb0lFbT & |0NF 3/T 0TlFb
lFb30NAl TAN0l8lF lb0lFbT
o )P* 0-.-@: Cod|l|es ||e Cl ru|e ||a| you carro| |rcorpora|e a docurer| oy relererce unless ||e docurer|
|s |r ex|s|erce W|er ||e W||| |s execu|ed.
o )P* 0-.0,: Carves ou| ar excep||or lor ||ers ol persora| |arg|o|e proper|y o||er ||ar rorey. (lurr||ure,
jeWe|ry, cars, ro| rorey, secur|||es, |ard.) l|ers car oe |rcorpora|ed |r|o ||e W||| ever |l Wr|||er al|er ||e W|||
Was execu|ed. Car Wr||e your W||| ard say, `l ar go|rg |o Wr||e a ||s| ol |arg|o|e proper|y, ard l War| ||e
execu|or |o g|ve || |o peop|e accord|rg |o ry ||s|.' Ard you car |eep c|arg|rg |||s ||s| ur||| you d|e.
o Ary Wr|||rg ray oe `|rcorpora|ed oy relererce' |l ||e |arguage ol ||e W||| rar|les|s |||s |r|er| ard descr|oes
||e Wr|||rg sull|c|er||y |o perr|| ||s |der||l|ca||or. (d|llerer| ||ar doc|r|re ol |r|egra||or aoove)
o ulC a||oWs ||e Wr|||rg |o oe rade oelore or al|er ||e W|||, as |org as you Wr||e || oelore your dea|| sore
T=8 3ot clear that T> reco"niHes this. /n Bar: 8t=s unclear whether the doctrine applies: there=s dicta "oin" 5oth
ways. 8# it applies, > would 5e the result. 8# it does not, ? would 5e the result.
ll |||s |ad oeer |r ellec|, ||e Worar |r ||e 0reer. case Wou|d |ave go||er |er pa|r||rg o|c ||a| Was ar ||er ol
persora| |arg|o|e proper|y.
ls |||s a good |dea? 3|ou|d you |rcorpora|e oy relererce? N0.
o w|y. our c||er| r|g|| rove |o a jur|sd|c||or ||a| doesr'| recogr|ze |||s.
o 0r saler grourd |o do |||s oy a |rus| ra||er ||ar ||roug| a W|||. (bevocao|e |rus|s car accorp||s| ruc| ol
W|a| car oe dore ||roug| a W|||, ard oe||er oll do|rg |||s.)
%epublication by *odicil
w||| |s |rea|ed as re-execu|ed|repuo||s|ed as o# the date o# the codicil.
Car use |||s |o correc| errors |r a W|||. Car cure a W||| ||a| Was W||ressed oy ar |r|eres|ed persor oy add|rg aro||er
W||ress |r a cod|c||.
App||es or|y |o pr|or validly executed W|||s. (ou| car cure W||ress proo|er)
ll you execu|e a W||| ard ||er |a|er execu|e a cod|c||, ||a| cod|c|| repuo||s|es ||e W|||. ll ||ere Were proo|ers urder a
purg|rg s|a|u|e, |||s car oe cured oy a repuo||ca||or oy cod|c||.
lage #3 ol 190
Jo|rsor case |||us|ra|es ||e d|llererce oe|Weer |||s ard |r|egra||or.
||g|| ra||er |l ||e or|g|ra| W||| Was s|gred oy ore ol ||e rec|p|er|s ol a g|l| as ar |r|eres|ed W||ress (purg|rg s|a|u|e).
ll ||ere |ad oeer a suosequer| cod|c|| ||a| Was s|gred oy 2 d|s|r|eres|ed W||resses, ||er 0Kas |l ||e W|||, lror ||e
oeg|rr|rg |ad oeer s|gred oy 2. T|e cod|c|| carro| repuo||s| ur|ess oo|| docurer|s ad|ere |o ||e w|||s Ac|.
lage #4 ol 190
Acts of independent si$nificance
lerr||s ex|r|rs|c ev|derce |o |der||ly ||e W||| oerel|c|ar|es or proper|y pass|rg urder ||e W|||.
ll ||e oerel|c|ary ol proper|y des|gra||ors are |der||l|ed oy ac|s or ever|s ||a| |ave a ||le||re ro||ve ard s|gr|l|carce
apar| lror ||e|r ellec| or ||e W|||, ||e g|s| W||| oe up|e|d urder |||s doc|r|re.
0oc|r|re W||| app|y ever ||oug| ||e p|ras|rg ol ||e W||| |eaves || |r ||e T's poWer |o a||er ||e oerel|c|ar|es or ||e
proper|y oy a ror|es|arer|ary ac|.
Fxarp|e. A car |as a ||le||re s|gr|l|carce, ||erelore ||ey Wor'| c|arge a car jus| |o ress W||| ||e|r es|a|e p|arr|rg.
8hat: 0or'| ouy a reW car o|c you War| |o arerd your W|||. 0o || o|c you War| a reW car. A||oWs soreore |o
c|arge ||e d|spos|||or ol ||e|r es|a|e W|o arerd|rg ||e|r W|||.
8hy: leop|e arer'| |ry|rg |o Wease| ||e|r Way ou| ol ||e wAl. le| ||er ra|e |rdeperder| dec|s|ors.
/.$.D soreore |r|es |o oequea|| cor|er|s ol a des| draWer or sale depos|| oox. ll. 3ale|eep|rg lurc||or ol pu|||rg ||e
||ers |r a draWer. le|ps case |l ||e draWer |s |oc|ed. No| jus| pu|||rg |r as a W||| suos|||u|e, ou| |o pro|ec| lror ||el|.
TA |as a s|a|u|e ||a| |s oroader ||ar ||e 0 ol Al3W|er you oequea|| ar ||er ol l3, || does ro| |rc|ude ||e ||ers
ur|ess ||e W||| s|a|es ||. lrp||ca||or. ll you say so |r ||e wlll, ||er you car oequea|| ||ese ||ers, ever |l ||e
c|rcurs|arces cor||rua||y c|arge. 3|a|u|e or|y app||es W|er you're g|v|rg ||e des| |o ||e sare persor ||a| you're
g|v|rg ||e cor|er|s |o
o Car'| say l g|ve des| |o Z ard cor|er|s ol des| draWer |o .
o Fxcep||or lor ||||ed persora| proper|y (s|oc| cer||l|ca|es, cars, e|c.)
Problems: P. 01?
-. T says that A $ets contents of the ri$ht hand dra;er of her des!. Find a sa(in$s
ban! passboo! in T&s nameD shares of common stoc!D and a diamond rin$. 9oes A $et these items<
o ls ||e ro||ve lor |||s |r ||e W|||?
o Cour|s |ave ro| |ad a proo|er do|rg |||s W|er ||e ||ers are |r a sale depos|| oox. ll
T |ad sa|d, `l |eave ||e cor|er|s ol ry 308 |o A,' Wou|d |ave oeer 0K. ll. 8u| ||e |rdeperder|
s|gr|l|carce ol pu|||rg ||ose ||ers ||ere |s ||a| ||ey Were pu| ||ere lor sale|eep|rg|o pro|ec| ||ers so
ro|||rg |appers |o ||er.
o T|e ||le||re ol sale|eep|rg app||es |o ||e sale|y depos|| oox, ou| ro| ||e erve|opes,
oecause pu|||rg || |r erve|opes |s |rs|gr|l|car|
o Texas 3|a|u|e 3ec||or 58 Cor|er|s are ro| |rc|uded W||| proper|y ur|ess
spec|l|ca||y |rc|uded. T|||ed persora| proper|y |s ro| |rc|uded. ll you dr|ve your car |r|o ||e |ouse ard
dev|se ||e proper|y ard cor|er|s ol ||e |ouse, ||e dev|see s|||| does ro| ge| ||e car.
0. 'ara executes her ;ill in 0@@@ and lea(es a residue of her estate to any charitable trust
established by the last ;ill and testament of her brotherD Barney. In 0@@-D Barney executes his ;illD
de(isin$ his property to the trustD established by his ;ill.
o 3|ou|d oe ao|e |o ge| |r urder Al3. ou carro| use |rcorp oy relererce oecause 8arrey's W||| Was
execu|ed al|er 3ara's.
o 0or'| |ave a |as| W||| & |es|arer| ur||| you d|e (car a|Ways crea|e a reW ore).
o Al3. wou|d |ave a spec|a| poWer ol appo|r|rer| over ||e proper|y ||a| Was dev|sed oy 3ara| |r |er W|||, so
|e car g|ve || |o W|a|ever c|ar||y ||a| |e War|s, as |org as |e es|ao||s|es ||a| |r ||s W|||.
)P* B 0-.-0. /(ents of Independent 'i$nificance.
A W||| ray d|spose ol proper|y oy relererce |o ac|s ard ever|s ||a| |ave s|gr|l|carce apar| lror ||e|r ellec| upor ||e
d|spos|||ors rade oy ||e W|||, W|e||er ||ey occur oelore or al|er ||e execu||or ol ||e W||| or oelore or al|er ||e |es|a|or's
dea||. T|e execu||or or revoca||or ol aro||er |rd|v|dua|'s W||| |s suc| ar ever|.
)P* B 0-.-,. 'eparate 8ritin$ Identifyin$ 9e(ise of *ertain Types of Tan$ible Personal Property.
w|e||er or ro| ||e prov|s|ors re|a||rg |o |o|ograp||c W|||s app|y, a W||| ray reler |o a Wr|||er s|a|erer| or ||s| |o d|spose
ol ||ers ol |arg|o|e persora| proper|y ro| o||erW|se spec|l|ca||y d|sposed ol oy ||e W|||, o||er ||ar rorey. To oe
lage #5 ol 190
adr|ss|o|e urder |||s sec||or as ev|derce ol ||e |r|erded d|spos|||or, ||e Wr|||rg rus| oe s|gred oy ||e |es|a|or ard
rus| descr|oe ||e ||ers ard ||e dev|sees W||| reasorao|e cer|a|r|y. T|e Wr|||rg ray oe relerred |o as ore |o oe |r
ex|s|erce a| ||e ||re ol ||e |es|a|or's dea||, || ray oe prepared oelore or al|er ||e execu||or ol ||e W|||, || ray oe a||ered
oy ||e |es|a|or al|er ||s prepara||or, ard || ray oe a Wr|||rg ||a| |as ro s|gr|l|carce apar| lror ||s ellec| or ||e
d|spos|||ors rade oy ||e W|||.
lage #" ol 190
*lar! (. Ereenhal$e 2+ass. -33-6
lACT3. 1977 w||| a||erp|s |o |rcorpora|e oy relererce a rerorardur, W||c| |s ac|ua||y jus| a ro|eooo|. lourd a
docurer| ||a| Was prepared |r 1972 ard rod|l|ed |r 197o. T||s Was ||e rero. 8u| |||s Wasr'| ||e or|y docurer|
||a| Was |ep|, a|so |ad a ro|eooo| ||a| Was da|ed 1979 (al|er ||e W|||'s execu||or), ard || |as prov|s|ors ||a| g|ve
o||er |||rgs |o peop|e (pa|r||rg |o a lr|erd). Fxecu|ed 2 cod|c||s |o |er W||| |r 1980. 0|ed |r 198o.
l33uF. 0reer|a|ge |s relus|rg |o d|s|r|ou|e ||e pa|r||rg |o ||e lr|erd (|e War|s |o |eep ||). T|e doc|r|re a| |ssue |s
l8b. 0|d ||e W||| |rcorpora|e oy relererce ||e 1979 ro|eooo|?
Cl. Car or|y |rcorpora|e a doc oy relererce |l || Was |r ex|s|erce W|er ||e W||| Was Wr|||er. Car'| |rcorpora|e oy
relererce sore|||rg ||a| Was Wr|||er |a|er.
l0l0lN0. Cod|c|| |r 1980 repuo||s|es ||e W|||, so repuo||ca||or oy cod|c|| doc|r|re a||oWs ||e W||| |o oe repuo||s|ed
al|er ||e docurer| care |r|o crea||or, ||us car or|rg || |r |l a|| o||er requ|rerer|s are re|.
bulF. A proper|y execu|ed W||| ray |rcorpora|e oy relererce |r|o ||s prov|s|ors ary docurer| or paper ro| so
execu|ed ard W||ressed |l || Was in existence at the time of the execution of the ;ill ard |s |der||l|ed oy clear
and satisfactory proof as ||e paper relerred |o ||ere|r.
lb08lF|3. T|e ro|eooo| |s ro| a rero. 0reer|a|ge says |e Wasr'| aWare ol ||e ro|eooo|.
8u| C| |o|ds ||a| || |s c|ear ||a| T's |r|er| Was ||a| ||e ro|eooo| Was a rero. Fv|derce ||a| 0 d|d |roW aoou| ||e
ro|eooo|. (lo||oWs ulC, ro| Cl).
T||s rero Was ro| |r corp||arce W||| ||e w|||s Ac|, ou| |||s doc|r|re (|rcorpora||or oy relererce) |s ar excep||or |o
||e |rad|||ora| w|||s Ac|.
Ta|e says ||ey're s|re|c||rg ||e doc|r|re |r |||s case. T|e W||| |sr'| c|ear|y l0'g ||e docurer| ||a| |s supposed |o oe
|rcorpora|ed oy relererce. ll ||e execu|or |adr'| oeer so greedy, prooao|y Wou|dr'| |ave ru|ed |||s Way.
%&' 2)513 *ou do ot eed clear ad covici+ evidece.
,ave the will pour over ito a trust that the trustee will distribute the persoal propert-.
8roo|er v. 8roo|er (1937), TX3C express|y dec||red |o ru|e or W|e||er or ro| |||s doc|r|re (|rcorpora||or oy relererce)
|s recogr|zed |r TX.
1955 case. 3a|d ||a| l8b |adr'| oeer express|y approved oy ||e TX3C. T|e |ead|rg |rea||se or ||e TX |aW ol W|||s
says ||a| ||e |aW |r TX |s aro|guous. 3ore cases |rd|ca|e ||a| || doesr'| app|y, ou| o||er cases ra|e || seer |||e ||
does ex|s|. 0r 8ar, a| |eas| ||r| ||a| ||ere are o||er cases ou| ||ere ||a| say ||'s loggy.
ohnson: 2C= -3.56 loW ro| |o app|y repuo oy cod|c|| ard |rc. oy relererce. 0ocurer| W| severa| |ypeWr|||er
paragrap|s, ard a| ||e oo||or, T Wro|e |r |ardWr|||rg ||a| |e gave ||s oro||er $10, `|||s W||| |s corp|e|e.' lroo|er.
TypeWr|||er par| |sr'| a||es|ed, so car'| prooa|e ||a| por||or. Cour| War|s |o prooa|e ||e |ardWr|||er por||or ard |ry |o
save ||e W|||. TWo ||eor|es (Ta|e |||r|s Wrorg).
1. bepuo||ca||or oy cod|c||. Fver ||oug| ||e |ypeWr|||er doc ro| prop execu|ed, ||'s
repuo||s|ed oy ||e |ardWr|||er cod|c||, W||c| |s o| o|c |ardWr|||er ard |r T's |ard. lroo. loW car sore|||rg
oe repuo||ca|ed W|er N0T puo||s|ed |r ||e l|rs| p|ace? T||s |s a r|sapp||ca||or ol ||a| doc|r|re. (says `T||s W|||'
ro| C)
2. lrcorpora||or oy belererce. 0|sser| says ||a| |||s doc |sr'| |rcorpora||or oy relererce o|c
ro| a separa|e doc ||a|'s oe|rg |rcorpora|ed ra||er ||ar ore doc ||a| |s par||y |o|ograp||c ard par||y |ypeWr|||er.
Ta|e agrees W|d|sser| ||a| ||ere's ro Way |o prooa|e ||e |ypeWr|||er ra|er|a|. Cou|d app|y d|spers|rg poWer as
|org as you |ave C&C ev|derce ||a| || Was |r|erded |o oe ||e W|||.
Cou|d you ge| |r ||e |o|ograp||c por||or separa|e|y? Try |o app|y ||e surp|usage ||eory. ever ||oug| |ypeWr|||er s|ull,
||ere's eroug| |r |ardWr|||rg |o ev|derce |es|arer|ary |r|er|. lroo. 0|llerer| lror |yp|ca| surp|usage caseusua||y
|ave a prepr|r|ed W||| lorr (lore 0epo|), ou| |ere, sore|||rg ||a| Was er||re|y Wr|||er oy T ard |r|erded |o oe par| ol
||e W|||. No| so good lor ||e 30.
bulF. A va||d, |o|ograp||c cod|c|| ray |rcorpora|e ard repuo||s| a pr|or W||| ||a| Wou|d |ave oeer |rellec||ve oecause
ol ||s la||ure |o corp|y W||| lorra| requ|s||es.
lage ## ol 190
TX. lersor v. lersorTX3C relused |o a||oW a |o|ograp||c docurer| |o va||da|e a pr|or, ura||es|ed W|||. T|ey
Wou|dr'| |e| ||e ura||es|ed docurer| |o va||da|e ||e W|||.
o 0|c|a sugges|s ||a| ||e cour| Wou|d a|so dery prooa|e, ever |l ||e docurer| |ad oeer a va||d W|||. 3o, ro|
sure W|e||er l8b Wou|d Wor| |r TX.
ll |||s |s a separa|e W|||, car you prooa|e ||e |o|ograp||c por||or ard d|sregard ||e |ypeWr|||er por||or? 3urp|usage
||eory. ll ||e |ardWr|||er por||or |s eroug|, ||er car d|sregard ||e |ypeWr|||er, |rea| |ardWr|||er par| as |l rear| |o
s|ard a|ore. 8u| ||e |ypeWr|||er por||or |r |||s case Was ac|ua||y Wr|||er oy ||e T, so ||e T |s |r|erd|rg lor |||s
|arguage |o oe a par| ol ||e W|||. (`A d|s||rc||or W|||ou| a d|llererce.')
Cou|d ge| |||s |r urder ||e ulC W|d|spers|rg poWer. As |org as C&C ev|derce ||a| |||s |s rear| |o oe ||s W|||.
lage #$ ol 190
9. *ontracts %elatin$ to 8ills pp. 28o-90, Fx|. 118
T;o !inds:
-. =s to ma!e a ;ill 2uncommon6
a. usua||y cores up |r ||e cor|ex| ol ar erp|oyer pror|s|rg ar erp|oyee ||a| |e W||| |eave |er sore|||rg
|l s|e cor||rues erp|oyrer|
o. A|so see W||| a r|s|ress or ooylr|erd.
0. =s not to re(o!e a ;ill 2more common6
a. 3ee W||| rarr|ed coup|es W|o execu|e l|rs| W||| ard War| |o ra|e sure ||a| ||e es|a|e goes |o c|||drer
ard ro| o||ers.
o. 0overred oy K |aW (reed cors|dera||or, oo||ga||ors, spec|l|c |errs, e|c.)
c. | ere execu||or ol a jo|r| W||| |s ro| ev|derce ol a cor|rac|. T|e cor|rac| |s or|y erlorceao|e |l || |s
prover oy c|ear ard corv|rc|rg ev|derce.
1. Ar aWard |o ||e cor|rac| oerel|c|ary ol `||e va|ue ol ||e proper|y W||c| Was |o core |o |er urder ||e cor|rac|ua| W|||, or
2. Ar order corpe|||rg ||e deceder|'s `successors |o |rarsler ||e proper|y |o ||e cor|rac| oerel|c|ary |r accordarce
W||| ||e deceased's agreerer|.
Joint will v4 Mutual 9ill
Jo|r| W|||. ore |rs|rurer| execu|ed oy |Wo persor as ||e W||| ol oo||. T|ese are d|scouraged! lo|s ol ||||ga||or s|rce
ro| sure |l |||s |s |o oe erlorced as a |.
|u|ua| W|||. separa|e W|||s ol 2+ peop|e ||a| cor|a|r s|r||ar or rec|proca| (r|rror-|rage) prov|s|ors. |ay pu| a c|ause
|r ||ere |o avo|d ||||ga||or oy say|rg `|||s |s ro| a |.' Corror o|c spouses War| |o lavor eac| o||er.
Jo|r| & ru|ua| W|||. relers |o a jo|r| W||| |r W||c| ||e respec||ve |es|a|ors ra|e s|r||ar or rec|proca| prov|s|ors
)niform Probate *ode B 0-.-5. *ontracts *oncernin$ 'uccession.
A cor|rac| |o ra|e a W||| or dev|se, or ro| |o revo|e a W||| or dev|se, or |o d|e |r|es|a|e, |l execu|ed al|er ||e ellec||ve da|e ol |||s Ar||c|e, ray oe
es|ao||s|ed or|y oy (|) prov|s|ors ol a W||| s|a||rg ra|er|a| prov|s|ors ol ||e cor|rac|, (||) ar express relererce |r a W||| |o a cor|rac| ard ex|r|rs|c
ev|derce prov|rg ||e |errs ol ||e cor|rac|, or (|||) a Wr|||rg s|gred oy ||e deceder| ev|derc|rg ||e cor|rac|. T|e execu||or ol a jo|r| W||| or ru|ua|
W|||s does ro| crea|e a presurp||or ol a cor|rac| ro| |o revo|e ||e W||| or W|||s.
-PC8 three ways to refer to will in a % p. 289
1. Nare |rpor|ar| prov|s|ors ol a W||| |r ||e |
2. Fxpress relererce |o a W||| |r a | ard ex|r|rs|c ev|derce prov|rg |errs ol | 0b
3. a Wr|||rg s|gred oy deceder| ev|derc|rg | (3 ol l app||es)
T|e execu||or ol a ru|ua||jo|r| W||| does N0T crea|e a presurp||or ro| |o revo|e W|||
)P* elements:
wr|||rg s|gred oy 0
3|a||rg ||a| a K ex|s|s, ard s|a||rg ra|er|a| prov|s|ors ol ||e K (doesr'| |ave |o oe o|rd|rg|erl)
A||oWs you |o prove oy ex|r|rs|c ev|derce.
Texas Probate *ode B .3A. *ontracts *oncernin$ 'uccession
(a) A cor|rac| |o ra|e a W||| or dev|se, or ro| |o revo|e a W||| or dev|se, |l execu|ed or er|ered |r|o or or al|er 3ep|eroer 1, 1979, car oe
es|ao||s|ed or|y oy.
(1) prov|s|ors ol a Wr|||er agreerer| ||a| |s o|rd|rg ard erlorceao|e, or
(2) prov|s|ors ol a W||| s|a||rg ||a| a cor|rac| does ex|s| ard s|a||rg ||e ra|er|a| prov|s|ors ol ||e cor|rac|.
(o) T|e execu||or ol a jo|r| W||| or rec|proca| W|||s does ro| oy ||se|l sull|ce as ev|derce ol ||e ex|s|erce ol a cor|rac|
Texas law on referring to a will in a %
Tl8C 59(a) | re|a||rg |o a W||| car or|y es|ao||s| a K |r |Wo Ways.
1. prov|s|ors ol a Wr|||er agreerer| ||a| |s o|rd|rg ard erlorceao|e
2. s|a|e |r ||e W||| ||a| a K ex|s|s ard g|ve ||e ra|er|a| prov|s|ors ol a K
lage #9 ol 190
lage $0 ol 190
A promises that if B ta!es care of AD he ;ill lea(e A his estate in ;ill. A si$ns a docD but there&s only - 8D so not
an attested ;ill. *an you introduce that document to sho; that there ;as a = bet;een A & B<
1. ulC. |ayoe o|c ||'s a Wr|||rg s|gred oy 0 ard arguao|y ev|derces ||e K.
o 8o|s|ers asser||or ||a| a K ex|s|s.
2. TX. No| a c|arce. No| a Wr|||er agreerer| ||a| |s o|rd|rg ard erlorceao|e, ou| ar a||erp| |o execu|e a
gra|u||ous |rarsler.
Problems7Pa$e 014
-. T promises to A to lea(e estate to A if A ta!es care of T for life. T
ma!es the ;ill lea(in$ estate to A. A then decides not to performD T rescinds the =D but T&s ;ill still
lea(es the property to A. 9oes A ta!e under the ;ill<
w||c| po||cy |s rore |rpor|ar|? Fqu||ao|e |ssues or W|||s ac|?
Case |r ooo| says ||a| A car |a|e o|c wAl |s rore |rpor|ar|.
0. A dies of AI9'. After A diesD roommateD B produces a document
2typed by BD si$ned by A and one ;itness6 that sho;s A de(isin$ half of his estate to B. B says that A
promised to do this if B too! care of him 2not properly attested6. Is B entitled to half of A&s estate<
o ulC 2-514. No| d|spers|rg poWer (|as ||g|er ourder). wr|||rg s|gred oy deceder| ev|derc|rg a K.
3uppor|s 8's c|a|r ||a| ||ere Was a K.
o ulC or|y requ|res ||a| ||ere |s sull|c|er| ev|derce ||a| ||ere |s a cor|rac|0oes ro| |ave |o produce a
o lr||z case ||a| ||'s oased or says ||a| 8 cou|d erlorce ||. Ta|e doesr'| |o|a||y agree.
o TX resu||. No Wr|||er agreerer| ||a| |s o|rd|rg ard erlorceao|e, ard dor'| |ave ||e ac|ua| prov|s|ors ol ||e
,. If 8 promises to ta!e care of # for his life in consideration of # de(isin$ her Blac!acre. # diesD de(isin$ BA
to A.
3|e |as a respors|o||||y|du|y |o |a|e care ol |er |usoard, so ||ere |s ro cors|dera||or.
Problem 07Pa$e 035: Nor-prooa|e |o secord W|le, ard proper|y acqu|red al|er ||e l|rs| W|le's dea||.
loo| a| ||e K |errs |o see W|a| || covered |o de|err|re |l ||e cour| r|g|| up|o|d ||.
lr ||e lu|rar case, relerred |o ||e res|duary es|a|e, acqu|red al|er ||e l|rs| rarr|age ard oelore ||e secord
rarr|age. |os| cour|s lo||oW|rg rajor||y ru|e Wou|d say ||a| ||e agreerer| app||ed |o All ||e l's proper|y ard reW
W|le s|ou|dr'| ge| ary ol ||.
NeW w|le Wou|d ga|r ro|||rg l|rarc|a||y lror ||e rarr|age, ou| ary|||rg s|e earred or |er oWr al|er ||e rarr|age |s
s|||| |ers. (lr a Cl s|a|e, s|e Wou|d oe er||||ed |o ol ||e T's es|a|e).
o Avo|d |||s proo|er W||| a revocao|e |rus| ||a| cou|d |o|d proper|y dur|rg ||e|r ||le||re ard ||er |o ||e
c|||drer lror ||e secord rarr|age. ll peop|e are |oo |azy |o se| up a |rus|, rayoe We s|ou|dr'| erlorce ||e|r
o Tr|es |o accorp||s| sore|||rg s|r||ar |o Cl lor ror-Cl s|a|es (oller sore sor| ol pro|ec||or).
lage $1 ol 190
Iia (. Putnam 2F" -33.6: = not to re(o!e a ;ill
W|le d|es ard T rerarr|es. 0|dr'| crea|e a secord W||| al|er rerarr|age. l|or|da |as s|r|c| po||cy ol |eav|rg W|le
W||| proper|y.
Fllec| ol rarr|age al|er a W||| |s execu|ed |r ll. lror|sed |r W||| ro| |o revo|e ||s W|||, ou| |||s |s revoca||or oy
opera||or ol |aW. 8reac| ol Cor|rac|.
TWo re|evar| s|a|u|es.
o lre|err|||ed (??) spouse s|a|u|e. ll you rarry al|er ra||rg a W|||, ||e surv|v|rg spouse ge|s |a|l.
o F|ec||ve-s|are 3|a|u|e. Fver |l ||e W||| rade sore prov|s|or lor ||e surv|v|rg spouse (|oo| |r|o ||e
poss|o||||y ol rerarr|age), spouse s|||| g|ver a lorced s|are (30)
w|le c|a|rs ||a| s|e's er||||ed |o 50 or |er e|ec||ve s|are ol 30.
C|||drer argue ||a| K Was oreac|ed oy T rerarry|rg ard revo||rg ||e W|||, ever ||oug| |e d|dr'| p|ys|ca||y revo|e
||e W|||, ou| revoca||or oy opera||or ol |aW v|o|a|es ||s K, so ||e ||ds car erlorce ||e K as |||rd-par|y oerel|c|ar|es.
l0l0lN0. C| says ||a| ll |rurps ||e 3
-par|y oerel|c|ar|es ard ||ey g|ve ||e reW W|le a s|are.
bulF. C|||drer, as |||rd-par|y oerel|c|ar|es urder ru|ua| W|||s ol parer|s, s|ou|d ro| oe g|ver cred||or s|a|us W|er
||e|r |r|eres|s cor|ravere ||e |r|eres|s ol a surv|v|rg spouse urder ||e pre|err|||ed spouse s|a|u|e.
ll. |arr|age Ta|e care ol ||e spouse al|er o||er spouse d|es. 3uppor||rg rarr|ed peop|e.
o A|so ll ol erlorc|rg Ks ard |o|d|rg peop|e |o ||e|r oarga|rs.
o C| says ll ol erlorc|rg rarr|age |s rore |rpor|ar|
Ta|e says ro| urusua| resu||ros| cour|s say ||a| rarr|ed peop|e are |app|er ard rore s|ao|e, ard |||s oerel||s
soc|e|y lor us |o ercourage rarr|age.
o ll you erlorce ||e K, ||a| d|scourages ||e secord W|le lor rarry|rg lor ||e Wrorg reasors|a|es aWay ary
l|rarc|a| advar|ages ol |er rarr|age, s|e Wor'| rarry ||r lor ||e rorey ||a| s|e's |||e|y |o ge| upor ||s
T||s |s ||e |lN0blT ru|e. |os| cour|s ru|e ||e o||er Way||a| ||e surv|v|rg spouse |o|ds ||e proper|y as a
cors|ruc||ve |rus|ee lor ||e K oerel|c|ar|es.
#:PC: 8hat if the -
8 and # had promised to lea(e e(erythin$ to children if one of them died first and they
remarried. 8ould enforcin$ the = promote or discoura$e marria$e<
lroro|es rarr|age (l|rs| rarr|age) o|c W|le Wou|d |roW ||a| ||e c|||drer Wou|d oe |a|er care ol |a|er, al|er s|e d|ed.
3e|l|s|. war| proper|y |o s|ay W||| spouse ard c|||drer, ro| |o ||e secord spouse ol ||e|r spouse.
0or'| locus or ||e secord rarr|age, |||r| aoou| ||e l|rs| rarr|age.
lage $2 ol 190
/. 8ill *ontests
Burden of Proof7Texas
lr|or |o lrooa|e or dur|rg prooa|e ||e ourder |s or ||e proporer| ol ||e W||| |o es|ao||s| corpe|erce
Al|er ||e W||| |s adr|||ed lor prooa|e ||e ourder s||l|s |o ||e c|a||erger
Fi(e reasons to contest:
(1) mental capacity > insane delusion (|rrocer| ac|)
(2) undue influence (|r|er||ora| Wrorgdo|rg)
(3) fraud (|r|er||ora| Wrorgdo|rg)
(4) duress (|r|er||ora| Wrorgdo|rg) 0b
(5) tortious interference ;ith expectancy
(No|e. Carro| cor|es| a W||| lor a r|s|a|e |l |arguage |s uraro|guous o|c re||el W||| ro| oe grar|ed - ever ||oug| ||a| |s
ar |rrocer| ac|)
1. |er|a| Capac||y
In addition to T bein$ an adult 2normally -1W6 there are four reFuirements of mental capacity
lr ||e |aW ol W|||s, ||e requ|rerer|s lor rer|a| capac||y are r|r|ra|. To oe corpe|er| |o ra|e a W|||, ||e |es|a|or rus|
oe ar adu|| ard rus| oe capa5le ol 6nowin" and understandin" |r a gerera| Way
[1| ||e ra|ure ard ex|er| ol ||s or |er proper|y,
[2| ||e ra|ura| oojec|s ol ||s or |er oour|y (your lar||y), ard
[3| ||e d|spos|||or ||a| |e or s|e |s ra||rg ol ||a| proper|y, ard rus| a|so oe capao|e ol
[4| re|a||rg ||ese e|erer|s |o ore aro||er ard lorr|rg ar order|y des|re regard|rg ||e d|spos|||or ol ||e proper|y.
Restatement (Third o# %roperty: ;ills and /ther -onative Trans#ers +I.( (&))*
Mental capacity7/NTI%/ 8I"" I' INIA"I9
0erera| |ac| ol corpe|erce or la||ure ol r|rds due |o sore|||rg spec|l|c (|rsare de|us|ors)
lr ros| s|a|es, ourder |o prove a persor does ro| |ave rer|a| capac||y |s or persor c|a||erg|rg capac||y.
lega| capac||y |o ra|e a W||| requ|res a "reater rer|a| corpe|ercy ||ar |s requ|red |o ge| rarr|ed, ou| less capac||y
||ar |o rarage ore's |rves|rer|, ra|e a |, or ra|e a g|l|.
ll dec|ared |rcorpe|er| a| ore ||re, ||a| does ro| rear you Wor'| oe corpe|er| a| sore po|r| |o ra|e a W|||.
lac| ol rer|a| capac||y rears rore ||ar jus| |rra||ora| oe|av|or, oe|rg We|rd, or oe|rg a drur|.
w du|y. W||resses |ave a du|y |o oe sa||sl|ed W| T's sar||y oelore ||ey s|gr ary|||rg or |erd ||e|r rare |o ||e W|||.
Carro| |a|er |es||ly ||a| ||ey d|dr'| |||r| T sare. (Ta|e a|so |||r|s ror-|aWyer scr|verers s|ou|d oe |rea|ed s|r||ar |o
|aWyers re. sa||sl|ed aoou| capac||y.)
1xplanations #or re2uirin" mental capacity.
o bepreser| T's |rue des|res
o |er|a||y |rcorpe|er| are ro| del|red as `persor'
o laW requ|res rer|a| capac||y |o pro|ec| ||e T's lar||y
o lr|er||arce |aW ard |ega| |rs|||u||ors are |eg|||ra|e as |org as dec|s|ors are reasored
o Assures sare persor ||a| ||e d|spos|||or |e des|res W||| oe carr|ed ou| |l |e |a|er oecores |rsare
o lro|ec|s soc|e|y a| |arge lror |rra||ora| ac|s
o lro|ec|s ser||e or |rcorpe|er| T lror exp|o||a||or oy curr|rg peop|e
lage $3 ol 190
Insane delusions7CN": PA%T CF 8I"" I' INIA"I9
T ray |ave ||e rer|a| capac||y |o ra|e W|||, ou| |l ||ey are suller|rg lror |rsare de|us|ors, ray |ac|
testamentary capacity.
0e|us|or. la|se corcep| ol rea|||y. lrsare de|us|or |s a |ega| corcep|, ro| a psyc||a|r|c corcep|
|ajor||y v|eW. a de|us|or |s |rsare, ever |l ||ere |s sore lac|ua| oas|s lor ||, |l a ra||ora| persor |r ||e T's
s||ua||or cou|d ro| |ave draWr ||e corc|us|or reac|ed oy ||e T
||ror||y v|eW. |l ||ere's ary lac|ua| oas|s a| a|| lor ||e T's de|us|or, || |s ro| deered |rsare
Texas law on #ental capacity and insane delusions
lr Texas, W||| regard |o rer|a| capac||y, |l |ssue |s ra|sed oelore W||| |s ollered lor prooa|e- ||e persor prooa||rg |as
ourder |o prove ||e T Was sare. (ourder or W||| proporer|, ro| ||e cor|es|ar|)
8urder ol prool s||l|s |o cor|es|ar|s |o prove |ac| ol rer|a| capac||y once will is 5ein" pro5ated. 3o, cor|es|ar|s
usua||y |ave ||e ourder.
Froug| |o s|oW a lac|ua| oas|s lor ar |rsare de|us|or |o overcore a c|a||erge. w||| |s va||d ur|ess ||e |errs ol || Were
directly |rl|uerced oy ||e |rsare de|us|or. w|||s carro| oe over|urred ur|ess d|spos|||or Wou|d |ave oeer d|llerer|
aoser| ||e |rsare de|us|or.
Texas Probate *ode B 11. Proof %eFuired for Probate and Issuance of "etters Testamentary or of Administration
(a) 0erera| lrool. w|erever ar app||car| see|s |o prooa|e a W||| or |o oo|a|r |ssuarce ol |e||ers |es|arer|ary or ol adr|r|s|ra||or, |e rus| l|rs|
prove |o ||e sa||slac||or ol ||e cour|.
(1) T|a| ||e persor |s dead, ard ||a| lour years |ave ro| e|apsed s|rce ||s decease ard pr|or |o ||e app||ca||or, ard
(2) T|a| ||e cour| |as jur|sd|c||or ard verue over ||e es|a|e, ard
(3) T|a| c||a||or |as oeer served ard re|urred |r ||e rarrer ard lor ||e |erg|| ol ||re requ|red oy |||s Code, ard
T|a| ||e persor lor W|or |e||ers |es|arer|ary or ol adr|r|s|ra||or are soug|| |s er||||ed ||ere|o oy |aW ard |s ro| d|squa||l|ed.
(o) Add|||ora| lrool lor lrooa|e ol w|||. To oo|a|r prooa|e ol a W|||, ||e app||car| rus| a|so prove |o ||e sa||slac||or ol ||e cour|.
ll ||e W||| |s ro| se|l-proved as prov|ded oy |||s Code, ||a| ||e |es|a|or, a| ||e ||re ol execu||rg ||e W|||, Was a| |eas| e|g||eer years ol
age, or Was or |ad oeer |aWlu||y rarr|ed, or Was a reroer ol ||e arred lorces ol ||e ur||ed 3|a|es or ol ||e aux|||ar|es ||ereol, or ol
||e |ar|||re 3erv|ce ol ||e ur||ed 3|a|es, ard Was ol sourd r|rd, ard
ll ||e W||| |s ro| se|l-proved as prov|ded oy |||s Code, ||a| ||e |es|a|or execu|ed ||e W||| W||| ||e lorra||||es ard so|err|||es ard urder
||e c|rcurs|arces requ|red oy |aW |o ra|e || a va||d W|||, ard
(3) T|a| suc| W||| Was ro| revo|ed oy ||e |es|a|or.
*ommon "a; TA
lrsare de|us|or doesr'| |ave |o ac|ua||y
cause a d|spu|ed prov|s|or - || jus| |as |o
`r|g|| |ave' caused ||. (doesr'| |ave |o
d|rec||y |rl|uerce)
lrsare de|us|or rus| ac|ua||y||r lac| cause ||e
d|spu|ed prov|s|or. (|as |o d|rec||y |rl|uerce)
Froug| |o s|oW a lac|ua| oas|s lor ar |rsare de|us|or
|o overcore a c|a||erge.
w||| |s va||d ur|ess ||e |errs ol || Were directly
|rl|uerced oy ||e |rsare de|us|or. w|||s carro| oe
over|urred ur|ess d|spos|||or Wou|d |ave oeer
d|llerer| aoser| ||e |rsare de|us|or.
.ashbur) iitial burde o cotestat/ the to propoet.
.ilso) iitial burde o propoet ad the cotestat.
In re 'trittmater7Feminist case- *areta!ers a$ainst family member
*ourt of /rrors and Appeals of Ne; erseyD -354
-5@ N.. /F. 35D ., A.0d 0@.
Facts. lel| |er es|a|e |o ||e Na||ora| worar's lar|y ou| ol ar ex|rere |a|red lor rer.
Holdin". ll a W||| |s a produc| ol ar |rsare de|us|or, || W||| ro| oe prooa|ed. w||| Was ||roWr ou|.
lage $4 ol 190
bulF. ll you c|a||erge a W||| or ||e lac| ||a| T |ac|ed gerera| rer|a| capac||y, ||er regard|ess ol W|a| ||e
W||| says, || |s ro| va||d. 8u| |l you c|a||erge or ||e grourd ||a| ||ere Was ar |rsare de|us|or, ||er |ave |o
s|oW ||a| ||e |rsare de|us|or allec|ed ||e d|spos|||or ol ||e es|a|e.
3ote. T||s ray oe dec|ded d|llerer||y |oday! wou|d c|a||erge || urder gerera| rer|a| capac||y ra||er ||ar
|rsare de|us|or. lrooao|y Wou|d prooa|e ||e W||| as |s |oday.
In re #oni$man
*ourt of Appeals of Ne; :or!D -3?@
1 N.:.0d 055D -?1 N./.0d ?4?D 0@, N.:.'.0d 1.3
lac|s. l (T) ||oug|| w urla|||lu|, l adr|||ed |o |av|rg rer|a| proo|ers (C| lourd very |||||e ev|derce ol |||s).
lo|d|rg. NeW |r|a| dec|ared |o dec|de |l ||ere Was rer|a| capac||y or W|e||er |||s Was ar |rsare de|us|or.
T|e W||| |s |rva||d |l ||e d|spos|||ve prov|s|ors 980HT |ave oeer |rl|uerced oy ||e |rsare de|us|or, ever |l
||ey d|dr'| recessar||y cause ||e de|us|ors.
o ll w Was er||||ed |o every|||rg urder |r|es|acy |aWs, case ray |ave oeer dec|ded d|llerer||y - ou|
s|e |ad proper|y ol |er oWr
Ta|e. Ta|e says ||e ru|e ray oe oe||er ||a| or|y |l ||e prov|s|or |s ||a| ||e de|us|or |r #act caused ||e
d|spos|||ve d|spos|||or, ro| W|e||er || jus| r|g|| |ave oeer caused oy ||e de|us|or. Texas agrees.
o Car'| se| as|de a W||| prov|s|or ur|ess ||e de|us|or d|rec||y |rl|uerced ||e |es|arer|ary d|spos|||or.
loW c| go| resu||. urder N |aW ||er, W|le's e|ec||ve s|are Was or|y a ||le es|a|e |r ol ||e
proper|y. Ard ||e |r|es|a|e s|are |s ||le es|a|e |r lee s|rp|e. Today |r N, roW F s|are |s |r lee
s|rp|e ard ||e |r|es|a|e s|are |s every|||rg. lrooao|y Wou|dr'|' |ave go||er ||e sare corc|us|or
In re /state of 8ri$ht
'upreme *ourt of *aliforniaD -3,?
4 *al.0d ,51D ?@ P.0d 5,5
Facts: Fccer|r|c rar. 0aug||er c|a||erg|rg W||| o|c ||oug|| |e Was ol ursourd r|rd. T gave a |o| ol
proper|y |o ||s lr|erd ard |o ||s grarddaug||er. T|ere Were |Wo ws, ro|ary puo||c, & a||y.
o ll W||| Was dore |r|es|a|e, daug||er Wou|d ge| a |o| rore. 80l |s or ||e daug||ercor|es|ar|.
o 3evera| ws |es||l|ed |o |||rgs |e d|d ||a| rade ||r |oo| ol ursourd r|rd. (le pu| paper roses or
rose ous|es, pre|erded |o oe dead, |o|d peop|e |e |ad ser| ||er s|ull, |grored grarddaug||er |r
s|ree|, Wou|d |eave d|rrer W|o say|rg W|y, c|ased ||ds ou| yard, drur| a|| ||e ||re).
Holdin": beversed. Alcoholism does not eFual mental incapacityL ||g|| exp|a|r ||s We|rd oe|av|or.
Bein$ ;eird does not mean you are of unsound mind.
Rule: Fv|derce ol rere lo|o|es, |d|osyrcras|es, rora| or rer|a| |rregu|ar|||es, or depar|ures lror rorra| |s
|rsull|c|er| |o suppor| a case ol |es|arer|ary |rcapac||y W|ere ||ey do ro| re|a|e d|rec||y |o ||e |es|arer|ary
Ta|e. || |a|es more than irrational beha(ior. 3|oW|rg up a| oar| W||| spec|l|c ||s| ol peop|e, e|c., s|oWs |e
|ad rer|a| capac||y. |e| ||e requ|rerer|s aoove - |reW re|a||ors||ps ard ra|ura| oojec| ol ||s oour|y. le
|rp|erer|ed ||s W|s|es ||roug| a W|||. T|erelore, |e d|dr'| |ac| gerera| rer|a| capac||y.
ll ||e l.0. allec|s ||s d|spos|||or ol ||e proper|y, ||er vo|d W||| or par|s ol ||.
C|a||erge oroug|| al|er W||| |s adr|||ed |o prooa|e ourder |s or W||| cor|es|ar|s.

'picer (. Breeden- ulC case. No| usua||y dea|| W||| oy s|a|u|es. Texas |s |r accord W||| |||s case. T|e W||| cor|es|ar| cou|d |ave
derarded a jury |r|a|.
2. urdue lrl|uerce
lage $5 ol 190
besu|| (causa||or), 0ppor|ur||y, ro||ve,(oe|av|ors) ard suscep||o||||y (ellec|).
T|ree ca|egor|es ol uN0uF lNlluFNCF lac|ors (goes |o vo||||or)lave |o prove a||.
Beha(ior of Influencer
o 9otive. lrl|uercer |as |o |ave a reasor |o |rl|uerce ||e T (usua||y ro| |ard |o s|oW o|c lor soreore c|ose
|o lge|s sore|||rg ou| ol ||e W|||)
o /pportunity #or 8n#luence. ll ||e |rl|uercer |ad ro oppor|ur||y, ||er urdue |rl|uerce |s |ard |o prove.
/ffect on Testator
o Suscepti5ility. wea|ered |r|e||ec|, sore reasor W|y |||s par||cu|ar T |s prore |o uN0uF lNlluFNCF (o|d)
o !on#idential relationship. 3ore|||rg rore ||ar rere s|rargers (easy |o s|oW. a||orrey|c||er||r |||s case,
||ere ray oe a s|a|u|e ||a| says ||a| ||e oeques| |s vo|d |l ||e a||y ge|s ary|||rg). be|a||ors||p ol Tbu3T.
0oesr'| |ave |o oe l|duc|ary re|a||ors||p, ou| |l a re|a||ors||p ol |rus|, ray oe deered a corl|der||a|
lage $" ol 190
*ausation: lrl|uerc|rg |as |o cause ||e d|spos|||or |r ||e W|||, |l ||e |rl|uerce doesr'| ac|ua||y c|arge ary|||rg |r
||e W|||, ||er ro urdue lrl|uerce
o !onnection oe|Weer W|a| ||e T d|d ard ||e |rl|uercer |r|ed |o ge| T |o do
o $nnatural disposition. var|es lror ||e usua| s|ardards ol W|o peop|e |eave ||e|r proper|y |o. (F.g., |l you
or|y |ave ore c|||d ard ro spouse ard you |eave every|||rg |o ||e c|||d ard ||e c|||d |rl|uerced you |o do
|||s, cour| W||| prooao|y |eave || a|ore ard prooa|e ||e er||re W||| o|c ||a| |s ro| urra|ura|.)
lr ros| s|a|es. |l you car es|ao||s| sore or a|| ol ||ese, 80l s||l|s |o W||| proporer| |o s|oW ar aoserce ol ||er.
TX. 0o lur||er. Fver |l you car s|oW a|| ol ||ese lac|ors, ray ro| ge| you |o uN0uF lNlluFNCF. Texas very s|r|c|.
lave |o s|oW |rl|uercer suos|||u||rg ||s W||| lor ||a| ol ||e T's.
Texas Probate *ode B .1B. 9e(ises and BeFuests That Are Ioid
(a) A dev|se or oeques| ol proper|y |r a W||| |s vo|d |l ||e dev|se or oeques| |s rade |o.
(1) ar a||orrey W|o prepares or superv|ses ||e prepara||or ol ||e W|||,
(2) a parer|, descerdar| ol a parer|, or erp|oyee ol ||e a||orrey descr|oed oy 3uod|v|s|or (1) ol |||s suosec||or, or
(3) a spouse ol ar |rd|v|dua| descr|oed oy 3uod|v|s|or (1) or (2) ol |||s suosec||or.
(o) T||s sec||or does ro| app|y |o.
(1) a dev|se or oeques| rade |o a persor W|o.
(A) |s ||e |es|a|or's spouse,
(8) |s ar ascerdar| or descerdar| ol ||e |es|a|or, or
(C) |s re|a|ed W||||r ||e |||rd degree oy corsargu|r||y or all|r||y |o ||e |es|a|or, or
(2) a oora l|de purc|aser lor va|ue lror a dev|see |r a W|||.
)N9)/ INF")/N*/H
bequ|res vo||||or (ro| corpe|ercy)
3ore ||rd ol persuas|or, rar|pu|a||or go|rg or ||a| |s equ|va|er| |o psyc|o|og|ca| dor|ra||or or coerc|or (adv|ce |s
ro| eroug|).
lrl|uercer suos|||u|es ||s or |er W||| lor ||a| ol ||e T.
T, |r ar ur|rl|uerced s|a|e, Wou|d War| es|a|e |o go |o A, ou| urder |rl|uerce, dec|des |o ra|e || go |o 8. |a|es T
do sore|||rg ||a| ||ey rea||y dor'| War| |o do. No| eroug| |o corv|rce ||roug| a ra||ora| process, ou| ra||er,
suos|||u|e soreore e|se's W||| lor ||e|rs.
bF|F0. 3|r||e ||e por||or ol ||e W||| ||a| resu||s lror ||e uN0uF lNlluFNCF. T|a| por||or goes |o ||e res|duary
oerel|c|ary |l ||a| persor Wasr'| |rvo|ved |r ||e uN0uF lNlluFNCF, or |o ||e |e|rs.
o 3ore c|rcurs|arces |r W||c| ||e W||| |s so |a|r|ed, ||a| ||e cour| W||| s|r||e || er||re|y. (3are lor |rsare
o ll ||ere's ro| res|duary c|ause, ||er goes |o T's |e|rs, as |l |r |r|es|acy.
o Cour| ray a|so dec|ded ro| |o prooa|e W||| & |urr || |r|o cors|ruc||ve |rus|
lrool ol urdue |rl|uerce. Cl, car oe proved ||roug| |rlererce|c|rcurs|ar||a| ev|derce - lour |||rgs |o prove.
1. T|e T Was suscep||o|e |o urdue |rl|uerce
2. T|a| ||e |rl|uercer |ad ||e d|spos|||or or ro||ve |o exerc|se |rl|uerce
3. T|a| ||e |rl|uercer |ad ||e oppor|ur||y |o exerc|se urdue |rl|uerce AN0
4. T|a| ||e d|spos|||or |s ||e resu|| ol ||e |rl|uerce
o 3exua| re|a||ors||p & ro| rarr|ed = susp|c|or ol dece|| - adr|ss|o|e as urdue |rl|uerce prool
o 0elerse. oerel|c|ary Was `a ra|ura| oojec| ol T's oour|y' - espec|a||y |l |e Was c|ose |o |er ard lar||y Was ro|
o 8urder. 8urder s||l|s lror persor oppos|rg ||e W||| W|o c|a|rs ||ere |s urdue |rl|uerce |o ||e persor W|o |s
see||rg |o |r|er|| ard |s suspec|ed ol urdue |rl|uerce orce sull|c|er| prool |s pu| lorWard.
o contest clauses
9aEority. erlorce ro-cor|es| c|auses ur|ess ||ere |s prooao|e cause lor ||e cor|es| (ulC & b3T)
9inority. erlorce ur|ess ||ere |s ar a||ega||or ol (1) lorgery or (2) suosequer| revoca||or oy a |a|er W||| or cod|c||
or (3) ||e oerel|c|ary |s cor|es||rg a prov|s|or oerel|||rg ||e dral|er ol ||e W||| or a W||ress
Texas w||| ro| up|o|d ||e c|ause W|er ||e W||| cor|es| lor good cause.
lage $# ol 190
lage $$ ol 190
.e>uests to attorneys
Cl. lresurp||or ol urdue |rl|uerce |l a||orrey ge|s a g|l| |r a W|||, ur|ess |e's re|a|ed. |us| overcore |||s
presurp||or oy CCF. (loW c|ose|y re|a|ed deperds or ||e jur|sd|c||or.)
us|rg ||e Word `sa|d' |r a W||| crea|es ||e presurp||or ||a| ||e a||y Wro|e ||e W||| ra||er ||ar ||e T.
C| ray s|r||e W|||ou| ge|||rg |r|o W|e||er lac|ors sa||sl|ed.
Texas law on undue influence < be>uests to attys
8eques| |o ar a||y. lr Texas, |l a oeques| |s |o ar a||y or c|ose re|a||ve |o ar a||y, W|o prepares or superv|ses ||e
W|||, ||er ||e W||| |s vo|d o|c %ules of affinity & consan$uinity say ||a| T carro| |eave ary|||rg |o your |aWyer
or l's lar||y reroer ur|ess T re|a|ed |o l.
o Affinity: be|a|ed oy rarr|age (s|s|er-|r-|aW, e.g., ou| ro| re|a|ed oy all|r||y |l re|a|ed oy rore ||ar ore
rarr|age, so ro| re|a|ed |r all|r||y |o your s|s|er-|r-|aW's oro||er-|r-|aW.) 0r|y ore rarr|age |r|erver|rg
oe|Weer T ard l.
0|l|s are vo|d |l go ||roug| rore ||ar 2 rarr|ages.
o *onsan$uinity: 8|ood re|a||ve
Fxcep||or |o ||e oeques| |o ar a||y ru|e. ll ||e oerel|c|ary |s re|a|ed |o ||e T as a spouse or |l descerder| or
arces|or, or a persor re|a|ed W||||r |||rd degree oy corsargu|r||y or all|r||y (rarr|age) W||| ro| vo|d.
o ll ||ere's ro lar||y re|a||ors||p o|W |aWyer ard c||, || vo|ds ||e oeques| |o ||e |aWyer and the lawyer=s
spouse, children, and employees.
o Fx. |or |as lerry, W|o |s rarr|ed |o laura. 0ad |as 8ar| W|o |s rarr|ed |o warda. ll laura dral|s
||e W|||s lor 8ar| ard warda, ard ||ey |eave laura a g|l| ||e oeques| lror warda |o laura W||| oe
|rva||d o|c laura |s N0T re|a|ed |o warda c|ose eroug|. T|e oeques| lror 8ar| |o laura |s va||d, o|c
c|ose eroug| re|a|ed.
Test in Texas for undue influence 2tou$her in Texas than under the )P*D less li!ely to find )N9)/
o 3|x lac|ors aoove
o |us| a|so prove ||a| ||e |rl|uercer suos|||u|ed ||s W||| lor ||a| ol ||e T (s|r|c|er s|d ||ar ros| s|a|es).
8as|ca||y, |||s |s W|e||er suc| cor|ro| Was exerc|sed over ||e r|rd ol ||e T as |o overcore |er
lree agercy ard lree W||| ard |o suos|||u|e ||e W||| ol aro||er, so as |o cause ||e T |o do W|a|
s|e Wou|d ro| o||erW|se |ave dore ou| lor suc| cor|ro|.
o No ourder s||l||rg |r Texas - persor oppos|rg W||| rus| prove |||s |es| ol urdue |rl|uerce.
*"A'' #:PCT#/TI*A"
+om and 9ad ha(e t;o children 2Bart and #enry6. #enry is married to "aura. Bart is married to 8anda. 8anda
and "aura are attorneys.
Is the beFueath from Bart to "aura allo;ed< 0K
Bart&s beFuest to #enry< 8ar| ard lerry are oro||ers so ||a| |s a||oWed. 0K
8anda beFueset to #enry< 0K. 3|s|er-|r-laW |o 8ro||er-|r-laW.
8anda to "aura< N0T 0K. T|ey are ro| d|rec||y re|a|ed.
/state of "a!atosh
Facts: F|der|y Worar |r poor |ea||| ard yourg rar |e|ps |er. ler |r|e||ec| Was `Wea|ered.' le ge|s |er
poWer ol a||y ard sugges| ar a||orrey lor |er ||a| |e Was re|a|ed |o.
Holdin": C|ear exarp|e ol urdue |rl|uerce. lour requ|rerer|s ol urdue |rl|uerce Were re|. T|ere Was (1) a
corl|der||a| re|a||ors||p W| ro||ve (2) ||ere Was oppor|ur||y, (3) oerel|c|ary W| corl|der||a| re|a||ors||p rece|ved
||e ou|| ol ||e es|a|e, ard (4) T's |r|e||ec| Was Wea|ered - suscep||o|e |o urdue |rl|uerce. T|e yourg rar,
(oerel|c|ary) cou|d ro| overcore ||e ourder ol urdue |rl|uerce (W||c| |ad s||l|ed |o ||r), so ||e cour| relused
|o adr|| ||e W||| |o prooa|e ard ||ey |rposed a cors|ruc||ve |rus| as a reredy (|e |ad |o pay oac| W|a| |e
lage $9 ol 190
o 8erel|c|ary s|ou|d |ave argued |e Was a `ra|ura| oojec| ol |er oour|y' s|rce |e'd oeer |e|p|rg |er ou| ard |er
lar||y |ad ro|.
o 3|e s|ou|d |ave revo|ed poWer ol a||y oelore|ard!
o T|e a||orrey |ere Was ||e guy's secord cous|r. lrdeperder| |aWyer Wou|d |ave oeer a oe||er |dea.
"ipper (. 8eslo;7TA la;
Texas *ourt of *i(il AppealsD -3?,
,?3 '.8.0d ?31
Texas |as a r|g|| |o |r|a| oy jury |r prooa|e cases. Jur|es are rore |||e|y |o dec|de W||| ||e W||| cor|es|ar|s.
T |ad 3 |usoards, 1 sor oy l|rs| rarr|age, 2 ||ds |r secord rarr|age, ro ||ds |r |as| rarr|age.
0rard||ds ol l|rs| sor are c|a||erg|rg ||e W|||. 3|e |el| every|||rg |o ||e 2 c|||drer ol l|rs| rarr|age.
T ard |er a||orrey Were ao|e |o ar||c|pa|e ||a| ||ere ray |ave oeer ||||ga||or over |||s W|||, s|e |ad exp|a|red W|y
s|e Was cu|||rg ou| ||e grardc|||d.3or Wro|e ||e W||| ard pu| |arguage |o |e|p prever| oe|rg overru|ed
o lad ro||ve, oppor|ur||y, a corl|der||a| re|a||ors||p
o No| sure aoou| suscep||o||||y, correc||or, urusua| d|spos|||or
No| eroug|, s|e Was |r s|rorg rer|a| ard p|ys|ca| cord|||or. 3|r|c|er TX ru|e.
lave |o prove ||a| |e delea|ed ||e vo||||or ol T ard suos|||u|ed ||s oWr.
Texas |s |oug|.|ave |o prove ||e oas|s or uN0uF lNlluFNCF.
|ay oe good |o |ave a ||g| s|ardard |l you rus| prove sore|||rg e|se |r add|||or |o ||ese lac|ors.
Holdin". w||| s|ards ard W||| oe prooa|ed. Fver ||oug| ||ere Was ev|derce ol ||e s|x lac|ors |r TX aoove, ||ere
Was |o|s ol |es||rory ||a| s|e |reW W|a| s|e Was do|rg ard ||a| s|e purpose|y d|dr'| War| |o |eave ||ose grard||ds
ary|||rg. (|er judgrer| Was ro| suos|||u|ed lor soreore e|se's)
Rule. urdue |rl|uerce |s s|oWr W|er suc| cor|ro| Was exerc|sed over ||e r|rd ol ||e |es|a|or so as |o overcore ||s
lree agercy ard lree W||| ard |o suos|||u|e ||e W||| ol aro||er so as |o cause ||e |es|a|or |o do W|a| |e Wou|d ro| o||erW|se
|ave dore ou| lor suc| cor|ro|.
Ta|e. wou|d ro| |ave pu| ||e exp|ara||or |r ||e W||| ol W|y s|e Was |eav|rg ou| ||e grard||ds. wou|d |ave |ad T
Wr||e |||s |r a separa|e docurer|, ro| |r|egra|ed |r|o ||e W|||, ard |ave T express || |r |er oWr Wordsdor'| |ave
||e a||orrey Wr||e || lor |er, ou| ra|e sure ||a| || rel|ec|s |er oWr Words.
o 0or'| pu| |r ||e W||| o|c ||a|'s a puo||c docurer| ard ||e W|o|e Wor|d W||| |roW. leop|e rore |||e|y |o or|rg a
W||| cor|es| |l ||ey lee| ||ey've oeer |rea|ed urjus||y. 8es| jus| |o docurer| |||s ard |o|d || ur||| ||'s reeded
(|l a| a||).
No-contest clause d|dr'| prever| |||s o|c peop|e ro| ge|||rg ary|||rg Were ||e ores cor|es||rg ||.
In re 8ill of +oses
'upreme *ourt of +ississippiD -3?3
004 'o.0d 103
Facts: T |el| a|ros| a|| |er proper|y |o |er a||y lo||ard (W|o Was |er yourger |over ard lr|erd), ||oug| another
atty Wro|e ||e ac|ua| W|||. w||| a||y Was |rdeperder|, ou| a|| |e d|d Was Wr||e ||e W|||, d|dr'| rea||y g|ve adv|ce.
Holdin": w||| a||y jus| a scr|verer, ro| rea||y |rdeperder| adv|ce! T|ere Was urdue |rl|uerce, der|ed prooa|e.
Rule: A presurp||or ol urdue |rl|uerce ar|ses W|er ar a||orrey W||| W|or ||e |es|a|or |ad a cor||ru|rg
l|duc|ary re|a||ors||p |s a oerel|c|ary urder ||e W|||, W||c| |s ro| recessar||y overcore s|rp|y oecause ||e W|||
Was ac|ua||y draWr up oy ar |rdeperder| a||orrey W||| W|or ||e |es|a|or corsu||ed or ||s or |er oWr.
-issent. T|e d|sser| |s oe||er reasored. T|ere's ro prool ||a| ||e a||y||over ever |reW ||e W||| ex|s|ed! 3|e
Was corpe|er|, ac|ed ol |er oWr lree W||| ard accord, ard d|sposed ol |er proper|y |oW s|e War|ed - ard ||a|
Jsuspicious circumstancesK are not enou"h.
lage 90 ol 190
o Ta|e. |a|e o|as. T|e op|r|or says `pa||e||c |ope ||a| |e Wou|d rarry |er.' Case ray |ave oeer
d|llerer| |l Worar Was yourger ard ||e rar Was o|der!
o Texas. lr TX, |||s W||| Wou|d s|||| oe prooa|ed, Wou|d prooao|y l|rd ||a| ||e a||y d|d ro| suos|||u|e ||s
op|r|or lor ||e op|r|or ol |er. TX, urder 7ipper ard roW, Wou|d ro| |ave lourd urdue |rl|uerce.
o No cor|es| c|ause |s ellec||ve |r Texas |l ||ere |s ro| prooao|e cause |o or|rg su||.
Jores v. KroWr- Tes|a|or |el| |er es|a|e |o a para|ega| ||a| Wor|ed |r ||e |aWyer's oll|ce. T|e W||| |s cor|es|ed oy ||e
|es|a|or's s|s|er. T|e oeques| |s vo|d oecause || v|o|a|es a Texas 3|a|u|e. l| does ro| ra||er |l you are ar |rdeperder|
cor|rac|or, you are s|||| erp|oyed oy ||e a||orrey. 0|ve erp|oyee ||s p|a|r rear|rg. 3|e go| pa|d Wages. T|e |r|a| cour|
ru|es lor ||e para|ega|. Appe||a|e cour| reverses.
lage 91 ol 190
3. lraud
0e| T |o do sore|||rg ||a| Wou|dr'| o||erW|se do|c|arge T's |r|er||ors.
)ndue Influence (s. Fraud:
lraud |rvo|ves a r|srepreser|a||or|decep||or or par| ol ||e persor corr||||rg ||, s|r||ar |o ul.
0oesr'| |ave |o |rvo|ve pressure (|||e ul).
Four elements:
1. Beha(ior (lraudu|er| ac||ac|us rea)
2. +ens rea (W||| |r|er| |o delraud)|l ar |rrocer| r|srepreser|a||or (r|s|a|er ||a| X |s dead) W||| ro |r|er| |o
delraud T, ro lraud. 8u| |l r|srepreser| W||| |r|er||or |o dece|ve ard delraud, ||er lraud.
3. /ffect on the TO reliance (T does sore|||rg oased or ||e ||e)
4. But-for causation: las |o resu|| |r a d|llerer| d|spos|||or ||ar W|a| T Wou|d |ave o||erW|se dore.
T;o =inds of Fraud:
1. Fraud in the Inducement: (C|arge ||e ra|ure ol ||e g|l|s) lersuade T |r|o do|rg sore|||rg W||| ||e|r es|a|e
||a| ||ey Wou|dr'| o||erW|se do. T|War||rg T's |r|er||ors. Fxarp|es.
a. |a|e T ro| ra|e a W|||
o. |a|e T ro| revo|e W|||
2. Fraud in the /xecution>Factum: (||srepreser||rg ||e W|||'s cor|er|s or ra|ure ol ||e docurer| as a W|||.)
T|War| soreore's |r|er||or oy ra||rg ||er do sore|||rg ||ey dor'| |roW ||a| ||ey're do|rg. T||r| ||a| T |s
|eav|rg every|||rg |o X, ou| ac|ua||y g|v|rg |o . C|arg|rg T's |r|er||ors.
Fraud can result inH.
A spec|l|c prov|s|or ol ||e W||| oe|rg Wr|||er |r a spec|l|c Way
T|e revoca||or or rod|l|ca||or ol ar ex|s||rg W|||
T|e la||ure |o ra|e a W||| a| a||.
ll allec|s par| ol ||e W|||, ||er jus| s|r||e ||a| par| (W||| go |o res|dua| oerel|c|ary or ||e |e|rs). 8u| |l er||re sc|ere so
|a|r|ed oy lraud, ||er er||re W||| s|ruc| doWr|revo|ed ard es|a|e W||| pass ||roug| |r|es|acy. 0b
le|rs are er||||ed |o a cors|ruc||ve |rus| over so ruc| ol ||e asse|s as exceed W|a| w's |r|es|a|e s|are Wou|d |ave
Puc!ett (. =rida
-335 Tenn. App. "exis .@0 2-3356
worar W||| A|z|e|rer's. Nurses corv|rce |er ||a| |er lar||y |s |a||rg |er rorey ard War| |o pu| |er |r rurs|rg |ore.
Ne|||er |s |rue. A|z|e|rer's |ady execu|es W||| ard deed |o rurses. lraud |r ||e |rducerer|. Tr|c|ed |er as |o W|o s|e
War|ed ||e proper|y |o go |o.
Texas law
lraud does ro| reed pressure |o cors|||u|e |rl|uerce
Texas a||oWs pur|||ve darages |l lraud |s proved
Problems p. -11-13:
-. #usband as!s 8ife for his ;ill b>c he ;ants to re(o!e it. 8ife sets en(elope on fire pretendin$ it
contains the ;ill. 8ill not actually re(o!ed. 8 probates the ;ill after #&s deathD under ;hich 8 $ets the
entire estate. 8hat result<
She misrepresented that she revo6ed his will and that the envelope contained the will. She induced him not to
do somethin". /98SS8/3. 3ot doin" somethin" that the T would otherwise do. (Tate says this is #raud in the
lage 92 ol 190
0. Tom&s first ;ill de(ised e(erythin$ to ay. 'econd ;ill de(ised e(erythin$ to *hris. /(idence that * told
T in the hospital that had diedD !no;in$ that ;as still ali(e. 'o T chan$ed ;ill $i(in$ e(erythin$ to *.
8hat result<
There=s #raud there. ;as there the mens rea re2uirementB ?es, 5Lc ! 6new C was alive when she told T that.
4. 0uress
T|rea|er|rg W||| sore|||rg. lrvo|ves force or threats |o ge| soreore |o c|arge ||s or |er |r|er||or W||| regard |o ||e|r
3pec|es ol urdue |rl|uerce,
0el|red as `lorce or ||rea|s.' (uN0uF lNlluFNCF does ro| recessar||y |rvo|ve s|ress or ||rea|s.)
A dora||ve |rarsler ||a| |s ||e produc| ol ||rea|s |o perlorr or ||e perlorrarce ol a Wrorglu| ac| ||a| coerced ||e doror
|r|o ra||rg a dora||ve |rarsler ||a| Wou|d ro| |ave o||erW|se oeer rade.
bevo|e ||e W|||
bevo|e ||e allec|ed por||or
use ol a cors|ruc||ve |rus|.
ll ||e duress resu||ed |r ||e la||ure |o ra|e a W|||, ||er a cors|ruc||ve |rus| car oe crea|ed oy a cour| |o prever|
urjus| err|c|rer|.
Texas A cors|ruc||ve |rus| car oe used |o prever| urjus| err|c|rer| W|er a persor s|ards |o |r|er|| oecause
ol a Wrorglu| ac|. T|e persor does ro| |ave |o oe ||e perpe|ra|or ol ||e Wrorglu| ac|, jus| |as |o oerel|| lror
||e ac|.
"atham (s. Father 9i(ine
*ourt of Appeals of Ne; :or!D -353
033 N.:. 00D 1. N./.0d -?1
Facts: re|a||ves ol T cor|es|ed W||| o|c s|e |el| W|o|e es|a|e |o la||er 0|v|re (cu|| |eader) ard ||s lo||oWers. C|a|red
duress cors|s|ed ol la|se r|srepreser|a||or, p|ys|ca| lorce, rurder! 8|c ol ||ese |||rgs s|e a||eged|y d|d ro|
execu|e a suosequer| W|||, ever ||oug| s|e |ad rade s|a|erer|s ||a| s|e War|ed |o. ls Were cous|rs, ro| rex| ol
||r or |e|rs, so Wou|d ro| |a|e urder |r|es|acy.
Case |s aoou| ||e rered|esW|a| |o do W|er soreore |r|erlered W||| ar urexecu|ed W|||?
l|rs| W||| |el| proper|y |o Wrorgdoers. 3ecord ore (ro| execu|ed) |eaves proper|y |o ||e ls.
lo|d|rg. ba||er ||ar g|ve proper|y |o ||e |e|rs (W|a| rorra||y |appers |l W||| |rva||da|ed), gave |o oerel|c|ar|es
urder urexecu|ed W|||. 8e||eves ||a| |ad || ro| oeer lor ||e duress (ou|-lor), ls Wou|d |ave go||er ||. wou|d |ave
oeer urjus| err|c|rer| lor Wrorgdoers |o ge| ||.
lroo|er. No| sure ||a| |||s W||| Wou|d |ave oeer execu|ed. 0 r|g|| |ave c|arged |er r|rd.
Tr|ed |o draW s|r||ar|||es |o lopov case |r proper|y.
Holdin": Cr| |rposed a cors|ruc||ve |rus| |r equ||y lor n's o|c cr| carro| go as lar as cors|rue a W||| or prooa|e a W|||
||a| |as ro| ever oeer execu|ed.
Rule: w|ere a |es|a|or |s prever|ed lorr execu||rg a reW W||| |r lavor ol ar |r|erded oerel|c|ary oy ||e lraud,
duress, or urdue |rl|uerce ol a preser| oerel|c|ary or |e|r, ||e proper|y |r|erded |o go |o ||e reW oerel|c|ary W|||
pass |o ||e preser| oerel|c|ary suojec| |o a cors|ruc||ve |rus| |r lavor ol ||e |r|erded oerel|c|ary.
*onstructi(e trusts: Fqu||ao|e reredy. Avo|ds v|o|a||rg ||e W|||s ac| ard |s ||e la|res| op||or ol|er||res. l|
prever|s urjus| err|c|rer| W|er peop|e corr|| Wrorglu| ac|s. locus |s or ||e peop|e W|o s|ard |o |r|er|| rore
||ar or ||e Wrorglu| ac| ||se|l.
Pope (. Earrett
lage 93 ol 190
0-- '.8.0d ..3 2Tex. -3516
Carr|e 3|rror's expec|ar| |e|rs |ep| |er lror execu||rg a reW W||| |r lavor ol |er lr|erd oy p|ys|ca| lorce ard
crea||rg a d|s|uroarce.
T|e cour| es|ao||s|ed a cors|ruc||ve |rus| |r lavor ol ||e lr|erd. No| or|y Was || aga|rs| ||e |e|rs W|o |ad
par||c|pa|ed, ou| a|so aga|rs| ||e |rrocer| |e|rs. T|e cour| lourd ||a| || Wou|d oe urjus| err|c|rer| lor ary |e|r |o
rece|ve proper|y ||a| ||ey Wou|d ro| |ave rece|ved W|||ou| ||e duress.
5. Tor||ous lr|erlererce W||| Fxpec|arcy
A |or| cause ol ac||or (ro| a W||| cor|es|) lor ||e |r|erlererce W||| ar expec|ed |r|er||arce or g|l|.
Test for tortious interference, ? must Pro(e:
1. ex|s|erce ol ar expec|arcy
2. reasorao|e cer|a|r|y ||a| ||e expec|arcy Wou|d |ave oeer rea||zed ou| lor ||e |r|erlererce
3. |r|er||ora| |r|erlererce W||| ||a| expec|arcy
4. |or||ous corduc| |rvo|ved W||| ||e |r|erlererce AN0
5. darages
+arshall (. +arshall
04. B.%. . 2*.9. *al. 0@@06
Facts: Arra N|co|e 3r|||, 24, rarr|ed |ars|a||, 84, app||ed TX |aW ever ||oug| || Was |r CA d|s|. cr|, a||eged
sor |r|erlered W| li#etime g|l|s ||a| | Wou|d |ave rade |o AN3 (|rs|ead ol |r|erlererce W| ar |r|er||arce c|a|r)
Holdin": Cour| sa|d ||a| |r|erlererce W||| a ||le||re g|l| |s oas|ca||y ||e sare as |r|erlererce W||| a W||| - |||r|s
TX 3C Wou|d |ave |e|d ||a| Way.
o 8u|, Ta|e says |r|erlererce W||| ||le||re g|l| |s |ess egreg|ous - car rego||a|e s|rce persor |s s|||| a||ve!
lr|erlererce car oe po|r|ed ou|. 8u|, |l doror d|es oelore |r|erlererce |s d|scovered (as |r |||s case) -
so |||s |s |ard |o d|s||rgu|s|! TX3C Wou|d |ave |e|d |r lavor ol AN3 prooao|y.
o 9
C|r. reversed lor jur|sd|c||or reasors ard u3 3C W||| |ear ||e case roW
T||s |s ro| a W||| cor|es| s|rce || |s aoou| |r|erler|rg W||| a ||le||re g|l|.
Texas - |as recogr|zed |or|uous |r|erlererce W||| expec|arcy as || re|a|es |o |r|er||arce. |oWever, || |s urc|ear
W|e||er cour|s Wou|d recogr|ze suc| a cause ol ac||or lor |r|er v|vos g|l|s..
F. Problems of Interpretation
1. ||s|a|er or Aro|guous larguage |r w|||s
2. lassage ol T|re & C|arged C|rcurs|arces
0ea|| ol 8erel|c|ar|es
|. lapse & Ar|||apse
||. C|ass 0|l|s
o. C|arges |r lroper|y. Aderp||or & Aoa|erer|
1. ||s|a|er or Aro|guous larguage
#o; 9o :ou 9eal ;ith /xtrinsic /(idence<
Ar|ses |r 2 cor|ex|s.
o w||| |s ambi$uous. Car corsu|| ex|r|rs|c ev|derce.
o w||| |s uraro|guous, ou| ||e persor W|o dral|ed ||e W||| rade a mista!e, so |ard |o de|err|re W|a| T
ac|ua||y War|ed. (Trerd |oWard a||oW|rg sore relorra||or W|er c|ear|y r|s|a|e.)
Trad|||ora| ru|e (TX lo||oWs). Plain +eanin$ %ule>No /xtrinsic /(idence %ule
ll W||| |s c|ear|uraro|guous, car'| |r|roduce ex|r|rs|c ev|derce.
l|a|r rear|rg ol ||e W||| carro| oe d|s|uroed |l ro aro|gu|||es.
lage 94 ol 190
Case. |a|orey
No %eformation %ule: ll ||e W||| |s c|ear, c| W||| ro| relorr |o exp|a|r T's |r|er|.
belorra||or |s ar equ||ao|e reredy ||a|, |l app||ed |o a W|||, Wou|d correc| a r|s|a|er |err
|r ||e W||| |o rel|ec| W|a| a |es|a|or |r|erded.
T|e cour| s|ou|d ro| ergage |r relorra||or ol a W||| (|.e., |oo||rg oeyord ||e docurer|'s
Words |o see W|a| T rear|). ||e cour| |s corpe||ed |o |r|erpre| ||e Words ||a| ||e |es|a|or
ac|ua||y used, ro| |o |r|erpre| ||e Words ||e |es|a|or |s purpor|ed |o |ave |r|erded.
beasor lor ru|e.
o we dor'| War| judges |o |ry ard l|gure ou| W|a| ||ey rear|.
o T||s Wou|d oog doWr sys|er, oper l|oodga|es |o a|| sor|s ol W||| c|a||erges.
o 0or'| War| |o d|sregard Words ol W||| o|c ||a| cou|d suos|||u|e ||v|rg peop|e's v|eWs
lor ||e T's v|eW.
/Fui(ocation: T|ere are 2 peop|e W|o ree| ||e descr|p||or |r ||e W|||, e.g., |Wo cous|rs rared |ary, `|o ||e
|osp||a| |r 0a||as.' Car adr|| sore ev|derce |o s|oW W|o |a|es |||s proper|y.
o Plain-+eanin$ %ule a| odds W||| ru|es regard|rg corpe|er| vo||||or. w|er Cv |ssue, |ave ro proo|er
d|sregard|rg |arguage ol W||| ard |||r||rg aoou| W|a| T ac|ua||y |r|erded. A|so, rurs cour|er |o doc|r|re ol
0bb o|c |a|e |r|o accour|. Ard W||| revoca||or oy opera||or ol |aW, ard W||| pa|er| aro|gu|||es
o Trerd ol ||e |aW |s go|rg |oWard or|rg|rg |r ex|r|rs|c ev|derce.
Cpenly %eformin$ 8ills for +ista!e: Fr|c|sor, l|er|rg
7ac6 o# Molition
9ista6en Terms
8ntentional ;ron"doin"
)ndue InfluenceD 9uress
(re||el grar|ed)
(re||el grar|ed)
8nnocent Acts
"ac! of *apacityD Insane 9elusions
(re||el grar|ed)
(ro re||el)
o Personal usage exception - |l T relers |o soreore oy a r|c|rare, ||er ||a| persor ge|s ||e g|l|.
o 'crivener+s Errors8 ll a scr|verer's error |as r|s|ed T |r|o execu||rg a W||| or ||e oe||el ||a| || W||| oe va||d
ro|W|||s|ard|rg T's suosequer| rarr|age, ex|r|rs|c ev|derce ol ||a| error |s adr|ss|o|e |o es|ao||s| ||e |r|er| ol ||e
|es|a|or ||a| ||s or |er W||| oe va||d ro|W|||s|ard|rg ||e suosequer| rarr|age
3|ou|d oe ao|e reou| presurp||or ol ro relorra||or |l r|s|a|e oy scr|verer or 3
||s|a|e ol |aW |s ||e scr|verer's lau|| ard ro| T's r|s|a|e
o 3ore||res `a|| persora| proper|y' |as oeer |a|er |o rear rea| ard persora| proper|y.
o Patent a#biguities - aro|gu||y appears or lace ol W||| - sore jur|sd|c||ors a||oW ex|r|rs|c ev|derce
3ote. Fv|derce ol c|rcurs|arces (|||e W|ere T Wer| |o co||ege) are rore persuas|ve ||er s|a|erer|s s|rce
||ose car oe eas||y laor|ca|ed.
Ns |o oerel|c|ar|es do ro| add up W||| reed FF
o Latent a#biguities - aro|gu||y ro| or lace ou| rar|les|s ||se|l W|er |errs are app||ed - ora| dec|ara||ors ol |r|er|
are ol|er adr|||ed as ex|r|rs|c ev|derce.
Fx. rared Wrorg persor |r W||| o|c screWed up r|dd|e |r|||a|
||ror||y ol jur|sd|c||ors or|y |e| FF c|ar|ly |a|er| aro|gu|||es. la|er| ores cause ||e dev|se |o la||.
lage 95 ol 190
o #:PC: 9e(ise to )ni(ersity of Texas !no;n as T*). +i$ht thin! they&re the same thin$. #o; do
you resol(e this ambi$uity< "oo! to extrinsic e(idence. 8hat !ind of e(idence ;ould be
lres ol TCu cou|d c|a|r ||a| T |o|d ||r ||a| |e Was go|rg |o |eave ||s proper|y |o TCu. 8u| r|g||
appear ||a| T War|ed || |o go |o uT. loW |o reso|ve?
ll ar urcorrooora|ed ora| s|a|erer|, g|ver |ess We|g|| ||ar c|rcurs|arces. Fasy lor soreore |o
c|a|r ||a| T sa|d sore|||rg. 8u| |l corrooora|ed oy cred|o|e W||resses or |l ||ere Was a docurer| |r
W||c| T sa|d ||a| |e |r|erded |o ra|e a g|l| |o TCu, r|g|| |ave rore We|g|| ||ar jus| ||e lac| ||a|
|e War|ed || |o go |o uT.
Texas law on #ista%es and a#biguities
lr Texas, pa|er| ard |a|er| d|s||rc||or |s d|sregarded. Carro| relorr a W||| oecause ol ||e p|a|r rear|rg
Fx|r|rs|c ev|derce |s ro| a||oWed |r |l W||| |s uraro|guous
FF a||oWed |o s|oW T |ac|ed |es|arer|ary |r|er|. ll ro |es|arer|ary |r|er| - N0 va||d W|||.
#alsa demonstratio non nocet app||ed |r Texas - see Arnheiter case oe|oW
@alsa de#onstratio non nocet7JFrroreous descr|p||or does ro| |rjure'
Arnheiter (. Arnheiter
'uperior *ourt of Ne; erseyD *hancery 9i(isionD -3.?
50 N.. 'uper. 4-D -0. A.0d 3-5
App||es ru|e aga|rs| relorra||or. w|er a persor or proper|y |s g|ver a par||cu|ar descr|p||or, cour| W||| s|r||e ||e la|se
descr|p||or ard |oo| |o ex|r|rs|c ev|derce |o es|ao||s| W|a| ||e |||rg or persor ac|ua||y |s. T|ree-s|ep process.
o loo| |o FF |o es|ao||s| ||a| ||ere's a la|se descr|p||or
o T|er s|r||e la|se descr|p||or
o 0o oac| |o ex|r|rs|c ev|derce |o l|rd ou| W|a| ||e |||rg|persor |s.
w||| relers |o 304 larr|sor Averue, ou| T ac|ua||y oWred 317 larr|sor Ave.
w|y cour| carro| jus| c|arge ||e address. 8ecause urder l|b, carro| jus| re-Wr||e sore|||rg |r ||e W|||. Cour|
|as |r|c|s up ||e|r s|eeve. JFalse description does no harm.K Ta|e ou| ||e r|s|a|e ('304', ||e erroreous
descr|p||or) ard say ||a| |l ||ey car de|err|re W|a| |s rear| oy Ju3T `larr|sor Ave,' ||er o| o|c car |oo| |o
ex|r|rs|c ev|derce |o l|rd ou| W|a| Was rear| oy `larr|sor Ave.'
C| s|ruc| 304, ||er Wer| oac| |o FF |o de|err|re W|a| proper|y or larr|sor Averue ||a| T oWred.
TX lo||oWs |||s pr|rc|p|e
+ahoney (. Erain$er
'upreme udicial *ourt of +assachusettsD -3,,
01, +ass. -13D -1? N./. 1?
Facts: lr |er W|||, T sa|d `|e|rs a| |aW' |err W||c| rear| |er aur|s, ra||er ||ar a|| |er 25 l|rs| cous|rs.
Holdin": Cous|rs d|d ro| |a|e ard ||e cr| ru|ed |r lavor ol ||e aur|. (|ass. |s urusua| - cour|s re|a||ves |r
degrees. Aur|s are |r 3
degree, cous|rs are 4
degree.) No relorra||or ru|e app||ed.
o 3|ra|g|| app||ca||or ol p|a|r rear|rg! Cour| |as |o prooa|e W||| as Wr|||er.
o Ta|e. Aur| |s urjus||y err|c|ed |ere |r a Way, |||r|s ||ere |s a good case lor relorra||or |ere. le|rs a|
|aW |s uraro|guous |r |aW, ou| || ray ro| oe c|ear |o ord|rary peop|e ||oug| - so || |s sor| ol aro|guous.
urder cr|'s reasor|rg, || doesr'| ra||er W|a| ros| peop|e |||r| - |||s |s a |ega| |err W||| a c|ear |ega|
o Texas. lr Texas, ||e cous|rs Wou|d |a|e oy represer|a||or oy ||e aur|.
Rule: A W||| du|y execu|ed ard a||oWed oy ||e cour| rus|, urder ||e a||u|e ol W|||s, oe accep|ed as ||e l|ra|
express|or ol ||e |r|er| ol ||e persor execu||rg ||.
lage 9" ol 190
Cour| degrees |o de|err|re W|o ||e |e|rs are. lersor |r ||e c|oses| degree |a|es |o ||e exc|us|or ol ||ose |r rore
d|s|ar| degrees.
l||e v. C|aroers (o|der case). 0|llerer| corc|us|or. T oWred ||ves|oc| |r corror W||er sor, sa|d |r W||| ||a| s|e
War|ed sor |o |ave |er |r|eres| |r ||e ||ves|oc| ard a ||le es|a|e |r a|| ol |er persora| proper|y. C| corc|uded ||a|
s|e rus| |ave rear| oy `persora| proper|y' a|| |||rgs ||a| s|e oWred ou|r|g|| a|ore.
Texas |as go||er r|d ol ||e pa|er|||a|er| d|s||rc||or.
la|er| aro|gu|||es- carro| adr|| ex|r|rs|c ev|derce
la|er| aro|gu|||es- car adr|| ex|r|rs|c ev|derce
Falsa 9emonstratio non nocet-
loo| |o ex|r|rs|c ev|derce or r|s|a|e. Ta|e ou| ||e r|s|a|e. NoW go oac| |o ||e ex|r|rs|c ev|derce |o l|rd ou| W|a| ||e
|es|a|or Was ac|ua||y |a|||rg aoou|. ou Wr||e 3ara| Jare lar|er, ou| you rear 3ara| Jess|ca lar|er. 3|r||e ou| Jare
ard l|gure ou| W|o 3ara| lar|er |s W||| ex|r|rs|c ev|derce.

'an Antonio Foundation (. "an$
,. '.8.,d ?,? 2Tex. 0@@@6
Holdin": Texas cour| |e|d ||a| ||e |err `rea| es|a|e' |s uraro|guous ard ex|r|rs|c ev|derce carro| oe adr|||ed
|o s|oW ||a| persora| proper|y Was supposed |o oe |rc|uded. 0|s||rc||or ra||ers |r jur|sd|c||or ||a| a||oW FF.
lage 9# ol 190
/ric!son ( /ric!son
'upreme *ourt of *onnecticutD -331
05? *onn. ,.3D 4-? A.0d 30
Facts: Coup|e rade sWee||ear| W|||s 2 days oelore ||ey go| rarr|ed, |eav|rg every|||rg |o eac| o||er. A||y
screWed up ard s|ou|d |ave rade W||| say || s|||| |s |r ellec| ever al|er ||ey ac|ua||y ge| rarr|ed. lr |||s jur|s, a
suosequer| rarr|age over|urrs a W|||. (ro| |rue |r TX) T Wou|dr'| |ave rade a W||| ||a| |as|s jus| 2 days.
Holdin": FF perr|||ed. Cour| relorrs W|||.
%ule: ll a scr|verer's error |as r|s|ed ||e T |r|o execu||rg a W||| or oe||el ||a| || W||| oe va||d ro|W|||s|ard|rg ||e
T's suosequer| rarr|age, FF ol ||a| error |s adr|ss|o|e |o es|ao||s| ||e |r|er| ol ||e T ||a| W||| oe va||d
ro|W|||s|ard|rg ||e suosequer| rarr|age.
o lo||cy reasors. (1) ro d|llererce oe|Weer lraud ard a scr|verer's r|s|a|e - oo|| |ave ar ou|s|de par|y
||a| resses up T's |r|er|, (2) r|s| ol delea||rg |r|er| |l you reluse |o |oo| oeyord ||e W|||, (3)
presurp||or |s reou||ao|e, (4) | |aW s|oWs ||a| r|s| ol grourd|ess W||| cor|es|s |s ro| grea|, (5) Ts |ave
ro| re||ed upor pr|or |aW.
o Texas. suosequer| rarr|age does ro| over|urr a W||| er||re|y, jus| revo|es W||| |o ex|er| ||a| ||e surv|v|rg
spouse Wou|d ge| urder |r|es|acy. Car overcore |||s presurp||or ||oug|.
|os| jur|sd|c||ors.
o 1. ll W|le a|ready go| |r|es|a|e s|are |r ||e W|||, ||er o|.
o 2. ll ra|es sore d|spos|||or lor ||e surv|v|rg spouse, ard ||a| ||e T |r|erded lor ||a| spouse |o ge| ||a|
proper|y, ||er ||a|'s W|a| ||e spouse ge|s.
bulF. w|e||er a W||| prov|des lor ||e cor||rgercy ol a suosequer| rarr|age rus| oe de|err|red.
1. lror ||e |arguage ol ||e W||| ||se|l
2. W|o resor| |o ex|r|rs|c ev|derce ol T's |r|er|
o lr !onn. Cunior Repu5lic v. Sharon Hospital (!/33. S$%R191 !/$RT !AS1, |e|d ||a| ex|r|rs|c
ev|derce ol a r|s|a|e Was ro| adr|ss|o|e |r a proceed|rg |o de|err|re ||e va||d||y ol ||e W|||. 8uT, |||s
cour| overru|es ||ere oWr |o|d|rg ard says ||a| if an atty&s error misled the T into executin$ a ;ill on
the Belief that it ;ill be (alid after his marria$eD then extrinsic e(idence of that error is admissible to
sho; T&s intent. 3|ardard. CCF.
0|sser|'s reasor|rg |r !t. Cun. Rep., ara|og|zes lraud, duress, ard ul. 3 reasors.
1. No d|scerr|o|e po||cy d|llererce oe|Weer a W||| execu|ed oy T ||roug| lraud, duress, ard
ul as ore rade |r re||arce or erroreous oe||el |rduced oy |rrocer| error|r|srep oy T's
a||orrey. l|us, ex|r|rs|c ev|d. ls ||e sare. |||rd persor d|s|or|ed ||e W||| process oy
r|s|ead|rg ||e T |r|o execu||rg a W||| ||a| |e Wou|d ro| |ave o||erW|se execu|ed.
2. b|s| ol o||rd|y erlorc|rg a |es|arer|ary d|spos|||or ||a| suos|ar||a||y r|ss|a|es T's |rue
3. A|||oug| s|gr|rg a W||| crea|es a s|rorg presurp||or ||a| ||e W||| accura|e|y represer|s
T's |r|er|, || |s reou||ao|e ||roug| ex|r|rs|c ev|d. l|us, s||ppery s|ope|parade ol
|orrors|l|oodga|es argurer| reou||ed oy say|rg ||a| ||e paro| ev|derce ru|e |r K |aW |asr'|
oeer urrarageao|e ard |||s ru|e W||| requ|re ||e sare e|eva|ed 80l.
ll. 3|ou|dr'| ||War| T's |r|er| jus| o|c a||orrey rade a r|s|a|e.
o C|ass. Cour| dec|ded |o ru|e ||a| you car correc| a scr|verer's error |l ev|d ||a| ||e a||y rade a r|s|a|e.
0llered severa| reasors lor |||s, Ta|e |||r|s a|| r|s|a|es s|ou|d oe correc|ed, ro| jus| scr|verer's errors, ou|
||a|'s ro| W|a| |||s cour| dec|ded.
TX doesr'| correc| scr|verer's errors ur|ess aro|guous or ur|ess doc|r|re ol la|so derors|ra||or
Car |||s app|y |o o||er ||rds ol r|s|a|es? (l||e soreore |o|d you your oro||er Was dead.) Ta|e says ||a| ||e l|oodga|es
argurer| r|g|| oe d|llerer|, ra|prac||ce prer|urs W||| go doWr |r Corr.
lage 9$ ol 190
lage 99 ol 190
Flemin$ (. +orrison78/ *AN '/T A'I9/ AN /NTI%/ 8I"" BA'/9 CN /AT%IN'I* /II9/N*/ B)T NCT *C%%/*T CN /AT%IN'I* /II9/N*/
40 N./. 533 2+ass. -3@56
Facts: 0uy War|ed |o s|eep W||| |||s Worar. le |ad ||s |aWyer dral| a la|e W||| ard |el| es|a|e |o |er. To|d a||y
|| Was la|e (ure|||ca| ac||or oy a||y). A||y cou|d |ave |orr W||| up or |r|ed |o re|r|eve ||.
Holdin": `w|||' ro| prooa|ed o|c (1) T |ac|ed ||e 3 recessary W||resses |o T's |es|arer|ary |r|er|, (2) A||y's
|es||rory a||oWed |r |o s|oW || Was a s|ar, ard (3) T |ac|ed |es|arer|ary |r|er|.
o Texas. bu|e |r Texas, |||e |ass., |s ||a| FF car oe ollered |o s|oW T |ac|ed |es|arer|ary |r|er|. Car
s|oW W||| Was a s|ar.
o Ta|e. lady car'| sue a||y lor lraud s|rce |||s Was ro| lraud or ||e T, || Was lraud aga|rs| a oerel|c|ary.
A||y s|ou|d oe es|opped oy g|v|rg |es||rory s|rce cour| |s ellec||ve|y a||oW|rg ||r |o perpe|ua|e ||e
lraud. 8u|, |es||ly|rg |r cour| |s ro| ar ac|.
belorra||or |s rore dargerous ||ar |rva||da||or. T||s |s ||e |aW |r TX.
3||e|ds v. 3||e|ds (1937). T rade a W||| jus| so ||a| |e'd oe |rduc|ed |r a secre| soc|e|y.
luo||c lo||cy aga|rs| exc|arg|rg rorey lor sex.
A||y s|ou|d |ave corl|sca|ed ||e W||| W|er |e |earred ol ||e lraud.
ClA33. Cour| |oo|ed |o ex|r|rs|c ev|derce |o s|oW ||a| ||e W||| |ac|ed |es|arer|ary |r|er|.
o TX cour| Wou|d |ave dore ||e sare, car |oo| |o ex|r|rs|c ev|derce |o correc| a r|s|a|e. |ore roor lor
cour|s |o oe crea||ve |l you're |e|||rg ||er ra|e sra|| c|arges as opposed |o ||roW|rg ou| ||e W|||.
/state of Eibbs
--- N.8.0d 5-, 28is. -3?-6
lssue. w||| gave proper|y |o a lr|erd, ou| ||e W||| s|a|ed booer| J. Krause. T|e lr|erd Was supposed |o oe ||s|ed as
booer| w. Krause a| a d|llerer| address.
lo|d|rg. le| |ave ||e rea| lr|erd |ave ||.
loW car cour|s do |||s? T|e W||| Was uraro|guous. lsr'| ||e c| re-Wr|||rg ||e W||| |o l|| W|a| ||ey |||r| T War|ed.
beasor|rg. lorra||sr |r ac||or. 0or'| War| || |o appear oov|ous ||a| ||ey are v|o|a||rg ||e l|b.
becogr|zed |r TX ard app||ed |r W|||-cors|ruc||or cases. w||| |el| $1,000 |o 3ara|, ||e c|||d ol ry cous|r Ju||a.
Ac|ua||y, Ju||a |ad ro daug||er, ou| a sor, 3arue|. Car s|r||e `3ara|' ard ||er go |o FF |o see ||a| ||'s ac|ua||y
Holdin": cour| correc|ed r|s|a|e, desp||e all|rr|rg ||e ru|e aga|rs| relorra||or ol a W||| (cor|rad|c||or)
lage 100 ol 190
2. lassage ol T|re & C|arged C|rcurs|arces lroo|ers W|||
a. 0ea|| ol 8erel|c|ar|es
|. lapse & Ar|||apse Caseooo|. 387-93, Fx.12 (Tl8C o8)
Texas Probate *ode B ?1. Prior 9eath of "e$atee
(a) ll a dev|see W|o |s a descerdar| ol ||e |es|a|or or a descerdar| ol a |es|a|or's parer| |s deceased a| ||e ||re ol ||e execu||or ol ||e W|||, la||s
|o surv|ve ||e |es|a|or, or |s |rea|ed as |l ||e dev|see predeceased ||e |es|a|or oy 47 ol |||s code or o||erW|se, ||e descerdar|s ol ||e
dev|see W|o surv|ved ||e |es|a|or oy 120 |ours |a|e ||e dev|sed proper|y |r p|ace ol ||e dev|see. T|e proper|y s|a|| oe d|v|ded |r|o as rary
s|ares as ||ere are surv|v|rg descerdar|s |r ||e reares| degree ol ||rs||p |o ||e dev|see ard deceased persors |r ||e sare degree W|ose
descerdar|s surv|ved ||e |es|a|or. Fac| surv|v|rg descerdar| |r ||e reares| degree rece|ves ore s|are, ard ||e s|are ol eac| deceased
persor |r ||e sare degree |s d|v|ded arorg ||s descerdar|s oy represer|a||or. lor purposes ol |||s sec||or, a persor W|o Wou|d |ave oeer
a dev|see urder a c|ass g|l| |l ||e persor |ad surv|ved ||e |es|a|or |s |rea|ed as a dev|see ur|ess ||e persor d|ed oelore ||e da|e ||e W||| Was
(o) Fxcep| as prov|ded oy 3uosec||or (a) ol |||s sec||or, |l a dev|se or oeques|, o||er ||ar a res|duary dev|se or oeques|, la||s lor ary reasor,
||e dev|se or oeques| oecores a par| ol ||e res|duary es|a|e.
(c) Fxcep| as prov|ded oy 3uosec||or (a) ol |||s sec||or, |l ||e res|duary es|a|e |s dev|sed |o |Wo or rore persors ard ||e s|are ol ore ol ||e
res|duary dev|sees la||s lor ary reasor, ||e res|duary dev|see's s|are passes |o ||e o||er res|duary dev|sees, |r propor||or |o ||e res|duary
dev|see's |r|eres| |r ||e res|duary es|a|e.
(d) Fxcep| as prov|ded oy 3uosec||or (a) ol |||s sec||or, |l a|| res|duary dev|sees are dead a| ||e ||re ol ||e execu||or ol ||e W|||, la|| |o surv|ve
||e |es|a|or, or are |rea|ed as |l ||ey predeceased ||e |es|a|or, ||e res|duary es|a|e passes as |l ||e |es|a|or |ad d|ed |r|es|a|e.
(e) T||s sec||or app||es ur|ess ||e |es|a|or's |as| W||| ard |es|arer| prov|des o||erW|se. lor exarp|e, a dev|se or oeques| |r ||e |es|a|or's W|||
suc| as |o ry surv|v|rg c|||drer or |o suc| ol ry c|||drer as s|a|| surv|ve re prever|s ||e app||ca||or ol 3uosec||or (a) ol |||s sec||or.
)P* B 0-?@.. AntilapseO 9eceased 9e(iseeO *lass Eifts. 2-3?36
ll a dev|see W|o |s a grardparer| or a ||rea| descerder| ol a grardparer| ol ||e |es|a|or |s dead a| ||e ||re ol execu||or ol ||e W|||, la||s |o
surv|ve ||e |es|a|or, or |s |rea|ed as |l |e predeceased ||e |es|a|or, ||e |ssue ol ||e deceased dev|see W|o surv|ve ||e |es|a|or oy 120 |ours |a|e
|r p|ace ol ||e deceased dev|see ard |l ||ey are a|| ol ||e sare degree ol ||rs||p |o ||e dev|see ||ey |a|e equa||y, ou| |l ol urequa| degree ||er
||ose ol rore rero|e degree |a|e oy represer|a||or. 0re W|o Wou|d |ave oeer a dev|see urder a c|ass g|l| |l |e |ad surv|ved ||e |es|a|or |s
|rea|ed as a dev|see lor purposes ol |||s sec||or W|e||er ||s dea|| occurred oelore or al|er ||e execu||or ol ||e W|||.
%uotolo (. TietTen- Tes|a|or |el| ore-|a|l ||e res|due ol ||s es|a|e |o ||s s|epdaug||er W|o d|ed 17 days oelore ||r.
Corr |as ar ar|||apse s|a|u|e. loWer cour| sa|d ar|||apse does ro| app|y oecause ol ||e Words |l s|e surv|ve re.'
Appe||a|e reverses. Ar|||apse s|a|ues W||| app|y ur|ess |es|a|or's |r|er||or |o exc|ude || opera||or |s s|oWr W|||
reasorao|e cer|a|r|y. T|e s|a|u|e Was erac|ed |o prever| |apse. lapse s|ou|d or|y occur W|er ||e |r|er ol lac|
de|err|res ||e |es|a|or War|ed |o d|s|r|er|| ard er||re ||re. Tes|a|or cou|d |ave prov|ded lor a |apse or ar
a||erra||ve dev|se. 3|a|ue |s rered|a| |r ra|ure ard g|ver ||oera| cors|ruc||or. ` T|e par||es d|d ro| ra|se ||e ro-
res|due ol ||e res|due ru|e rev|s||ed. T|e resu|| Wou|d oe ||e sare urder ||e ulC ou| ro| urder Texas. ulC
ar|||apse app||es |o s|ep-c|||drer ou| Texas s|a|ue does ro|. 8e prec|se |r dral||rg your W|||. T|e |es|a|or |ere cou|d
|ave prever|ed ||e proo|er oy prov|d|rg lor ar a||erra||ve dev|se or say|rg |o A, ou| ro| A's |e|rs.
C|ass g|l|- |oo| |o ||e ar|||apse s|a|u|e |o see |l || app||es. T|er, |l ||e ar|||apse s|a|ue does ro| app|y, |oo| |o ||e
c|ass g|l| ru|es.
9a;son (. :ucus- |s. 3|eWar| |el| |er |usoards larr |o |er |Wo rep|eWs lror ||s s|de. 0ere d|ed oelore |er.
Tr|a| cour| adr|||ed ex|r|rs|c ev|derce. Tr|a| ard appe||a|e cour| |e|d |||s Was ro| a c|ass g|l|. 0ere's c|||drer are |r
d|spu|e W||| ||e res|duary ol ||e es|a|e W|o |s ro| par| ol ||e lar||y. Tes|a|or's |usoard |as |Wo o||er rep|eWs ard
a r|ece. Ar|||apse does ro| app|y urder ulC or Texas. Tes|a|or rared ||e rep|eWs ard |rd|v|dua|s ard a||o||ed a
por||or |o eac|.
3|s|er A, 8, ard C. C d|es oelore ||e W|||. A d|es al|er ||e W|||. urder ulC everyore ge|s 1|3. Texas C |s |rea|ed
d|llerer||y. C's c|||drer do ro| |a|e. ler por||or |s d|v|ded arorg As c|||drer ard 8. ll |||s Was ro| a c|ass g|l| ||e
ar|||aspe s|a|ue Wou|d app|y.
lage 101 ol 190
*" "apse
o 0ea|| ol a oerel|c|ary causes ||e dev|se |o la|| ard ||e proper|y Wer| e|||er |o ||e res|duary c|ause or Wer| |r|o
par||a| |r|es|acy.
o A||oW ||e dev|se |o oe g|ver |o ||e deceder|s ol ||e deceased oerel|c|ary
TP* B ?1
o T|e deceased oerel|c|ary rus| oe a decedent of the testator 0b a decedent of his parents (ro| d|rec||y
|o ||s parer|s) lor ||e ar|||apse s|a|u|e |o app|y.
o 0||erW|se, || |apses |r|o ||e res|duary c|ause or |r|o par||a| |r|es|acy.
)P* B 0-?@. 2-3?367APP": T#I' I/%'ICN CF )P*
o T|e deceased oerel|c|ary |s a $randparent or lineal decedent of the $randparent ol ||e |es|a|or ||e
ar|||apse s|a|u|e app||es.
o 0||erW|se, || |apses |r|o ||e res|duary c|ause or |r|o par||a| |r|es|acy.
*lass #ypothetical
Tate lea(es S-@@@ to aunt. %est to his brothers. And %emainder to Parents. Aunt Predeceases Tate. 8hat
This is a "eneral devise. The aunt=s children do not "et the FF.
''T> 7aw,0oes to my 5rothers
''$%!,0oes to my Aunt=s children.
lage 102 ol 190
/nti!lapse statutes
0erera| |apse ru|e. ll oerel|c|ary d|es oelore ||e T, ||er ||e dev|se la||s (`|apses').
o F.g., $1000 |o aur|, res| |o oros.
lasses |o res|duary oerel|c|ary, ard ||er |o |e|rs.
Ar||-|apse. 3|a|es |ave erac|ed anti'lapse statutes ||a|, urder spec|l|ed c|rcurs|arces, suos|||u|e aro||er
oerel|c|ary lor ||e predeceased oerel|c|ary. T|e s|a|u|e W||| prov|de lor aro||er |rd|v|dua| (usua||y |ssue ol ||e
deceased) |o |a|e |rs|ead ol go|rg |o W|orever ||e corror |aW prov|des. Ar||-|apse s|a|u|e doesr'| app|y |l
||e persor |r ||e c|ass d|ed oelore ||e W||| Was lorra||y execu|ed (|rs|ead ol dy|rg jus| oelore ||e T's dea||).
l|'s easy |o ge| arourd ar||-|apse s|a|u|es, oy spec|ly|rg ||a| a oeques| |s |o `surv|v|rg c|||drer' or `suc| c|||drer
||a| surv|ve re' or sore o||er gerera| dev|see.
Four types of default rules ||a| app|y |l W||| does ro| prov|de W|a| |appers W|er oerel|c|ary d|es oelore ||e T.
1. specific or $eneral de(ise - |l spec|l|c or gerera| dev|se la||s, ||er dev|se goes |o res|due
2. residuary de(ise>no-residue of a residue U |l a persor a||o||ed ||e res|duary d|es, ||er ||e |e|rs ol T |a|e
||a| por||or (ro| aro||er persor |r ||e res|duary). lass |o |e|rs, ro| res|duary oerel||s. 0oesr'| app|y |o
c|ass g|l|s, so |l proper|y |el| |o ||ds |r res|duary ard a c|||d d|es oelore T, ||er pass urder Cl ru|e.
Aoroga|ed |r TX, so ro| ol prac||ca| |rpor|arce |ere.
3. class $ift U |l dev|se |s |o c|ass ard ore reroer d|es, ||er rera|r|rg reroers ol ||e c|ass d|v|de ||e g|l|
5. (oid de(ise
a. oerel|c|ary dead a| ||re W||| |s execu|ed
o. dev|see |s dog or ca| or aro||er |re||g|o|e |a|er
c. Cl = dev|se goes |o |e|rs (ro| o||er dev|sees)
d. TX = dev|se goes |o o||er dev|sees (ro| |e|rs)
Texas v4 -PC
Texas. 0ead oerel|c|ary dev|se goes |o descerder| ol parents.
o Fx. lr Texas, |l a guy |eaves $1000 |o ||s oro||er ard |e predeceases T, ||er c|||drer ol oo|| oro||ers
|a|e. 8u| |l oeques| Was |o aur|, |er c|||drer Wou|d oe cous|rs (||us, ro| descerder|s ol parer|s), ||er
||e res|duary Wou|d |a|e |rs|ead ol ||e cous|rs.
o vo|d dev|ses go |o o||er dev|sees ard ro| o||er |e|rs (d|ll ||ar Cl) Tl8C o8(c)
ulC. 0ead oerel|c|ary dev|se goes |o descerder| ol "randparents. (ercorpasses rore peop|e)
beasor|rg |s ||a| you Wou|d War| your es|a|e |o go |o re|a||ves W|o are c|oser |o you!
9hy do these statutes only apply to close relatives of TA 9hy not when any gift lapses; it goes to .+s %idsA
Caseooo| au||ors |||r| ||a| Ar||-|apse s|a|u|e s|ou|d app|y |o a|| oerel|c|ar|es ard ro| jus| ||ose W|o are re|a||ves
ol T.
Fasy |o ge| arourd ||ese s|a|u|es. ll you say, `To ry sor |l |e surv|ves re,' or `|o ry surv|v|rg c|||drer.' T||s
rorra||y prever|s ar||-|apse s|a|u|e lror oe|rg app||ed. 8u| reed |o oe carelu| ard spec|l|c.
lage 103 ol 190
/state of %ussell
'upreme *ourt of *aliforniaD -3?1
555 P.0d ,.,
Facts: |el| es|a|e |o lr|erd ard |er dog (||a| d|ed |r 1958). 0|d ro| |eave ary|||rg |o |er or|y |e|r-a|-|aW, |er
r|ece. 0 (lr|erd ard o||er oerel|c|ary) argued |e Was supposed |o ge| er||re es|a|e ard use || |o |a|e care ol
||e dog.
%roc: l = T's r|ece (or|y |e|r), TC lourd ||a| T rear| |o |eave a|| |o 0
Holdin": beverse TC. 0ev|se |o dog |s vo|d, so || goes |o |er |e|r.
Rule: w|er ar urcer|a|r|y ar|ses upor ||e lace ol a W|||, || carro| a|Ways oe de|err|red W|e||er ||e W||| |s
aro|guous or ro| ur||| ||e c|rcurs|arces surrourd|rg ||e Wr|||rg ol ||e W||| are l|rs| cors|dered.
Ta|e. w||| does ro| say ||e W||| |eaves s|ull |o lr|erd ard s|ull |o dog |||e cour| |rs|rua|es. l| |s aro|guous |o
|er |r|er| - ray |ave War|ed |er lr|erd |o |ave a|| |er proper|y ard |ave ||r jus| |a|e care ol ||e dog.
(Appe||a|e cr| Wer| ou| ol Way |o l|rd ||e o||er Way.)
TX |as aoo||s|ed ||e ro-res|due ol a res|due ru|e.
Cl ru|e re|a||rg |o ||e |apse ol g|l|s rod|l|ed |r ros| s|a|es oy ar||-|apse s|a|u|es ||a| prever| ||e |aps|rg ol g|l|s
W|er ||e oerel|c|ary oears a cer|a|r re|a||ors||p |o ||e |es|a|or.
ClA33. 0ev|se |o dog |apsed o|c dog cou|dr'| |a|e, urder res|duary ol a res|duary ru|e, passed |o ar |e|r.
o Ta|e says eas|er |l c| |ad dec|ded ||a| ||e T War|ed ||e lr|erd |o |a|e a|| proper|y ard |oo| al|er ||e dog.
0|dr'| rea||y War| ||e dog |o oe a |erar| |r corror W|||e lr|erd. 8u| c| d|sregarded ||a| argurer| ard
|rs|ead read W||| |||era||y as |l dog Was a oerel|c|ary.
o +ost statesD includin$ TA ha(e ta!en the anti-lapse statute route. If the B dies before TD but is a
relati(e of TD then instead of passin$ to residuary beneficiaryD passes to the beneficiary&s
Allen (. Talley
Texas *ourt of AppealsD /le(enth 9istrictD -334
353 '.8.0d .3
w||| prov|ded ||a| ||e T gave |o |er `||v|rg oro||ers ard s|s|ers.' T|e |e|rs ol a deceased oro||er c|a|red ||a| ||e
Words Were ro| Words ol surv|vors||p, so ||e r|eces ard rep|eWs Were er||||ed.
l33uF. 0|d ||a| rear a| ||e ||re ||e W||| Was execu|ed? 0r does ||a| rear a| ||e ||re ol T's dea||?
l0l0lN0. Cour| dec|ded || rear| W|er T d|ed. le|d ||ere Was ro aro|gu||y. Cors|rued W||| oased or ||s
o `To s|are ard s|are a|||e,' cour| sa|d |||s |rp||es ||a| T War|ed s|o||rgs |o s|are al|er s|e d|ed.
o Ta|e |||r|s |||s |s a s|re|c|.
bulF. T|e Word `||v|rg oro||er ard s|s|ers' |r ||e gerera| prov|s|or ol a W||| s|ou|d oe cors|rued as Words ol
lF330N. lu| a prov|s|or ||a| says ro| jus| W|a| |o do or surv|vors||p, ou| a|so W|a| |appers |l 8 doesr'| surv|ve
you. l||e Wr|||rg a rurder rys|ery|||| oll a|| ||e c|arac|ers ard see W|o's ||e |as| persor s|ard|rg. A|Ways
|rag|re W|a| r|g|| |apper |l eac| 8 |r ||e W||| predeceases T ard dec|de W|a| |appers |r ||a| |rs|arce (W|y
c|ar||y good |dea lor |as| resor|).
o `To 8 |l 8 surv|ves re, ard ||er |o C |l 8 does ro| surv|ve re.'
bFvlFw. 8ros ard s|s|ers W|o surv|ved T argue ||a| ||ey s|ou|d |a|e, ard ro| ||e r|eces ard rep|eWs. C| |e|d
||a| ||e Al3 d|dr'| app|y. w||| relererce |o ||v|rg oros ard s|s|ers rear| ||a| or|y ||e oros ard s|s|ers W|o surv|ved
T s|ou|d |a|e, ro| ||e descerder|s ol ||e deceased.
o Ta|e War|s |o |roW |l ary oros|s|s|ers d|ed oelore ||e W||| Was execu|ed. C| sa|d W||| uraro|guous.
T|a| Wou|d exp|a|r `||v|rg oro||ers ard s|s|ers' ard ||us Wou|d ra|e ||e po|r| vo|d
lage 104 ol 190
ou car read ||e Word `ard' |o rear `or.' A relererce `|o A ard ||s |e|rs' are usua||y Words ol ||r||a||or ||a| jus| |e|| you
ro| W|o, ou| |oW (|r lee s|rp|e). 0or'| |eave || |arg|rg.
lage 105 ol 190
||. C|ass 0|l|s p. 399-402, 404-05
0erera| ru|e. ll reroer ol a c|ass predeceases T, ||er proper|y goes |o o||er c|ass reroers uNlF33 ar||-|apse
s|a|u|e app||es. ll Al3 doesr'| app|y, jus| s|are arorg rera|r|rg c|ass reroers. 8u| |l T |s |rsull|c|er||y c|ear |r ||e W||| as
|o W|e||er ||e g|l| |s a c|ass g|l|.
0ea|| ol a reroer ol ||e c|ass resu||s |r ||e rera|rder ol ||e c|ass |a||rg ||s s|are
Fxcep||or. |l ar ar|||apse s|a|u|e (Al3) ex|s|s |r ||e s|a|e, app|y ||a| l|rs|
A c|ass g|l| descr|oes ||e oerel|c|ar|es oy ||e c|ass rare. ll ||e c|ass rare |s g|ver ard ||er ||e oerel|c|ar|es are a|so
|rd|v|dua||y rared, ||e g|l| |s ro| |rea|ed as a c|ass g|l|. T|e ex|rareous c|ass |der||l|ca||or |s |rea|ed as oe|rg prov|ded lor
rere |der||l|ca||or purposes.
Ar|||apse 3|a|u|es app|y |o c|ass g|l|s, ur|ess ||e c|ass reroer d|ed oelore ||e W||| Was execu|ed.
lroo|ers ar|se W|er peop|e are urc|ear |r W|||s aoou| W|e||er |||s |s |r|erded |o oe a c|ass or jus| |rd|v|dua|.
C|||drer as par| ol a c|ass |rc|udes adop|ed c|||drer (ur|ess spec|l|ca||y exc|uded |rd|v. |r W|||).
bulF. l|rs| app|y ||e Al3, ||er |l || doesr'| app|y, app|y ||e C|ass 0|l| bu|e. lr |x, dor'| app|y C0 ur||| W||| execu|ed (?).
A's c|||drer |a|e o|c A d|ed al|er W||| execu|ed, so ||e Al3 g|ves |o A's c|||drer, ou| C's ||ds Wou|dr'| |a|e o|c C d|ed
oelore W||| execu|ed. beasor|rg. ll soreore ra|es a W||| ard |as a deceased s|o||rg ard War|ed ||ose ||ds |o |a|e,
Wou|d |ave pu| ||a| |r ||e W|||ar||c|pa|ed ||e |ssue. T|ese are cases ol oad dral||rg. 3|ou|dr'| ever dral| a W||| W|ere
||e Al3 app||es, a|Ways |rc|ude oac|-up p|ar.
Texas law on class gifts
Ar|||apse s|a|u|e app||es W|er soreore |r c|ass d|es, rear|rg ||e g|l| |o ||a| persor |s sp||| o|W ||e o||er
reroers ol ||e c|ass (ro| ||a| persor's c|||drer or T's c|||drer!). -escendent o# Testator or -escendent o#
Testator=s %arents, then it "oes to that person
Ar|||apse s|a|u|e doesr'| app|y |l ||e persor |r ||e c|ass d|ed oelore ||e W||| Was lorra||y execu|ed (|rs|ead ol
dy|rg jus| oelore ||e T's dea||) %roperty "oes to other mem5ers o# the class
ll W||| des|gra|es oerel|c|ar|es oy rare, ever |l || also descr|oes ||er as a c|ass, ||e g|l| |s spec|l|ca||y |o ||e
rared oerel|c|ar|es or|y.
Fx. `ry grardc|||drer, X & ' = 3pec|l|c dev|ses, N0T a c|ass g|l|
#ypothetical7Pa$e 5@5-.
T had , sistersD AD BD *.
C d|ed oelore W||| execu|ed. A d|ed al|er || Was execu|ed. 8 s|||| a||ve W|er T d|es.
T corveyed es|a|e |o |er s|s|ers ard ||e res|duary |o 3.
ulC. 0oes aur|'s oecause ||ey are descerder|'s ol ||e Tes|a|or's grardparer|s. 0oes ro| ra|e ary d|llererce |l
a dev|see d|ed oelore ||e W||| Was execu|ed. A=1|3 8=1|3 C=1|3
lr TX. C's ||ds cu| ou|dor'| |a|e o|c C d|ed oelore W||| execu|ed. T|er A's ||ds Wou|d ge| |a|l o|c Al3 app||es |o A.
Ard 8 Wou|d ge| |a|l.
o ba||ora|e lor |rea||rg C's ||ds d|llerer||y. ll. ll s|e |ad rear| lor C's ||ds |o ge| ary|||rg, Wou|d |ave sa|d
so |r ||e W|||. 8u| A s|||| a||ve. 0|ve ellec| |o ||e presured |r|er| ol T. 0aro|e. ll T |reW ||a| A Was go|rg
|o d|e, r|g|| |ave |el| || |o A's ||ds. 0dd o|c W|y Wou|d T War| proper|y |o go |o A's ||ds ard ro| |o C's? Ta|e
doesr'| |roW.
lage 10" ol 190
9a;son (. :ucus
Illinois Appellate *ourtD -3?1
34 Ill. App. 0d -@-D 0,3 N./.0d ,@.
Facts: T (w) |el| es|a|e |o 2 rep|eWs, W|or s|e named |rs|ead ol ca|||rg ||er `ry rep|eWs.' 3|e oe||eved
||e |ard s|ou|d go oac| |o |er l's lar||y. l's c|||drer War|ed proper|y - ou| ||ey are ro| descerder|s ol ||e
ac|ua| T (w), so ar|||apse s|a|u|es do ro| app|y.
Holdin": No| a c|ass g|l| - d|d use r|g|| |arguage ever ||oug| s|e |reW |oW, ever ||oug| ||ere Was ex|r|rs|c
ev|derce ||a| s|e War|ed |o |eave s|ull |o l's re|a||ves
o urder ||e Al3, ||ese peop|e cou|dr'| |a|e o|c || only applies to relatives o# the T, not relatives o# the
spouse, |||e |r |||s case.
o Ta|e. T's |r|er||or Was ro| lu|l|||ed W|er ||ey d|dr'| rece|ve ||e proper|y. T|e cour| Was Wrorg - Wr|||rg
||e W||| does ro| lu|l||| ||e T's |r|er||or, ||e |r|er||or |s or|y lu|l|||ed W|er ||e r|g|| peop|e ge| ||e
proper|y - peop|e s|e des|gra|ed. T|e cour| |s ||War||rg ||e |r|er||or lor ro good reasor.
o Texas. lr Texas, ||e Al3 Wou|d ro| app|y s|rce ||ey're ro| ||ds lror ||e parer|s. urlor|ura|e|y, Texas
cour| cou|d prooao|y agree W||| |||s cour|.
Rule: w|ere ||e ruroer ol oerel|c|ar|es |o a g|l| |s cer|a|r, ard ||e s|are eac| |s |o rece|ve |s a|so cer|a|r ard
|r ro Way deperder| lor ||s arour| upor ||e ruroer W|o s|a|| surv|ve, || |s ro| a g|l| |o a c|ass ou| |o ||e
ClA33. T's |r|er| |o re|urr ||e larr |o |er l's s|de ol ||e lar||y Was lu|l|||ed |r |er W|||. Ta|e doesr'| urders|ard
|||s. ler |r|er| |s W|er ||e proper|y |s ac|ua||y d|s|r|ou|ed.
bFvlFw. 3|e War|ed g|l| |o go |o |er |usoard's re|a||ves. Fac| oerel|c|ary g|ver . 0||er reroers ol ||e c|ass
ro| |rc|uded |r ||e dev|se. lard |o see as a c|ass g|l|. urders|ardao|e, ou| urlor|ura|e dec|s|or.
TFXA3 C0ubT3. lrooao|y Wou|d |ave agreed W||| |||s. ll you rare |rd|v|dua|s, ||er |rea|ed as a g|l| |o ||e
rared |rd|v|dua|s, ro| a c|ass g|l|. lr c|ass g|l|, dor'| rare |rd|v|dua|s.
o. C|arges |r lroper|y. Aderp||or & Aoa|erer| pp. 405-15, Fx||o|| 13
9octrine of Ademption U des|ruc||or or ex||rc||or ol a |es|arer|ary g|l| oy reasor ol a oequea||ed asse|'s ceas|rg |o
oe par| ol ||e es|a|e W|er T d|es|a oerel|c|ary's lorle||ure ol a |egacy or oeques| ||a| |s ro |orger opera||ve
App||es |o speci#ic devises ol proper|y
A g|l| ol rorey |s cors|dered a gerera| dev|se ro| a spec|l|c dev|se, ever W|er ||e rears ol |oca||rg|oo|a|r|rg ||e
lurds |s descr|oed.
A spec|l|c dev|se ol proper|y W||c| |s e|||er so|d or g|ver aWay oy ||e |es|a|or pr|or |o ||s dea|| adeers ||e dev|se
oy ex||rc||or. ||e dev|se |s vo|d.
3ore rec|ar|srs |o ge| arourd aderp||or
o A c|arge |r lorr ro| suos|arce - g|v|rg proper|y |o a corpora||or |r exc|arge lor s|oc|, a c|arge |r lorr
ro| suos|arce
In re /state of Anton- Tes|a|ors o|o|og|ca| daug||er |oo| poWer ol a||orrey al|er |es|a|or Was |r a car Wrec|. lder||ly
||eory- |l spec|l|ca||y oequea||ed proper|y |s ro| lourd |r ||e es|a|e ||e oeques| |s adeered. |od|l|ed |r|er||or-|l ||e
|es|a|or Was |rcorpe|er| a| ||e ||re ||e proper|y Was so|d, s|e cou|d ro| |ave |r|erded lor || |o oe so|d. ll ||e proper|y
Was adeered, Narcy Wou|d oerel|| oecause ||e rorey goes |r|o ||e es|a|e s|e |s |r c|arge ol.
*lass #ypothetical
I lea(e my son S-@= from Ban! of America Account Gxxx-xxxxxx-B.
0erera| 0ev|se8ecause |||s |s a gerera| dev|se, ||er ||e sur car oe pa|d lror ||e asse|s ol ||e es|a|e.
Eold rolex ;atch left to my son.
3pec|l|c dev|sell ||e |es|a|or so|d ||, |os| ||, or gave || aWay oelore dea|| ||ar ||e oerel|c|ary ge|s N0TllN0.
Ademption by extinction: Aderp||or ||a| occurs o|c ||e ur|que prop ||a| |s suojec| ol a spec|l|c oeques| |as oeer
so|d, g|ver aWay, or des|royed, or |s ro| o||erW|se |r ex|s|erce a| ||e ||re ol ||e T's dea||.
lage 10# ol 190
App||es |o spec|l|c dev|ses, ro| gerera| dev|ses. 3pec|l|c dev|ses adeers, gerera| dev|ses do ro|.
ll || |s a spec|l|c g|l|, ard ||er ro |orger |r T's es|a|e, ||er ||e g|l| |s ex||rgu|s|ed|adeered.
Identity Theory (s. Intent Theory
Intent theory. |l spec|l|ca||y dev|sed ||er |s ro| |r T's es|a|e, ||e oerel|c|ary ray rore||e|ess
oe er||||ed |o ||e cas| va|ue ol ||e ||er, deperd|rg or W|e||er oerel|c|ary car s|oW ||a| |||s |s W|a| T Wou|d
|ave War|ed
Identity theory. |l spec|l|ca||y dev|sed ||er |s ro| |r T's es|a|e, g|l| |s ex||rgu|s|ed (suojec| |o ||d
o lder|||y |s ||e ru|e |r ros| s|a|es, |rc|ud|rg Texas
o loW |o ge| arourd ||e |der|||y ru|e.
Cour|s sore||res ge| arourd ||e ru|e as cors|ru|rg ||e dev|se as a de#onstrative g|l| ra||er ||ar spec|l|c dev|se.
Fx. 8equea|| $10| |o A |o oe |a|er ou| ol a rared oar| accour| = derors|ra||ve g|l| -
jus| s|oWs W|ere $ r|g|| core lror, car |a|er core lror aro||er accour|.
A|so cour| car ge| arourd |||s W|er a||y argues inter vivos d|spos|||or |s a change in for#,
ra||er ||ar a chan"e in su5stance.
Fx. so|d |ard |o a corpora||or lor s|oc| |r ||a| corp. |s c|arge |r lorr. 8u|, |l T c|oses
oar| acc| ard ||er ge|s cer||l|ca|es ol depos|| - ||a| |s a c|arge |r suos|arce.
Texas law on /de#ption
lo||oWs |der|||y ||eory aoove (ro| |r|er| ||eory)
-PC Law on /de#ption
lo||oWs intent theory, ro| jus| W|er ||e ager| se||s oll proper|y ou| a|so |l ||e |es|a|or d|d ro| |r|erd lor
||e dev|se |o adeer. 8u| ||ere |s a presurp||or |r lavor ol aderp||or.
8urder |s or ||e par|y c|a|r|rg ||e cas| va|ue ol ||e spec|l|ca||y dev|sed ||er ||a| |s ro |orger |r ||e T's
es|a|e - ourder or persor opposin" aderp||or
#ypothetical for )P*
T de(ises J%olls %oyce to ohn.K "aterD T sells %% and buys Ford.
ll Jo|r car prove ||a| ||e lord |s ||e rep|acerer| lor ||e bb, ||er ||e lord goes |o Jo|r.
ll ||e oerel|c|ary |as ||e poss|o||||y ol s|oW|rg ||a| ||e |es|a|or d|d ro| |r|erd lor ||e dev|se |o adeer.
w|e||er || Was |r|erded as a rep|acerer| does ro| deperd or ||e va|ue.
lg. 389- werdy |as ro ev|derce ||e |es|a|or d|d ro| War| ||e proper|y |o adeer. 3|e a|so |as ||e proo|er ol
prov|rg ||e va|ue. urder |der|||y ||eory, ||ese ||ers are adeered.
3|oc| sp|||s ard d|v|derds- does ro| ra||er W|e||er || |s spec|l|c or gerera| urder ulC or Texas.
Fxorera||or ol ||ers- w|||s al|er 2005 ||e preseurp||or |l ||e |es|a|or |r|erds ||e ror|gage |o go W||| ||e proper|y.
Aoa|erer|- do ro| |ave eroug| rorey |o pay oll everyore urder ||e W|||. lr Texas persora| proper|y aoa|es l|rs|, ou|
ulC does ro| ra|e |||s d|s||rc||or.
8asserman (. *ohen
'upreme udicial *ourt of +assachusettsD -33,
5-5 +ass. -40D ?@? N./.0d 3@-
Facts: T s|a|ed |r docurer| ||a| |rus|ee s|ou|d corvey apar|rer| ou||d|rg proper|y |o a cer|a|r persor, ou| T
so|d ||a| proper|y oelore s|e d|ed
lo|d|rg. 3|rce || |s spec|l|c dev|se, || |s adeered (ex||rgu|s|ed). Focus on identity, not intent accordin" to this
court. Cour|'s locus Was or ex|s|erce or rorex|s|erce ol ||e proper|y
Rule: w|er a |es|a|or d|sposes, dur|rg ||s ||le||re, ol ||e suojec| ol a spec|l|c g|l| ol rea| es|a|e cor|a|red |r a
revocao|e |r|er v|vos |rus|, ||a| g|l| |s |e|d |o oe adeered oy ex||rc||or.
lage 10$ ol 190
ones PlaceTFXA3
Cour| |e|d ||a| dev|se ol ||e `Jores p|ace' Was derors|ra||ve ra||er ||ar adeered - ever ||oug| || Was a spec|l|c
rer||or. T's purpose Was |o d|v|de es|a|e ever|y o|W daug||er ard W|le. (||rd ol |||e |r|er| approac|)
T;o broad cate$ories to thin! about:
1. 'pecific de(ises: App|y doc|r|re ol ademption by extinction. w|er T d|es W|o oWr|rg 8A, A doesr'| |a|e a
suos|||u|e g|l|. Ta|es ro|||rg ur|ess g|ver sore|||rg e|se |r W|||. Cl. 3pec|l|c dev|ses are adeered.
a. 8u| |l T says, `l g|ve $10,000 |o A,' ou| doesr'| |ave ||e cas|, es|a|e |as |o se|| sore|||rg |o sa||sly ||e
o. Aderp||or v. |apse
|. lapse. oerel|c|ar|es ro| a||ve W|er T d|es.
||. Aderp||or. proper|y ro| oWred oy T W|er T d|es.
2. Eeneral de(ises: ro| adeered.
a. TX. lder|||y ||eory|l spec dev|se ard ro| |r ||e es|a|e, ||er ro rep|acerer|.
|. 0e| arourd |ars| ru|e. Cors|rue dev|se as derors|ra||ve ra||er ||ar spec|l|c.
||. F.g., case ||a| |ad a W||| dev|s|rg `||e Jores l|ace' |o ||s lar||y, ou| c| sa|d ||a| Was
derors|ra||ve, ro| spec|l|cT prooao|y jus| War|ed lar||y |o |ave sore|||rg ol s|r||ar va|ue.
o. 1990 ulC. 8, |l ||ey car es|ao||s|ed ||a| aderp||or Wou|d oe |rcors|s|er| W|T's es|a|e p|ar, or T d|dr'|
|r|erd lor es|a|e |o oe adeered, ||er o|.
Four other issues:
1. 'toc! splits>stoc! di(idends: was ||e dev|se spec|l|c or gerera|?
a. ll 3pec|l|c. 8eques| Wou|d |rc|ude ary add|||ora| s|oc| acqu|red as a resu|| ol a sp|||. (T|e persor ge|s
or|y ||e # ol s|ares spec|l|ed |r ||e W|||)
o. ll 0erera|. 0or'| |rc|ude add|||ors lror s|oc| sp|||s. (lersor ge|s a|| ||e s|ares.)
c. T||s approac| aoardored |r rary p|aces |rc|ud|rg TX. lr TX, oo|| |rc|uded |r a dev|se ol secur|||es,
prov|ded T oWred s|ares. Ary |rcrease |s |rc|uded |r ary u|||ra|e oeques|.
|. 0oesr'| ra||er W|e||er 3 or 0. 8 ge|s ||e oerel||s ol ||e sp|||. (TlC 70A)
d. ll0. T corveys 100 s|ares ol Fxxor s|oc| |o A. Al|er sp|||, T oWrs 200 s|ares, ||er A ge|s 200
2. Ademption by 'atisfaction: Cl|l T gave sore|||rg |o dev|see dur|rg ||le, ||er sa||sl|es a gerera| reques| |r
||e W|||. 3are as advarcerer|. 3are as Cl ru|es ol |r|es|acy W|er T g|ves $100 |o sor, ||er suo|rac|ed lror
||e |odge po| a| ||e erd. 8ecause |||s s|r||ar |o doc|r|re ol advarcerer|s, ||er ulC adop|ed sare as
advarcerer|s. ll you |ave a docurer| ||a| s|oWs ||a| T rear| |o suo|rac| || lror oerel|c|ary's s|are, aoser|
prool, ||er ro suo|rac||or.
a. 3|r||ar |o advarcerer|s||r|er v|vos g|l|s oelore dea||.
o. 8o|| ulC & TlC requ|re Wr|||er ev|derce ol ||e Aderp||or oy sa||slac||or (TlC 37C)
3. /xoneration of "iens: 0oc|r|re ||a| |l T corveyed 8|ac|acre |o A, ard ||ere Was a ror|gage or 8|ac|acre,
||er A rece|ves proper|y lree ol ||e ror|gage, W||c| |s sa||sl|ed ou| ol ||e res|duary es|a|e. |or|gage pa|d oll
oy ||e res|duary oerel|c|ar|es |l sull|c|er| lurds |r es|a|e. |os| s|a|es |ave reversed |||s Cl ru|e so ||a| ary
dev|se passes suojec| |o ary ||ers or ||e proper|y.
a. TX & roderr |aW or|y app||es |o W|||s execu|ed or or al|er 3ep|eroer 2005. lroper|y |s dev|sed
suojec| |o ||e ||ers (TlC 71A).
o. Cl. T|e ror|gage or proper|y Was |o oe |rarslerred oy ||e es|a|e lree ol ary ||ers. T|e es|a|e rus|
sa||sly deo|s oWed |o c|ear ||e ||ers.
lage 109 ol 190
4. Abatement: ll |rsull|c|er| asse|s |r es|a|e |o pay oll deo|s ard g|ve |o dev|sees, ||er sore dev|ses
aoa|ed|ex||rgu|s|ed|reduced. loW |o d|s|r|ou|e.
a. TX lo||oWs Cl ru|e ||a| ||e res|duary dev|se aoa|es l|rs|, ||er gerera|, ||er spec|l|c dev|ses. las| |||rg
|o go |s 8A. l|rs| |||rg |o go |s ||e res|duary es|a|e. (TlC 3228)
o. Car |ead |o ur|r|erded corsequerces. T |eaves a|| |o c|ar||y ard rera|rder |o sor (|||r||rg eac| W|||
ge| |a|l), ou| |l T |a|er goes |r|o deo|, cores ou| ol sor's s|are l|rs| oelore c|ar||y's s|are o|c sor |s ||e
res|duary ard c|ar||y ge|s gerera| oeques|. 3|ou|d say ||a| sor ge|s res|duary ard c|ar||y ge|s so
||a| ||ey aoa|e |oge||er.
c. Avo|d|rg proo|er. 3uos|ar||a| dev|ses s|ou|d oe Wr|||er |r s|ares or lrac||ors (ex. ol es|a|e |rs|ead ol
$300|) so g|l|s adjus| au|ora||ca||y |r propor||or W||| c|arg|rg s|ze ol es|a|e.
d. 0rder ol peop|e W|o ge| screWed ou| ol rorey|g|l|s. bes|duary dev|se goes l|rs|, ||er gerera| dev|ses,
||er spec|l|c dev|ses. 8eques|s ol persora| proper|y dev|se oelore rea| proper|y
o ulC. lo||oW |r|er| ol T
ex. dor'| exc|ude ||e ||ds a| experse ol a c|ar||y
lage 110 ol 190
Texas Probate *ode B ,4*. 'atisfaction of 9e(ise
(a) lroper|y g|ver |o a persor oy a |es|a|or dur|rg ||e |es|a|or's ||le||re |s cors|dered a sa||slac||or, e|||er W|o||y or par||y, ol a
dev|se |o ||e persor |l.
(1) ||e |es|a|or's W||| prov|des lor deduc||or ol ||e ||le||re g|l|,
||e |es|a|or dec|ares |r a cor|erporareous Wr|||rg ||a| ||e ||le||re g|l| |s |o oe deduc|ed lror or |s |r sa||slac||or ol ||e
dev|se, or
(3) ||e dev|see ac|roW|edges |r Wr|||rg ||a| ||e ||le||re g|l| |s |r sa||slac||or ol ||e dev|se.
(o) lroper|y g|ver |r par||a| sa||slac||or ol a dev|se s|a|| oe va|ued as ol ||e ear||er ol ||e da|e or W||c| ||e dev|see acqu|res
possess|or ol or erjoys ||e proper|y or ||e da|e or W||c| ||e |es|a|or d|es.
Texas Probate *ode B 4@A. Increase in 'ecuritiesO Accessions
(a) ur|ess ||e W||| c|ear|y prov|des o||erW|se, a dev|se ol secur|||es ||a| are oWred oy ||e |es|a|or or ||e da|e ol execu||or ol ||e
W||| |rc|udes ||e lo||oW|rg add|||ora| secur|||es suosequer||y acqu|red oy ||e |es|a|or as a resu|| ol ||e |es|a|or's oWrers||p ol
||e dev|sed secur|||es.
secur|||es ol ||e sare orgar|za||or acqu|red oecause ol ac||or |r|||a|ed oy ||e orgar|za||or or ary successor, re|a|ed, or
acqu|r|rg orgar|za||or, |rc|ud|rg s|oc| sp|||s, s|oc| d|v|derds, ard reW |ssues ol s|oc| acqu|red |r a reorgar|za||or,
rederp||or, or exc|arge, o||er ||ar secur|||es acqu|red ||roug| ||e exerc|se ol purc|ase op||ors or ||roug| a p|ar ol
re|rves|rer|, ard
secur|||es ol aro||er orgar|za||or acqu|red as a resu|| ol a rerger, corso||da||or, reorgar|za||or, or o||er d|s|r|ou||or oy ||e
orgar|za||or or ary successor, re|a|ed, or acqu|r|rg orgar|za||or, |rc|ud|rg s|oc| sp|||s, s|oc| d|v|derds, ard reW |ssues ol s|oc|
acqu|red |r a reorgar|za||or, rederp||or, or exc|arge, o||er ||ar secur|||es acqu|red ||roug| ||e exerc|se ol purc|ase op||ors
or ||roug| a p|ar ol re|rves|rer|.
(o) ur|ess ||e W||| c|ear|y prov|des o||erW|se, a dev|se ol secur|||es does ro| |rc|ude a cas| d|s|r|ou||or re|a||rg |o ||e secur|||es
ard accru|rg oelore dea||, W|e||er or ro| ||e d|s|r|ou||or |s pa|d oelore dea||.
(c) lr |||s sec||or.
3ecur|||es |as ||e rear|rg ass|gred oy 4, T|e 3ecur|||es Ac| (Ar||c|e 581-4, verror's Texas C|v|| 3|a|u|es), ard ||s
suosequer| arerdrer|s.
(2) 3|oc| rears secur|||es.
Texas Probate *ode B 4-A. No %i$ht to /xoneration of 9ebtsO /xception Xapplicable to ;ills executed on or after 'ept. -D
(a) Fxcep| as prov|ded oy 3uosec||or (o) ol |||s sec||or, a spec|l|c dev|se passes |o ||e dev|see suojec| |o eac| deo| secured oy
||e proper|y ||a| ex|s|s or ||e da|e ol ||e |es|a|or's dea||, ard ||e dev|see |as ro r|g|| |o exorera||or lror ||e |es|a|or's es|a|e
lor payrer| ol ||e deo|.
(o) A spec|l|c dev|se does ro| pass |o ||e dev|see suojec| |o a deo| descr|oed oy 3uosec||or (a) ol |||s sec||or |l ||e W||| |r W||c|
||e dev|se |s rade spec|l|ca||y s|a|es ||a| ||e dev|se passes W|||ou| oe|rg suojec| |o ||e deo|. A gerera| prov|s|or |r ||e W|||
s|a||rg ||a| deo|s are |o oe pa|d |s ro| a spec|l|c s|a|erer| lor purposes ol |||s suosec||or.
(c) 3uosec||or (a) ol |||s sec||or does ro| allec| ||e r|g||s ol cred||ors prov|ded urder |||s code or ||e r|g||s ol o||er persors or
er||||es prov|ded urder lar| 3, C|ap|er vlll, ol |||s code. ll a cred||or e|ec|s |o |ave a deo| descr|oed oy 3uosec||or (a) ol |||s
sec||or a||oWed ard approved as a ra|ured secured c|a|r, ||e c|a|r s|a|| oe pa|d |r accordarce W||| 30o(c-1) ol |||s code.
Texas Probate *ode B ,00B. Abatement of BeFuests
(a) Fxcep| as prov|ded oy 3uosec||ors (o)-(d) ol |||s sec||or, a deceder|'s proper|y |s ||ao|e lor deo|s ard experses ol
adr|r|s|ra||or o||er ||ar es|a|e |axes, ard oeques|s aoa|e |r ||e lo||oW|rg order.
(1) proper|y ro| d|sposed ol oy W|||, ou| pass|rg oy |r|es|acy,
(2) persora| proper|y ol ||e res|duary es|a|e,
(3) rea| proper|y ol ||e res|duary es|a|e,
(4) gerera| oeques|s ol persora| proper|y,
(5) gerera| dev|ses ol rea| proper|y,
(o) spec|l|c oeques|s ol persora| proper|y, ard
lage 111 ol 190
(7) spec|l|c dev|ses ol rea| proper|y.
(o) T||s sec||or does ro| allec| ||e requ|rerer|s lor payrer| ol a c|a|r ol a secured cred||or W|o e|ec|s |o |ave ||e c|a|r
cor||rued as a prelerred deo| ard ||er aga|rs| spec|l|c proper|y urder 30o ol |||s code.
(c) T||s sec||or does ro| app|y |o ||e payrer| ol es|a|e |axes urder 322A ol |||s code.
(d) A deceder|'s |r|er|, as expressed |r a W|||, cor|ro|s over ||e aoa|erer| ol oeques|s prov|ded oy |||s sec||or.
)P* B 0-?@?. Nonademption of 'pecific 9e(isesO )npaid Proceeds of 'aleD *ondemnationD or InsuranceO 'ale by *onser(ator
or A$ent.
(a) A spec|l|c dev|see |as a r|g|| |o spec|l|ca||y dev|sed proper|y |r ||e |es|a|or's es|a|e a| ||e |es|a|or's dea|| ard |o.
ary oa|arce ol ||e purc|ase pr|ce, |oge||er W||| ary secur||y agreerer|, oWed oy a purc|aser a| ||e |es|a|or's dea|| oy
reasor ol sa|e ol ||e proper|y,
(2) ary arour| ol a corderra||or aWard lor ||e |a||rg ol ||e proper|y urpa|d a| dea||,
(3) ary proceeds urpa|d a| dea|| or l|re or casua||y |rsurarce or or o||er recovery lor |rjury |o ||e proper|y,
ary proper|y oWred oy ||e |es|a|or a| dea|| ard acqu|red as a resu|| ol lorec|osure, or oo|a|red |r ||eu ol lorec|osure, ol
||e secur||y |r|eres| lor a spec|l|ca||y dev|sed oo||ga||or,
ary rea| proper|y or |arg|o|e persora| proper|y oWred oy ||e |es|a|or a| dea|| W||c| ||e |es|a|or acqu|red as a
rep|acerer| lor spec|l|ca||y dev|sed rea| proper|y or |arg|o|e persora| proper|y, ard
|l ro| covered oy paragrap|s (1) ||roug| (5), a pecur|ary dev|se equa| |o ||e va|ue as ol ||s da|e ol d|spos|||or ol o||er
spec|l|ca||y dev|sed proper|y d|sposed ol dur|rg ||e |es|a|or's ||le||re ou| or|y |o ||e ex|er| || |s es|ao||s|ed ||a| aderp||or
Wou|d oe |rcors|s|er| W||| ||e |es|a|or's rar|les|ed p|ar ol d|s|r|ou||or or ||a| a| ||e ||re ||e W||| Was rade, ||e da|e ol
d|spos|||or or o||erW|se, ||e |es|a|or d|d ro| |r|erd aderp||or ol ||e dev|se.
(o) ll spec|l|ca||y dev|sed proper|y |s so|d or ror|gaged oy a corserva|or or oy ar ager| ac||rg W||||r ||e au||or||y ol a durao|e
poWer ol a||orrey lor ar |rcapac||a|ed pr|rc|pa| or a corderra||or aWard, |rsurarce proceeds, or recovery lor |rjury |o ||e
proper|y |s pa|d |o a corserva|or or |o ar ager| ac||rg W||||r ||e au||or||y ol a durao|e poWer ol a||orrey lor ar |rcapac||a|ed
pr|rc|pa| ||e spec|l|c dev|see |as ||e r|g|| |o a gerera| pecur|ary dev|se equa| |o ||e re| sa|e pr|ce, ||e arour| ol ||e urpa|d
|oar, ||e corderra||or aWard, ||e |rsurarce proceeds, or ||e recovery.
(c) T|e r|g|| ol a spec|l|c dev|see urder suosec||or (o) |s reduced oy ary r|g|| ||e dev|see |as urder suosec||or (a).
(d) lor ||e purposes ol ||e relererces |r suosec||or (o) |o a corserva|or, suosec||or (o) does ro| app|y |l al|er ||e sa|e, ror|gage,
corderra||or, casua||y, or recovery, || Was adjud|ca|ed ||a| ||e |es|a|or's |rcapac||y ceased ard ||e |es|a|or surv|ved ||e
adjud|ca||or lor a| |eas| ore year.
(e) lor ||e purposes ol ||e relererces |r suosec||or (o) |o ar ager| ac||rg W||||r ||e au||or||y ol a durao|e poWer ol a||orrey ar
|rcapac||a|ed pr|rc|pa|, (|)|rcapac||a|ed pr|rc|pa| rears a pr|rc|pa| W|o |s ar |rcapac||a|ed persor, (||) ro adjud|ca||or ol
|rcapac||y oelore dea|| |s recessary, ard (|||) ||e ac|s ol ar ager| W||||r ||e au||or||y ol a durao|e poWer ol a||orrey are
presured |o oe lor ar |rcapac||a|ed pr|rc|pa|.
lage 112 ol 190
E.Protections Ei(en to the 'ur(i(in$ 'pouse>minor children under
federal & state la;
1. ||sce||areous b|g||s |o 3uppor| pp. 419-23, Fx. 14
'tate "a; Protections U Texas Property *ode B 50.@@-D 50.@@0D Texas Probate *ode B 04-
Fxerp| proper|y ard lores|ead ray oe se| as|de lor ||e use ard oerel|| ol ||e surv|v|rg spouse ard r|ror
ll ||e es|a|e |s so|ver|, ||e lores|ead |s s|||| se| as|de, ou| ||e exerp| persora| proper|y |s d|s|r|ou|ed as dev|sed or
v|a |r|es|acy.
lores|ead Fxerp||or - ||||e passes |r ||e sare rarrer as || Wou|d o||erW|se pass, ou| ||e surv|v|rg spouse ard
c|||drer |ave ||e exc|us|ve r|g|| |o occupy ||e |ores|ead, so |org as ||ey c|ose..
o T|e surv|v|rg spouse rus| cor||rue |o ra|e ||e ror|gage payrer|s..
Fxerp| proper|y - up |o $o0,000 ol |ouse|o|d goods ard o||er proper|y lor a lar||y ard $30,000 lor a s|rg|e adu||.
'tate "a; Protection U Family 'upport Allo;ance
Texas lrooa|e Code 28o, 287, 288
A||oWs ||e cour| |o se| as|de a cer|a|r arour| ol ||e es|a|e |o suppor| ||e lar||y lor ore year.
|us| oe ver|l|ed oy ar all|dav|| descr|o|rg ||e arour| recessary lor ra|r|erarce lor ore year.. To e|||er ||e
|rdeperder| adr|r|s|ra|or or ||e cour|.
Cores lror ||e corrur||y es|a|e l|rs|, ||er ||e persora| proper|y ol ||e deceased.
lurera| ard red|ca| experses |rurp lar||y suppor| a||oWarce. up|o $15,000
w|er ||e surv|v|rg spouse |as adequa|e proper|y ard resources, ro a||oWarce s|a|| oe rade.
ways ||a| surv|v|rg spouses pro|ec|ed |r ledera| |aW.
1. 'ocial 'ecurity 'ystem. Fr||||ed |o cor||rue |o rece|ve 33 oerel||s oased or oerel||s ol deceased spouse. (luo||c
pers|or sys|er)
a. Cavea|. ll surv|v|rg spouse a|so qua||l|es lor 33, ||er doesr'| ge| oo||, ou| ge|s ||e |arger ol ||e |Wo
oerel||s (ro douo|e-co||ec||rg).
2. Pension 'ystem. (lr|va|e) ll deceased's re||rerer| p|ay |s covered oy ledera| |aW, ||er ||e surv|v|rg spouse
s|||| ge|s pers|or payrer|s al|er ||e spouse d|es. Typ|ca||y ra|e payrer|s or|y |o ||e re||red erp|oyee W|||e
|e|s|e |s a||ve, ou| al|er ||s||er dea||, ||e surv|v|rg spouse rorra||y er||||ed |o rece|ve oerel||s |l covered urder
||e ledera| ru|es (urder Fbl3A).
3|a|e-|aW lro|ec||ors lor surv|v|rg spouse|r|ror c|||drer |r TFXA3. |r|eres| |r *ommunity /state!
1. #omestead>/xempt-Property "a;s (3|a|u|e exerp||rg a |ores|ead lror execu||or or jud|c|a| sa|e lor deo|,
ur|ess a|| oWrers |ave jo|r||y ror|gaged ||e prop or o||erW|se suojec|ed || |o cred||ors' c|a|rs): very gererous
|ores|ead exerp||ors. 200 acres rura| |ard, 10 acres uroar |ard, doesr'| ra||er W|a|'s or ||e proper|y, as |org as
used lor a res|derce. No cap or ||e va|ue ol ||e |rproverer|s. No| |ard |o qua||ly lor ||ese oerel||s. Jus| |ave |o
occupy ||e res|derce, ard ||a| ree|s a des|gra||or ol a |ores|ead.
a. Corsequerces ol des|gra||rg a |ores|ead.
i. lree lror cred||or's c|a|rs dur|rg ||le||re (|rc|udes |or| cred||ors). leW excep||ors (ror|gages,
|axes, e|c.|||rgs ||a| re|a|e |o ||e |ore). |or|gage co. car core al|er ||e |ores|ead |l you dor'|
pay ||e ror|gage. |a|es serse o|c o||erW|se cos. Wou|d rever |erd rorey |l ||ey cou|dr'| ge|
lorec|osure or delau||.
1. lrso|vercy. ll |rso|ver|, ||||e |o surv|v|rg spouse |s aoso|u|e -surv|v|rg spouse & rera|r|rg
||ds ge| proper|y lree ard c|ear ol cred||ors' c|a|rs ard |ega|ees or |e|rs.
lage 113 ol 190
ii. 8o|| spouses |ave |o jo|r |r a ||le||re corveyarce ol ||e |ores|ead. Fver |l |ouse |s your
separa|e proper|y, carro| se|| or g|ve || aWay ur|ess spouse agrees |o ||e |rarsler (oo|| |ave |o
agree lor |ores|ead |o oe |rarslerred).
iii. lar||a||y exerp| lror proper|y |axes. ll ||e proper|y |s ||e |ores|ead or|y.
i(. (be|a|ed |o |) w|er deceder| surv|ved oy spouse, r|ror c|||drer, or urrarr|ed adu|| c|||drer,
passes lbFF ol cred||or's c|a|rs a| dea||. App||es |l ||e proper|y ro| |el| |o ||ose c|||drer. (bu|es
d|llerer| W|er |a|||rg ol spouse's r|g|| ol occuparcy, ||er doesr'| app|y |o urrarr|ed adu|| c|||drer,
ou| or|y spouse ard r|ror c|||drer.)
(. 3urv|v|rg spouse ol r|ror c|||drer's exclusi(e ri$ht of occupancy. Probate homestead.
-. *lassification: #:PC7T o;ns Blac!acre 2separate property6 and occupies the
property ;>spouse & , minor children. 9on&t de(ise the property to themD but to
)ncle BartD and it ;as T&s separate property.
a. 8 oWrs 8A a| T's dea||. 8u| does |e |ave ||e r|g|| |o rove |r|o ||e |ouse? No|
urder |||s l|ra| corsequerce.
o. 0ev|see W|o |s g|ver ||e proper|y oy W||| carro| rove |r. 0uard|ar ol ||e r|rors
|as ||e r|g|| ol occuparcy. urrarr|ed adu|| c|||d- |e |as a |ores|ead r|g||, ou|
ro| a r|g|| ol occuparcy. 8u| |l w ard ||ds rove ou| ard dec|de |o rer| ou| 8A,
||ey |ave ceased |o occupy ard ||e|r r|g|| ol occuparcy Al30 ceases. 3|r||ar |o
a ||le es|a|e. As |org as surv|v|rg spouse a||ve, s|e |as a r|g|| |o occupy |||s
proper|y. l|le es|a|e doesr'| |err|ra|e jus| o|c you cease |o occupy. b|g|| ol
occuparcy or ||e o||er |ard or|y cor||rues as |org as you cor||rue |o occupy ||e
c. lave |o pay ror|gage |r|eres| (ro| pr|rc|p|e||a|'s or ||e |o|der ol ||e ||||e) ard
(i. Personal Property: w|o ge|s ||a| deperds or W|e||er ||e es|a|e |s so|ver|.
1. ll solvent, ||er prop |o W|oever |s ||e |ega|ee urder ||e W|||. ll sull|c|er| proper|y |o pay oll
||e deo|s, ||er goes |o |ega|ee as |org as eroug| |o g|ve |o ||e surv|v|rg spouse.
2. w|er insolvent (|rsull|c|er| lurds |o pay cred||ors), ||er aoso|u|e (??). lroper|y goes or|y
|o ||e surv|v|rg spouse & ||ds. ll. Cred||ors Wou|d ge| proper|y Were || ro| lor exerp| prop
prov|s|ors, ||e |ega|ees are ro| oe|rg depr|ved ol ary|||rg.
'et-aside rule: 3urv|v|rg spouse (ard sore||res r|ror ||ds) |ave r| |o |ave pers prop ol
T reserved or pu| as|de up |o a cer|a|r va|ue.
)P*: $10| ||r|| - exerp| lror cred||s, |ouse|o|d lurr||ure, c|o|||rg, ray |rc. car ard larr
Texas. lore lurr|s||rgs, corsurp||or, ||ers used |r ||e proless|or, |Wo l|rearrs, rax.
ar|. |s $o0| lor a lar||y or $30| lor a s|rg|e persor
Family Allo;ance: +aintenance of family
TX. 0e| eroug| |o ra|r|a|r ||e lar||y lor a year. lurera| experses |a|e pr|or||y over lar||y a||oWarce, surv|v|rg
spouse ge|s |a|l |r|eres| |r ||e CF.
a. ll |rdep adr|r, ||er execu|or ca|cu|a|es ||e ar|
o. ll ro|, ||er cour| dec|des ||e ar|
c. lrc|udes oo|| spouse's cor|r|ou||ors. ll |rsull|c|er| Cl, ||er a||oWarce pa|d ou| ol deceased spouse's
separa|e es|a|e.
ulC. A||oWs lor a reasorao|e a||oWarce ||a| carro| cor||rue oeyord 1 yr |l ||e es|a|e |s |rso|ver|.
lar||y a||oWarce |a|es precederce over FvFbTllN0 excep| lurera| experses ard red|ca| experses up |o $15K.
w|a| |l surv|v|rg spouse |as adequa|e |rcore or |er oWr? C| doesr'| grar| ||e a||oWarce o|c rear| |o cover W|a|
r|g|| go urpa|d o||erW|se. ll sull|c|er| separa|e proper|y, ||er c| W||| ro| grar| ou| ol Cl or deceder| spouse's 3l.
3are |l ||e r|ror c|||drer |ave sull|c|er| proper|y ol ||e|r oWr.
lage 114 ol 190
8u|, |l ||e spouse or c|||drer |ave sull|c|er| separa|e asse|s, ||er ||ere's ro r|g|| |o a lar||y a||oWarce.
lage 115 ol 190
Texas Property *ode B 50.@@-. Personal Property /xemption
(a) lersora| proper|y, as descr|oed |r 42.002, |s exerp| lror garr|s|rer|, a||ac|rer|, execu||or, or o||er se|zure |l.
||e proper|y |s prov|ded lor a lar||y ard |as ar aggrega|e la|r rar|e| va|ue ol ro| rore ||ar $o0,000, exc|us|ve ol ||e arour| ol ary
||ers, secur||y |r|eres|s, or o||er c|arges ercuroer|rg ||e proper|y, or
||e proper|y |s oWred oy a s|rg|e adu||, W|o |s ro| a reroer ol a lar||y, ard |as ar aggrega|e la|r rar|e| va|ue ol ro| rore ||ar
$30,000, exc|us|ve ol ||e arour| ol ary ||ers, secur||y |r|eres|s, or o||er c|arges ercuroer|rg ||e proper|y.
(o) T|e lo||oW|rg persora| proper|y |s exerp| lror se|zure ard |s ro| |rc|uded |r ||e aggrega|e ||r||a||ors prescr|oed oy 3uosec||or (a).
(1) currer| Wages lor persora| serv|ces, excep| lor ||e erlorcerer| ol cour|-ordered c|||d suppor| payrer|s,
(2) proless|ora||y prescr|oed |ea||| a|ds ol a deo|or or a deperder| ol a deo|or, ard
a||rory, suppor|, or separa|e ra|r|erarce rece|ved or |o oe rece|ved oy ||e deo|or lor ||e suppor| ol ||e deo|or or a deperder| ol ||e deo|or.
(c) T||s sec||or does ro| prever| se|zure oy a secured cred||or W||| a cor|rac|ua| |ard|ord's ||er or o||er secur||y |r ||e proper|y |o oe se|zed.
(d) urpa|d corr|ss|ors lor persora| serv|ces ro| |o exceed 25 percer| ol ||e aggrega|e ||r||a||ors prescr|oed oy 3uosec||or (a) are exerp|
lror se|zure ard are |rc|uded |r ||e aggrega|e.
Texas Property *ode B 50.@@0. Personal Property
(a) T|e lo||oW|rg persora| proper|y |s exerp| urder 42.001(a).
(1) |ore lurr|s||rgs, |rc|ud|rg lar||y |e|r|oors,
(2) prov|s|ors lor corsurp||or,
(3) larr|rg or rarc||rg ve||c|es ard |rp|erer|s,
(4) |oo|s, equ|prer|, ooo|s, ard appara|us, |rc|ud|rg ooa|s ard ro|or ve||c|es used |r a |rade or proless|or,
(5) Wear|rg appare|,
(o) jeWe|ry ro| |o exceed 25 percer| ol ||e aggrega|e ||r||a||ors prescr|oed oy 42.001(a),
(7) |Wo l|rearrs,
(8) a|||e||c ard spor||rg equ|prer|, |rc|ud|rg o|cyc|es,
a |Wo-W|ee|ed, ||ree-W|ee|ed, or lour-W|ee|ed ro|or ve||c|e lor eac| reroer ol a lar||y or s|rg|e adu|| W|o |o|ds a dr|ver's ||cerse or
W|o does ro| |o|d a dr|ver's ||cerse ou| W|o re||es or aro||er persor |o opera|e ||e ve||c|e lor ||e oerel|| ol ||e ror||cersed persor,
(10) ||e lo||oW|rg ar|ra|s ard lorage or |ard lor ||e|r corsurp||or.
(A) |Wo |orses, ru|es, or dor|eys ard a sadd|e, o|ar|e|, ard or|d|e lor eac|,
(8) 12 |ead ol ca|||e,
(C) o0 |ead ol o||er |ypes ol ||ves|oc|, ard
(0) 120 loW|, ard
(11) |ouse|o|d pe|s.
Texas Probate *ode B 04-. /xempt Property to be 'et Apart
(a) ur|ess ar all|dav|| |s l||ed urder 3uosec||or (o) ol |||s sec||or, |rred|a|e|y al|er ||e |rver|ory, appra|serer|, ard ||s| ol c|a|rs |ave oeer
approved, ||e cour| s|a||, oy order, se| apar|.
(1) ||e |ores|ead lor ||e use ard oerel|| ol ||e surv|v|rg spouse ard r|ror c|||drer, ard
a|| o||er proper|y ol ||e es|a|e ||a| |s exerp| lror execu||or or lorced sa|e oy ||e cors|||u||or ard |aWs ol |||s s|a|e lor ||e use ard
oerel|| ol ||e surv|v|rg spouse ard r|ror c|||drer ard urrarr|ed c|||drer rera|r|rg W||| ||e lar||y ol ||e deceased.
Texas Probate *ode B 040. To 8hom 9eli(ered
T|e exerp| proper|y se| apar| |o ||e surv|v|rg spouse ard c|||drer s|a|| oe de||vered oy ||e execu|or or adr|r|s|ra|or W|||ou| de|ay as lo||oWs.
(a) l ||ere oe a surv|v|rg spouse ard ro c|||drer, or |l ||e c|||drer oe ||e c|||drer ol ||e surv|v|rg spouse, ||e W|o|e ol suc| proper|y s|a|| oe
de||vered |o ||e surv|v|rg spouse. (o) ll ||ere oe c|||drer ard ro surv|v|rg spouse, suc| proper|y, excep| ||e |ores|ead, s|a|| oe de||vered |o
suc| c|||drer |l ||ey oe ol |aWlu| age, or |o ||e|r guard|ar |l ||ey oe r|rors. (c) l ||ere oe c|||drer ol ||e deceased ol W|or ||e surv|v|rg spouse
|s ro| ||e parer|, ||e s|are ol suc| c|||drer |r suc| exerp|ed proper|y, excep| ||e |ores|ead, s|a|| oe de||vered |o suc| c|||drer |l ||ey oe ol
|aWlu| age, or |o ||e|r guard|ar, |l ||ey oe r|rors. (d) r a|| cases, ||e |ores|ead s|a|| oe de||vered |o ||e surv|v|rg spouse, |l ||ere oe ore, ard
|l ||ere oe ro surv|v|rg spouse, |o ||e guard|ar ol ||e r|ror c|||drer.
Texas Probate *ode B 041. 8hen /state Is 'ol(ent
ll, upor a l|ra| se|||erer| ol ||e es|a|e, || s|a|| appear ||a| ||e sare |s so|ver|, ||e exerp|ed proper|y, excep| ||e |ores|ead or ary a||oWarce |r ||eu
||ereol, s|a|| oe suojec| |o par||||or ard d|s|r|ou||or arorg ||e |e|rs ard d|s|r|ou|ees ol suc| es|a|e |r |||e rarrer as ||e o||er proper|y ol ||e es|a|e.
Texas Probate *ode B 043. 8hen /state is Insol(ent
3|ou|d ||e es|a|e, upor l|ra| se|||erer|, prove |o oe |rso|ver|, ||e title o# the survivin" spouse and children |o a|| ||e proper|y ard a||oWarces
se| apar| or pa|d |o ||er urder ||e prov|s|ors ol |||s Code s|a|| oe aoso|u|e, ard s|a|| ro| oe |a|er lor ary ol ||e deo|s ol ||e es|a|e excep| as
|ere|ral|er prov|ded.,83S/7M13T';i#e and !hildren: S/7M13T'whomever 5e2ueathed to, $ncle Bart
Texas Probate *ode B 010. Nature of #omestead Property Immaterial
lage 11" ol 190
T|e |ores|ead r|g||s ol ||e surv|v|rg spouse ard c|||drer ol ||e deceased are ||e sare W|e||er ||e |ores|ead oe ||e separa|e proper|y ol
||e deceased or corrur||y proper|y oe|Weer ||e surv|v|rg spouse ard ||e deceased, ard ||e respec||ve |r|eres|s ol suc| surv|v|rg spouse ard
c|||drer s|a|| oe ||e sare |r ore case as |r ||e o||er.
Texas Probate *ode B 01,. #omestead %i$hts of 'ur(i(in$ 'pouse
0r ||e dea|| ol ||e |usoard or W|le, |eav|rg a spouse surv|v|rg, ||e |ores|ead s|a|| descerd ard ves| |r |||e rarrer as o||er rea| proper|y ol
||e deceased ard s|a|| oe goverred oy ||e sare |aWs ol descer| ard d|s|r|ou||or.
Texas Probate *ode B 015. 8hen #omestead Not Partitioned
T|e |ores|ead s|a|| ro| oe par||||ored arorg ||e |e|rs ol ||e deceased dur|rg ||e ||le||re ol ||e surv|v|rg spouse, or so |org as ||e surv|vor
e|ec|s |o use or occupy ||e sare as a |ores|ead, or so |org as ||e guard|ar ol ||e r|ror c|||drer ol ||e deceased |s perr|||ed, urder ||e order
ol ||e proper cour| |av|rg jur|sd|c||or, |o use ard occupy ||e sare.
Texas Probate *ode B 01.. 8hen #omestead *an Be Partitioned
w|er ||e surv|v|rg spouse d|es or se||s ||s or |er |r|eres| |r ||e |ores|ead, or e|ec|s ro |orger |o use or occupy ||e sare as a |ores|ead, or
W|er ||e proper cour| ro |orger perr||s ||e guard|ar ol ||e r|ror c|||drer |o use ard occupy ||e sare as a |ores|ead, || ray oe par||||ored
arorg ||e respec||ve oWrers ||ereol |r |||e rarrer as o||er proper|y |e|d |r corror.
Texas Probate *ode B 01?. Family Allo;ance to 'ur(i(in$ 'pouses and +inors
(a) ur|ess ar all|dav|| |s l||ed urder 3uosec||or (o) ol |||s sec||or, |rred|a|e|y al|er ||e |rver|ory, appra|serer|, ard ||s| ol c|a|rs |ave oeer
approved, ||e cour| s|a|| l|x a lar||y a||oWarce lor ||e suppor| ol ||e surv|v|rg spouse ard r|ror c|||drer ol ||e deceased.
(o) 8elore ||e approva| ol ||e |rver|ory, appra|serer|, ard ||s| ol c|a|rs, a surv|v|rg spouse or ary persor W|o |s au||or|zed |o ac| or oe|a|l ol
r|ror c|||drer ol ||e deceased ray app|y |o ||e cour| |o |ave ||e cour| l|x ||e lar||y a||oWarce oy l|||rg ar app||ca||or ard a ver|l|ed
all|dav|| descr|o|rg ||e arour| recessary lor ||e ra|r|erarce ol ||e surv|v|rg spouse ard r|ror c|||drer lor ore year al|er ||e da|e ol ||e
dea|| ol ||e deceder| ard descr|o|rg ||e spouse's separa|e proper|y ard ary proper|y ||a| r|ror c|||drer |ave |r ||e|r oWr r|g||. T|e
app||car| oears ||e ourder ol prool oy a preporderarce ol ||e ev|derce a| ary |ear|rg or ||e app||ca||or. T|e cour| s|a|| l|x a lar||y
a||oWarce lor ||e suppor| ol ||e surv|v|rg spouse ard r|ror c|||drer ol ||e deceased.
Texas Probate *ode B 014. Amount of Family Allo;ance
3uc| a||oWarce s|a|| oe ol ar arour| sull|c|er| lor ||e ra|r|erarce ol suc| surv|v|rg spouse ard r|ror c|||drer lor ore year lror ||e ||re ol
||e dea|| ol ||e |es|a|or or |r|es|a|e. T|e a||oWarce s|a|| oe l|xed W||| regard |o ||e lac|s or c|rcurs|arces ||er ex|s||rg ard ||ose ar||c|pa|ed
|o ex|s| dur|rg ||e l|rs| year al|er suc| dea||. T|e a||oWarce ray oe pa|d e|||er |r a |urp sur or |r |rs|a||rer|s, as ||e cour| s|a|| order.
Texas Probate *ode B 011. 8hen Family Allo;ance Not +ade
No suc| a||oWarce s|a|| oe rade lor ||e surv|v|rg spouse W|er ||e surv|vor |as separa|e proper|y adequa|e |o ||e surv|vor's ra|r|erarce, ror
s|a|| suc| a||oWarce oe rade lor ||e r|ror c|||drer W|er ||ey |ave proper|y |r ||e|r oWr r|g|| adequa|e |o ||e|r ra|r|erarce.
Texas Probate *ode B 03-. To 8hom Family Allo;ance Paid
T|e execu|or or adr|r|s|ra|or s|a|| appor||or ard pay ||e lar||y a||oWarce.
(a) To ||e surv|v|rg spouse, |l ||ere oe ore, lor ||e use ol ||e surv|vor ard ||e r|ror c|||drer, |l suc| c|||drer oe ||e surv|vor's.
(o) ll ||e surv|v|rg spouse |s ro| ||e parer| ol suc| r|ror c|||drer, or ol sore ol ||er, ||e por||or ol suc| a||oWarce recessary lor ||e suppor|
ol suc| r|ror c|||d or c|||drer ol W||c| ||e surv|vor |s ro| ||e parer| s|a|| oe pa|d |o ||e guard|ar or guard|ars ol suc| c|||d or c|||drer.
(c) ll ||ere oe ro surv|v|rg spouse, ||e a||oWarce |o ||e r|ror c|||d or c|||drer s|a|| oe pa|d |o ||e guard|ar or guard|ars ol suc| r|ror c|||d or
(d) ll ||ere oe a surv|v|rg spouse ard ro r|ror c|||d or c|||drer, ||e er||re a||oWarce s|a|| oe pa|d |o ||e surv|v|rg spouse.
Co##on Law Protections of 'pouse
lor w or|y
l|le es|a|e |r 1|3 ol proper|y oWred oy l dur|rg ||e rarr|age, |r W||c| Was |r|er||ao|e oy |ssue ol l & w
Fver |l ||e l |rarslerred ||e proper|y |o soreore e|se, ||e doWer rera|red a||ac|ed ur|ess ||e w reroves
App||ed |o rea| proper|y.
0r|y a||ac|es |o prop ||a| Was |e|d oy oo|| l&w, |l |e|d |r jo|r| |erarcy, ard Wou|dr'| go |o ||ds, jus| co T,
ever |l l |a|er gave |o 3
par|y (ur|ess w re|eased |er doWer).
3|a|es |ave roW ex|erded |||s |o l & w ou| or|y a leW s|a|es |ave doWer roW aryWay
0oWer |as oeer aoo||s|ed a|ros| everyW|ere
8D a real-estate de(eloper ;ants to be able to buy & sell land and doesn&t ;ant do;er to attach. 8hat should she do<
lorr a corpora||or, ||er |ave ||e corp. ouy ard se|| |ard, ||er s|e'd |ave s|oc| |r ||e corp. 0oWer or|y app||es |o |ard.
3|oc| |r a corp. |s persora| proper|y. (ll s|e a|ready oWrs ||e proper|y, ||er doWer a|ready a||ac|es, ard ro|||rg s|e car do.)
lage 11# ol 190
lor l or|y W|er ||ey |ave c|||drer |oge||er.
l go| ||le es|a|e |r All |ard ard w Wou|d ge| a lF |r 1|3. No| equ||ao|e.
Aoo||s|ed a|ros| everyW|ere. 3|adoWed |r TX s|a|u|e ||a| a||oWs 1|3 lF |o app|y |o W|a| deceder| oWred a| dea||.
Texas law
0oWer aoo||s|ed |r Texas, ou| |rl|uerced ||e |aW (1|3 ard or|y app||es |o |ard oWred oy T a| ||re ol dea||, ro| a|| |ard
oWred dur|rg rarr|age)
lage 11$ ol 190
2. b|g||s ol ||e 3urv|v|rg 3pouse
a. lr|er||ora| 0|s|r|er||arce. F|ec||ve 3|are 3|a|u|es pp. 424-30, 438-450
/lecti(e 'hare 'tatutes
o lroo|er W||| ||ese s|a|u|es Was ||a| || d|dr'| |a|e |r|o cors|dera||or |r|er v|vos |rarslers
o 19o9 ulC s|a|u|e
Augrer|ed es|a|es
3pouse |s er||||ed |o ar e|ec||ve s|are ol ore-|||rd ol ||e augrer|ed es|a|e
lrc|udes |||rgs ||a| ray oe ror prooa|e |rarslers
lo||cy ol |rc|ud|rg ||e proper|y g|ver |o ||e spouse
o |a|e sure s|e d|dr'| ge| |oo ruc| lror |r|er v|vos |rarslers
o 1990 ulC
A|so |rc|udes All ||e surv|rg spouse's proper|y
loW |o ge| arourd recap|ure prov|s|ors
lrrevocao|e |rarslers lor a per|od ol ||re |orger
0lls|ore |rus|
o |ay |ave r|g|| ou| carro| re|r|eve
C|arge dor|c||e
o 0eorg|a doesr'| |ave e|ec||ve s|are
o Currer|
0r page 499-500
Add up every|||rg
loo| a| ||e ||re ol rarr|age
o 0e| ||e perc|rga|e ru|||p|y oy .5
lo||cy oe||rd s||d|rg sca|e
o l||||e ellor| experded groW|rg ||e es|a|e
o ber|r|scer| ol corrur||y proper|y
3ys|er |r |exas
lr|er||ora| d|s|r|er||arce s|a|u|e
o w|a| |appers W|er ||ey rove lror sp jur|s |o cp jur|s
loses e|ec||ve s|are r|g||s oecause We dor'| |ave ||
uas| corrur||y proper|y
w|ou|d |ave oeer corrur||y proper|y |l || |ad oeer acqu|re d|r |exas
0Nl lor d|vorce proceed|rgs, ro| prooa|e
Cou|d |ave agreerer| |o corver| lror separa|e |o corrur||y proper|y
Cor|rac| |r re|a||or |o a W|||
bevocao|e |rus|
o 0ppos||e rove lror corrur||y proper|y |o separa|e proper|y
lroper|y ||a| Was corrur||y proper|y |s s|||| corrur||y proper|y
Carro| oe jo|r| |erar|s ard |ave corrur||y proper|y |r ||e sare proper|y
3pec|a| |rcore |ax advar|age lor s|epup |r ||e oas|s upor ||e dea|| ol ||e l|rs| spouse
o wa|ver
Car Wa|ve 2-213
Fr||||erer| ol spouse, prerar||a| W|||
lage 119 ol 190
o 2-310
o lrerer|||ed spouse s|a|u|es
o Texas does ro| |ave |||s
lro|ec|ed W||| corrur||y proper|y
o Fs|a|e ol pres||e
loW || Wor|s -
o 3urv|v|rg spouse car e|ec| e|||er |o |a|e urder ||e W|||, or |a|e |er e|ec||ve s|are (Cl. 1|3, ulC. 1|2)
o lrsp|red oy corror |aW doWer, so ||a| |s |oW Cl 1|3 s|are Was der|vedor ||ey cou|d jus| oe sex|s|
TX. 0oesr'| |ave e|ec||ve s|are (doesr'| ex|s| |r Cl jur|sd|c||ors). 33 ge|s |r|eres| |r Cl ard ro r|g|| |o aro||er
s|are or |op ol ||a|. ll l dev|ses his ol ||e corrur||y proper|y |o soreore e|se, ||ere's ro|||rg s|e car do aoou| ||.
No| |rue |r Cl s|a|es. (3|e a|so car'| do ary|||rg aoou| || |l |e g|ves a|| ||s separa|e proper|y |o soreore e|se.)
TWo ra||ora|es.
o lar|rers||p. w|oever d|es l|rs| s|ou|d ge| |o s|are |r ||e es|a|e8o|| spouses cor|r|ou|ed, so oo|| s|ou|d
|ave r|g|| |o ||e|r jo|r| $$$. 3|r||ar|y used urder Texas' corrur||y proper|y |dea.
o 3uppor|. 0or'| War| 33 |o oe des|||u|e, ard dor'| War| 3|a|e |o |ave |o suppor| ||r||er. (usua||y surv|v|rg
0r|g|ra||y jus| lor prooa|e es|a|e e|ec||ve s|ares (ro| proper|y g|ver |r |rus| or |r ||le||re, JT proper|y, or ||le |rs.). 3o
poss|o|e |o evade F3 oy ||ese ror-prooa|e |rarslers.
Nor-prooa|e |rarslers use ol 8nter Mivos Trusts
o T|e |rerd |s |o or|rg ror-prooa|e |rarsler |r|o ||e e|ec||ve s|are ca|cu|a||or
o loo| a| ||e lac|s
o C|o|ce ol laW
App|y ||e |aW ol ||e s|a|e ol dor|c||e - urder ||e ulC.
ll rea| proper|y - var|es oy jur|sd|c||or - app|y ||e |aW ol ||e s|a|e |r W||c| ||e |rus| ex|s|s, ||e
|rus|ee ex|s|s, or ||e W|ere ||e rea| proper|y ex|s|s.
o N - ary proper|y over W||c| ||e deceder| |as gerera| poWer ol appo|r|rer| W|||ou| regard |o W|o
crea|ed ||e |rus| or ever |l || |s a |rus| |s par| ol ||e e|ec||ve s|are ca|cu|a||or..
o 0e|aWare - ever oroader, ary|||rg ||a| |s covered as par| ol ||e ledera| Fs|a|e Tax |s par| ol ||e e|ec||ve
s|are ca|cu|a||or..
1990 ulC rade c|arges |o ||e F|ec||ve s|are prov|s|or, |r|roduc|rg a slidin$ scale oased upor ||e |erg|| ol ||e
rarr|age lror 3 |o 50. F|ec||ve s|are |s |a|l ol ||e rar||a| proper|y percer|age. C|oser |o corrur||y proper|y
sys|er. Add up all ||e proper|y ol oo|| spouses ard sp||| || accord|rg |o a percer|age oased or ||e |erg|| ol ||e
rarr|age. ulC a|so app||es |o peop|e W|o d|e |r|es|a|e.
-3?3 )P* B0-0@0
(0|d ulC 19o9. |a|es |r|o accour| |r|er v|vos |rarslers suc| as |rus| - ||er you ge| a
cred|| lor ||e |rus| W|er ca|cu|a||rg arour| ol e|ec||ve s|are)
w|a| was lrc|uded.
o Ary |rarsler urder W||c| ||e deceder| re|a|rs ||e r|g|| |o possess|or or |rcore lror ||e proper|y,
o Ary |rarsler W||c| ||e deceder| car revo|e or |rvade or d|spose ol ||e pr|rc|pa| lor ||s oWr oerel||,
o Ary |rarsler |r jo|r| |erarcy W||| soreore o||er ||ar ||e spouse,
o Ary |rarsler rade W||||r |Wo years oelore dea|| exceed|rg $3,000 per doree per year
Person #oves fro# CL state to co##unity property state &li%e T=(
lusoard |as proper|y Wor|| 500K ard ||ves |r corror |aW s|a|e. urder ulC s|e ge|s |er lu|| e|ec||ve s|are |l
||ey |ave oeer rarr|ed lor 15 years or rore. l dev|ses every|||rg |o a daug||er lror a pr|or rarr|age. ll ||ey
rove |o Texas ||ere |s ro e|ec||ve s|are or quas|-Cl.
Coup|e's separa|e proper|y acqu|red |r Cl s|a|e rera|rs ||e|r separa|e prop lor prooa|e purposes al|er ||ey
lage 120 ol 190
3|ou|d |e|| spouse |o as| o||er spouse |o se| up |rrevocao|e |rus| W| |rcore |o ore spouse & rera|rder |o
Zuasi-*P: wou|d |ave oeer Cl |l || |ad oeer acqu|red |r TX. 8u| lor purposes ol prooa|e, |||s corcep| does ro| ex|s|.
`l dor'| care aoou| d|vorce, l or|y care aoou| dea||.'
w|er you rove lror 3l |o Cl s|a|e, 3l |s |rea|ed |||e Cl lor d|vorce reasors, ou| lor a W|||, w Wou|d ge| ro|||rg |l l |el|
a|| |o ||s daug||er.
!reate 8rrevoca5le Trust #undin" 5y O o# the estate o# the Hus5and. A will can 5e revo6ed, 5ut an irrevoca5le trust
cannot 5e revo6ed.
'ulli(an (. Bur!in -Pour over will
'upreme udicial *ourt of +assachusettsD -315
,3@ +ass. 1?5D 5?@ N./.0d .4-
Facts. l purposelu||y d|s|r|er||ed separa|ed w oy pu|||rg proper|y |r|o ar |r|er v|vos |rus|. T||s |s a
`pour!over will.' w|a|ever |s |el| |r your es|a|e |s poured over |r|o a |rus|.
Holdin". lor |||s case, ||e w W||| N0T ge| ary|||rg. 8u|, lor ||e lu|ure, ||e cour| W||| app|y a reW ru|e.
o lor lu|ure, spouse ;ill be able to elect to ta!e part of trust that ;as made durin$ the
marria$e. luo||c po||cy |as c|arged s|rce o|d ru|e. Cour|s dor'| War| spouses |o |ave |||s |oop|o|e.
o Asse|s |rarslerred |r ar |r|er v|vos |rus| are suojec| |o e|ec||ve s|are |l.
1. |rus| Was crea|ed oy ||e T dur|rg ||e rarr|age
2. T s|ou|d |ave |ad a gerera| app| over ||e |rus| prop
Rule: T|e surv|v|rg spouse |as ro c|a|r aga|rs| ||e asse|s ol a va||d |r|er v|vos |rus| crea|ed oy ||e deceased
spouse ever W|er ||e deceased spouse re|a|red suos|ar||a| r|g||s ard poWers urder ||e |rus| |rs|rurer|.
bevocao|e Trus|. car |a|e proper|y oac| |r lee s|rp|e lor ||rse|l, or|y |a|es ellec| W|er |e d|es |l |e |asr'| revo|ed ||
|r ||e rear||re.
0|dr'| prov|de lor W|le or grardsor ard sa|d ||a| res| ol proper|y s|ou|d oe poured |r|o ||e |rus|. 0oesr'| War|
proper|y |o go |o W|le & grardsor. T|oug|| |e Was go|rg ||roug| a |o| ol |oops (s|ou|d |ave jus| go||er a d|vorce).
loW |o a||ac|No |r|erv|vos |rus|. No |r|eres| ac|ua||y |rarslerred. lrva||d |rus| o|c |ad |o|s ol poWers
Bon$aards (. +illen
43, N./.0d ,,. 2+ass. 0@@,6
Facts: l argued ||e proper|y |r ||s w's |rus| s|ou|d oe cors|dered rar||a| proper|y.
Trus| Was crea|ed oy w's ro||er, ro| oy w (||e T). w |as poWer |o |err|ra|e |rus|, rear|rg || Wou|d a|| go |o
|er, ou| s|e d|dr'| do |||s.
Holdin": lr |||s case, trust ;as created by a third partyD not spouse -- so # does
not $et the trust.
Ta|e. agrees W||| ||e resu||. urder par|rers||p ||eory, l s|ou|d ro| |a|e oecause ||e
proper|y Was ro| a par| ol ||e|r jo|r| par|rers||p - || Was a separa|e proper|y|g|l| |o |er lror a 3
lssue. Fx|erd 3u|||var |o a |rus| crea|ed oy |||rd par|y? (No| deceder|, ou| deceder|'s ro||er).
l0l0lN0. No.
bFA30NlN0. T|a| Wou|d lrus|ra|e ||e |r|er| ol ||e 3d par|y. T|e 3d persor se| up lor d|llerer| reasor. |o prov|de
lor |er daug||er, so ro| sare corcerr aoou| |ry|rg |o delraud ||e spouse.
Ta|e ques||or. w|a| Wou|d |apper |r Texas?
Problem 57Pa$e 55.
#usband and ;ife ha(e separate property in different states 2%ed & Blue6. They differ in rules. %ed allo;s
electi(e share to include inter (i(os trustD but Blue does not allo; electi(e share to include inter (i(os trust.
#usband ;ants to !eep property out of 8ife&s hands: *lause in Trust states that la;s of Blue ;ill apply.
$sual con#licts rule,i# settler speci#ies, then that is the rule o# law.
lage 121 ol 190
o. ur|r|er||ora| 0|s|r|er||arce ol 3pouse%retermitted Spouse pp. 4o2-oo
`lre|err||' = |o |e| pass W|||ou| rer||or or ro||ce, or||
Preter#itted spouse statutes
laW par||a||y revo|es a W||| written 5e#ore a marria"e |l || does ro| |rc|ude ||e reW spouse (|r sore s|a|es).
Typ|ca||y g|ve a |arger s|are ||ar e|ec||ve|lorced s|are s|a|u|es. (ou| car'| go al|er ror-prooa|e asse|s)
lresurp||or |s ||a| ||e spouse Wou|d War| |o g|ve proper|y |o spouse, ou| jus| d|dr'| ge| arourd ||.
o Car oe reou||ed or|y |l || Was |r|er||ora|. lr|er| rus| oe c|ear|y rar|les|ed |r ||e W|||. lssue ||a| |s
||||ga|ed |s W|e||er ||ere Was sull|c|er| ev|derce ol T's |r|er|. Car ro| use gerer|c s|a|erer|s |o reou|
||e presurp||or.
o lr Ca||lorr|a, car reou| oy s|oW|rg.
3|oW|rg ||e |r|er||or |o or|| ||e spouse
lrov|d|rg lor ||e spouse oy a |rarsler ou|s|de ||e W|||
3pouse rade a va||d agreerer| Wa|v|rg ||e r|g|| |o s|are
lr add|||or |o ||e F3, sore Cl s|a|es as We|| as 3l s|a|es, revo|es ||e W||| |o ||e ex|er| ||a| ||e 33 |s ro|
prov|ded lor a| |eas| |er |r|es|a|e s|are. T|e |dea |s ||a| you g|ve ellec| |o ||e T's presured |r|er|. ll T |ad
go||er arourd |o ||, sure|y |e Wou|d |ave Wr|||er aro||er W||| prov|d|rg lor ||s W|le.
Texas * no law on preter#itted spouses
Texas does ro| |ave |||s s|a|u|e, ou| sore corrur||y proper|y cases do.
In re /state of Prestie-
loW Wou|d ||e case erd up urder 2-301?

/state of 'hannon
*alifornia *ourt of AppealD Fourth 9istrictD -33@
005 *al.App.,d --51D 045 *al.%ptr. ,,1
Facts: l |el| every|||rg |o daug||er ard ||er |e |a|er go| rarr|ed. w |||r|s s|e Was a pre|err|||ed spouse.
0aug||er does ro| prove ary ol ||e ||ree CA excep||ors -|args or|o ||e lac| ||a| |e |el| All es|a|e |o |er ard ||
Was ||s |r|er| ||a| |s s|ayed |||s Way ro ra||er W|a|. (w Was |rdeperd. Wea|||y, ou| ||a| doesr'| ra||er.)
Rule: ll a |es|a|or la||s |o prov|de oy W||| lor a surv|v|rg spouse W|o rarr|ed ||e |es|a|or al|er ||e execu||or
ol ||e W|||, ||e or|||ed spouse s|a|| rece|ve a s|a|u|or||y prescr|oed s|are ol ||e es|a|e.
Holdin": w Wor, 0aug||er |os|. Nore ol ||e CA excep||ors app||ed. T|ere Was ro c|ear |r|er| |r ||e W|||.
le |ad ro| rarr|ed w a| ||e ||re - |r lac| || Was ruc| |a|er.
o 'ayin$ you specifically disinherit e(eryone doesn&t ma!e a difference. 8y v|r|ue ol rarry|rg
|er, ||a| |arguage doesr'| app|y. 3pouse |rurps.
3. b|g||s ol 3urv|v|rg C|||drer
a. lr|er||ora| 0|s|r|er||arce pp. 4oo-73
$isinheriting Children * Children "#itted fro# 9ill
C|||drer are ro| pro|ec|ed lror |r|er||ora| d|s|r|er||arce (excep| |r lou|s|ara do ||ey |ave r|g|| ol |r|er||arce).
o T||s |s |rue ever |l ||e c|||d |s a r|ror.
we a||oW d|s|r|er||arce oecause.
o T|ere |s ro `par|rers||p' oe|Weer parer|s ard c|||drer
o 0|ves ||e parer|s |everageespec|a||y W||| ||e reed ol |org-|err lar||y |rvo|ved |ea|||care
o T|e Wea|||y do ro| |ave |o g|ve ||e|r rorey |o ||e|r c|||drer ||ey a|ready |ave p|er|y ol advar|ages
loWever, cour|s are ol|er syrpa||e||c |o d|s|r|er||ed c|||drer W|er ||ere |s ro surv|v|rg spouse
lage 122 ol 190
Ta|e. |||r|s |aW s|ou|d oe a||ered |o guarar|ee r|ror c|||drer a por||or ol es|a|e
lage 123 ol 190
lr corror |aW jur|sd|c||ors ||ey car c|a|re ar e|ec||ve s|are, ou| everyW|ere e|se you car do ||
o. ur|r|er||ora| 0|s|r|er||arcelre|err|||ed C|||d pp. 473-84, Fx. 15
bulF . lre|err|||ed c|||d |a|es W|a|ever por||or Wou|d |ave go||er |l T d|ed |r|es|a|e.
-nintentional disinheritance of child
Cl bu|e. acc|der| |s presured W|er a c|||d |s or|||ed ur|ess ||ere's ev|derce |r W||| ||se|l ||a| ||e or|ss|or Was
o lavor|||sr. |l you War| |o d|s|r|er|| your ||d - say so spec|l|ca||y or do || ||roug| ar |r|er v|vos |rus|
o |l T |ad ro c|||drer ||v|rg W|er |e execu|ed ||e W|||, ||e pre|err|||ed c|||drer (c|||drer oorr al|er W|||,
ro c|||drer oelore|ard) W||| |a|e |r|es|a|e s|are ur|ess a|| or su5stantially a|| ol ||e es|a|e |s |el| |o ||e o||er
parer| ol ||e pre|err|||ed c|||d (Ta|e prelers |||s s|rce || doesr'| upse| ||e oeques|), ||er pre|err|||ed c|||d
ge|s ro|||rg
o |l T |ad 1+ ||ds W|er |e execu|ed ||e W||| (so a| |eas| ore Was a||ve a|ready) ard ||e W||| dev|sed proper|y |o
a| |eas| ore ol ||e ||er-||v|rg c|||drer, pre|err|||ed c|||d |s ||r||ed |r s|ar|rg ||e dev|ses rade |o ||e c|||drer
urder ||e W||| (||ey sp||| |o|a| g|ver |o ||ds)
o |l T |ad 1+ ||ds W|er |e execu|ed ||e W||| (so a| |eas| ore Was a||ve a|ready) ard ||e W||| d|d N0T
dev|se proper|y |o ||e ||er-||v|rg c|||drer, ||er ||e pre|err|||ed c|||d ard ||e c|||d ||a| Was a|ready ||v|rg a||
ge| ro|||rg.
o T|e l|rs| |Wo app|y |l. (1) || appears lror ||e W||| ||a| ||e or|ss|or Was |r|er||ora| or (2) T prov|ded lor
||e or|||ed c|||d oy |rarsler ou|s|de W||| ||a| Was rear| |o oe |es|arer|ary |r ra|ure
Eray (. Eray
o Jo|r ard |ary are rarr|ed ard |ad a W||| ||a| gave a|| ||s es|a|e |o W|le
o lad |Wo c|||drer a| ||a| ||re lror aro||er rarr|age
o lad a oaoy al|er ||e W||| ard d|vorced ||e ror
o Jac| oe||eves ||a| |e Was ur|r|er||ora||y |el| ou| ol W|||
o C|,
used 43-8-91 (2) - |l a |es|a|or la||s |o prov|de |r ||s W||| lor ary ol ||s c|||drer oorr . ||e
or|||ed c|||d rece|ves a s|are ol ||e es|a|e equa| |r va|ue |o ||e W||c| |e Wou|d |ave rece|ved
|l |e d|ed |r|es|a|e ur|ess
2) W|er ||e W||| Was execu|ed ||e |es|a|or |ad ore or rore c|||drer ard dev|sed
suos|ar||a||y a|| ||s es|a|e |o ||e o||er parer| ol ||e or|||ed c|||d.
bead ||e s|a|u|e ard d|dr'| a||oW ||e |r|er||arce
l. 533-
o lrerer||ed |ssue
o Nl- Ne|| Was d|s|r|er||ed ard || exc|uded ||er a|so
|os| jur|sd|c||ors do ro| do |||s
0e|s |oo |ard |o ascer|a|r ||e |es|a|or's |r|er|
Fx|o|| 21 ques||ors
TPB* B?4:
o (A) |l T |as 1+ ||ds W|er |e execu|es ||s |as| W||| (so at least one was 5orn already) ard ro prov|s|or |s
rade lor ||a| c|||d or ary ||v|rg c|||d, ||e pre|err|||ed c|||d ge|s ||e por||or ol separa|e & corrur||y proper|y
c|||d Wou|d |ave go||er |l T d|ed |r|es|a|e W|o a surv|v|rg spouse (ge|||rg or|y ||a| por||or ol ||s es|a|e ro|
dev|sed or oequea||ed |o ||e parer| ol ||e pre|err|||ed c|||d).
ll ||v|rg c|||d |s ro| prov|ded lor |r ||e W|||, ||er ||e c|||d oorr al|er ||e W||| Was
execu|ed (|.e. ||e pre|err|||ed c|||d) ge|s ar |r|es|a|e s|are as |l ||e spouse d|ed ard ||e o|der c|||d
ge|s ro|||rg. lresurp||or T cu| o|der c|||d ou|.
lage 124 ol 190
o (8) |l T |as 1+ ||ds W|er |e execu|es ||s |as| W||| (so at least one was 5orn already) ard |e prov|ded
lor a| |eas| ore ol ||er |r ||e W|||, ||er ||e c|||d oorr al|er ||e W||| Was execu|ed (|.e. ||e pre|err|||ed c|||d)
sp|||s ||e arour| FvFNl W| All ||e c|||drer W|o Were prov|ded lor |r ||e W|||.
ll T d|dr'| prov|de lor ore ||d ||a| Was a|ready ||v|rg a| ||e ||re ol W||| execu||or- ||a| ||d |s
cu| ou| & o||er ||ds W||| sp||| ||.
o (C) |l T |as ro c|||d ||v|rg W|er |e execu|es ||s |as| W||| (so they weren=t 5orn yet), ||e pre|err|||ed c|||d
ge|s ||e por||or ol separa|e & corrur||y proper|y c|||d Wou|d |ave go||er |l T d|ed |r|es|a|e W|o a surv|v|rg
spouse (ge|||rg or|y ||a| por||or ol ||s es|a|e ro| dev|sed or oequea||ed |o ||e parer| ol ||e pre|err|||ed
A|| ||ds oorr al|er W||| Was execu|ed sp||| |r|es|a|e s|are as |l ro surv|v|rg spouse. (rus|
prov|de lor spouse l|rs|!)
lage 125 ol 190
Texas Probate *ode B ?4. Pretermitted *hild
(a) w|erever a pre|err|||ed c|||d |s ro| rer||ored |r ||e |es|a|or's W|||, prov|ded lor |r ||e |es|a|or's W|||, or o||erW|se prov|ded lor oy ||e
|es|a|or, ||e pre|err|||ed c|||d s|a|| succeed |o a por||or ol ||e |es|a|or's es|a|e as prov|ded oy 3uosec||or (a)(1) or (a)(2) ol |||s sec||or.
(1) ll ||e |es|a|or |as ore or rore c|||drer ||v|rg W|er |e execu|es ||s |as| W|||, ard.
(A) No prov|s|or |s rade ||ere|r lor ary suc| c|||d, a pre|err|||ed c|||d succeeds |o ||e por||or ol ||e |es|a|or's separa|e
ard corrur||y es|a|e |o W||c| ||e pre|err|||ed c|||d Wou|d |ave oeer er||||ed pursuar| |o 38(a) ol |||s code |ad ||e |es|a|or d|ed
|r|es|a|e W|||ou| a surv|v|rg spouse oWr|rg or|y ||a| por||or ol ||s es|a|e ro| dev|sed or oequea||ed |o ||e parer| ol ||e pre|err|||ed
(8) lrov|s|or, W|e||er ves|ed or cor||rger|, |s rade ||ere|r lor ore or rore ol suc| c|||drer, a pre|err|||ed c|||d |s
er||||ed |o s|are |r ||e |es|a|or's es|a|e as lo||oWs.
(|) T|e por||or ol ||e |es|a|or's es|a|e |o W||c| ||e pre|err|||ed c|||d |s er||||ed |s ||r||ed |o ||e d|spos|||or rade |o c|||drer
urder ||e W|||.
(||) T|e pre|err|||ed c|||d s|a|| rece|ve suc| s|are ol ||e |es|a|or's es|a|e, as ||r||ed |r 3uoparagrap| (|), as |e Wou|d |ave
rece|ved |ad ||e |es|a|or |rc|uded a|| pre|err|||ed c|||drer W||| ||e c|||drer upor W|or oerel||s Were corlerred urder ||e
W|||, ard g|ver ar equa| s|are ol suc| oerel||s |o eac| suc| c|||d (|||)To ||e ex|er| ||a| || |s leas|o|e, ||e |r|eres| ol ||e
pre|err|||ed c|||d |r ||e |es|a|or's es|a|e s|a|| oe ol ||e sare c|arac|er, W|e||er ar equ||ao|e or |ega| ||le es|a|e or |r lee, as
||e |r|eres| ||a| ||e |es|a|or corlerred upor ||s c|||drer urder ||e W|||.
ll ||e |es|a|or |as ro c|||d ||v|rg W|er |e execu|es ||s |as| W|||, ||e pre|err|||ed c|||d succeeds |o ||e por||or ol ||e |es|a|or's separa|e ard
corrur||y es|a|e |o W||c| ||e pre|err|||ed c|||d Wou|d |ave oeer er||||ed pursuar| |o 38(a) ol |||s code |ad ||e |es|a|or d|ed |r|es|a|e
W|||ou| a surv|v|rg spouse oWr|rg or|y ||a| por||or ol ||s es|a|e ro| dev|sed or oequea||ed |o ||e parer| ol ||e pre|err|||ed c|||d.
(o) T|e pre|err|||ed c|||d ray recover ||e s|are ol ||e |es|a|or's es|a|e |o W||c| |e |s er||||ed e|||er lror ||e o||er c|||drer urder 3uosec||or
(a)(1)(8) or ||e |es|arer|ary oerel|c|ar|es urder 3uosec||ors (a)(1)(A) ard (a)(2) o||er ||ar ||e parer| ol ||e pre|err|||ed c|||d, ra|ao|y, ou|
ol ||e por||ors ol suc| es|a|e pass|rg |o suc| persors urder ||e W|||. lr aoa||rg ||e |r|eres|s ol suc| oerel|c|ar|es, ||e c|arac|er ol ||e
|es|arer|ary p|ar adop|ed oy ||e |es|a|or s|a|| oe preserved |o ||e rax|rur ex|er| poss|o|e.
(c) A pre|err|||ed c|||d, as used |r |||s sec||or, rears a c|||d ol a |es|a|or W|o, dur|rg ||e ||le||re ol ||e |es|a|or, or al|er ||s dea||, |s oorr or
adop|ed al|er ||e execu||or ol ||e W||| ol ||e |es|a|or.
(d) lor ||e purposes ol |||s sec||or, a c|||d |s prov|ded lor or a prov|s|or |s rade lor a c|||d |l a d|spos|||or ol proper|y |o or lor ||e oerel|| ol ||e
pre|err|||ed c|||d, W|e||er ves|ed or cor||rger|, |s rade.
(1) |r ||e |es|a|or's W|||, |rc|ud|rg a dev|se or oeques| |o a |rus|ee as au||or|zed oy 58(a) ol |||s code, or
(2) ou|s|de ||e |es|a|or's W||| ard |s |r|erded |o |a|e ellec| a| ||e |es|a|or's dea||.
Texas law on attorney accidentally disinheriting
lr|erded oerel|c|ary carro| sue a||orrey |r |or| lor screW|rg up W||| ard |radver|er||y d|s|r|er|||rg |er (ou| car
|r ros| s|a|es)
)niform Probate *ode
B 0-,@0. Cmitted *hildren.
(a) Fxcep| as prov|ded |r suosec||or (o), |l a |es|a|or la||s |o prov|de |r ||s [or |er| W||| lor ary ol ||s [or |er| c|||drer oorr or adop|ed al|er ||e
execu||or ol ||e W|||, ||e or|||ed al|er-oorr or al|er-adop|ed c|||d rece|ves a s|are |r ||e es|a|e as lo||oWs.
ll ||e |es|a|or |ad ro c|||d ||v|rg W|er |e [or s|e| execu|ed ||e W|||, ar or|||ed al|er-oorr or al|er-adop|ed c|||d rece|ves a s|are |r ||e
es|a|e equa| |r va|ue |o ||a| W||c| ||e c|||d Wou|d |ave rece|ved |ad ||e |es|a|or d|ed |r|es|a|e, ur|ess ||e W||| dev|sed a|| or
suos|ar||a||y a|| ol ||e es|a|e |o ||e o||er parer| ol ||e or|||ed c|||d ard ||a| o||er parer| surv|ves ||e |es|a|or ard |s er||||ed |o |a|e
urder ||e W|||.
ll ||e |es|a|or |ad ore or rore c|||drer ||v|rg W|er |e [or s|e| execu|ed ||e W|||, ard ||e W||| dev|sed proper|y or ar |r|eres| |r proper|y |o
ore or rore ol ||e ||er-||v|rg c|||drer, ar or|||ed al|er-oorr or al|er-adop|ed c|||d |s er||||ed |o s|are |r ||e |es|a|or's es|a|e as lo||oWs.
(|) T|e por||or ol ||e |es|a|or's es|a|e |r W||c| ||e or|||ed al|er-oorr or al|er-adop|ed c|||d |s er||||ed |o s|are |s
||r||ed |o dev|ses rade |o ||e |es|a|or's ||er-||v|rg c|||drer urder ||e W|||.
(||) T|e or|||ed al|er-oorr or al|er-adop|ed c|||d |s er||||ed |o rece|ve ||e s|are ol ||e |es|a|or's es|a|e, as ||r||ed |r
suoparagrap| (|), ||a| ||e c|||d Wou|d |ave rece|ved |ad ||e |es|a|or |rc|uded a|| or|||ed al|er-oorr ard al|er-adop|ed c|||drer
W||| ||e c|||drer |o W|or dev|ses Were rade urder ||e W||| ard |ad g|ver ar equa| s|are ol ||e es|a|e |o eac| c|||d.
(|||) To ||e ex|er| leas|o|e, ||e |r|eres| grar|ed ar or|||ed al|er-oorr or al|er-adop|ed c|||d urder |||s sec||or rus| oe
ol ||e sare c|arac|er, W|e||er equ||ao|e or |ega|, preser| or lu|ure, as ||a| dev|sed |o ||e |es|a|or's ||er-||v|rg c|||drer urder ||e
(|v) lr sa||sly|rg a s|are prov|ded oy |||s paragrap|, dev|ses |o ||e |es|a|or's c|||drer W|o Were ||v|rg W|er ||e W|||
Was execu|ed aoa|e ra|ao|y. lr aoa||rg ||e dev|ses ol ||e ||er-||v|rg c|||drer, ||e cour| s|a|| preserve |o ||e rax|rur ex|er|
poss|o|e ||e c|arac|er ol ||e |es|arer|ary p|ar adop|ed oy ||e |es|a|or.
(o) Ne|||er suosec||or (a)(1) ror suosec||or (a)(2) app||es |l.
lage 12" ol 190
(1) || appears lror ||e W||| ||a| ||e or|ss|or Was |r|er||ora|, or
||e |es|a|or prov|ded lor ||e or|||ed al|er-oorr or al|er-adop|ed c|||d oy |rarsler ou|s|de ||e W||| ard ||e |r|er| ||a| ||e |rarsler oe |r ||eu ol
a |es|arer|ary prov|s|or |s s|oWr oy ||e |es|a|or's s|a|erer|s or |s reasorao|y |rlerred lror ||e arour| ol ||e |rarsler or o||er ev|derce.
(c) ll a| ||e ||re ol execu||or ol ||e W||| ||e |es|a|or la||s |o prov|de |r ||s [or |er| W||| lor a ||v|rg c|||d so|e|y oecause |e [or s|e| oe||eves ||e
c|||d |o oe dead, ||e c|||d |s er||||ed |o s|are |r ||e es|a|e as |l ||e c|||d Were ar or|||ed al|er-oorr or al|er-adop|ed c|||d.
(d) lr sa||sly|rg a s|are prov|ded oy suosec||or (a)(1), dev|ses rade oy ||e W||| aoa|e urder 3ec||or 3-902.
lage 12# ol 190
# married 8D ;ill made in &33 before had AN: !idsD then the t;o !ids ;ere bornD A in 0@@@ and B in 0@@0. T
dies in 0@@? lea(in$ a ;ill ;> S-@@! to 8. %est of estate totals S.! 'P.
Texas: w ge|s $100| per ||e W|||. A ge|s $2,500, 8 ge|s $2,500. 0|s|r|ou|e res| as |l |r|es|a|e W|o surv|v|rg
$%!: w ge|s every|||rg o|c |el| suos|ar||a||y a|| es|a|e |o |er, s|e's parer| ol surv|v|rg ||d ard w Wou|d |a|e
W|o|e arour| urder |r|es|acy aryWay.
'ame hypo as abo(eD but assume A ;as born in &31D a year before the ;ill ;as executed.
Texas: 8 ge|s W|o|e $5|, presurp||or ||a| cu| A oll purposelu||y, A ge|s 0
$%!. A ge|s 0, 8 ge|s 0 s|rce 0 Was g|ver |o A
8hat if T left S-.@@ to A in his ;ill<
Texas. A ge|s 50 cer|s ard 8 ge|s 50 cer|s
ulC. sare resu||, A ge|s 50 cer|s ard 8 ge|s 50 cer|s
urder oo||, s|are ol c|||drer |s ||r||ed |o W|a| ||ey Wou|d |ave go||er urder ||e W|||, sp||| W|a| Was g|ver |o ||e
c|||drer. ll you War| |o cu| your ||ds oll |r a W||| - oes| |o |eave ||er a do||ar! ll |eave rorey |o o|der c|||d, a|| c|||drer W|||
sp||| ||a| arour| ol rorey.
P.51- Problem ,:
$15,000 d|v|ded oy 2 c|||drer, ||er ||ere |s aro||er c|||d,so d|v|de arorg 3 = $5000.
$10,000 |o A, $5,000 |o 8 = see ||a| A ge|s 2|3, 8 ge|s 1|3. Add |o|a| = 15000. C ge|s 1|3 ol ||a|. T|er |a|e ||e
rera|r|rg por||or ard d|v|de ||a| so ||a| A ge|s 2|3 ol $10K ard 8 ge|s 1|3.
$I@@ERECE .ET9EE T= /$ -PC
#ypo: B ?4 TAP*7$et portion of T&s estate that they ;ould ha(e $otten if T died intestate ;>no sur(i(in$
spouse. 9istribute S.@@ to child instead of to the sister.
ulC lo||oWs ||e *onduit theory. ll T |eaves every|||rg |o ||e parer| ol ||e c|||d, ||er parer| |a|es care ol ||e c|||dNo|
so urder TX |aW.
Aro||er (rore |rpor|ar|) 0|llererce. A oorr oelore W||| execu|ed. T |el| ro|||rg |o A. urder ||e ulC, 3, c|||d oorr
al|er ||e W|||'s execu||or Wou|d ge| W|a|, |l ary|||rg?
o ulC. ll ro|||rg g|ver |o o||er ||ds, ||er al|er-oorr pre|err|||ed c|||d |a|es ro|||rg. ( 2-302 doesr'|
rer||or |||s, ou| Ta|e says ||'s |r a correr|. (Assures ||a| |l W||| |el| ro|||rg |o ||ds, ||a| T d|dr'| War| ||ds
|o ge| ary|||rg.)
o TX. 0e|s por||or ol es|a|e ro| dev|sed |o ||e parer| ol ||e pre|err|||ed c|||d. (Assures ||a| |l W||| |el|
ro|||rg |o ex|s||rg ||ds, ||er s|||| r|g|| |ave War|ed |o g|ve sore|||rg |o o||er ||ds.)
ll you |ave ar |||eg|||ra|e ||d ||a| you War| |o d|s|r|er||, you s|ou|d accorp||s| ||a| ||roug| |r|er v|vos |rarslers
(revocao|e |rus|).
lage 12$ ol 190
AQcunce (. /state
Florida *ourt of AppealD Third 9istrictD -33-
.1? 'o.0d -0-?
lACT3. T Wro|e cod|c||s, ore oelore daug||er Was oorr ard ore al|er. 0aug||er |s cu| ou| o|c ||e cod|c|| revo|ed
W|||, cu|||rg c|||d ou| = |radver|er| exc|us|or ol ||d
l33uF. w|e||er a c|||d oorr al|er |er la||er's W||| Was execu|ed grar||rg a |rus| |o 3 o||er ||v|rg c|||drer, ou| oelore
a cod|c|| |s execu|ed |s er||||ed |o |a|e a s|a|u|ory s|are ol |er la||er's es|a|e.
l0l0lN0. No. 0r|y pre|err|||ed a| ||re ol W||| ard l|rs| cod|c|| (W|er s|||| uroorr), ou| ro| W|er secord cod|c||
o l33uF #2. w|e||er T's execu||or ol ||e 2d cod|c|| |o ||e W||| al|er l's o|r|| des|royed |er pre|err|||ed c|||d
o l0l0lN0. F3. 8|c T d|d ro| prov|de lor l |r ||e 2d cod|c||, s|e Was d|s|r|er||ed.
l argues ||a| 1) ||e cod|c||s are aro|guous & c| s|ou|d |ave |e| |r paro| ev|derce, ard 2) s|ou|d oe vo|d lor
o C| s|oo|s ||ese doWr o|c l|rs|, ||ere's ro aro|gu||y ard secord, |||s |sr'| ||e ||rd ol r|s|a|e ||a| vo|ds a
0l3l03lTl0N. All|rrs |oWer cour|.
0oc|r|re ||a| |s caus|rg a proo|er. bepuo||ca||or oy cod|c||||e er||re W||| |s re-execu|ed al|er ||e daug||er's o|r||
o|c ol ||e cod|c|| (or|rgs every|||rg lorWard |r ||re).
A||orrey la||ed |o Warr T aoou| W|a| Wou|d |apper W|er |e execu|ed ||e cod|c||.
Cour| app||es ||e l|a|r |ear|rg bu|esays ||ere's ro aro|gu||y.
Ta|e says resu|| s|ou|d |ave oeer ||a| daug||er go| sore|||rg, 0oesr'| |||r| T Wou|d |ave |el| ou| a 2 yr-o|d ||d
In re /state of "aura
'upreme *ourt of Ne; #ampshireD -334
-5- N.#. ?01D ?3@ A.0d -@--
Facts: 0|s|r|er||ed ||e c|||drer ol ||s dead daug||er (||s grard||ds). 0rard||ds |ry|rg |o |rc|ude se|ves
as pre|err|||ed c|||drer. w||| |el| every|||rg |o ||e surv|v|rg daug||er.
l33uF. were ||e T's grea|-grard||ds pre|err|||ed |e|rs?
Holdin": No. 8|c T gave |o ||e|r ro||er, ||e grardc|||drer are oarred. Nar|rg ore |e|r |r ar ellor| |o
d|s|r|er|| |s sull|c|er| |o do so urder |||s s|a|u|e. T||s |s ar urusua| case s|rce || ex|erds ru|e |o a|| ||e |ssue
ol c|||drer, |.e. grardc|||drer. Note: If you disinherit one of your heirs U that is $ood enou$h to
disinherit the heirs& issue. Ta|e |||r|s |||s |s oad reasor|rg o|c peop|e ray lee| d|llerer| aoou| grard||ds
||ar ||ey do aoou| c|||drer.
ClA33. Fx|erds ||e ru|e |o l33uF ol c|||drer (descerder|s) ard sore||res |rc|udes ||ds W|o Were
a||ve W|er ||e W||| Was execu|ed.
o w|a| Wou|d |ave |appered |l ||e W||| gave sore s|ull |o sore ol ||e ||ds ol ||e grard||ds, ou|
ro| o||ers? Assure ||a| a|| s|ou|d |ave oeer prov|ded lor, or do you assure ||a| T d|dr'| War| |o prov|de lor
||ose o||ers ro| rer||ored? Ta|e ro| sure |oW ||a| Wou|d Wor| ou|.
In re /state of Treloar7'e(en :ears after Laura
Facts: |o||er Was rer||ored a| ore po|r| |r ar ear||er W|||. 0rardc|||drer War|ed |o oe pre|err|||ed
c|||drer. Fxecu|or argued ||a| rer||or ol ||e sor-|r-|aW as execu|or (|r ||e W|||) |rd|rec||y relererced ro||er
ard s|ou|d oar ||e c|||drer. (s|oWs s|e Was do|rg || |r|er||ora||y)
Holdin": Cour| dec|ded oppos||e lror case aoove, grardc|||drer Were cors|dered pre|err|||ed c|||drer.
lage 129 ol 190
8y rar|rg sor-|r-|aW d|d ro| rear ||a| T War|ed |o cu| ||e lar||y oll. T d|dr'| all|rra||ve|y express
exc|us|or, cour| sa|d ||a| T War|ed ||er |o |a|e|l |e |adr'|, |e Wou|d |ave sa|d so.
lage 130 ol 190
A. Introduction Caseooo|. 295-98
on!probate transfers and planning for incapacity
Nor-prooa|e asse|s pass a| dea|| urder ar |rs|rurer| o||er ||ar a W|||. As suc|, ||ey are ro| suojec| |o
o F.g., jo|r| |erarc|es, ||le |rsurarce, pers|or accour|s, jo|r| accour|s, revocao|e |rus|s, cor|rac|s W|
payao|e or dea|| prov|s|ors, erp|oyee oerel|| p|ars, |rd|v|dua| re||rerer| accour|s, |r|eres|s |r |rus|.
T|e ellec| |eeps proper|y ol a persor's es|a|e.
Nor-prooa|e |rarslers are ar |rpor|ar| par| ol es|a|e p|arr|rg o|c ||ey prov|de We|lare lor o||er peop|e's ||ves
B. Pure 8ill 'ubstitutes
9ill 'ubstitutes
lerlec| or rass W||| suos|||u|es
o beserves corp|e|e dor|r|or |o oWrer, W|o |as ||e oWrer |o dec|de W|o ge|s ||e proper|y ur||| ||e|r
o Trarslers are asse| spec|l|c
o Types. ||le |rsurarce, pers|or accour|s, jo|r| accour|s, revocao|e |rus|s
o ou re|a|r a|| cor|ro| dur|rg your ||le||re, |rc|ud|rg ao||||y |o c|arge oerel|c|ar|es ur||| dea||.
lrperlec| W||| suos|||u|es
o Types. jo|r| |erarc|es
o Carro| jus| c|arge a| your d|scre||or.
1. bevocao|e Trus|s & lour-0ver w|||s lage 299-322, Fx. 1oA
Revocable Trusts &a%a Inter Civos Trusts(
3epara||or ol |ega| ard equ||ao|e ||||e
o lega| ||||e. w||| |rus|ee
o Fqu||ao|e ||||e. w||| oerel|c|ar|es (lor W|ose oerel|| ||e proper|y |s oe|rg raraged oy ||e |rus|ee)
o |arages ||e |rus|. 3e|||or (or |rus|or)
be|a|rs ||e poWer |o revo|e|arerd ||e |rus|.
Fqu||ao|e ||||e |s |r ||e oerel|c|ar|es W|||e ||e |ega| ||||e |s |r ||e |rus|ee (|||s |s oased or o|d Cl W|ere ||ere Was
a d|s||rc||or o|W cour|s ol equ||y ard cour|s ol Cl).
Trus|ee rarages ||e proper|y or oe|a|l ol ||e oerel|c|ar|es ard oWes cer|a|r du||es |o ||er.
Revoca5le trust v. other trusts. se|||or |as ||e r|g|| |o revo|e or arerd ||e |rus| |o rece|ve |rus| |rcore
uTC. a||oWs a |rus| |o oe revo|ed |r ary rarrer ||a| prov|ded CCF ol |r|er| |o revo|e, ur|ess ||e |rus| spec|l|es
Texas. Trus| rus| oe revocao|e |r Wr|||rg ur|ess ||e |rus| prov|des o||erW|se. (A|so, sare persor car'| oe |rus|ee
ard so|e oerel|c|ary)
Cred||ors ru|e. Cred||or car reac| asse|s ol ||e deceased settlor |l (1) ||e se|||or |ad cor|ro| over ||e asse|s
dur|rg ||s ||le ard (2) ||e deo| carro| oe sa||sl|ed ou| ol ||e deceder|'s es|a|e. (ro| 5ene#iciary=s cred||ors)
o lorrs ||a| are ro| suojec| |o cred||ors' c|a|rs. ||le |rsurarce, proper|y |r jo|r| |erarcy, asse|s |r ar
irrevoca5le |rus| (W||c| |s |rea|ed ||e sare as a ||le||re g|l|). loWever, |l se|||or crea|es ar |rrevocao|e
|rus| al|er |a||rg ou| a |oar, ||e asse|s ray oe reac|ao|e |l ||e |rus| Was rade |o delraud cred||ors.
lage 131 ol 190
Advanta"es ol a revocao|e |rus|. car prov|de lor |rcorpe|ercy (W||| or|y |a|es ellec| a| dea|| ard car'|
dea| W| |ea||| cor||rgerc|es)
-isadvanta"es ol a revocao|e |rus|. Carro| |rarsler proper|y you |aver'| acqu|red ye| ||roug| a |rus| - |||s
reeds |o oe dore W| a pour-over W|||
%e(ocable Trust and 9i(orce Texas s|a|u|e revo|es ar |r|eres| ol a spouse |r a revocao|e |rus| es|ao||s|ed oy ||e
o||er spouse, upor d|vorce. or|y covers Wr|||er revocao|e |rus|s.
)se of %e(ocable Trust to plan for Incompetence
bevocao|e |rus| car oe used |o |e|p rarage lor |rcorpe|ercy ol ||e se|||er||rus|ee||es|a|or..
8y appo|r||rg aro||er |rus|ee
ues||or|lssue |s |oW do you de|err|re |rcorpe|erce
o 8y a p|ys|c|ar
o 8y urar|rous corser| ol ||e lar||y reroers
o No prov|s|or, oy corser| ol ||e |rus|ee..
Pour!over wills &P"9(
lour-over W|||. Cor|er|s ol ||e W||| are poured over |r|o a |rus|. 0ev|ses ||e es|a|e |r|o a |rus|. usua||y goes |r|o ||e
res|duary c|ause. 0|ve es|a|e |o ||e |rus|ee ol ||e X |rus| |o oe |e|d urder ||e |errs ol ||a| |rus|. 0|s||rc||or |o draW. l0w
(goes |r|o |r|er v|vos |rus|) vs. a |es|arer|ary |rus| (|rus| crea|ed oy ||e W|||). Cou|d say |r ||e W|||, `l |ereoy crea|e ||e X
|rus| W||| |||s proper|y.'
o A oeques| |o a pour over W||| |s |rea|ed jus| a oeques| |o a persor |r ||e W|||.
o T|eor|es |o jus||ly.
0oc|r|re ol incorporation by reference: 3epara|e |rs|rurer| rares oerel|c|ar|es, ||e W||| |s
|rc. ||a| oy relererce.
0oc|r|re ol ac|s ol |rdeperder| s|gr|l|carce.
o Fvery s|a|e a||oWs lor l0ws. 3ore |ave d|spersed W||| ||e requ|rerer| ||a| ||e |rus| rus| oe |r
ex|s|erce W|er ||e W||| |s execu|ed.
o ll. 0or'| War| peop|e |o |roW W|a| you |ad ard W|a| you gave |o W|or (e.g. Jo|r lerror).
w||| ||a| |rarslers proper|y |r|o a |rus| created in the T=s li#etime | |r|o ar existin" trust.
o ll ||e |rus| Was es|ao||s|ed 5y the will, ||a| |s ca||ed a `|es|arer|ary |rus|.'
o ou Wr||e ||e |rus| ard ||er Wr||e ||e W||| or v|ce versa
o lour-overs |o urlurded |rus|s are o|ay - car a|so dev|se proper|y |o peop|e W|o are ro| oorr ye|
T|eor|es ol W|||s |aW used |o jus||ly pour-over W|||s.
o ou r|g|| War| a |rus| dur|rg your ||le||re |o ellec| a ror-prooa|e |rarsler or |o rarage cer|a|r
proper|y, you dor'| War| |o pu| every|||rg |r|o ||e |rus| |r ||le o|c you W||| War| sore cor|ro| over sore
ol your asse|s dur|rg ||le. A|so, you ray War| |o |rarsler prop you |aver'| acqu|red ye| W||| a pour-over
W|||. (Car'| do ||a| W||| a |rus|)
ou car ro| execu|e a deed ol |rus| ||a| |rarslers a|| al|er acqu|red proper|y or ary al|er acqu|red proper|y. car
ro| |rarsler proper|y |o ||e |rus| ||a| you |ave ro| ye| acqu|red. ou| you car do |||s v|a a pour over W|||.
beasors lor crea||rg a l0w
o 0or'| War| |o |ave |o |eep |rarslerr|rg every|||rg |r|o ||e |rus| W|er you acqu|re proper|yWar| jus| |o
say ||a| W|a|ever |s |el| over |r ||e erd goes |r|o ||e |rus|. Car'| |rarsler proper|y |r|o ||e |rus| ||a| you
|aver'| acqu|red ye|. Carro| say ||a| you're go|rg |o lurd |||s W||| sore proper|y ||a| l'r go|rg |o
acqu|re |ororroW|ave |o corvey ||e proper|y al|er acqu|red. T|e l0w a||oWs you |o pour over W|a|
|s |el| |r ||e es|a|e |r|o a |rus| al|er you d|e.
8ndependent si"ni#icance. |rus| |as |rdeperder| s|gr|l|carce |l asse|s are |rarslerred |o |rus| dur|rg ||le
8ncorporation 5y re#erence: W||| car |rcorpora|e ||e |rus| |r a s|a|e ||a| recogr|zes |||s doc|r|re
Arerdrer|s urder ulC. car ora||y arerd |r|er-v|vos |rus||pour-over W|||-ellec||ve|y crea|es ora| W|||.
lage 132 ol 190
/xample: 0 se|s up a revocao|e |r|er v|vos |rus| rar|rg X as |rus|ee. 0 |rarslers |o X, as |rus|ee, ||s s|oc|s
ard oords. 0 ||er execu|es a W||| dev|s|rg ||e res|due ol ||s es|a|e |o X, as |rus|ee, |o |o|d urder ||e |errs ol
||e |r|er v|vos |rus|. T|e pour-over oy W||| ol prooa|e asse|s |r|o ar |r|er v|vos |rus| |s a uselu| dev|ce W|ere 0
War|s |o es|ao||s| ar |r|er v|vos |rus| ol sore ol ||s asse|s ard War|s |o rerge al|er ||s dea|| ||s |es|arer|ary
es|a|e, |rsurarce proceeds, ard o||er asse|s |r|o a s|rg|e recep|ac|e suojec| |o ur|l|ed |rus| adr|r|s|ra||or.
lage 133 ol 190
Texas Law on Revocable Trusts and Pour!"ver 9ills
3e|||or car re|a|r ||e r|g|| |o arerd or revo|e |rus|. loWever, sare persor carro| oe |rus|ee ard so|e
To revo|e a Wr|||er |rus|, ||ere rus| oe a Wr|||rg ur|ess || prov|ded ar a||erra||ve rears ol revoca||or.
Tl8C o8(a) lour over-W|||s. T ray va||d|y dev|se or oequea|| proper|y |r a W||| |o a |rus| esta5lished or to 5e
esta5lished durin" the T=s li#etime
Arerdrer|s. car or|y arerd ar |r|er-v|vos |rus|| pour-over W||| |r Wr|||rg (ou| |||s car oe overr|dder oy
|arguage |r ||e |rus| |rs|rurer| - ellec||ve|y crea|es ar ora| W|||!)
TX lrooa|e Code 58A - does ro| requ|re ||e |rus| |o oe es|ao||s|ed, car oe es|ao||s|ed al|er execu||or,
express|y au||or|zes pour-over |r|o urlurded |rus|s (|ec|r|ca||y ro| |r ex|s|erce a| ||e ||re ol dea||, oecause
||ey |ac| proper|y
Problem G0D p.,-0
Aunt Fanny executes a ;ill pourin$ o(er all of her property into the trust.
#o; ;ill property be distributed<
o ulC. Accord|rg |o ||e |rus| |rs|rurer| (|r Wr|||rg). 8u| arerdrer|s car |a|e ary lorr.
o TX. 3|r||ar |o ulC, ou| |l ||e |rus| |s |r Wr|||rg, ||e ardr|s |ave |o oe |r Wr|||rg ur|ess ||e |rus|
spec|l|es o||erW|se. lr |||s case, ||e |rus| says || car oe arerded oy ar ora| corrur|ca||or, so ||e
|errs ol ||e |rus| |a|e precederce over ||e s|a|u|e o|c ||e s|a|u|e |s jus| a delau|| ru|e. Cou|d crea|e ar
ora| W||| |l you crea|e a |rus| ||a| says ||a| you car crea|e ora| arerdrer|s. `lr|eres||rg resu||,' says
Ta|e, ou| `ro| a good |dea' |o a||oW ora| rod|l|ca||ors |o a |rus| o|c ra|ses proo|ers ol r|surders|ard|rg
|l |rus|ee |s corlused as |o W|a| ||e requ|rerer|s Were. loss|o||||y ol lraud.
was rero lourd a| dea|| a corrur|ca||or |o w?
o Fs|a|e ol K|r| (lda|o 1995) says ||a| c| s|ou|d g|ve ellec| |o ||e rero, ou| |||s rero Wasr'| |rc|uded.
Problem G0D p.,-.
Pablo executes an unfunded inter (i(os trust namin$ /duardo as beneficiary. Pablo executes pour-o(er ;ill.
The ;ill states that if there is a contest of the ;illD then the contestor disclaims any benefit. Pablo amends the
trust and names +aria as beneficiary. /duardo fi$hts the amendment statin$ that Pablo lac!ed mental capacity.
8hat result<
9aria is "oin" to claim that !lim5er rules and that the pro5ate rules and wills act ma6e the will apply to the trust.
1duardo is "oin" to ar"ue that the ;ill and Trust are separate documents, so the JclausesK o# the will do not all apply to
the trust.
Far!as (. 8illiams
'upreme *ourt of IllinoisD -33.
. Ill.0d 5-4D -0. N./.0d ?@@
Facts: A|oer| lar|as crea|ed a |rus| cor|a|r|rg s|oc|s lor ||e oerel|| ol w||||ars. lar|as appo|r|ed ||rse|l
|rus|ee, ard re|a|red ||e poWer |o do ary|||rg reeded W||| ||e s|oc|. T|e |e|rs ol lar|as argued ||a| lar|as |ad
re|a|red so ruc| poWer W||| ||e s|oc| ||a| || Was ro| a |r|er v|vos |rus|. Trus| |ad cer|a|r `cor||rgerc|es' (lac|ua|
s||ua||ors) ||a| rus| ex|s| or ||e |rus| Wou|d oe revo|ed.
Holdin": Cour| lourd |r|er v|vos |rus|s, ro| a W||||ro| |es|arer|ary |rarslers. T|ese cor||rgerc|es s|oWed ||a|
||e |rus| rus| s|||| ex|s| al|er T's dea|| - so || cou|dr'| oe a W|||.
8ssue: w|er you |ave so rary cor||rgerc|es, d|d ||e |r|eres| pass |o w||||ars or ro|?
lo|d|rg. T|ere |s sore |r|eres| acqu|red, ou| ||'s a `rys|ery' |r|eres|.
o Su5'|ssue. 0oes se|||er re|a|r a|| |rc|der|s ol oWrers||p ||a| |e |ad |r ||e oeg|rr|rg?
Rule: Fver ||oug| ||e se|||er re|a|rs ||e[poWer |o revo|e ||e |rus| ard appo|r|s ||rse|l as |rus|ee, |l ||e
oerel|c|ary oo|a|rs ary |r|eres| |r ||e |rus| oelore ||e se|||er d|es, a va||d |r|er v|vos |rus| ray |ave oeer
No lraud or corvers|or o|c de|a||ed eroug| |o s|oW eroug| ev|derce ||a| T |reW W|a| |e Was do|rg.
lage 134 ol 190
ClA33. ou cou|d do |||s |rs|ead ol crea||rg a W|||. |a|e yourse|l ||e |rus|ee & se|||er ard rare your
o TX. sec. 112.033|a|es || o| |o do W|a| lar|as d|d.
In re /state and Trust of Pilafas
1,? P.0d 50@ 2AriQ. App. -3306
Facts: cou|dr'| l|rd T's W||| or ||s |rus| docurer|s
bu|e ol |aW & lo|d|rg. W||| |s revo|ed urder ||e Cl presurp||or, ou| ||e |rus| |s ro| revo|ed s|rce || |s present (ro| a
lu|ure) |rarsler
o ll. Car or|y revo|e a |rus| |l dore |r Wr|||rg. 8erel|c|ar|es are er||||ed |o re|y or ||e |rus| prov|s|ors
||a| s|a|e ||a| || car or|y oe revo|ed |r Wr|||rg.
o TX. arerdrer|, revoca||or, rod|l|ca||or rus| oe |r Wr|||rg uNlF33 ||e |rus| spec|l|es o||erW|se.
o uTC. lll bes|. 0l Trus|s. A||oWs T |o revo|e ary Way you War|, as |org as c|ear ard corv|rc|rg
ev|derce. Car prov|de o||erW|se |r ||e |rus| (|||e ||a| || |as |o oe revo|ed |r Wr|||rg).
'tate 'treet Ban! & Trust *o. (. %eiser
,13 N./.0d 4?1 2+ass. App. -3436
Facts. T |ad a |rus|. T |oo| ou| a |oar ||a| Was ro| secured lor $75|
l33uF. W|e||er ||e |rus| asse|s Were reac|ao|e oy ||e oar| al|er T's dea||. Car ||e cred||or reac| asse|s
|rarslerred |o ||e revocao|e |rus| al|er se|||er d|es?
%ule of la; & #oldin$. creditors can reach a trust to satisfy debts that ;ere not satisfied by the estate,
as lon" as T |ad ||e poWer |o arerd ard revo|e ||a| |rus| (|rus| |s par| ol prop ard reac|ao|e |o pay deo|s
o %easonin$. 8ecause se|||or |ad r|g|| |o cor|ro| ard c|arge dur|rg ||s ||le||re ard ||e deo| carro| oe
se|||ed ou|s|de ||e se|||or's es|a|e, ||er car go al|er ||e |rus|. 3|ou|dr'| |rea| |||s W||| suos|||u|e ary
d|llerer||y ||ar a W|||.
*limber (. +ayo
54, N./.0d -@15 2+ass. -31.6
0oes ||e T's suosequer| d|vorce revo|e ||e W||| ard ||e |rus|?
Holdin". d|vorce revo|ed ar |r|eres| |r ar |r|er v|vos |rus| W|er ||ere's a pour-over W||| s|rce ||e |rus| ard ||e
W||| are so correc|ed ||a| ||e sare ru|e |ad |o app|y |o ||e |rus| as We|| as ||e W||| (d|vorce revo|es W|||
prov|s|ors |o ar ex-spouse)
Texas. recer| |aW d|vorce revo|es a d|spos|||or rade |r lavor ol ar ex-spouse |r a revocao|e |rus|. T|e ex-
spouse rera|rs ||e oerel|c|ary ol ar |rrevocao|e |rus| or a revocao|e ora| |rus|.
o 4720or'| ra|e a revocao|e ora| |rus| |l you're corcerred aoou| d|vorce.
Advar|ages ol Trus|. lrov|de lor |rcapac||y|ave a successor |rus|ee. lu| ||e oar| accour| |r ||e rare ol ||e
|rus|, ||er successor |rus|ee car go |o ||e oar| ard |e|| ||er |o |e| you |r|o ||e oar| acc|.
o 0oc|or car dec|de. 0r say ||a| ||e se|||or's spouse & ||ds |ave poWer |o dec|de |l |e's |rcorpe|er|. 0r
say ro|||rg ard |ope ||a| se|||or W||| oe |a||ed |r|o res|gr|rg as |rus|ee.
Texas Probate *ode B .1A. 9e(ises or BeFuests to Trustees
(a) A |es|a|or ray va||d|y dev|se or oequea|| proper|y |r a W||| |o ||e |rus|ee ol a |rus| es|ao||s|ed or |o oe es|ao||s|ed.
dur|rg ||e |es|a|or's ||le||re oy ||e |es|a|or, oy ||e |es|a|or ard aro||er persor, or oy aro||er persor, |rc|ud|rg a lurded or urlurded
||le |rsurarce |rus|, |r W||c| ||e se|||or |as reserved ary or a|| r|g||s ol oWrers||p ol ||e |rsurarce cor|rac|s, or
a| ||e |es|a|or's dea|| oy ||e |es|a|or's dev|se or oeques| |o ||e |rus|ee, |l ||e |rus| |s |der||l|ed |r ||e |es|a|or's W||| ard ||s |errs are |r
a Wr|||er |rs|rurer|, o||er ||ar a W|||, ||a| |s execu|ed oelore, W|||, or al|er ||e execu||or ol ||e |es|a|or's W||| or |r aro||er persor's W|||
|l ||a| o||er persor |as predeceased ||e |es|a|or, regard|ess ol ||e ex|s|erce, s|ze, or c|arac|er ol ||e corpus ol ||e |rus|.
(o) A dev|se or oeques| |s ro| |rva||d oecause ||e |rus| |s arerdao|e or revocao|e or oecause ||e |rus| Was arerded al|er ||e execu||or ol ||e
W||| or ||e |es|a|or's dea||.
lage 135 ol 190
(c) ur|ess ||e |es|a|or's W||| prov|des o||erW|se, proper|y dev|sed or oequea||ed |o a |rus| descr|oed oy 3uosec||or (a) ol |||s sec||or |s ro| |e|d
urder a |es|arer|ary |rus| ol ||e |es|a|or. T|e proper|y oecores a par| ol ||e |rus| |o W||c| || |s dev|sed or oequea||ed ard rus| oe
adr|r|s|ered ard d|sposed ol |r accordarce W||| ||e prov|s|ors ol ||e |rs|rurer| es|ao||s||rg ||e |rus|, |rc|ud|rg ary arerdrer|s |o ||e
|rs|rurer| rade oelore or al|er ||e |es|a|or's dea||.
(d) ur|ess ||e |es|a|or's W||| prov|des o||erW|se, a revoca||or or |err|ra||or ol ||e |rus| oelore ||e |es|a|or's dea|| causes ||e dev|se or oeques|
|o |apse.
lage 13" ol 190
Texas Probate *ode B 540. %e(ocation of *ertain Nontestamentary Transfers on 9issolution of +arria$e
(a) Fxcep| as o||erW|se prov|ded oy a cour| order, ||e express |errs ol a |rus| |rs|rurer| execu|ed oy a d|vorced |rd|v|dua| oelore ||e |rd|v|dua|'s
rarr|age Was d|sso|ved, or ar express prov|s|or ol a cor|rac| re|a||rg |o ||e d|v|s|or ol ||e rar||a| es|a|e er|ered |r|o oe|Weer a d|vorced
|rd|v|dua| ard ||e |rd|v|dua|'s lorrer spouse oelore, dur|rg, or al|er ||e rarr|age, ||e d|sso|u||or ol ||e rarr|age revo|es ||e lo||oW|rg.
a revocao|e d|spos|||or or appo|r|rer| ol proper|y rade oy a d|vorced |rd|v|dua| |o ||e |rd|v|dua|'s lorrer spouse |r a |rus| |rs|rurer|
execu|ed oelore ||e d|sso|u||or ol ||e rarr|age,
a prov|s|or |r a |rus| |rs|rurer| execu|ed oy a d|vorced |rd|v|dua| oelore ||e d|sso|u||or ol ||e rarr|age ||a| corlers a gerera| or
spec|a| poWer ol appo|r|rer| or ||e |rd|v|dua|'s lorrer spouse, ard
a ror|ra||or |r a |rus| |rs|rurer| execu|ed oy a d|vorced |rd|v|dua| oelore ||e d|sso|u||or ol ||e rarr|age ||a| ror|ra|es ||e |rd|v|dua|'s
lorrer spouse |o serve |r a l|duc|ary or represer|a||ve capac||y, |rc|ud|rg as a persora| represer|a||ve, execu|or, |rus|ee, corserva|or,
ager|, or guard|ar.
(o) Al|er ||e d|sso|u||or ol a rarr|age, ar |r|eres| grar|ed |r a prov|s|or ol a |rus| |rs|rurer| ||a| |s revo|ed urder 3uosec||or (a)(1) or (2) ol
|||s sec||or passes as |l ||e lorrer spouse ol ||e d|vorced |rd|v|dua| W|o execu|ed ||e |rus| |rs|rurer| d|sc|a|red ||e |r|eres| grar|ed |r
||e prov|s|or, ard ar |r|eres| grar|ed |r a prov|s|or ol a |rus| |rs|rurer| ||a| |s revo|ed urder 3uosec||or (a)(3) ol |||s sec||or passes as |l
||e lorrer spouse d|ed |rred|a|e|y oelore ||e d|sso|u||or ol ||e rarr|age.
Texas Property *ode B --0.@@1. *apacity of Trustee
(a) T|e |rus|ee rus| |ave ||e |ega| capac||y |o |a|e, |o|d, ard |rarsler ||e |rus| proper|y. ll ||e |rus|ee |s a corpora||or, || rus| |ave ||e poWer
|o ac| as a |rus|ee |r |||s s|a|e.
(o) Fxcep| as prov|ded oy 112.034, ||e lac| ||a| ||e persor rared as |rus|ee |s a|so a oerel|c|ary does ro| d|squa||ly ||e persor lror ac||rg
as |rus|ee |l |e |s o||erW|se qua||l|ed.
(c) T|e se|||or ol a |rus| ray oe ||e |rus|ee ol ||e |rus|.
Texas Property *ode B --0.@,,. %eser(ation of Interests and Po;ers by 'ettlor
ll dur|rg ||e ||le ol ||e se|||or ar |r|eres| |r a |rus| or ||e |rus| proper|y |s crea|ed |r a oerel|c|ary o||er ||ar ||e se|||or, ||e d|spos|||or |s ro|
|rva||d as ar a||erp|ed |es|arer|ary d|spos|||or rere|y oecause ||e se|||or reserves or re|a|rs, e|||er |r ||rse|l or aro||er persor W|o |s ro|
||e |rus|ee, ary or a|| ol ||e o||er |r|eres|s |r or poWers over ||e |rus| or |rus| proper|y, suc| as.
(1) a oerel|c|a| ||le |r|eres| lor ||rse|l,
(2) ||e poWer |o revo|e, rod|ly, or |err|ra|e ||e |rus| |r W|o|e or |r par|,
(3) ||e poWer |o des|gra|e ||e persor |o W|or or or W|ose oe|a|l ||e |rcore or pr|rc|pa| |s |o oe pa|d or app||ed,
(4) ||e poWer |o cor|ro| ||e adr|r|s|ra||or ol ||e |rus| |r W|o|e or |r par|,
(5) ||e r|g|| |o exerc|se a poWer or op||or over proper|y |r ||e |rus| or over |r|eres|s rade payao|e |o ||e |rus| urder ar erp|oyee oerel|| p|ar,
||le |rsurarce po||cy, or o||erW|se, or
(o) ||e poWer |o add proper|y or cause add|||ora| erp|oyee oerel||s, ||le |rsurarce, or o||er |r|eres|s |o oe rade payao|e |o ||e |rus| a| ary ||re.
Texas Property *ode B --0.@,5. +er$er
(a) ll a se|||or |rarslers oo|| ||e |ega| ||||e ard a|| equ||ao|e |r|eres|s |r proper|y |o ||e sare persor or re|a|rs oo|| ||e |ega| ||||e ard a||
equ||ao|e |r|eres|s |r proper|y |r ||rse|l as oo|| ||e so|e |rus|ee ard ||e so|e oerel|c|ary, a |rus| |s ro| crea|ed ard ||e |rarsleree |o|ds ||e
proper|y as ||s oWr. T||s suo||||e does ro| |rva||da|e a |rus| accour| va||d|y crea|ed ard |r ellec| urder C|ap|er Xl, Texas lrooa|e Code.
(o) Fxcep| as prov|ded oy 3uosec||or (c) ol |||s sec||or, a |rus| |err|ra|es |l ||e |ega| ||||e |o ||e |rus| proper|y ard a|| equ||ao|e |r|eres|s |r ||e
|rus| oecore ur||ed |r ore persor.
(c) T|e ||||e |o |rus| proper|y ard a|| equ||ao|e |r|eres|s |r ||e |rus| proper|y ray ro| oecore ur||ed |r a oerel|c|ary, o||er ||ar ||e se|||or,
W|ose |r|eres| |s pro|ec|ed urder a sperd||r|l| |rus|, ard |r ||a| case ||e cour| s|a|| appo|r| a reW |rus|ee or co-|rus|ee |o adr|r|s|er ||e
|rus| lor ||e oerel|| ol ||e oerel|c|ary.
)niform Probate *ode B 0-.--. Testamentary Additions to Trusts.
(a) A W||| ray va||d|y dev|se proper|y |o ||e |rus|ee ol a |rus| es|ao||s|ed or |o oe es|ao||s|ed (|) dur|rg ||e |es|a|or's ||le||re oy ||e |es|a|or, oy
||e |es|a|or ard sore o||er persor, or oy sore o||er persor, |rc|ud|rg a lurded or urlurded ||le |rsurarce |rus|, a|||oug| ||e se|||or |as
reserved ary or a|| r|g||s ol oWrers||p ol ||e |rsurarce cor|rac|s, or (||) a| ||e |es|a|or's dea|| oy ||e |es|a|or's dev|se |o ||e |rus|ee, |l ||e
|rus| |s |der||l|ed |r ||e |es|a|or's W||| ard ||s |errs are se| lor|| |r a Wr|||er |rs|rurer|, o||er ||ar a W|||, execu|ed oelore, corcurrer||y W|||,
or al|er ||e execu||or ol ||e |es|a|or's W||| or |r aro||er |rd|v|dua|'s W||| |l ||a| o||er |rd|v|dua| |as predeceased ||e |es|a|or, regard|ess ol ||e
ex|s|erce, s|ze, or c|arac|er ol ||e corpus ol ||e |rus|. T|e dev|se |s ro| |rva||d oecause ||e |rus| |s arerdao|e or revocao|e, or oecause ||e
|rus| Was arerded al|er ||e execu||or ol ||e W||| or ||e |es|a|or's dea||.
(o) ur|ess ||e |es|a|or's W||| prov|des o||erW|se, proper|y dev|sed |o a |rus| descr|oed |r suosec||or (a) |s ro| |e|d urder a |es|arer|ary |rus| ol
||e |es|a|or, ou| || oecores a par| ol ||e |rus| |o W||c| || |s dev|sed, ard rus| oe adr|r|s|ered ard d|sposed ol |r accordarce W||| ||e
prov|s|ors ol ||e goverr|rg |rs|rurer| se|||rg lor|| ||e |errs ol ||e |rus|, |rc|ud|rg ary arerdrer|s ||ere|o rade oelore or al|er ||e
|es|a|or's dea||.
lage 13# ol 190
(c) ur|ess ||e |es|a|or's W||| prov|des o||erW|se, a revoca||or or |err|ra||or ol ||e |rus| oelore ||e |es|a|or's dea|| causes ||e dev|se |o |apse.
lage 13$ ol 190
2. layao|e-or-0ea|| Cor|rac|s
a. l|le lrsurarce Caseooo| 322-24, Fx||o|| 1o (Tl8C 450)
Life insurance
0u|s|de prooa|e sys|er
TWo ||rds ol ||le |rsurarce
o ;hole
w||| |ave a ||g|er prer|ur ard covers your W|o|e ||le
w||| oe `pa|d up' a| sore po|r|
w||| |ave a cas| surrerder va|ue (sav|rgs corporer| ol |||s po||cy)
No| a good |rves|rer| lror a sav|rgs perspec||ve
o Term
A| ||e erd ol ||e |err, you are ro |orger |rsured, ur|ess you rereW (|l ava||ao|e).
8es| lor a youn", |ea|||y persor.
Keep |r r|rd ||a| you ray ro| reed ||le |rsurarce al|er your c|||drer groW up (ro ore |o
corpersa|e |r case ol your dea||)
8ilhoit (. Peoples "ife Insurance *ompany
)nited 'tates *ourt of AppealsD 'e(enth *ircuitD -3..
0-1 F.0d 114
Facts: 3ara| w|||o|| rece|ved ||le |rsurarce rorey lror |er |usoard. Al|er rece|v|rg ||e rorey, s|e re|urred ||
|o ||e l|le lrsurarce Corpary lor ||er |o |o|d |r |rus|. ll 3ara| Was |o d|e, ||e rorey Was |o oe pa|d |o |er oro||er
booer| 0. 0Wers. booer| d|ed |r 1932. 3ara| d|ed |r 1951. lr |er W|||, 3ara| |el| ||e rorey |o |er s|epsor's sor.
booer|'s |e|rs reopered ||s es|a|e c|a|r|rg ||e rorey Was oWed |o ||s es|a|e. T|e |aW |r ||e s|a|e requ|red ||a| ||e C0
or l00 des|gra||or |ad |o ree| ||e W|||s ac|.
lroo|er W||| c|'s approac|. (|ere o| o|c des|gra|ed soreore |r |er W|||) w|a| |l s|e's or|y rade ||e l00
des|gra||or? T|e l00 des|gree Wou|dr'| |ave go||er ||e proper|y. To preserve ||e r|g||s ol ||e W|||
besu|||rg bulF. l00 des|gra||ors |r ros| ||rds ol accour|s are ro |orger |rea|ed as |es|arer|ary
d|spos|||ors, ||ey are ror-prooa|e |rarslers, ||erelore, dor'| |ave |o corlorr W||| ||e W|||s ac|.
Rule: A par|y W|o es|ao||s|es a |rus| cors|s||rg ol ||e proceeds ol a ||le |rsurarce po||cy ray, oy W|||, des|gra|e
a |rus| oerel|c|ary o||er ||ar ||e ore rared |r ||e |rus| |rs|rurer|.
/state of #illo;itQ
*ourt of Appeals of Ne; :or!D -3?1
00 N.:.0d -@4D 0,1 N./.0d 40,D 03- N.:.'.0d ,0.
Facts: lursuar| |o a par|rers||p agreerer|, l|||oW||z's s|are ol ar |rves|rer| c|uo passed |o ||s W|doW. l|s
execu|ors c|a|red ||a| |||s asse| s|ou|d |ave passed |o ||s es|a|e.
Rule: A par|rers||p agreerer| c|ause prov|d|rg ||a| eac| par|rer's |r|eres|, upor ||s dea||, s|a|| pass |o ||s
spouse, |s va||d ard erlorceao|e. C0NTbACT N0T TF3TA|FNTAb, 30 00 N0T lAvF T0 C0|ll wlTl
wlll3 l0b|AllTlF3
*oo! (. /Fuitable "ife Assurance 'ociety
501 N./.0d --@ 2Ind. App. -31-6
Facts: 0oug|as Coo| purc|ases W|o|e ||le po||cy rar|rg W|le as oerel|c|ary. T|ey d|vorce. T|e d|vorce decree
rade ro rer||or ol ||e |rsurarce po||cy. 0oug|as rerarr|es ard ra|es a |o|ograp||c W||| |eav|rg a|| `Wor|d|y
possess|ors' |o ||s currer| W|le, |rc|ud|rg ||e ||le |rsurarce po||cy.
lage 139 ol 190
8ssue: Car ||e oerel|c|ary ol ||e |rsurarce po||cy oe c|arged oy W|||?
Rule: w|er ||e po||cy |errs requ|red a c|arge |r oerel|c|ary |o oe rade |r Wr|||rg a c|arge oy W||| |s
|rellec||ve. T|e ex-W|le |a|es ||e po||cy. T||s |s ||e rajor||y ru|e.
Texas lar||y Coded 0|vorce revo|es spouse as oerel|c|ary ur|ess |||s |s |r ||e d|vorce decree, ||e |rsured re-
des|gra|es ||e spouse, or ||e spouse |s a |rus|ee. 0r|y app||es |o spouse ro| ||e spouse re|a||ves.
I 0e1as divorce revo2es li!e isurace polic- bee!iciar- le!t to e1)spouse.
lage 140 ol 190
Texas Probate *ode B 5.@. Pro(isions for Payment or Transfer at 9eath
(a) Ary ol ||e lo||oW|rg prov|s|ors |r ar |rsurarce po||cy, cor|rac| ol erp|oyrer|, oord, ror|gage, pror|ssory ro|e, depos|| agreerer|, erp|oyees'
|rus|, re||rerer| accour|, delerred corpersa||or arrargerer|, cus|od|a| agreerer|, pers|or p|ar, |rus| agreerer|, corveyarce ol rea| or
persora| proper|y, secur|||es, accour|s W||| l|rarc|a| |rs|||u||ors as del|red |r lar| 1 ol |||s c|ap|er, ru|ua| lurd accour|, or ary o||er Wr|||er
|rs|rurer| ellec||ve as a cor|rac|, g|l|, corveyarce, or |rus| |s deered |o oe ror|es|arer|ary, ard |||s code does ro| |rva||da|e ||e |rs|rurer| or
ary prov|s|or.
||a| rorey or o||er oerel||s ||ere|olore due |o, cor|ro||ed, or oWred oy a deceder| s|a|| oe pa|d al|er ||s dea|| |o a persor des|gra|ed oy
||e deceder| |r e|||er ||e |rs|rurer| or a separa|e Wr|||rg, |rc|ud|rg a W|||, execu|ed a| ||e sare ||re as ||e |rs|rurer| or suosequer||y,
||a| ary rorey due or |o oecore due urder ||e |rs|rurer| s|a|| cease |o oe payao|e |r ever| ol ||e dea|| ol ||e pror|see or ||e pror|ssor
oelore payrer| or derard, or
||a| ary proper|y W||c| |s ||e suojec| ol ||e |rs|rurer| s|a|| pass |o a persor des|gra|ed oy ||e deceder| |r e|||er ||e |rs|rurer| or a
separa|e Wr|||rg, |rc|ud|rg a W|||, execu|ed a| ||e sare ||re as ||e |rs|rurer| or suosequer||y.
(o) No|||rg |r |||s sec||or ||r||s ||e r|g||s ol cred||ors urder o||er |aWs ol |||s s|a|e.
(c) lr |||s sec||or.
(1) Frp|oyees' |rus| rears.
(A) a |rus| ||a| lorrs a par| ol a s|oc|-oorus, pers|or, or prol||-s|ar|rg p|ar urder 401.
(8) a pers|or |rus| urder C|ap|er 111, lroper|y Code, ard
(C) ar erp|oyer-sporsored oerel|| p|ar or prograr, or ary o||er re||rerer| sav|rgs arrargerer|, |rc|ud|rg a pers|or p|ar
crea|ed urder 3, Frp|oyee be||rerer| lrcore 3ecur||y Ac| ol 1974, regard|ess ol W|e||er ||e p|ar, prograr, or arrargerer| |s
lurded ||roug| a |rus|.
lrd|v|dua| re||rerer| accour| rears a |rus|, cus|od|a| arrargerer|, or arru||y urder 408(a) or (o).
be||rerer| accour| rears a re||rerer|-arru||y cor|rac|, ar |rd|v|dua| re||rerer| accour|, a s|rp||l|ed erp|oyee pers|or, or ary o||er
re||rerer| sav|rgs arrargerer|.
be||rerer|-arru||y cor|rac| rears ar arru||y cor|rac| urder 403, lr|erra| beverue Code ol 1954 (2o u.3.C.A. 403 (198o)).
3|rp||l|ed erp|oyee pers|or rears a |rus|, cus|od|a| arrargerer|, or arru||y urder 408.
Texas Family *ode B 3.,@-. Pre-9ecree 9esi$nation of /x-'pouse as Beneficiary of "ife Insurance
(a) ll a decree ol d|vorce or arru|rer| |s rerdered al|er ar |rsured |as des|gra|ed ||e |rsured's spouse as a oerel|c|ary urder a ||le |rsurarce po||cy
|r lorce a| ||e ||re ol rerd|||or, a prov|s|or |r ||e po||cy |r lavor ol ||e |rsured's lorrer spouse |s ro| ellec||ve ur|ess.
(1) ||e decree des|gra|es ||e |rsured's lorrer spouse as ||e oerel|c|ary,
(2) ||e |rsured redes|gra|es ||e lorrer spouse as ||e oerel|c|ary al|er rerd|||or ol ||e decree, or
||e lorrer spouse |s des|gra|ed |o rece|ve ||e proceeds |r |rus| lor, or oe|a|l ol, or lor ||e oerel|| ol a c|||d or a deperder| ol e|||er lorrer
(o) ll a des|gra||or |s ro| ellec||ve urder 3uosec||or (a), ||e proceeds ol ||e po||cy are payao|e |o ||e rared a||erra||ve oerel|c|ary or, |l ||ere |s ro|
a rared a||erra||ve oerel|c|ary, |o ||e es|a|e ol ||e |rsured.
(c) Ar |rsurer W|o pays ||e proceeds ol a ||le |rsurarce po||cy |ssued oy ||e |rsurer |o ||e oerel|c|ary urder a des|gra||or ||a| |s ro| ellec||ve urder
3uosec||or (a) |s ||ao|e lor payrer| ol ||e proceeds |o ||e persor or es|a|e prov|ded oy 3uosec||or (o) or|y |l.
oelore payrer| ol ||e proceeds |o ||e des|gra|ed oerel|c|ary, ||e |rsurer rece|ves Wr|||er ro||ce a| ||e |ore oll|ce ol ||e |rsurer lror ar
|r|eres|ed persor ||a| ||e des|gra||or |s ro| ellec||ve urder 3uosec||or (a), ard
||e |rsurer |as ro| |r|erp|eaded ||e proceeds |r|o ||e reg|s|ry ol a cour| ol corpe|er| jur|sd|c||or |r accordarce W||| ||e Texas bu|es ol C|v||
Texas Family *ode B 3.,@0. Pre-9ecree 9esi$nation of /x-'pouse as Beneficiary in %etirement Benefits and Cther Financial Plans
(a) ll a decree ol d|vorce or arru|rer| |s rerdered al|er a spouse, ac||rg |r ||e capac||y ol a par||c|par|, arru||ar|, or accour| |o|der, |as des|gra|ed
||e o||er spouse as a oerel|c|ary urder ar |rd|v|dua| re||rerer| accour|, erp|oyee s|oc| op||or p|ar, s|oc| op||or, or o||er lorr ol sav|rgs,
oorus, prol||-s|ar|rg, or o||er erp|oyer p|ar or l|rarc|a| p|ar ol ar erp|oyee or a par||c|par| |r lorce a| ||e ||re ol rerd|||or, ||e des|gra||rg
prov|s|or |r ||e p|ar |r lavor ol ||e o||er lorrer spouse |s ro| ellec||ve ur|ess.
(1) ||e decree des|gra|es ||e o||er lorrer spouse as ||e oerel|c|ary,
||e des|gra||rg lorrer spouse redes|gra|es ||e o||er lorrer spouse as ||e oerel|c|ary al|er rerd|||or ol ||e decree, or
lage 141 ol 190
||e o||er lorrer spouse |s des|gra|ed |o rece|ve ||e proceeds or oerel||s |r |rus| lor, or oe|a|l ol, or lor ||e oerel|| ol a c|||d or deperder| ol
e|||er lorrer spouse.
(o) ll a des|gra||or |s ro| ellec||ve urder 3uosec||or (a), ||e oerel||s or proceeds are payao|e |o ||e rared a||erra||ve oerel|c|ary or, |l ||ere |s ro| a
rared a||erra||ve oerel|c|ary, |o ||e des|gra||rg lorrer spouse.
(c) A ous|ress er|||y, erp|oyer, pers|or |rus|, |rsurer, l|rarc|a| |rs|||u||or, or o||er persor oo||ga|ed |o pay re||rerer| oerel||s or proceeds ol a
l|rarc|a| p|ar covered oy |||s sec||or W|o pays ||e oerel||s or proceeds |o ||e oerel|c|ary urder a des|gra||or ol ||e o||er lorrer spouse ||a| |s
ro| ellec||ve urder 3uosec||or (a) |s ||ao|e lor payrer| ol ||e oerel||s or proceeds |o ||e persor prov|ded oy 3uosec||or (o) or|y |l.
oelore payrer| ol ||e oerel||s or proceeds |o ||e des|gra|ed oerel|c|ary, ||e payor rece|ves Wr|||er ro||ce a| ||e |ore oll|ce or pr|rc|pa|
oll|ce ol ||e payor lror ar |r|eres|ed persor ||a| ||e des|gra||or ol ||e oerel|c|ary or l|duc|ary |s ro| ellec||ve urder 3uosec||or (a), ard
||e payor |as ro| |r|erp|eaded ||e oerel||s or proceeds |r|o ||e reg|s|ry ol a cour| ol corpe|er| jur|sd|c||or |r accordarce W||| ||e Texas
bu|es ol C|v|| lrocedure.
(d) T||s sec||or does ro| allec| ||e r|g|| ol a lorrer spouse |o asser| ar oWrers||p |r|eres| |r ar urd|v|ded pers|or, re||rerer|, arru||y, or o||er
l|rarc|a| p|ar descr|oed oy |||s sec||or as prov|ded oy |||s suoc|ap|er.
(e) T||s sec||or does ro| app|y |o ||e d|spos|||or ol a oerel|c|a| |r|eres| |r a re||rerer| oerel|| or o||er l|rarc|a| p|ar ol a puo||c re||rerer| sys|er as
del|red oy 802.001, 0overrrer| Code.
lage 142 ol 190
o. lers|or Accour|s Caseooo| 333-41
Pension /ccounts
0el|red oerel|| p|ars. 0uarar|eed oerel|| lor ||le (ro| al|er dea||). Frp|oyer agrees |o ra|e payrer|s al|er
0el|red cor|r|ou||or p|ars. |ore re|evar| lor es|a|e p|arr|rg o|c ||ere W||| oe rorey |el| over |r ||e accour| |l you d|e
oelore you use || a|| (oerel||s al|er dea||). Frp|oyee & erp|oyer cor|r|ou|e.
o Fbl3A s|a|u|e cor|ro|s ||e aspec|s ol ||ese pers|or p|ars (ledera| |aW)
Texas Law on pension accounts
0|vorce car revo|e pers|or p|ar |l Wa|ver ard ass|grrer| ol oerel||s |r ||e d|vorce decree are spec|l|c eroug|
/$$elhoff (. /$elhoff
'upreme *ourt of the )nited 'tatesD 0@@-
.,0 ).'. -5-D -00- '.*t. -,00D -53 "./d.0d 0?5
Facts: was||rg|or s|a|u|e sa|d ||a| a pers|or oerel||s |o ar ex-W|le |s |rva||d. Fgg|e|oll |ad a pers|or p|ar ard
des|gra|ed ||s W|le as oerel|c|ary. TWo ror||s al|er ||ey d|vorced, |e d|ed |r|es|a|e. 0eoa|e over W|e||er Fbl3A pre-
erp|s ||e was||rg|or s|a|e s|a|u|e. l| pre-erp|s |l || `re|a|es |o' ar erp|oyee oerel|| p|ar.
Holdin": Fbl3A pre-erp|s s|a|e s|a|u|e - pers|or oerel||s |o ar ex-W|le are va||ddoes ro| au|ora||ca||y revo|e ex-
W|le as oerel|c|ary |||e ||e s|a|e |aW
o A|so, sa|d ||a| s|ayer s|a|u|es Wou|d ro| oe pre-erp|ed oy Fbl3A oecause ros| s|a|es |ave s|ayer s|a|u|es
o J. 8reyer's op|r|or. Fbl3A s|ou|d ro| pre-erp| ||e d|vorce revoca||or s|a|u|e.
o Ta|e |||es 8reyer's op|r|or o|c resu|| ||e rajor||y reac|es seers |o corl||c| W||| ||e coup|e's |r|er|s. T||s
case ray oe dec|ded Wrorg|y s|rce a|| ||e s|a|es are |ry|rg |o d|s||rgu|s| || (see oe|oW).
o 0|s||rgu|s|ed s|ayer s|au|es. No| Worr|ed |l ||ose are preerp|ed oy Fbl3A. (8reyer d|sagreed. peop|e dor'|
|ave ||e aWareress|||re |o c|arge oerel|c|ary des|gra||orsros| T&F |aWyers Wou|d agree ||a| We s|ou|dr'| |ave
separa|e ru|es lor W|||s as lor W||| suos|||u|es.)
Rule: Fbl3A preerp|s a s|a|e s|a|u|e ||a| prov|des lor ||e au|ora||c revoca||or ol a spouse as ||e des|gra|ed
oerel|c|ary ol a rorprooa|e asse| upor ||e coup|e's d|vorce.
Case ro| We|| rece|ved |r |oWer cour|s. T|ey dor'| app|y s|a|e s|a|u|e, ou| ra||er, ledera| corror |aW.
o TX Case says ||a| pers|or p|ar des|gra||or car oe revo|ed a| d|vorce prov|ded ||a| ||e Wa|ver |s spec|l|c
eroug| |r ||e d|vorce (sa|d ||ey Were app|y|rg ledera| Cl). Cour|s' crea||v||y sugges|s |o Ta|e ||a| |||s dec|s|or Was Wrorg.
Deen v4 9eaver &Texas case; sa#e issues as -' 'C(
Holdin". d|vorce car revo|e a pers|or p|ar oerel|c|ary des|gra||or |l ||e Wa|ver ard ass|grrer| ol
||e pers|or oerel||s |r ||e d|vorce decree |s spec|l|c eroug|.
T|ey go| arourd ||e Fgg|e|oll op|r|or oy say|rg ||ey Were lo||oW|rg ledera| corror |aW ra||er ||ar
lo||oW|rg ||e TX s|a|e s|a|u|e (W||c|, urder Fgg|e|oll Wou|d |ave oeer preerp|ed oy Fbl3A)
c. 8ro|erage ard 8ar| Accour|s p. 341-42, Fx. 1oC (Tl8C 439(a), 451, 452, 454)
Joint tenants in ban% accounts and realty &non!probate property7auto#atically passes(
0erera| ru|e |r oar| accour|s. Fac| persor car draW or ||e accour| ard ||e rera|rder oe|orgs |o ||e surv|vor.
T|ere |s ro poWer ol d|spos|||or|| W||| recessar||y go |o your surv|v|rg spouse
lr oar| accour|s, |l you dec|de you dor'| War| a jo|r| |erarcy, you car jus| W|||draW a|| ||e rorey ard pu| ||
soreW|ere e|se.
F|||er par|y car ur||a|era||y W|||draW lror ||e oar| accour| - |||s |s W|y ||ey are ca||ed pure W||| suos|||u|es
Jo|r| 8A W||| r|g|| ol surv|vors||pe|||er par|y car W|||draW ard ||e ar| goes |o ||e surv|vor. loss|o|e |r TX |o
do |||s, ou| |ave |o exp||c|||y s|a|e ||e cord|||or ol surv|vors||p |r ||e agreerer|. (w|er you go |o ||e oar|, ro|
eroug| |o oper a jo|r| accour||ave |o oe rore spec|l|c.)
lage 143 ol 190
o Cl. used |o ro| oe ao|e |o crea|e a r|g|| ol surv|vors||p lor ||e surv|v|rg spouse |r ||a|. C'| arerdrer|
a||oWs spouses |o crea|e ar agreerer| |r Wr|||rg s|gred oy oo|| spouses. w|y Wou|d you do |||s?
Avo|d prooa|e, ou| ro| good reasor |r TX o|c our prooa|e sys|er 0K.
Texas law on ban% accounts
lr TX, |Wo peop|e car oper a jo|r| oar| accour| with ri"ht o# survivorship i# the a"reement is explicitly stated.
l| |s N0T presured ||a| ||ere |s a r|g|| ol surv|vors||p ever |l ||e proper|y |s corrur||y proper|y ard ||e peop|e
are l&w- |||s rus| oe exp||c|||y s|a|ed
Tl8C 451 ard 452. Agreerer| rus| oe |r Wr|||rg ard s|gred oy oo|| spouses
Texas Probate *ode B 5,3. %i$ht of 'ur(i(orship
(a) 3urs rera|r|rg or depos|| a| ||e dea|| ol a par|y |o a jo|r| accour| oe|org |o ||e surv|v|rg par|y or par||es aga|rs| ||e es|a|e ol ||e
deceder| |l, oy a Wr|||er agreerer| s|gred oy ||e par|y W|o d|es, ||e |r|eres| ol suc| deceased par|y |s rade |o surv|ve |o ||e surv|v|rg
par|y or par||es. No|W|||s|ard|rg ary o||er |aW, ar agreerer| |s sull|c|er| |o corler ar aoso|u|e r|g|| ol surv|vors||p or par||es |o a jo|r|
accour| urder |||s suosec||or |l ||e agreerer| s|a|es |r suos|ar||a||y ||e lo||oW|rg lorr. 0r ||e dea|| ol ore par|y |o a jo|r| accour|, a||
surs |r ||e accour| or ||e da|e ol ||e dea|| ves| |r ard oe|org |o ||e surv|v|rg par|y as ||s or |er separa|e proper|y ard es|a|e. A
surv|vors||p agreerer| W||| ro| oe |rlerred lror ||e rere lac| ||a| ||e accour| |s a jo|r| accour|. ll ||ere are |Wo or rore surv|v|rg par||es,
||e|r respec||ve oWrers||ps dur|rg ||le||re s|a|| oe |r propor||or |o ||e|r prev|ous oWrers||p |r|eres|s urder 438 ol |||s code augrer|ed oy
ar equa| s|are lor eac| surv|vor ol ary |r|eres| ||e deceder| ray |ave oWred |r ||e accour| |rred|a|e|y oelore ||s dea||, ard ||e r|g|| ol
surv|vors||p cor||rues oe|Weer ||e surv|v|rg par||es |l a Wr|||er agreerer| s|gred oy a par|y W|o d|es so prov|des.
Texas Probate *ode B 5.-. %i$ht of 'ur(i(orship
A| ary ||re, spouses may a$ree oe|Weer ||erse|ves ||a| a|| or par| ol ||e|r corrur||y proper|y, ||er ex|s||rg or |o oe acqu|red, oecores ||e
proper|y ol the sur(i(in$ spouse or ||e dea|| ol a spouse.
Texas Probate *ode B 5.0. Formalities
Ar agreerer| oe|Weer spouses crea||rg a r|g|| ol surv|vors||p |r corrur||y proper|y |u3T oe |r ;ritin$ and si$ned by both spouses. ll ar
agreerer| |r Wr|||rg |s s|gred oy oo|| spouses, ||e agreerer| 3lAll oe sull|c|er| |o crea|e a r|g|| ol surv|vors||p |r ||e corrur||y proper|y
descr|oed |r ||e agreerer| |l || |rc|udes ary ol ||e lo||oW|rg p|rases.
`W||| r|g|| ol surv|vors||p,
W||| oecore ||e proper|y ol ||e surv|vor,
W||| ves| |r ard oe|org |o ||e surv|v|rg spouse, or
s|a|| pass |o ||e surv|v|rg spouse.
Ar agreerer| ||a| o||erW|se ree|s ||e requ|rerer|s ol |||s par|, |oWever, s|a|| oe ellec||ve W|||ou| |rc|ud|rg ary ol ||ose p|rases.
Texas Probate *ode B 5.5. Transfers Nontestamentary
Trarslers a| dea|| resu|||rg lror agreerer|s rade |r accordarce W||| |||s par| ol |||s code are ellec||ve oy reasor ol ||e agreerer| |rvo|ved
ard are not testamentary trans#ers. 3uc| |rarslers are ro| suojec| |o ||e prov|s|ors ol |||s code app||cao|e |o |es|arer|ary |rarslers excep| as
express|y prov|ded o||erW|se |r |||s code.
C. Jo|r| Terarc|es|Terarcy |r Corror |r bea||y Caseooo|. 344-45, Fx. 17
lrperlec| W||| suos|||u|ecarro| c|arge ||er al|er you've crea|ed ||e JT. 8y cor|ras|, a jo|r| oar| accour| car
oe ur||a|era||y W|||draWr. ll A pu| $100K |r ||ere, ||er rade 8 your JT, A car |a|e ||e $ ou| ard 8 |as ro |r|eres| |r
||. 8ar| accour| |s a perlec| W||| suos|||u|ecar do a|| lurc||ors ol a W|||.
Texas Law on Real Property
lr Texas, jo|r| |erarcy ol |ard car oe crea|ed |l par||es agree |r Wr|||rg |o a r|g|| ol surv|vors||p
Jo|r| |erarc|es ol |ard |r TX are rare oecause.
o lr|or |o 1987, corrur||y proper|y cou|d ro| oe |e|d W||| r|g|| ol surv|vors||p
o T|ey crea|e a preser| |r|eres| |r eac| ol ||e |erar|s
lage 144 ol 190
o Carro| revo|e a jo|r| |erarcy. T|a| |s W|y jo|r| |erarcy |r |ard |s ar `|rperlec|' W||| suos|||u|e
Texas Probate *ode B 5?. oint Tenancies
(a) ll |Wo or rore persors |o|d ar |r|eres| |r proper|y jo|r||y, ard ore jo|r| oWrer d|es oelore severarce, ||e |r|eres| ol ||e deceder| |r ||e jo|r|
es|a|e s|a|| ro| surv|ve |o ||e rera|r|rg jo|r| oWrer or oWrers ou| s|a|| pass oy W||| or |r|es|acy lror ||e deceder| as |l ||e deceder|'s
|r|eres| |ad oeer severed. T|e jo|r| oWrers ray agree |r Wr|||rg, |oWever, ||a| ||e |r|eres| ol ary jo|r| oWrer W|o d|es s|a|| surv|ve |o ||e
surv|v|rg jo|r| oWrer or oWrers, ou| ro suc| agreerer| s|a|| oe |rlerred lror ||e rere lac| ||a| ||e proper|y |s |e|d |r jo|r| oWrers||p.
(o) 3uosec||or (a) does ro| app|y |o agreerer|s oe|Weer spouses regard|rg ||e|r corrur||y proper|y. Agreerer|s oe|Weer spouses regard|rg
r|g||s ol surv|vors||p |r corrur||y proper|y are goverred oy lar| 3 ol C|ap|er Xl ol |||s code.
,olmes v. 3eatt-)this case ma2es the law more predictable.
0otte trust) ot reall- a trust. It is a &45 desi+atio doe be!ore -ou had speci!ic statutes.
&45 bee!iciar- has to survive depositor uder 0e1as ad %&'. %&' has ati)lapse statutes !or &4'6s.
Revocable trust helps -ou deal !or icapacit-. *ou ca ame -oursel! as the ori+ial trustee/ but have
someoe ta2e over.
&our over wills allow testator to put the residue i the trust i case he !or+ets to tras!er some o! his propert-
tot he trust. 0e1as 5$a is similar to 2)511 %&'.
0e1as ad %&' cover writte revocable trust i re+ard to divorce.

lage 145 ol 190
9. Plannin$ for Incapacity
1. 0urao|e loWer ol A||orrey Caseooo|. 345-50
las|s oeyord ||e pr|rc|pa|'s |rcapac||y. ll ||e l oecores |rcapac||a|ed, ||e durao|e poWer s|||| |r|ac| ard car
rarage dur|rg l's |rcapac||y.
0oesr'| surv|ve ||e l's dea||. ll l d|es, durao|e l0A doesr'| surv|ve. No| a prooa|e avo|darce rec|ar|sr|ro| a W|||
suos|||u|e. Jus| a||oWs soreore e|se |o var|s| ||e proper|y.
Trus|ee |as oroader poWers ard ||e |rus| car surv|ve ||e dea|| ol ||e se|||or or |rus|ee. Trus| car oe a prooa|e
avo|darce rec|ar|sr|W||| suos|||u|e.
leop|e W|o a |o| ol rorey carro| crea|e a |rus|, ou| |rus| |s oe||er op||or ||ar 0l0A.
lersor execu||rg poWer - pr|rc|pa|
lersor rece|v|rg poWer - ager| or poWer ol lac|
"rdinary Power of /ttorney &P"/(
3|rp|e |rs|rurer| ||a| ass|grs |o soreore e|se (ager|) sore ol ||e poWer you (||e pr|rc|pa|) |ave W|||
respec| |o your proper|y or your |ea|||care.
Car oe. spec|l|c ard corpre|ers|ve, or gerera| ard |r |rdel|r||e dura||or. loWer cor||rues ur||| || |s revo|ed.
o 3pec|l|c F.g., rarr|ed coup|e War|s |o ouy a |ouse |r aro||er s|a|e, ou| l |s |r aro||er s|a|e ard car'|
|eave. l car g|ve w ||e l0A. 0|ves w poWer |o do ||e |ouse c|os|rg. T||s ore erds W|er ||e
|rarsac||or |s corp|e|e.
o 0erera|. |ay oe revo|ed |l persor oecores |rcapac||a|ed. F.g., |l you go or a |org |r|p overseas ard
d|dr'| |roW W|er you'd re|urr, you r|g|| g|ve poWer |o soreore |o ra|e dec|s|ors ard do |||rgs lor
you W|||e you're aWay.
loWer erds||s ro| ellec||ve W|er pr|rc|pa| oecore |rcapac||a|ed (ur|||e 0l0A)
$urable Power of /ttorney &$P"/(
bera|rs ellec||ve dur|rg per|ods ol |rcapac||a||or.
use |||s |o pro|ec| orese|l
0urao|e poWer ceases W|er ||e pr|rc|pa| d|es = |o|der ol ||e poWer car ra|e ro |rarslers al|er ||e pr|rc|pa|'s
dea|| (d|e = ro poWer aryrore)
w|||ou| ||, s|a|e |aW W||| de|err|re W|o |as ||e au||or||y |o rarage ||e |rcapac||a|ed persors alla|rs ard ra|e
dec|s|ors or ||e|r oe|a|l - ||ey oecore ||e corserva|or ard|or guard|ar.
o lrelererce - 3pouse, Adu|| C|||drer, larer|s
T|e ager| W|o opera|es urder ||e poWer ol a||orrey |as a l|duc|ary du|y |o ||e pr|rc|pa|.. 8u| |||s |s ro| ||e
sare |eve| ol l|duc|ary du|y ||a| a |rus|ee |as |o ||e oerel|c|ar|es ol a |rus|.
Ar ager| car ro| execu|e a W||| urder a poWer ol a||orrey or oe|a|l ol ||e pr|rc|pa|. or|y ||e |es|a|or car
execu|e a W|||. 8u| CAN dral| a |rus| o|c a W||| |s rore ol a persora| express|or ol ||e |r|er| ol 0.
$I@@ERECE .etween TR-'T and $-R/.LE P"9ER "@ /TT"REE
Ager| carro| ac| al|er dea|| ol pr|rc|pa| - |l ||e ager| d|es ||e poWer |err|ra|es ur|ess a successor ager| |s
rared oy ||e pr|rc|pa|, durao|e poWer does ro| avo|d prooa|e
Trus| cor||rues al|er ||e se|||or's dea||, |rarslerr|rg proper|y W|o prooa|e.
ll a |rus|ee d|es, a successor |rus|ee |s appo|r|ed oy a cour|, a |rus|ee |as ||||e |o ||e |rus| asse|s ard gerera||y
|as a|| ||e poWers ar oWrer |as, |rus|ee car se|| ard re|rves| ||e |rus| proper|y
lage 14" ol 190
Au||or|za||ors|poWers. lo|der ol a durao|e poWer carro| ra|e a W||| lor ||e pr|rc|pa|, ou| ray oe au||or|zed |o
arerd or revo|e ar ex|s||rg |rus|, #a%e financial or #edical decisions, l00 des|gra||or, sever jo|r|
|erarc|es, or ra|e ||le||re g|l|s ol ||e |rcorpe|er|'s proper|y. (w||| |s rore persor ard |e|||rg ||e durao|e
poWer ol a||y dral| || Wou|d v|o|a|e ||e W|||s ac|.)
lage 14# ol 190
(. Frances: Brother sells house to pay for her medical care. Problem: If she lea(es a ;ill $i(in$ her house
to someoneD it could be adeemed and no lon$er belon$ to the estate and that person ;ouldn&t $et the
house. 'hould ;e say that the de(ise is adeemed< 8# 5rother sells house, should 5e adeemed (#ailure o# a
speci#ic "i#t Pp.&.I, !ros5y caseQ. Holders o# a -%/A does hold a #iduciary duty to the principal, it Eust mi"ht
not 5e as ri"id as a trustee.
&. +other $i(es dau$hters money e(ery year. +om $i(es 9anny 9PCA. 9o the dau$hters ha(e to return
their $ifts to the estate ;hen the 9 continued $i(in$ $ifts after + ;as incapacitated< $nless you have the
power to ma6e "i#ts, then you cannot ma6e "i#ts and expect to 5e a5le to 6eep them a#ter the person dies.
FranQen (. Nor;est Ban! *olorado
3.. P.0d -@-1 2*olo. -3316
Facts. poWer ol a||y |o oro||er d|d ro| spec|l|ca||y relererce a spec|l|c |rus| oy rare, deoa|e over W|e||er ||e
oro||er (W|o |as poWer ol a||y) |as ||e poWer |o rerove oar| as |rus|ee ard revo|e ||e |rus|
Holdin": loWer ol a||y |as poWer |o ra|e dec|s|or aoou| |rus|s - as |org as |e |s g|ver ||e poWer |o cor|ro| ||e
|rus|s |r a gerera| serse - do ro| |ave |o spec|l|ca||y rer||or W||c| |rus|s, a gerera| relererce |s good eroug|
lrvo|ved 0l0A ard a |rus|. w|doW g|ver r|g|| |o revo|e ||e |rus|. 3|e sa|d s|e d|dr'| War| |o do |||s, ard ||e
oar| cor||rued |o adr|r|s|er ||e |rus|. 3|e appo|r|ed |er oro as ager| urder 0l0A. 8ro||er a||erp|ed |o
revo|e ||e |rus|. 0oes ||e oro||er |ave ||e au||or||y |o do |||s? Cour| sa|d |||s au||or||y Was sull|c|er| |o a||oW
||e ager| |o revo|e |||s par||cu|ar |rus|. 0erera||y, |s eroug| |o revo|e ||e |rus|. ur|||e|y |o |ave reac|ed sare
resu|| |l ||e 0l0A |ad ro| relerred |o revo||rg |rus| as a poWer.
2. Advarce 0|rec||ves (l|v|rg w|||) Caseooo|. 350-o0
Methods for Carrying "ut /dvance $irective
(. l|v|rg w||| | |ed|ca| 0|rec||ve | Advarce 0|rec||ve. spec|ly e|||er gerera||y or oy Way ol |ypo exarp|e ho; ore
War|s |o oe |rea|ed |r erd-ol-||le s||ua||ors or |r ||e ever| ol |rcorpe|erce (|oW, ro| who ra|es dec|s|ors)
cora, |rcapac||a|ed, or ||le suppor|War| |o oe |a|er oll ||le suppor|
w|y |s ||e delau|| ru|e |o |eep peop|e a||ve lor as |org as poss|o|e?
0oc|ors |ave a |o| ol poWer |r |||s cour|ry, rayoe ||e s|a|e |as a spec|a| purpose |r preserv|rg ||le
(sore rora| |rpera||ve |o preserve ||le).
&. 0urao|e loWer ol A||orrey lor lea||| Care | lea||| Care lroxy. des|gra|e ar ager| ;ho W||| ra|e |ea|||care
dec|s|ors lor ||e lT, poWer ol ||e ager| does ro| exp|re W||| ||e pr|rc|pa|'s |rcorpe|ercy
8nstructional||v|rg W|||, a||oWs you |o spec|ly W|a| you War| |o |apper |r severa| scerar|os.
9edicalTrarslers dec|s|or ra||rg |o soreore e|se.
w||c| |s oe||er deperds or W|e||er you |rus| a persor |o ra|e ||ose ||rds ol dec|s|ors lor you. ll
you War| |o ra|e a|| dec|s|ors, l |s oe||er. ll you |rus| soreore e|se, | |s o|. Car do oo||.
%roxy: 0l0A lor |ea|||care
*. lyor|d. d|rec||rg |rea|rer| prelererces ard des|gra||rg ar ager| |o ra|e suos|||u|ed dec|s|ors, $ni#orm Health'
!are -ecisions Act
Bush (. 'chia(o
'upreme *ourt of FloridaD 0@@5
11. 'o.0d ,0-
Summary. ro advarce d|rec||ve, l Was appo|r|ed guard|ar ard War|ed |o rerove ||le suppor|, l Wor
over |er parer|s.
lage 14$ ol 190
V. T R # S T S
A. Introduction 'aseboo2: 4$5)9$
0e||very es|ao||s|es a |rus|.
o Fqu||ao|e lF
o lega| lFproo|ers. |ac| ol lreedor ol us|rg ard d|spos|rg ol ||e proper|y
Ta|e doesr'| |roW ol a case W|er |||s |s oe||er.
o 3e|||or - persor ||a| crea|es ||e |rus| ard dora|es ||e proper|y |o ||e |rus|
o Trus|ee - persor W|o rarages ||e |rus| or oe|a|l ol ||e oerel|c|ar|es
o 8erel|c|ar|es - |ay |rc|ude ||e |rus|ee, ou| car ro| oe ||r||ed |o ||e |rus|ee
+er$er: ll ||e |rus|ee ard ||e so|e oerel|c|ary are ||e sare persor, ||er ||e |ega| ard equ||ao|e es|a|es rerge
|r|o ore es|a|e.
o Car oe rade dur|rg a persor's ||le, ou| car s|ar| a| ||e s|ar| 0b erd ol soreore's ||le.
o Car oe crea|ed oy W||| or a separa|e docurer|
o 0l|er |as|s a cer|a|r ruroer ol years, ex. |||| oerel|c|ary reac|es a cer|a|r ruroer ol years Trus| ol|er
|rvo|ves a ||le es|a|e W||| a lu|ure |r|eres| - g|ve rera|rder |r lee s|rp|e |o soreore e|se
o 8erel|c|ary ray |rc|ude |rus|ee ou| car'| oe ||r||ed |o ||e |rus|ee - car'| oe so|e oerel|c|ary ard |rus|ee
o Need c|ear |rd|ca||or ol |r|er||or |o crea|e a |rus|
o No rag|c Words |o crea|e a |rus| (Cour|s a||oW |rlorra| |arguage as crea||rg a |rus|). Jus| |as |o oe
c|ear |r|er| ol crea||rg a |rus| or |rarslerr|rg proper|y |o ||e |rus| or |o ||e |rus|ee |o |o|d lor ||e oerel||
or |r |rus| lor aro||er.
o C| car appo|r| a |rus|ee |o cure ||e delec| |l |rus|ee ro| rared |r ||e |rus|.
A cour| car l|rd a |rus| ever |r ar |rlorra| lar||y re|a||ors||p, c|ass|ly|rg a g|l| lror ore lar||y
reroer |o aro||er as a |rus|..
A cour| car |rler crea||or ol a |rus| lror ||e `|r|er||or ol ||e doror' ard ||e expressed oe||el ol
||e `|rus|ee'
A|so ||a| |s requ|red |s ||e `|r|er||or |o |eave proper|y W||| soreore lor ||e oerel|| ol aro||er
Wou|d crea|e |rus|..'
A Trus|ee does ro| |ave |o oe rared, ||e cour| car appo|r| ary or a corpe|er| persor |o
serve as |rus|ee.
Trus|ee |as a l|duc|ary du|y |o ||e oerel|c|ar|es
T|e |rus| docurer| s|ou|d spe|| ||e du||es ard poWers ol ||e |rus|ee
T|e Trus|ee orce appo|r|ed Wou|d |ave a d|ll|cu|| |err|ra||rg ||e re|a||ors||p - oecause ol ||s
l|duc|ary du|y
Texas Property *ode
B --0.@@-. +ethods of *reatin$ Trust
A |rus| ray oe crea|ed oy.
(1) a proper|y oWrer's declaration ||a| ||e oWrer |o|ds ||e proper|y as |rus|ee lor aro||er persor,
(2) a proper|y oWrer's inter (i(os transfer ol ||e proper|y |o aro||er persor as |rus|ee lor ||e |rarsleror or a |||rd persor,
(3) a proper|y oWrer's testamentary transfer |o aro||er persor as |rus|ee lor a |||rd persor,
(4) an appointment urder a poWer ol appo|r|rer| |o aro||er persor as |rus|ee lor ||e doree ol ||e poWer or lor a |||rd persor, or
(5) a promise |o aro||er persor W|ose r|g||s urder ||e pror|se are |o oe |e|d |r |rus| lor a |||rd persor.
B --0.@@0. Intention to *reate Trust
lage 149 ol 190
A |rus| |s crea|ed or|y |l ||e se|||or rar|les|s ar intention |o crea|e a |rus|.
lage 150 ol 190
B --0.@,-. Trust Purposes
A |rus| ray oe crea|ed lor ary purpose ||a| |s ro| |||ega|. T|e |errs ol ||e |rus| ray ro| requ|re ||e |rus|ee |o corr|| a cr|r|ra| or |or||ous ac| or
ar ac| ||a| |s cor|rary |o puo||c po||cy.
B --0.@,0. Acti(e and Passi(e TrustsO 'tatute of )ses
(a) Fxcep| as prov|ded oy 3uosec||or (o), ||||e |o rea| proper|y |e|d |r |rus| ves|s d|rec||y |r ||e oerel|c|ary |l ||e |rus|ee |as re|||er a poWer ror
a du|y re|a|ed |o ||e adr|r|s|ra||or ol ||e |rus|.
(o) T|e ||||e ol a |rus|ee |r rea| proper|y |s ro| d|ves|ed |l ||e |rus|ee's ||||e |s ro| rere|y ror|ra| ou| |s suojec| |o a poWer or du|y |r re|a||or |o
||e proper|y.
Re>uire#ents for trust and trustee
Trus|ee requ|rerer|. |oose requ|rerer|, ary corpe|er| persor car serve ard ever |l |||s corporer| ol
||e |rus| |s |ac||rg, a |rus| W||| s|||| ar|se ard |r ||e aoserce ol a |rus|ee, cour| W||| appo|r| ore
0r|y rea| requ|rerer| lor a |rus|ee |s lor ||er |o |ave sore|||rg |o do - a power to exercise
Corsequerces ol oe|rg a |rus|ee. ||g| corsequerces, s|r|rger| du||es |o oerel|c|ar|es, orce appo|r|ed
ray |ave d|ll|cu||y ge|||rg ou| ol ||
Prob -D p.53-
C names A as trustee of Trust ;ith the income to A for lifeD remainder to B. Then C deli(ers S-@@= and the trust
instrument to A and tells him that it is to be held under the terms of the trust. Then A puts it in a safe deposit
box. 8hen C diesD instead of payin$ income to AD he di(ides the S bet;een 9 & / ;ho are the le$atees of C&s
#as a trust been established< F3. 8ecause ||e |rus| proper|y Was de||vered |o X. 0oesr'| ra||er |l X
accep|s. A |rus| |s crea|ed. ll X dec||res, cour| car appo|r| aro||er |rus|ee.
Is A a trustee< 3ore jur|sd|c||ors say you |ave |o accep| ||e ro|e ol |rus|ee. |os| say ||a| s|rce X pu| |r
depos|| oox ard |oo| proper|y, ||a|'s eroug| |o ra|e X a |rus|ee.
*an A & B $o after 9 & /< es. Car s|||| recover oecause X as oa||ee |ad ro r|g|| |o g|ve proper|y |o 0 & F.
B. The %eFuired /lements of Trust *reation
1. lr|er|
2. Trus| lroper|y (bes)
3. A 8erel|c|ary
4. A wr|||rg (?)
1. 0erera| lr|rc|p|es ard lr|er| Caseooo|. 498-504, Fx. 18 (TllC 112.001-.002, 112.031-.032)
Clear indication of intent &not language(
|us| oe c|ear |rd|ca||or ol |r|er| |o crea|e a |rus| - ou| ro lorra| |arguage requ|red.
imeneQ (. "ee
'upreme *ourt of Cre$onD -34?
045 Cr. 5.4D .54 P.0d -0?
Facts: 0aug||er c|a|red ||a| a |rus| Was crea|ed oy ro||er. TWo g|l|s Were g|ver |o ||e c|||drer. T|e
la||er Was des|gra|ed |rus|ee ard sper| a|| ol ||, so s|e sued ||r. la||er ever s|a|ed ||a| |e ||oug|| ||e
rorey Was |o oe |e|d |r |rus| lor ||e daug||er's educa||or.
Norra||y |||s Wou|dr'| erd up |r cour| (o|c a sra|| g|l| g|ver |o parer| or oe|a|l ol c|||d). C|||d prooao|y
l|gured ou| ||a| s|e |ad ro|||rg |o |ose oy su|rg |er la||er ard |roWr.
Rule: w|ere lurds are |e|d |r |rus| lor a spec|l|c purpose, ||e |rus|ee W||| oe ||ao|e lor a|| experd||ures
ro| re|a|ed |o ||a| purpose.
Holdin": Cour| |o|ds ||a| |e Was |r lac| a |rus|ee ard |o|ds ||r ||ao|e.
lage 151 ol 190
o A |rus|ee, ra||er ||ar a cus|od|ars||p, Was crea|ed pr|rar||y lror ||e la||er's oWr oe||els aoou| ||s ro|e.
o Cou|d |ave g|ver la||er a d|scre||orary |rus| ard |e Wou|d |ave |ad ||e au||or||y over ||e proper|y.
2. Trus| lroper|y (Res) Caseooo|. 508-11, Fx. 19 (TllC 112.005)
1. Trus|s rus| |ave proper|y, rore ||ar jus| |ard, or |arg|o|e oojec|s, or cas|. Car
|rc|ude ary |r|eres| |r proper|y, |rc|ud|rg lu|ure |r|eres|s.
Fxarp|es. Cor||rger| rera|rders, |ease|o|d |r|eres|s, c|oses |r ac||or, roya|||es, ||le |rsurarce
2. Carro| oe a pror|se |o pay |r|o ||e lu|ure a l|xed sur, carro| o|rd ||e es|a|e |o pay,
rus| spec|ly |oW ||e es|a|e W||| lurd ||e oo||ga||or ard lror W||c| proper|y || W||| core lror. T||s Way ||ere |s
del|red d|llerer||a||or oe|Weer ar es|a|e deo| ard a |rus|.
3. A resu|||rg |rus| - |s crea|ed W|er ||e |rarslerr|rg ol a|| ||e proper|y |r|o a |rus|
u|||ra|e|y la||s. T|e resu|||rg |rus| |s crea|ed, requ|r|rg ||e re|urr ol ||e proper|y |o ||e revers|orary |r|eres| ol ||e
la||ed |rus|.
Texas Property *ode
B --0.@@.. Trust Property
A |rus| CANN0T oe crea|ed uNlF33 ||ere |s |rus| proper|y.
)nthan! (. %ippstein
'upreme *ourt of TexasD -3?5
,1? '.8.0d -,5
Facts: b|pps|e|r argues ||a| a |e||er lror C.l. Cral| days oelore ||s dea|| Was a dec|ara||or ol |rus|.
Rule: A rere pror|se |o g|ve per|od|c g|l|s |r ||e lu|ure W||| ro| suppor| a l|rd|rg ||a| a |rus| |as oeer
Holdin". Cour| |o|ds ||a| ro |rus| Was crea|ed o|c ||ere Was ro |rus| proper|y ard no intent to impose
duties- jus| sa|d |e Wou|d pay |er $200|ro., ou| ro |der||l|ca||or ol W|ere ||a| 200 Was cor|rg lror.
urerlorceao|e pror|se |o ra|e a g|l| |r ||e lu|ure. (ll |e |ad sa|d W|ere ||e $200 Was cor|rg lror, |||s case
ray |ave oeer d|llerer|.)
Corpare |||s case W||| ||e Curra|| case supra - |e||er lor g|v|rg proper|y |r |or|ara - lourd |o oe a
cod|c|| |o ||e W|||). Cr| doesr'| say W|y |||s |s ro| a |o|ograp||c cod|c||, ou| Ta|e |||r|s ||ere |s as good ol case lor
ore |r |||s case as ||ere Was |r ||e Curra|| case.
3. 8erel|c|ary bequ|rerer| Case 8oo| 518-28, Fx. 20
|us| oe rore ||ar a gerer|c persor, rus| oe ar |der||l|ao|e group ol peop|e or persors W|o car erlorce ||e
l|duc|ary du||es aga|rs| ||e |rus|ee. 0or'| |ave |o oe oorr ye| or ye| ascer|a|red.
8 ||s|ed as or|y `lr|erds' |s ro| descr|p||ve eroug|, |oo |rdel|r||e.
T|e c|ass ol oerel|c|ar|es rus| oe so descr|oed ||a| sore persor r|g|| reasorao|y oe sa|d |o arsWer ||e
descr|p||or. le|s|ar|ra|s carro| oe 8s.
0erera| ru|es ol |rus| |aW requ|re ||a| a oerel|c|ary car |o|d a |rus|ee accour|ao|e..
lororary Trus|
0erera| corror |aW ru|e - ar|ra|s or pe|s car ro| oe ||e oerel|c|ary ol ||e |rus|. ou| ||e persor |o|d|rg ||e
proper|y car c|oose |o |oror ||e W|s|es expressed |r ||e |rus|.
Texas Code 112.037 - Trus| lor Care ol Ar|ra| - A||oWs a |rus| lor ||e oerel|| ol a pe| or ar|ra|.
ulC 2-907, p. 527
*lar! (. *ampbell
'upreme *ourt of Ne; #ampshireD -30?
10 N.#. 01-D -,, A. -??
Facts: bes|duary oerel|c|ar|es c|a||erged prov|s|or |r W||| c|a|r|rg `lr|erds' Was |rdel|r||e oo|| as |o proper|y
ard oerel|c|ar|es. lroporer|s ol W||| argued T d|d ro| |r|erd |o crea|e a |rus|, ou| g|ve ou|r|g||, aoso|u|e g|l|s.
lage 152 ol 190
Rule: w|ere ||e oerel|c|ar|es ol a rorc|ar||ao|e |rus| carro| oe adequa|e|y oe de|err|red, ||e |rus| la||s.
Holdin". T|e |arguage |r ||e W||| |r|erds |o crea|e a |rus|, ro| ar aoso|u|e g|l|. 8u|, this ;as not a (alid trust
since there ;ere no real beneficiaries U Jmy friendsK is not class of people ;ho can be identified.
In re 'eari$ht&s /state
Chio *ourt of AppealsD Ninth 9istrictD -3.@
14 Chio App. 5-4D 3. N./. 0d 443
3e|||or, oy W|||, |el| $1000 |o ||s execu|or |o pay l|orerce lard $0.75 per day |o care lor ||s dog lor
||e res| ol ||e dog's ||le. le War|ed ||s lr|erd |o oe |rus|ee (l|orerce).
lroo|er. 0og carro| |o|d ||e |rus|ee accour|ao|e lor l|duc|ary du||es, so a dog carro| oe a
oerel|c|ary ol ||e |rus|.
Trus| crea|ed, ou| l|o |sr'| ||e |rus|ee, ||e execu|or |s ||e |rus|ee ard l|o |s ||e oerel|c|ary. No
proo|er |r |||s case, ou| ro guarar|ee ||a| l|o W||| use ||e proper|y lor ||e oerel|| ol ||e dog |l you rare |er as ||e
Rule: Ar `|ororary |rus|' |s va||d W|ere || |s lor a va||d purpose ard ||e |rus|ee accep|s ||e
|es|a|or's W|s|es, ever ||oug| ||ere |s ro oerel|c|ary W|o car erlorce ||e |rus|.
lerpe|u|||es. 0og carro| oe a reasur|rg ||le. Assure ||a| dogs are |rror|a| ard car ||ve lorever,
so cou|d oe pa|d ou| rore ||ar 21 years al|er a|| |urars dead.
o Cour| ge|s arourd oy say|rg assure rorra| ra|e ol |r|eres| (o or so), ard |l ||a| Were ||e
|r|eres|, ||er Wou|d rur ou| ol rorey |r 4 years.
lroo|er. bAl proo|eryou dor'| |||r| aoou| W|a| |s llKFl ou| W|a| |l0lT |apper.
3ara vs. lr|rar||y lr|ra|es-corpare |o ||e lo|res case W|ere ||e |eg|s|a|ure |r|erded ||e s|a|ue |o |r|erpre|ed oroad|y.
lr |||s case ||e cour| d|d ro| |r|erpre| ||e s|a|u|e oroad|y |o l|| |||s s||ua||or.

Texas Property *ode
B --0.@,4. Trust for *are of Animal
(a) A |rus| ray oe crea|ed |o prov|de lor ||e care ol ar ar|ra| a||ve dur|rg ||e se|||or's ||le||re. T|e |rus| |err|ra|es or ||e dea|| ol ||e ar|ra| or,
|l ||e |rus| |s crea|ed |o prov|de lor ||e care ol rore ||ar ore ar|ra| a||ve dur|rg ||e se|||or's ||le||re, or ||e dea|| ol ||e |as| surv|v|rg ar|ra|.
(o) A |rus| au||or|zed oy |||s sec||or ray oe erlorced oy a persor appo|r|ed |r ||e |errs ol ||e |rus| or, |l a persor |s ro| appo|r|ed |r ||e |errs ol
||e |rus|, oy a persor appo|r|ed oy ||e cour|. A persor |av|rg ar |r|eres| |r ||e We|lare ol ar ar|ra| ||a| |s ||e suojec| ol a |rus| au||or|zed oy
|||s sec||or ray reques| ||e cour| |o appo|r| a persor |o erlorce ||e |rus| or |o rerove a persor appo|r|ed |o erlorce ||e |rus|.
(c) Fxcep| as prov|ded oy 3uosec||ors (d) ard (e), proper|y ol a |rus| au||or|zed oy |||s sec||or ray oe app||ed or|y |o ||e proper|y's |r|erded use
urder ||e |rus|.
(d) lroper|y ol a |rus| au||or|zed oy |||s sec||or ray oe app||ed |o a use o||er ||ar ||e proper|y's |r|erded use urder ||e |rus| |o ||e ex|er| ||e
cour| de|err|res ||a| ||e va|ue ol ||e |rus| proper|y exceeds ||e arour| requ|red lor ||e |r|erded use.
(e) Fxcep| as o||erW|se prov|ded oy ||e |errs ol ||e |rus|, proper|y ro| requ|red lor ||e |rus|'s |r|erded use rus| oe d|s|r|ou|ed |o.
(1) |l ||e se|||or |s ||v|rg a| ||e ||re ||e |rus| proper|y |s d|s|r|ou|ed, ||e se|||or, or
(2) |l ||e se|||or |s ro| ||v|rg a| ||e ||re ||e |rus| proper|y |s d|s|r|ou|ed.
(A) |l ||e se|||or |as a W|||, oerel|c|ar|es urder ||e se|||or's W|||, or
(8) |r ||e aoserce ol ar ellec||ve prov|s|or |r a W|||, ||e se|||or's |e|rs.
(l) lor purposes ol 112.03o, ||e ||ves |r oe|rg used |o de|err|re ||e rax|rur dura||or ol a |rus| au||or|zed oy |||s sec||or are.
(1) ||e |rd|v|dua| oerel|c|ar|es ol ||e |rus|,
(2) ||e |rd|v|dua|s rared |r ||e |rs|rurer| crea||rg ||e |rus|, ard
(3) |l ||e se|||or or se|||ors are ||v|rg a| ||e ||re ||e |rus| oecores |rrevocao|e, ||e se|||or or se|||ors ol ||e |rus| or, |l ||e se|||or or
se|||ors are ro| ||v|rg a| ||e ||re ||e |rus| oecores |rrevocao|e, ||e |rd|v|dua|s W|o Wou|d |r|er|| ||e se|||or or se|||ors' proper|y urder ||e
|aW ol |||s s|a|e |ad ||e se|||or or se|||ors d|ed |r|es|a|e a| ||e ||re ||e |rus| oecores |rrevocao|e.
4. A wr|||rg (?) p. 528, Fx||o|| 21
0elau|| ru|e - requ|res ||a| a |rus| car or|y oe crea|ed oy a Wr|||rg (30l)
lage 153 ol 190
Texas - (excep||or |o Wr|||rg requ|rerer|) ll you corvey ||e proper|y |o a 3d par|y ||a| |s re|||er a se|||or ror a
oerel|c|ary W||| ||e |r|er| |o crea|e a |rus|, ||er || W||| oe va||d W|||ou| a Wr|||rg. 8u| ||e |rus| proper|y W||| or|y
cors|s| ol persora| proper|y (?).
Texas Property *ode
B --0.@@5. 'tatute of Frauds
A |rus| |r e|||er rea| or persora| proper|y |s erlorceao|e 0Nl |l ||ere |s ;ritten e(idence ol ||e |rus|'s |errs oear|rg ||e s|gra|ure ol ||e se|||or
or ||e se|||or's au||or|zed ager|. A |rus| cors|s||rg ol personal property, |oWever, |s erlorceao|e ll crea|ed oy.
(1) a |rarsler ol ||e |rus| proper|y |o a |rus|ee W|o |s re|||er se|||or ror oerel|c|ary |l ||e |rarsleror expresses s|ru||areous|y W||| or pr|or |o ||e
|rarsler ||e |r|er||or |o crea|e a |rus|, or
(2) a dec|ara||or |r Wr|||rg oy ||e oWrer ol proper|y ||a| ||e oWrer |o|ds ||e proper|y as |rus|ee lor aro||er persor or lor ||e oWrer ard
aro||er persor as a oerel|c|ary.
Texas law on writing re>uire#ent
8o|| |rus|s lor rea| proper|y ard persora| proper|y |ave |o oe |r Wr|||rg
Fxcep||ors lor persora| proper|y
o Trarsler ol |rus| proper|y |o a |rus|ee W|o |s re|||er se|||or ror oerel|c|ary 0b
o 0ec|ara||or |r Wr|||rg oy ||e oWrer ol prop ||a| ||e oWrer |o|ds ||e prop as |rus| lor aro||er persor or
lor ||e oWrer ard aro||er persor |s rared oerel|c|ary

*. %i$hts of the Beneficiary to 9istributions Caseooo|. 533-43, Fx. 22
8hat can you do ;ith a trust< T&s discretion (aries:
|arda|ory. las |o pay a|| |rcore |o oerel|c|ar|es. No d|scre||or as |o |oW |o d|s|r|ou|e. Jus| acc|
0|scre||orary. Trus|ee ge|s |o dec|de |oW |o rarage ||e proper|y ard |oW ruc| |o g|ve ||e oerel|c|ary or
|oW |o d|v|de arorg d|llerer| oerel|c|ar|es. (0|v|rg T |oo ruc| a||oWs r|suse ard proo|ers W||| oWrers||p ol ||e |rus|
las du|y ol |rqu|ry |r|o W|e||er ||e cord|||ors ol ||e 8 are suc| ||a| |e |s er||||ed |o a d|s|r|ou||or
or a c|arge |r ||e d|s|r|ou||or.
Car |ave a coro|ra||or ol oo||rarda|ory ar|, ou| car g|ve sore |o ||e pr|rc|pa|.
Exculpatory clauses
Fxcu|pa|ory c|ause. excuses |rus|ee lror ||ao||||y, excep| lor `W|||lu| reg|ec| or delau||.' (rayoe ro| e|||ca|)
uTC. lresurp||or ||a| |l ar a||orrey W|o |s a|so ||e |rus|ee dral|s ||e |rus|, || |s presured |rva||d
o 0vercore oy s|oW|rg ||a| ||e c|ause Was la|r urder ||e c|rcurs|arces ard ||a| ||s ex|s|erce ard
cor|er| Was adequa|e|y d|sc|osed |o ||e se|||or.
ll |rus|ee |s ro| ar a||y ard |e dral|s ||e docurer| sale |aroor prov|s|or.
Texas lroper|y Code - 114.007. 0or'| |ave ourder s||l||rg |o ||e T |o es|ao||s| ||a| || Was la|r, ou| you car s||||
se| as|de ||e ex c|ause |l you car s|oW || Was pu| |r ||ere as ||e resu|| ol ar aouse ol led du|y or corl|de
re|a||ors||p. No| l|d |o oerel|c|ary ou| |o ||e se|||or.
o Carro| excu|pa|e lor oreac| ol |rus| corr|||ed |r oad la|||, |r|er||ora||y, or W|rec||ess |rd|llererce
o vo|d |o ||e ex|er| || |s |rser|ed |r|o ||e |rus| |rs|rurer| as a resu|| ol aouse ol a l|duc|ary or corl|der||a|
Texas Property *ode
B --5.@@4. /xculpation of Trustee
(a) A |err ol a |rus| re||ev|rg a |rus|ee ol ||ao||||y lor oreac| ol |rus| |s urerlorceao|e |o ||e ex|er| ||a| ||e |err re||eves a |rus|ee ol ||ao||||y lor.
(1) a oreac| ol |rus| corr|||ed.
(A) |r oad la|||,
(8) |r|er||ora||y, or
(C) W||| rec||ess |rd|llererce |o ||e |r|eres| ol a oerel|c|ary, or
(2) ary prol|| der|ved oy ||e |rus|ee lror a oreac| ol |rus|.
lage 154 ol 190
(o) A |err |r a |rus| |rs|rurer| re||ev|rg ||e |rus|ee ol ||ao||||y lor a oreac| ol |rus| |s |rellec||ve |o ||e ex|er| ||a| ||e |err |s |rser|ed |r ||e |rus|
|rs|rurer| as a resu|| ol ar aouse oy ||e |rus|ee ol a l|duc|ary du|y |o or corl|der||a| re|a||ors||p W||| ||e se|||or.
(c) T||s sec||or app||es or|y |o a |err ol a |rus| ||a| ray o||erW|se re||eve a |rus|ee lror ||ao||||y lor a oreac| ol |rus|. Fxcep| as prov|ded |r
3ec||or 111.0035, |||s sec||or does ro| pro||o|| ||e se|||or, oy ||e |errs ol ||e |rus|, lror express|y.
(1) re||ev|rg ||e |rus|ee lror a du|y or res|r|c||or |rposed oy |||s suo||||e or oy corror |aW, or
d|rec||rg or perr||||rg ||e |rus|ee |o do or ro| |o do ar ac||or ||a| Wou|d o||erW|se v|o|a|e a du|y or res|r|c||or |rposed oy |||s suo||||e
or oy corror |aW.
In re /state of Fournier- 0eorge as|ed |Wo ol ||s lr|erds |o |o|d $400,000 lor ||s s|s|er. le War|ed || a|| |o go |o ore
s|s|er oecause ||e o||er s|s|er Was We|| oll. App|y uTC. 0ra| |rus|s |ave |o oe proved oy c|ear ard corv|rc|rg ev|derce.
T||s cour| dec|ded ||e |rus| ree|s ||e s|ardard. T|e s|s|er ge|s ||e rorey. T||s case Wou|d |ave core ou| ||e sare
|r Texas.
Texas uses lorra||s||c ru|es.
+arsman (. Nasca
+assachusetts Appeals *ourtD -33-
,@ +ass. App. 413D .4, N./.0d -@0.
Facts: Trus| sa|d |o prov|de lor ||e `corlor|ao|e suppor| ard ra|r|erarce ol ||e oerel|c|ary' (payrer|s Were
rarda|ory, ou| ||e ar| Was d|scre||orary). T Was g|ver aoso|u|e d|scre||or. Trus| |rc|uded ar excu|pa|ory
c|ause dral|ed oy ||e |aWyer W|o Was a|so ||e T. T|e c|ause sa|d ||a| ||e T Wou|dr'| oe ||ao|e ur|ess W|||lu|
reg|ec||delau||. 8erel|c|ary |os| ||s |ouse o|c |e d|dr'| |ave eroug| rorey, so as|ed T lor sore ol ||e
Rule: w|ere a |rus| g|ve ||e |rus|ee a d|scre||orary poWer |o pay arour|s ol ||e pr|rc|pa| lor |e corlor|ao|e
suppor| ard ra|r|erarce ol a oerel|c|ary, ||e |rus|ee |as a du|y |o |rqu|re |r|o ||e l|rarc|a| resources ol ||a|
oerel|c|ary so as |o recogr|ze ||s reeds.
Holdin": Cour| |e|d there is a duty of inFuiry or a |rus|ee |o |rqu|re |r|o ||e l|rarc|a| resources ol ||a|
oerel|c|ary so as |o recogr|ze ||s reeds W|er ||e |rus| |as a prov|s|ors suc| as |||s |r ||. T|e |rus|ee rever
rea||y |as so|e d|scre||or. loW car you oreac| your l|duc|ary du|y |l ||ere |s ro res|ra|r| or |oW you |ard|e ||e
o Trustee has fiduciary duties e(en ;hen he&s $i(en broad trust po;ers.
o 0ll|ce ol |rus|ee |rvo|ves ser|ous du||es
o Ta|e |||r|s ar a||y s|ou|dr'| serve as a |rus|ee ur|ess ||e |rus|ee |s re|a|ed |o ||er
lage 155 ol 190
9. %i$hts of the B&s *reditors
1. 0|scre||orary (& lro|ec||ve) Trus|s Case 8oo| 544-47
w|ere a |rus| |s d|scre||orary, ||e cred||ors carro| ge| |o ||e |rus| asse|s or |rcore lror ||e |rus| d|rec||y. T|ey are
||r||ed |o pursu|rg ||e |rcore al|er payrer| |o ||e oerel|c|ary.
loWever, |||s does ro| app|y |o c|||drer, spouses, ard ex-spouses.
$iscretionary trusts
Cl. Trad|||ora| v|eW |s ||a| a cred||or carro| reac| a 5ene#iciary=s |r|eres|.
ulC. adop|s Cl ru|e W| ar excep||or lor cour|-ordered c|a|rs lor a c|||d ol spouse or lorrer spouse ol oerel|c|ary
bes|a|erer|. Ta|es ||e v|eW ||a| Cred||or's car s|ard |r 8erel|c|ary s|oes ard derard payrer|

)niform Trust *ode B .@5. 9iscretionary TrustsO /ffect of 'tandard

(a) lr |||s sec||or, `c|||d' |rc|udes ary persor lor W|or ar order or judgrer| lor c|||d suppor| |as oeer er|ered |r |||s or aro||er 3|a|e.
(o) Fxcep| as o||erW|se prov|ded |r suosec||or (c), W|e||er or ro| a |rus| cor|a|rs a sperd||r|l| prov|s|or, a cred||or ol a oerel|c|ary ray ro|
corpe| a d|s|r|ou||or ||a| |s suojec| |o ||e |rus|ee's d|scre||or, ever |l.
(1) ||e d|scre||or |s expressed |r ||e lorr ol a s|ardard ol d|s|r|ou||or, or
(2) ||e |rus|ee |as aoused ||e d|scre||or.
(c) To ||e ex|er| a |rus|ee |as ro| corp||ed W||| a s|ardard ol d|s|r|ou||or or |as aoused a d|scre||or.
a d|s|r|ou||or ray oe ordered oy ||e cour| |o sa||sly a judgrer| or cour| order aga|rs| ||e oerel|c|ary lor suppor| or ra|r|erarce ol ||e
oerel|c|ary's c|||d, spouse, or lorrer spouse, ard
||e cour| s|a|| d|rec| ||e |rus|ee |o pay |o ||e c|||d, spouse, or lorrer spouse suc| arour| as |s equ||ao|e urder ||e c|rcurs|arces ou|
ro| rore ||ar ||e arour| ||e |rus|ee Wou|d |ave oeer requ|red |o d|s|r|ou|e |o or lor ||e oerel|| ol ||e oerel|c|ary |ad ||e |rus|ee
corp||ed W||| ||e s|ardard or ro| aoused ||e d|scre||or.
(d) T||s sec||or does ro| ||r|| ||e r|g|| ol a oerel|c|ary |o ra|r|a|r a jud|c|a| proceed|rg aga|rs| a |rus|ee lor ar aouse ol d|scre||or or la||ure |o
corp|y W||| a s|ardard lor d|s|r|ou||or.
(e) ll ||e |rus|ee's or co|rus|ee's d|scre||or |o ra|e d|s|r|ou||ors lor ||e |rus|ee's or co|rus|ee's oWr oerel|| |s ||r||ed oy ar ascer|a|rao|e
s|ardard, a cred||or ray ro| reac| or corpe| d|s|r|ou||or ol ||e oerel|c|a| |r|eres| excep| |o ||e ex|er| ||e |r|eres| Wou|d oe suojec| |o ||e
cred||or's c|a|r Were ||e oerel|c|ary ro| ac||rg as |rus|ee or co|rus|ee.
Protective Trusts
lr Frg|ard ard res| ol Wor|d, carro| crea|e sperd||r|l| |rus| - so crea|e a protecti(e trust ||a| pays |rcore |o
oerel|c|ary, ou| |l cred||ors a||ac| ||e |r|eres|, ||ar || oecores a d|scre||orary |rus| ra||er ||ar a rarda|ory |rus|.
2. 3perd||r|l| Trus|s (|arda|ory) Case 8oo| 547-57, Fx. 23
Trus| ||a| (1) pro||o||s ||e 8's |r|eres| lror oe|rg ass|gred & (2) a|so prever|s a cred||or (|or| cred||or) lror a||ac||rg
||a| |r|eres|. Jus| |ave |o say |r ||e |rs|rurer| ||a| |||s |s ||e ||rd ol |rus| you're crea||rg.
ll deo|or|oerel|c|ary carro| |rarsler |r|eres| (ro a||erao||||y) ||er creditors and tort creditors carro| reac| ||e
|r|eres|. urder a sperd||r|l| - oerel|c|ary carro| |rarsler |r|eres| uNTll ||ey ge| ||e $.
loWever, |||s does ro| app|y |o c|||drer, spouses, ard ex-spouses. - luo||c lo||cy derards lar||y suppor|
Texas - prooao|y reac|es ||e sare resu|| as || re|a|es |o c|||d suppor|, ou| ro| spousa| suppor| payrer|s.
A|ros| a|| s|a|es recogr|ze ||ese.
8y crea||rg a sperd||r|l| |rus|, ||e beneficiary has a guaranteed right to recei(e money from trust. Cred||ors carro|
reac| |r|eres| oy ro| a||oW|rg a oerel|c|ary |o a||era|e |er |r|eres|, |||s |s |rue ever |l |rus| prov|des lor rarda|ory
payrer|s |o oerel|c|ar|es.
o A persor W|o |as lurr|s|ed recessary serv|ces or suppor| (doc|or, grocer) CAN reac| ||e oerel|c|ary's
|r|eres| |r a sperd||r|l| |rus|.
lage 15" ol 190
o C|||d suppor| ard a||rory car oe |a|er ou| ol a sperd||r|l| |rus| |l ||ere's a va||d judgrer| (|r ||e
rajor||y ol s|a|es)
lr ros| s|a|es, |rus|s are ro| sperd||r|l| ur|ess ||e se|||er express|y |rser|s a sperd||r|l| c|ause.
Protecti(e trust: a |rus| ||a| pays |rcore |o ||e oerel|c|ary, ou| |l ||e oerel|c|ar|es' cred||ors |ry |o reac| ||e
|rus|, ||er ||e |rus| |urrs |r|o a rarda|ory |rus|| sperd||r|l| |rus|.
ur|ess spec|l|ed |r ||e prov|s|ors, ||e oerel|c|ary ord|rar||y |as ||e poWer |o |rarsler ||s |r|eres| |r ||e |rus|. ll ||e
oerel|c|ary |as ||e ao||||y |o |rarsler ||s |r|eres| |r ||e |rus|, ||er cred||ors car ge| |o ||s |r|eres| |r ||e |rus| as We||.
)niform Trust *ode
o 502. 3T res|ra|rs oo|| vo|ur|ary ard |rvo|ur|ary |rarslers ol ||e oerel|c|ary's |r|eres|.
o 503. Fxcep||or lor c|||d, spouse, or lorrer spouse lor suppor| ard ra|r|erarce
Car ro| oe reac|ed ever |r oar|rup|cy.
Texas Property *ode --0.@,.
o Car oe crea|ed |r Texas. use ol ||e |err `sperd||r|l| |rus|' |s sull|c|er| |o res|ra|r a||era||or
o ll ||e se|||or |s a|so a oerel|c|ary, ||er cred||ors car reac| ||s |r|eres| |r ||e |rus|.
o Car |a|e c|||d suppor| payrer|s ou| ol a sperd||r|l| |rus| (ou| ro| a||rory s|rce We dor'| |ec|r|ca||y |ave
||a| |r Texas).
o 3T car oe cors|dered a ra|er|a| purpose |r Texas. TX |aW |s rore pro-oerel|c|ary aoou| |||s ||ar ||e
currer| uCC. (T|erelore |l oerel|c|ar|es see| |o |err|ra|e a |rus|, ||ey car argue ||a| ||e ra|er|a| purpose
ol a ||e sperd||r|l| |rus| |as oeer accorp||s|ed. 3ee |err|ra||or oe|oW.)
Texas Property *ode B --0.@,.. 'pendthrift Trusts
(a) A se|||or ray prov|de |r ||e |errs ol ||e |rus| ||a| ||e |r|eres| ol a oerel|c|ary |r ||e |rcore or |r ||e pr|rc|pa| or |r oo|| ray ro| oe
vo|ur|ar||y or |rvo|ur|ar||y |rarslerred oelore payrer| or de||very ol ||e |r|eres| |o ||e oerel|c|ary oy ||e |rus|ee.
(o) A dec|ara||or |r a |rus| |rs|rurer| ||a| ||e |r|eres| ol a oerel|c|ary s|a|| oe |e|d suojec| |o a sperd||r|l| |rus| |s sull|c|er| |o res|ra|r
vo|ur|ary or |rvo|ur|ary a||era||or ol ||e |r|eres| oy a oerel|c|ary |o ||e rax|rur ex|er| perr|||ed oy |||s suo||||e.
(c) A |rus| cor|a|r|rg |errs au||or|zed urder 3uosec||or (a) or (o) ol |||s sec||or ray oe relerred |o as a sperd||r|l| |rus|.
(d) ll ||e se|||or |s a|so a oerel|c|ary ol ||e |rus|, a prov|s|or res|ra|r|rg ||e vo|ur|ary or |rvo|ur|ary |rarsler ol ||e se|||or's oerel|c|a| |r|eres|
does ro| prever| ||e se|||or's cred||ors lror sa||sly|rg c|a|rs lror ||e se|||or's |r|eres| |r ||e |rus| es|a|e. A se|||or |s ro| cors|dered a
oerel|c|ary ol a |rus| so|e|y oecause a |rus|ee W|o |s ro| ||e se|||or |s au||or|zed urder ||e |rus| |rs|rurer| |o pay or re|rourse ||e se|||or
lor, or pay d|rec||y |o ||e |ax|rg au||or|||es, ary |ax or |rus| |rcore or pr|rc|pa| ||a| |s payao|e oy ||e se|||or urder ||e |aW |rpos|rg ||e |ax.
(e) A oerel|c|ary ol ||e |rus| ray ro| oe cors|dered a se|||or rere|y oecause ol a |apse, Wa|ver, or re|ease ol.
(1) a poWer descr|oed oy 3uosec||or (l), or
||e oerel|c|ary's r|g|| |o W|||draW a par| ol ||e |rus| proper|y |o ||e ex|er| ||a| ||e va|ue ol ||e proper|y allec|ed oy ||e |apse, Wa|ver, or
re|ease |r ary ca|erdar year does ro| exceed ||e grea|er ol ||e arour| spec|l|ed |r.
(A) 2041(o)(2) or 2514(e), lr|erra| beverue Code ol 198o, or
(8) 2503(o), lr|erra| beverue Code ol 198o.
(l) A oerel|c|ary ol ||e |rus| ray ro| oe cors|dered |o oe a se|||or, |o |ave rade a vo|ur|ary or |rvo|ur|ary |rarsler ol ||e oerel|c|ary's |r|eres|
|r ||e |rus|, or |o |ave ||e poWer |o ra|e a vo|ur|ary or |rvo|ur|ary |rarsler ol ||e oerel|c|ary's |r|eres| |r ||e |rus|, rere|y oecause ||e
oerel|c|ary, |r ary capac||y, |o|ds or exerc|ses.
(1) a preser||y exerc|sao|e poWer |o.
(A) corsure, |rvade, appropr|a|e, or d|s|r|ou|e proper|y |o or lor ||e oerel|| ol ||e oerel|c|ary, |l ||e poWer |s.
(|) exerc|sao|e or|y or corser| ol aro||er persor |o|d|rg ar |r|eres| adverse |o ||e oerel|c|ary's
|r|eres|, or
(||) ||r||ed oy ar ascer|a|rao|e s|ardard, |rc|ud|rg |ea|||, educa||or, suppor|, or ra|r|erarce ol
||e oerel|c|ary, or
(8) appo|r| ary proper|y ol ||e |rus| |o or lor ||e oerel|| ol a persor o||er ||ar ||e oerel|c|ary, a cred||or ol ||e
oerel|c|ary, ||e oerel|c|ary's es|a|e, or a cred||or ol ||e oerel|c|ary's es|a|e,
(2) a |es|arer|ary poWer ol appo|r|rer|, or
(3) a preser||y exerc|sao|e r|g|| descr|oed oy 3uosec||or (e)(2).
Texas Family *ode B -.5.@@.. Payments of 'upport Cbli$ation by Trust
(a) T|e cour| ray order ||e |rus|ees ol a sperd||r|l| or o||er |rus| |o ra|e d|sourserer|s lor ||e suppor| ol a c|||d |o ||e ex|er| ||e |rus|ees
are requ|red |o ra|e payrer|s |o a oerel|c|ary W|o |s requ|red |o ra|e c|||d suppor| payrer|s as prov|ded oy |||s c|ap|er.
(o) ll d|sourserer| ol ||e asse|s ol ||e |rus| |s d|scre||orary, ||e cour| ray order c|||d suppor| payrer|s lror ||e |rcore ol ||e |rus| ou| ro|
lror ||e pr|rc|pa|.
lage 15# ol 190
)niform Trust *ode B .@0. 'pendthrift Pro(ision
(a) A sperd||r|l| prov|s|or |s va||d or|y |l || res|ra|rs oo|| vo|ur|ary ard |rvo|ur|ary |rarsler ol a oerel|c|ary's |r|eres|.
(o) A |err ol a |rus| prov|d|rg ||a| ||e |r|eres| ol a oerel|c|ary |s |e|d suojec| |o a `sperd||r|l| |rus|,' or Words ol s|r||ar |rpor|, |s sull|c|er| |o
res|ra|r oo|| vo|ur|ary ard |rvo|ur|ary |rarsler ol ||e oerel|c|ary's |r|eres|.
(c) A oerel|c|ary ray ro| |rarsler ar |r|eres| |r a |rus| |r v|o|a||or ol a va||d sperd||r|l| prov|s|or ard, excep| as o||erW|se prov|ded |r |||s [ar||c|e|,
a cred||or or ass|gree ol ||e oerel|c|ary ray ro| reac| ||e |r|eres| or a d|s|r|ou||or oy ||e |rus|ee oelore ||s rece|p| oy ||e oerel|c|ary.
)niform Trust *ode B .@,. /xceptions to 'pendthrift Pro(ision
(a) lr |||s sec||or, `c|||d' |rc|udes ary persor lor W|or ar order or judgrer| lor c|||d suppor| |as oeer er|ered |r |||s or aro||er 3|a|e.
(o) A sperd||r|l| prov|s|or |s urerlorceao|e aga|rs|.
(1) a oerel|c|ary's c|||d, spouse, or lorrer spouse W|o |as a judgrer| or cour| order aga|rs| ||e oerel|c|ary lor suppor| or ra|r|erarce,
(2) a judgrer| cred||or W|o |as prov|ded serv|ces lor ||e pro|ec||or ol a oerel|c|ary's |r|eres| |r ||e |rus|, ard
(3) a c|a|r ol |||s 3|a|e or ||e ur||ed 3|a|es |o ||e ex|er| a s|a|u|e ol |||s 3|a|e or ledera| |aW so prov|des.
(c) A c|a|rar| aga|rs| W||c| a sperd||r|l| prov|s|or carro| oe erlorced ray oo|a|r lror a cour| ar order a||ac||rg preser| or lu|ure
d|s|r|ou||ors |o or lor ||e oerel|| ol ||e oerel|c|ary. T|e cour| ray ||r|| ||e aWard |o suc| re||el as |s appropr|a|e urder ||e c|rcurs|arces.
'elf!'ettled /sset Protection Trust
Trus| |r W||c| se|||or |rarslers $ |o a |rus| W||| himsel# as the 5ene#iciary, ou| ra|es || a sperd||r|l| |rus|. T||s
rus| oe dore oelore ||e cred||ors' c|a|rs ar|se. T||s |sr'| rea||y a||oWed |r ros| s|a|es (||'s ||rd ol ure|||ca|).
le|s soreore pu| proper|y |r|o a |rus|, rar|rg ||rse|l as 8 ard ra||rg || a 3T so || carro| ge| |o ||e cred||ors.
(0r. W|o causes a |o| ol red ra|). Car'| do |||s |l al|er ||e |or| or deo| crea|ed, ou| car do oelore|ard.
Ta|e. |||r|s ||'s o|ay |l We a||oW ||ese s|rce ||e |ssue |ere rea||y cores doWr |o ro||ce. T|e cred||ors W||| N0T
re|y or ||e rorey |r ||e se|l-se|||ed asse| pro|ec||or |rus| |l ||ey |roW ||ey W||| ro| oe ao|e |o |ouc| ||. loWever,
Ta|e |||r|s ||a| |or| cred||ors s|ou|d oe ao|e |o reac| ||ese |ypes ol |rus|. l.e., doc|ors ard |aWyers s|ou|d ro|
oe ao|e |o use ||ese |o s||e|d ||erse|ves lror ra|prac||ce su||s.
3e|l-se|||ed asse| pro|ec||or |rus|. does N0T a||oW se|l-se|||ed asse| pro|ec||or |rus|s - cred||ors car reac|
'helly v4 'helly! 'helly children get inco#e and principal as beneficiaries4 Ex!wife can get inco#e but not
'cheffel 2P6 (. =rue$er 2R6
'upreme *ourt of Ne; #ampshireD 0@@-
-5? N.#. ??3D 410 A.0d 5-@
3urrary. |o||er, a |or| cred||or, Was ro| ao|e |o reac| ||e sperd||r|l| |rus| ol |er |usoard, W|o |ad sexua||y
ro|es|ed ||e|r c|||d ard ||er d|sappeared al|er ||ere Was a cr|r|ra| ard c|v|| judgrer| aga|rs| ||r. (oy ||'s
p|a|r |arguage, ||e s|a|u|e d|d ro| prov|de lor a |or| cred||or excep||or) T|ere |s ro d|s||rc||or o|W |or| cred||ors
ard regu|ar cred||ors. (ever W| puo||c po||cy reasors)
bu|e. 3perd||r|l| |rus| asse|s are ro| reac|ao|e oy |or| cred||ors ever W|er ||e oerel|c|ary's corduc|
cors|||u|es a cr|r|ra| ac|, ur|ess ||e oerel|c|ary |s a|so ||e se|||er or ||e asse|s Were lraudu|er||y |rarslerred |o
||e |rus|.
Ta|e |||r|s 3T s|ou|dr'| oe pro|ec|ed lror |or| cred||ors o|c goes aga|rs| ll. 0o arourd corr||||rg |or|s.
ll a vo|ur|ary cred||or, ||er |ad ||e ao||||y |o rego||a|e.
'helley (. 'helley
,.5 P.0d 010 2Cr. -3?@6
3urrary. buraWay |usoard's sperd||r|l| |rus| Was suojec| |o ||e c|a|rs ol a oerel|c|ary's c|||drer ard lorrer
W|ves - ||ey cou|d ge| |o ||e $ |r ||e |rus|. 0eadoea| dad Was ||e 8. lar| 3T ard par| d|scre||orary. Cou|d W|le
ard ||ds ge| |o ||e |rus|?
o 8o|| spouses ard ||ds cou|d ge| ||e |r|eres|, ou| cou|d ro| reac| ||e pr|rc|p|e as cred||ors o|c ||a| Was
d|scre||orary. K|ds ao|e |o ge| ||a| $ aryWay o|c c|ause sa|d ||a| |r case ol erergercy, ||ds cou|d ge|
||e pr|rc|p|e.
lage 15$ ol 190
o ll |||s Was |r TX, prooao|y ge| sare resu|| W|||ds o|c TX |e|s ||ds a||ac| 3T |rus| ard ||e |rcore
W|d|scre||orary |rus|, ||ey car'| ge| pr|rc|p|e, ou| o|c ||ey're oerel|c|ar|es, cou|d ge| ||e pr|rc|p|e, ou| ro
prov|s|or lor spouses |r TX. Cou|d argue ||a| |||s ra|es serse o|c a|||oug| ||ds d|dr'| c|oose |o oe
oorr ol |||s persor, ||e spouses d|d c|oose ||a| persor W|er ||ey rarr|ed ard so rore |||e vo|ur|ary
cred||ors, W|o |ad ao||||y |o rego||a|e.
Texas lar||y code - cour| ray order |rus|ees |o d|sperse rorey lror sperd||r|l| |rus| lor c|||d
suppor| purposes - or|y er||||ed |o |rcore, ro| pr|rc|pa|.
No s|r||ar prov|s|or |r code lor a||rory - so lorrer W|ves Wou|d ro| oe ao|e |o a||ac| a||rory.
lage 159 ol 190
/. Flexibility: Po;ers of AppointmentD +odificationD & Termination
1. loWers ol Appo|r|rer| Case 8oo| 589-91
The ri$ht to desi$nate the ne; o;ner of property or trust beneficiary 2next to ta!e an interest in some property6.
ll ||e |rus|ee (or aro||er persor) |as ary d|scre||or ol d|spos|||or - ||er |e or s|e |as poWer ol
appo|r|rer|. A||oWs lor grea| l|ex|o||||y ol d|spos|rg ol ore's proper|y. (ros| |rus| |rvo|ve sore poWer ol app|, ever
|l jus| d|s|r|ou||rg asse|s a| dea||)
w|er ||ed |o ||e |rus|, || grar|s ||e poWer |o appo|r| reW oerel|c|ar|es ard |oW proper|y W||| oe
d|s|r|ou|ed a| ||e |err|ra||or ol ||e |rus|.
Fx. pu| proper|y |r |rus|, ||er g|ve |rus|ee ol ||le es|a|e oerel|c|ary the power to decide who "ets what
accord|rg |o your gu|de||res or car g|ve ||er corp|e|e d|scre||or
Fx. Trus| ray spec|ly W|o ge|s |oW ruc| or |oW rary peop|e ray ge| ||. Trus|ee rus| d|v|de up o|W
c|||drer lor exarp|e.
b|g|| |o |rarsler|a||era|e proper|y |s ore ol ||e ourd|e ol s||c|s, d|s||rc| lror r|g|| |o exc|ude o||ers. Car oe
severed ard g|ver |o aro||er. w|er g|v|rg l0A, g|v|rg your r|g|| |o |rarsler |o aro||er persor.
8#C: |os| |rus|s |rvo|ve sore l0A. T |as sore au||or||y |o d|s|r|ou|e ||e |rcore or ||e pr|rc|p|e arorg a group
ol des|gra|ed persors. ||g|| spec|ly rore or |ess |oW ruc| eac| persor s|ou|d ge| ard |ave a rarroW group ol
peop|e ||a| ||e |rus|ee car d|s|r|ou|e. 8u| |l T |as ary d|scre||or, ||er T |as a l0A.
Nor-|rus|ees car a|so |ave |||s. Corror lor a ||le-es|a|e oerel|c|ary |o |ave ||a| poWer. l crea|es a |rus|
lor w lor ||le, ||er w dec|des |oW ruc| proper|y eac| c|||d ge|s al|er s|e d|es. (F.g., daug||er |as
|es|arer|ary poWer ol appo|r|rer|).
o ll ||e doree ol ||e poWer |s ro| a|so a |rus|ee (jus| a oerel|c|ary), ||er ||e doree |as ro du||es |o
rarage ||e proper|y or g|ve ar accour||rg.
Purpose: lrov|de l|ex|o||||y |r dea||rg W||| ||e proper|y. ll you |ave a gerera| |dea W|o you War| ||e proper|y |o go
|o, ou| dor'| |roW exac||y W|o, ||er you car g|ve ||e l0A |o aro||er.
TWo ||rds.
Eeneral Po;ers: loWer |o appo|r| ||e proper|y |o aryore lNClu0lN0 yourse|l, your es|a|e, your
cred||ors, ard ||e cred||ors ol your es|a|e exerc|sed |r laoor ol ||e persor W|o |o|ds ||e poWer. ll you |ave
||e poWer |o appo|r| a|| ol ||ose peop|e, ||er you are |rea|ed as oWr|rg ||e proper|y lor ledera| |ax |aW
purposes. (T|us suojec| |o es|a|e, g|l| |ax.)
a. Fxcep||or. ou r|g|| |ave ||e poWer |o W|draW pr|rc|p|e. Ascer|a|rao|e s|ardard
re|a||rg |o your |ea|||, e|c. Tax |aWs car |rea| as ro| a gerera| l0A.
o. 'pecial Po;ers: Car'| appo|r| se|l, car or|y appo|r| o||ers. Trea|ed d|llerer||y lor |ax
ledera| Tax laWs goverr. Key d|llererce. Ao|e |o appo|r| yourse|l ard o||ers |r 0l.
ll you're corcerred aoou| |axes, ||er |||s ra|es a d|llererce. ll you g|ve soreore a 3l0A, ||er
ro| |rea|ed as oWrer ol ||e proper|y lor |ax purposes.
lr gerera| ||'s oe||er |o crea|e a spec|a| poWer ol app| |l you are corcerred W||| es|a|e |axes. 8u|
||ere ray oe excep||ors |o |||s. ll your c|| |s Wea|||y eroug| |o |ave |o pay es|a|e |axes, do researc| |o ra|e
sure ||ey dor'| ge| s|uc| |r a ||g|er |ax orac|e|
lroper|y |axed W|er |rus| crea|ed. No| W|er d|s|r|ou|ed. w|er l ra|es ||e g|l|, ||a| |s suojec| |o
g|l| |ax. ll l |as used up a|| ol ||s g|l| |ax exerp||or, ||er W||| oe |axed. ll |e g|ves ||roug| W|||,
||er |s suojec| |o es|a|e |ax. 8u| |l l crea|es a gerera||or-s||pp|rg |rus| (03T). ll l |as used up
||s 03T exerp||or, ||er W||| oe |axed.
Best to use EPCA than 'PCA.
lage 1"0 ol 190
#:PC: 3uppose l War|s |o crea|e |rus| lor 0 as ||e 8 W|o W||| ge| |rcore lor |er ||le, ||er l War|s |o g|ve 0 poWer |o dec|de W|o
ge|s ||e pr|rc|p|e al|er s|e d|es. ll l g|ves |er 0l0A, ||er ||a| proper|y |s |axed |W|ceorce W|er l crea|es (oy g|l| or W|||g|l| or
es|a|e |ax), ||er aga|r W|er 0 e|||er g|ves || aWay or dev|ses || oy W|||. ur|ess || la||s urder ledera| exerp||ors, ||er |axed |W|ce.
ll l g|ves |er 3l0A, ||a| s|e car appo|r| aryore 8uT |erse|l or cred||ors, ||er ro| |axed W|er s|e
appo|r|s. Jus| |axed orce.
lage 1"1 ol 190
2. |od|l|ca||or & Terr|ra||or Case 8oo| 572-85, Fx. 24
Claflin $octrine - A |rus| car ro| oe rod|l|ed||err|ra|ed oelore ||e ||re l|xed lor |err|ra||or, ever |l a|| ol ||e
oerel|c|ar|es corser|, |l |err|ra||or or rod|l|ca||or Wou|d oe cor|rary |o ||e ra|er|a| purpose ol ||e se|||or.
o ll 3 |ad a ra|er|a| purpose ol |o|d|rg ||e proper|y oelore 8 |urred 30, ||er car'| rod|ly.
o 0||er cour|r|es are d|llerer|. Frg|ardW|er 8s are ol |ega| age, car |err|ra|e ||e T W|erever ||ey War|.
Car ge| || W|erever ||ey're o|d eroug| |o derard ||, ard |l ro| o|d eroug|, c| car s|||| overr|de ||a|.
Terd |o g|ve 8s ary|||rg ||ey War|.
o C|s |r ||e u.3. are rore re|uc|ar| |o do ||a|.
)niform Trust *ode B 5-0D p .44 - ll ||e rod|l|ca||or Wou|d #urther the purpose o# the trust W|||ou| ||e reed lor
corser| ol ||e doror|se|||or, |l ro| ava||ao|e, so |org as a|| ol ||e oerel|c|ar|es corser|. (|ore ||oera| W||| rod|ly|rg
|a|er|a| purpose - Wou|d rod|l|ca||or |o ||e |rus| delea| ||e ra|er|a| purpose. ard |s || recessary |o ra|r|a|r ||e
ra|er|a| purpose.
Texas Property *ode B --0.@.5
o Adop|ed ||e uTC ru|e. car rod|ly W| corser| ol 8s |l || W||| lur||er |rus| purpose. Cour| ray rod|ly ||e |rus|
`oecause ol c|rcurs|arce ro| |roWr or ar||c|pa|ed oy ||e se|||or, ||e order W||| lur||er ||e purposes ol ||e
o |arda|ory - ||e cour| car rod|ly ||e |rus| urder |||s prov|s|or ever |l ||e se|||or |rd|ca|ed |e d|d ro| War| ||
o A |rus|ee or oerel|c|ary ray pe||||or ||e cour| lor rod|l|ca||or
|l ||e purpose ol ||e |rus| |as oeer lu|l|||ed.
oecause ol c|rcurs|arce ro| |roWr ard urar||c|pa|ed oy ||e se|||or
|o sa||sly |ax oojec||ves
o |us| s|||| |eep ||e ra|er|a| purpose ol ||e |rus| |r r|rd.
NeW T||rd b3T. |rus| car oe rod|l|ed ever |l do|rg so W||| v|o|a|e a ra|er|a| purpose ol ||e |rus| |l ||e cr| de|err|res
||e reasors lor rod|l|ca||or ou|We|g| ||e ra|er|a| purpose
o Car rod|ly a |rus| ever |l cor|rary |o ra|er|a| purpose ol se|||or as lon" as reasons #or modi#ication
outwei"h the ori"inal purpose. (Ta|e |||r|s |||s ray go |oo lar, ou| oas|ca||y |s a good |dea.)
o Ta|e's lroposa|. Ta|e agrees W||| |||s ou| |||r|s soreore s|ou|d |ave ||e |rcer||ve |o argue aga|rs| ||e
rod|l|ca||or! (so oo|| s|des are represer|ed) lrcer||ve s|ou|d oe g|ver |o ||e |rus|ee |r ||e d|rec||ors.
o 0|d - 3ecord b3T. or|y a||oWed rod|l|ca||or ol |rus| W|er ||e cor||rua||or ol || Wou|d delea| ||e purpose ol
||e |rus|
1x. o# chan"ed circumstances. ser|ous red|ca| proo|er ard oerel|c|ary reeds |o reac| ||e pr|rc|pa| oelore ||e
age 3o requ|rerer| 0b |rus| says $ car or|y oe used lor educa||or, ou| |earr|rg d|sao||||y prever|s ||r lror
go|rg |o co||ege
Incentive trusts8 3e|||or pu|s cord|||ors or |oW you ge| ||e rorey.
Trus|s ||a| are des|gred |o use rorey |o ercourage, rod|ly, or d|scourage cer|a|r oe|av|or W||rcer||ve.
o Fx. lays a do||ar ou| lor every do||ar earred ercourages Wor||rg!
o Fx. 0r|y ge| rorey |l gradua|e lror co||ege
T|ese se|||ors ray ro| oe |appy |l ||ese prov|s|ors are rod|l|ed! Ters|or o|W W|a| oerel|c|ar|es War|ed ard
W|a| ||e se|||ors War|ed.
No| good, says Ta|e. T|roW|rg rorey a| soreore W|o |s a|ready |r|eres|ed |r educa||or Wou|d ra|e ||er
|||r| ||e oppos||e||ey r|g|| |||r| ||e or|y reasor ||ey're do|rg || |s |o ge| ||e rorey.
8u| good lor sore |azy asses W|o r|g|| ro| do ary|||rg.
lage 1"2 ol 190
Texas law on incentive trusts
8roader ||ar b3T, sare as ulC.
bu|e. car rod|ly |rus| W| corser| ol oerel|c|ar|es |l || W||| lur||er purposes ol ||e |rus|. Cour| |as rarda|ory poWer
|o rod|ly - ever |l se|||or d|dr'| War| rod|l|ca||or.
A |rus| car |err|ra|e ra|ura||y W|er ||e ||re spec|l|ed |r ||e |rus| |rs|rurer| |as e|apsed.
T|e |rus| car oe |err|ra|ed W|er ||s purpose |as oeer served.
8s car a|so |err|ra|e urder cer|a|r c|rcurs|arces.
bulF. las ||e ra|er|a| purpose oeer re|?
Texas lroper|y Code 112.051
o 3e|||or ray revo|e a |rus|, ur|ess |rrevocao|e, oy ||e express |errs ol ||e |rus|.
o ll a |rus| |s crea|ed oy a Wr|||er |rs|rurer|, ||er ||e |rus| car or|y oe revo|ed oy a Wr|||er |rs|rurer|.
%ro5a5ly can Revo6e a Trust B? ;877
In re Trust of 'tuchell
Cre$on *ourt of AppealsD -33@
-@5 Cr. App. ,,0D 1@- P.0d 1.0
Facts. A|| ||e oerel|c|ar|es soug|| |o rod|ly |rus| so ||e rer|a||y-re|arded c|||d cou|d N0T ge| ||e rera|rder
|r|eres| r|g|| aWay. 8erel|c|ar|es War|ed |rus| |o cor||rue so |e cou|d s|||| qua||ly lor puo||c ass|s|arce.
o Ta|e. lr rea|||y, ror |s jus| |ry|rg |o ge| rore $ |o |er o||er ||ds. T|e rer|a||y re|arded c|||d Wou|d oe
ao|e |o use ||s |rus| $ |||| || rurs ou|, ||er |e Wou|d ge| puo||c ass|s|arce ard Wou|d oe |el| or ||e s|ree|
|||e ||e s c|a|red.
o Norra||y d|scre||orary |rus|s arer'| cors|dered ava||ao|e |rcore |l ||e se|||or, |ere ||e grardla||er, |ad
ro| du|y |o care lor ||er - a parer| Wou|d |ave |ad a du|y.
Holdin". No rod|l|ca||or. |er|a||y re|arded c|||d car reac| |rus| $. w||| ro| a||oW ||e oerel|c|ar|es |o `exp|o||
||e s|a|e |reasury' |||e |||s. 0oesr'| re|y or ll.
o b3T. wou|d ro| oe ao|e |o rod|ly urder ||e b3T e|||er.
o Texas. oroader d|scre||or |o rod|ly, so Texas ray |ave rod|l|ed |||s |rus|
%ule of la;. urder Cl, carro| dev|a|e lror |errs ol |rus| rere|y o|c || Wou|d oe advar|ageous |o ||e oerel|c|ar|es
In re /state of Bro;n3perd||r|l| c|auses
'upreme *ourt of IermontD -314
-51 It. 35D .01 A.0d 4.0
Facts: Trus|ee supposed |o pay lor rep|eWs' educa||or ur||| ||a| |s ac||eved, ||er ||e remainder (ro| ||e
pr|rc|pa|) goes |o a d|llerer| coup|e so ||ey car ||ve a r|ce ||les|y|e, rera|rder |o ||e|r ||ds. Coup|e War|s rore
||ar jus| |rcore, ||ey War| ||e pr|rc|pa| - so ||ey pe||||or lor |err|ra||or so ||ey cou|d ge| ||e|r |ards or ||e $.
Holdin": T||s |rus| carro| oe |err|ra|ed oecause ||e secord ard cor||ru|rg ra|er|a| purpose ol ||e |rus| (|o
pay ||e coup|e so ||ey car |ave a good ||les|y|e) |as ro| oeer accorp||s|ed. Both #aterial purposes must
be met to be terminatedD not Tust the educational material purpose.
o N0T a support trust s|rce ro| or|y er||||ed |o W|a| |s recessary as suppor| - ||ey a|so ge| |rcore.
T|ey ge| rore ||ar jus| lor ||e|r s|ardard ol ||v|rg.
o N0T a sperd||r|l| |rus| oecause ro |errs |r |ere |r|erd |o crea|e ore.
o @a#ily does have another option here - Car |rarsler ||e|r ||le |r|eres| |o ||e|r c|||drer, ||er cou|d ro
|orger lur||er ra|er|a| purpose s|rce ||ds |ave a|| ||e rorey. 3|rce ||'s ro| a sperd||r|l| |rus| - car
ass|gr |r|eres| |o ||ds. (car'| ass|gr |r|eres|s |r sperd||r|l|s |rus|s)
TX. 112.054(o) ls a 3T prov|s|or ra|er|a|?. TX |s pro-8, rore ||ar uTC (|r|eres||rg).
w|a| |l T ro| do|rg a good joo? No| good a| adr|r|s|er|rg |rus|? Trad|||ora||y, 8 carro| rep|ace T ur|ess a
c|ear oreac| ol l|duc|ary du|y or ||e T |s jus| url||.
lage 1"3 ol 190
o TX. Car or|y rerove |l cause lor rerova|. Cases del|re as sore|||rg rore ||ar jus| ||| W||| or |os|||||y
oe|Weer T ard 8s. Jus| o|c ||ey dor'| ge| a|org, ||a|'s ro| cause |o rerove T.
o uTC. 0elau|| |aW. Car overr|de oy a prov|s|or |r ||e |rus| |rs|rurer|. 3pec|ly ||a| you dor'| War| T |o
oe reroved urder ||ose c|rcurs|arces.
Trus| rod|l|ca||or||err|ra||or
o 3T c|ause presured |o oe a ra|er|a| purpose ol se|||or |r ros| s|a|es. Car'| c|arge 3T prov|s|or or
|err|ra|e ear|y, o|c ||a| Wou|d v|o|a|e ||e ra|er|a| purpose, W||c| |s |o pro|ec| |rus| lror cred||ors.
o uTC |r|ed |o say ||a| |||s |sr'| a ra|er|a| purpose, ou| s|a|e |eg|s|a|ures d|dr'| |||e ||, so ||e ear|y adop||ors ol
|| |oo| || ou|, ard roW uTC |s s||er| or W|e||er a 3TC |s presured |o oe a ra|er|a| purpose ol ||e se|||or.
o TX. No| presured |o oe a ra|er|a| purpose ol ||e se|||or, ra||er, jus| ore lac|or ||e cour| car cors|der |r
dec|d|rg W|e||er |o |err|ra|e ||e |rus|. TX |s rore pro-8 or pro-l|ex|o||||y ||ar ||e uTC. (Ta|e says pro-l|ex|o||||y)
o 8roWr case. Trus| |err|ra||or. 3 crea|ed |rus| lor oerel|| ol ||e ||ds ol w&b lor ||e|r educa||ora|
purposes. As |org as ||e ||ds |r sc|oo|, ||ey'd ge| lurd|rg. Al|er sc|oo|, ||er lor oerel|| ol w&b, W|o
Wou|d a|so ge| par| ol |rus| as recessary |o ra|r|a|r ||e|r s|ardard ol ||v|rg.
K|ds corser| |o |ave |rus| |err|ra|ed, ou| T doesr'| War| |o do |||s (T |||es co||ec||rg lees lror |rus|).
w&b's argurer|. Trus| |as ore ra|er|a| purpose. educa||or ol ||ds, ard ||a|'s oeer lu|l|||ed, so
roW ro oar |o |err|ra||rg ||e |rus|. C| d|sagrees.
C| |o|ds ||a| aro||er purpose |s a s|eady ||le|org |rcore lor w&b. lroo|er. w&b say ||a| |l
||ey dor'| ge| a|| ol ||e pr|rc|p|e roW, ||ey W||| roW la|| oe|oW ||e|r s|ardard ol ||v|rg.
wou|d |err|ra||or serve ||e |rus|s purposes? Ta|e. es, || Wou|d lur||er ||a| purpose oy |e|||rg
||er ra|r|a|r ||e|r s|ardard ol ||v|rg roW.
Texas Property *ode B --0.@.-. %e(ocationD +odificationD or Amendment by 'ettlor
(a) A se|||or ray revo|e ||e |rus| ur|ess || |s |rrevocao|e oy ||e express |errs ol ||e |rs|rurer| crea||rg || or ol ar |rs|rurer|
rod|ly|rg ||.
(o) T|e se|||or ray rod|ly or arerd a |rus| ||a| |s revocao|e, ou| ||e se|||or ray ro| er|arge ||e du||es ol ||e |rus|ee W|||ou| ||e
|rus|ee's express corser|.
(c) ll ||e |rus| Was crea|ed oy a Wr|||er |rs|rurer|, a revoca||or, rod|l|ca||or, or arerdrer| ol ||e |rus| rus| oe |r Wr|||rg.
Texas Property *ode B --0.@.0. Termination
A |rus| |err|ra|es |l oy ||s |errs ||e |rus| |s |o cor||rue or|y ur||| ||e exp|ra||or ol a cer|a|r per|od or ur||| ||e |apper|rg ol a cer|a|r
ever| ard ||e per|od ol ||re |as e|apsed or ||e ever| |as occurred. ll ar ever| ol |err|ra||or occurs, ||e |rus|ee ray cor||rue |o
exerc|se ||e poWers ol ||e |rus|ee lor ||e reasorao|e per|od ol ||re requ|red |o W|rd up ||e alla|rs ol ||e |rus| ard |o ra|e d|s|r|ou||or
ol ||s asse|s |o ||e appropr|a|e oerel|c|ar|es. T|e cor||rued exerc|se ol ||e |rus|ee's poWers al|er ar ever| ol |err|ra||or does ro|
allec| ||e ves|ed r|g||s ol oerel|c|ar|es ol ||e |rus|.
Texas Property *ode
B --0.@.5. udicial +odification or Termination of Trusts
(a) 0r ||e pe||||or ol a |rus|ee or a oerel|c|ary, a cour| ray order ||a| ||e |rus|ee oe c|arged, ||a| ||e |errs ol ||e |rus| oe rod|l|ed,
||a| ||e |rus|ee oe d|rec|ed or perr|||ed |o do ac|s ||a| are ro| au||or|zed or ||a| are loro|dder oy ||e |errs ol ||e |rus|, ||a| ||e
|rus|ee oe pro||o||ed lror perlorr|rg ac|s requ|red oy ||e |errs ol ||e |rus|, or ||a| ||e |rus| oe |err|ra|ed |r W|o|e or |r par|, |l.
(1) ||e purposes ol ||e |rus| |ave oeer lu|l|||ed or |ave oecore |||ega| or |rposs|o|e |o lu|l|||,
oecause ol c|rcurs|arces ro| |roWr |o or ar||c|pa|ed oy ||e se|||or, ||e order W||| lur||er ||e purposes ol ||e |rus|,
rod|l|ca||or ol adr|r|s|ra||ve, rord|spos|||ve |errs ol ||e |rus| |s recessary or appropr|a|e |o prever| Was|e or avo|d
|rpa|rrer| ol ||e |rus|'s adr|r|s|ra||or,
||e order |s recessary or appropr|a|e |o ac||eve ||e se|||or's |ax oojec||ves ard |s ro| cor|rary |o ||e se|||or's |r|er||ors, or
(5) suojec| |o 3uosec||or (d).
(A) cor||ruarce ol ||e |rus| |s ro| recessary |o ac||eve ary ra|er|a| purpose ol ||e |rus|, or
lage 1"4 ol 190
(8) ||e order |s ro| |rcors|s|er| W||| a ra|er|a| purpose ol ||e |rus|.
(o) T|e cour| s|a|| exerc|se ||s d|scre||or |o order a rod|l|ca||or or |err|ra||or urder 3uosec||or (a) |r ||e rarrer ||a| corlorrs as
rear|y as poss|o|e |o ||e prooao|e |r|er||or ol ||e se|||or. T|e cour| s|a|| cors|der sperd||r|l| prov|s|ors as a lac|or |r ra||rg ||s
dec|s|or W|e||er |o rod|ly or |err|ra|e, ou| ||e cour| |s ro| prec|uded lror exerc|s|rg ||s d|scre||or |o rod|ly or |err|ra|e so|e|y
oecause ||e |rus| |s a sperd||r|l| |rus|.
(c) T|e cour| ray d|rec| ||a| ar order descr|oed oy 3uosec||or (a)(4) |as re|roac||ve ellec|.
(d) T|e cour| ray ro| |a|e ||e ac||or perr|||ed oy 3uosec||or (a)(5) ur|ess a|| oerel|c|ar|es ol ||e |rus| |ave corser|ed |o ||e
order or are deered |o |ave corser|ed |o ||e order. A r|ror, |rcapac||a|ed, uroorr, or urascer|a|red oerel|c|ary |s deered |o
|ave corser|ed |l a persor represer||rg ||e oerel|c|ary's |r|eres| urder 115.013(c) |as corser|ed or |l a guard|ar ad |||er
appo|r|ed |o represer| ||e oerel|c|ary's |r|eres| urder 115.014 corser|s or ||e oerel|c|ary's oe|a|l.
Texas Property *ode B --0.@.4. 9i(ision and *ombination of Trusts
(a) T|e |rus|ee ray, ur|ess express|y pro||o||ed oy ||e |errs ol ||e |rs|rurer| es|ao||s||rg ||e |rus|, d|v|de a |rus| |r|o |Wo or
rore separa|e |rus|s W|||ou| a jud|c|a| proceed|rg |l ||e resu|| does ro| |rpa|r ||e r|g||s ol ary oerel|c|ary or adverse|y allec|
ac||everer| ol ||e purposes ol ||e or|g|ra| |rus|. T|e |rus|ee ray ra|e a d|v|s|or urder |||s suosec||or oy.
g|v|rg Wr|||er ro||ce ol ||e d|v|s|or, ro| |a|er ||ar ||e 30|| day oelore ||e da|e ol a d|v|s|or urder |||s suosec||or, |o eac|
oerel|c|ary W|o r|g|| ||er oe er||||ed |o rece|ve d|s|r|ou||ors lror ||e |rus| or ray oe er||||ed |o rece|ve d|s|r|ou||ors lror ||e
|rus| orce || |s lurded, ard
execu||rg a Wr|||er |rs|rurer|, ac|roW|edged oelore a ro|ary puo||c or o||er persor au||or|zed |o |a|e ac|roW|edgerer|s
ol corveyarces ol rea| es|a|e s|a||rg ||a| ||e |rus| |as oeer d|v|ded pursuar| |o |||s sec||or ard ||a| ||e ro||ce
requ|rerer|s ol |||s suosec||or |ave oeer sa||sl|ed.
(o) A |rus|ee, |r ||e Wr|||er |rs|rurer| d|v|d|rg a |rus|, s|a|| a||oca|e |rus| proper|y arorg ||e separa|e |rus|s or a lrac||ora| oas|s,
oy |der||ly|rg ||e asse|s ard ||ao|||||es pass|rg |o eac| separa|e |rus|, or |r ary o||er reasorao|e rarrer. T|e |rus|ee s|a||
a||oca|e urdes|gra|ed |rus| proper|y rece|ved al|er ||e |rus|ee |as d|v|ded ||e |rus| |r|o separa|e |rus|s |r ||e rarrer prov|ded
oy ||e Wr|||er |rs|rurer| d|v|d|rg ||e |rus| or, |r ||e aoserce ol a prov|s|or |r ||e Wr|||er |rs|rurer|, |r a rarrer de|err|red oy
||e |rus|ee.
(c) T|e |rus|ee ray, ur|ess express|y pro||o||ed oy ||e |errs ol ||e |rs|rurer| es|ao||s||rg a |rus|, coro|re |Wo or rore |rus|s
|r|o a s|rg|e |rus| W|||ou| a jud|c|a| proceed|rg |l ||e resu|| does ro| |rpa|r ||e r|g||s ol ary oerel|c|ary or adverse|y allec|
ac||everer| ol ||e purposes ol ore ol ||e separa|e |rus|s. T|e |rus|ee s|a|| corp|e|e ||e |rus| coro|ra||or oy.
g|v|rg a Wr|||er ro||ce ol ||e coro|ra||or, ro| |a|er ||ar ||e 30|| day oelore ||e ellec||ve da|e ol ||e coro|ra||or, |o eac|
oerel|c|ary W|o r|g|| ||er oe er||||ed |o rece|ve d|s|r|ou||ors lror ||e separa|e |rus|s oe|rg coro|red or |o eac|
oerel|c|ary W|o r|g|| oe er||||ed |o rece|ve d|s|r|ou||ors lror ||e separa|e |rus|s orce ||e |rus|s are lurded, ard
execu||rg a Wr|||er |rs|rurer|, ac|roW|edged oelore a ro|ary puo||c or o||er persor au||or|zed |o |a|e ac|roW|edgrer|s
ol corveyarces ol rea| es|a|e s|a||rg ||a| ||e |rus| |as oeer coro|red pursuar| |o |||s sec||or ard ||a| ||e ro||ce
requ|rerer|s ol |||s suosec||or |ave oeer sa||sl|ed.
(d) T|e |rus|ee ray d|v|de or coro|re a |es|arer|ary |rus| al|er ||e W||| es|ao||s||rg ||e |rus| |as oeer adr|||ed |o prooa|e, ever
|l ||e |rus| W||| ro| oe lurded ur||| a |a|er da|e. T|e |rus|ee ray d|v|de or coro|re ary o||er |rus| oelore || |s lurded.
Texas Property *ode
B --0.@.3. Termination of )neconomic Trust
(a) Al|er ro||ce |o oerel|c|ar|es W|o are d|s|r|ou|ees or perr|ss|o|e d|s|r|ou|ees ol |rus| |rcore or pr|rc|pa| or W|o Wou|d oe
d|s|r|ou|ees or perr|ss|o|e d|s|r|ou|ees |l ||e |r|eres|s ol ||e d|s|r|ou|ees or ||e |rus| Were |o |err|ra|e ard ro poWers ol
appo|r|rer| Were exerc|sed, ||e |rus|ee ol a |rus| cors|s||rg ol |rus| proper|y |av|rg a |o|a| va|ue ol |ess ||ar $50,000 ray
|err|ra|e ||e |rus| |l ||e |rus|ee corc|udes al|er cors|der|rg ||e purpose ol ||e |rus| ard ||e ra|ure ol ||e |rus| asse|s ||a| ||e
va|ue ol ||e |rus| proper|y |s |rsull|c|er| |o jus||ly ||e cor||rued cos| ol adr|r|s|ra||or.
(o) 0r |err|ra||or ol a |rus| urder |||s sec||or, ||e |rus|ee s|a|| d|s|r|ou|e ||e |rus| proper|y |r a rarrer cors|s|er| W||| ||e purposes
ol ||e |rus|.
(c) A |rus|ee ray ro| exerc|se a poWer descr|oed oy 3uosec||or (a) |l ||e |rus|ee's possess|or ol ||e poWer Wou|d cause ||e
asse|s ol ||e |rus| |o oe |rc|uded |r ||e |rus|ee's es|a|e lor ledera| es|a|e |ax purposes.
(d) T||s sec||or does ro| app|y |o ar easerer| lor corserva||or or preserva||or.
lage 1"5 ol 190
3. Trus|ee berova| &p. 5$5)$#/ 71. 25
uTC 70o Removal o# Trustee (re|axes ||e |rad|||ora| ru|e, so rore pro-rerova| ||ar TX)00F3 N0T
bFulbF CAu3F
o le|s ||e Cour| rerove Trus|ee a| ||e op||or ol 8erel|c|ar|es W|er rerova| serves ||e 8's |r|eres|s ard
|sr'| |rcors|s|er| W|||e ra|er|a| purpose ol ||e |rus| (|r oes| |r|eres| ol 8s) ard a su||ao|e co-T or
successor |s ava||ao|e.
o car rerove |l
(1) ||e T |as corr|||ed a ser|ous oreac| ol |rus|,
(2) |ac| ol coopera||or arorg co-|rus|ees suos|ar||a||y |rpa|rs ||e adr|r|s|ra||or ol ||e |rus|,
(3) o|c ol url||ress, urW||||rgress, or pers|s|er| la||ure ol ||e |rus|ee |o adr|r|s|er ||e |rus|
ellec||ve|y, ||e cour| de|err|res ||a| rerova| ol ||e T oes| serves ||e |r|eres|s ol ||e
oerel|c|ar|es, or
(4) ||ere |as oeer a suos|ar||a| c|arge ol c|rcurs|arces or rerova| |s reques|ed oy a|| ol ||e
qua||l|es oerel|c|ar|es, ||e cr| l|rd ||a| rerova| ol ||e T oes| serves ||e |r|eres|s ol a|| ol ||e
oerel|c|ar|es ard |s ro| |rcors|s|er| W||| a ra|er|a| purpose ol ||e |rus|, ard a su||ao|e co-
|rus|ee or successor T |s ava||ao|e
Trad|||ora| Cl. lave |o s|oW c|ear oreac| ol l|duc|ary du|y or ||a| T |s url|| |o perlorr T du||es. A||oWs rerova|
ol T W|er ||ere are c|arged c|rcurs|arces ||a| delea|| substantially impair ||e |rus|s' purpose.
|oderr Cl bu|e. car rerove |rus|ee |l c|rcurs|arces |ave c|arged |o ||e po|r| ||a| ||ey c|arge or delea| ||e
purpose ol ||e |rus|
o CAN rerove a |rus|ee. W|o |s d|s|ores| or W|o |as ergaged |r a ser|ous oreac| ol |rus|
o CANN0T rerove over. a d|sagreerer|, a |ess-||ar-ser|ous oreac|, c|arg|rg |oo ||g| ol a lee,
|os|||||y|||| W||| |oWard oerel|c|ar|es, ror |l d|ssa||sl|ed |r gerera| W| perlorrarce ol |rus|ee
o Trus|ee ||a| |s c|oser oy ||e se|||or |s |ess |||e|y |o oe reroved.
o 0|d Cl bu|e. oerel|c|ar|es cou|d rep|ace ||r |l ||ere Was a c|ear v|o|a||or ol du||es or a c|ear |rd|ca||or
ol l||ress (oar|s d|dr'| War| |o ra|e || eas| |o rerove a |rus|ee, |oo s|r|c| ol a ru|e!)
TX (113.082). |ore |||e Cl. 0r|y a||oW rerova| lor url||ress, oreac| ol du|y, or cause lor rerova|.|u3T
lAvF CAu3F
o Cause lor rerova|. c| d|scre||or (ou| s|rp|e |os|||||y|||| W||| |sr'| sull|c|er|). |us| oe sore ||rd ol la||ure
|o adr|r|s|er ||e |rus| ellec||ve|y. bequ|res oreac| ol du|y.
boseroerg case. (|ypo||e||ca| proo|er). Nared N oar| as T. Al|er dea||, oar| acqu|red oy a 0errar oar|.
8erel|c|ar|es War| |o rerove |rus|ee oecause oar| |rvo|ved |r |o|ocaus|.
o TX. No cause lor rerova|rora| proo|ers W||| W|a| a oar| d|d 50 years ago |sr'| va||d.
Texas Property *ode B --,.@10. %emo(al of Trustee
(a) A |rus|ee ray oe reroved |r accordarce W||| ||e |errs ol ||e |rus| |rs|rurer|, or, or ||e pe||||or ol ar |r|eres|ed persor ard
al|er |ear|rg, a cour| ray, |r ||s d|scre||or, rerove a |rus|ee ard dery par| or a|| ol ||e |rus|ee's corpersa||or |l.
||e |rus|ee ra|er|a||y v|o|a|ed or a||erp|ed |o v|o|a|e ||e |errs ol ||e |rus| ard ||e v|o|a||or or a||erp|ed v|o|a||or resu||s
|r a ra|er|a| l|rarc|a| |oss |o ||e |rus|,
(2) ||e |rus|ee oecores |rcapac||a|ed or |rso|ver|,
||e |rus|ee la||s |o ra|e ar accour||rg ||a| |s requ|red oy |aW or oy ||e |errs ol ||e |rus|, or
(4) ||e cour| l|rds o||er cause lor rerova|.
(o) A oerel|c|ary, co|rus|ee, or successor |rus|ee ray |rea| a v|o|a||or resu|||rg |r rerova| as a oreac| ol |rus|.
(c) A |rus|ee ol a c|ar||ao|e |rus| ray ro| oe reroved so|e|y or ||e grourds ||a| ||e |rus|ee exerc|sed ||e |rus|ee's poWer |o adjus|
oe|Weer pr|rc|pa| ard |rcore urder 113.0211.
lage 1"" ol 190
F. Trust Administration: Fiduciary 9uties 2*h. -,7Trust Administration6
1. lr|roduc||or Case 8oo| 771-74, 777-78, Fx. 2o
Texas Property *ode
B --,.@@-. "imitation of Po;ers
A poWer g|ver |o a |rus|ee oy |||s suoc|ap|er does ro| app|y |o a |rus| |o ||e ex|er| ||a| ||e |rs|rurer| crea||rg ||e |rus|, a suosequer| cour|
order, or aro||er prov|s|or ol |||s suo||||e corl||c|s W||| or ||r||s ||e poWer.
B --,.@@0. Eeneral Po;ers
Fxcep| as prov|ded oy 113.001, a |rus|ee ray exerc|se ary poWers |r add|||or |o ||e poWers au||or|zed oy |||s suoc|ap|er ||a| are recessary
or appropr|a|e |o carry ou| ||e purposes ol ||e |rus|.
Trus|ees, execu|ors ard adr|r|s|ers adr|r|s|er|rg ar es|a|e (|r a serse execu|ors ard adr|r|s|ers are a|so |rus|ees
s|rce ||ey |ave ||e 3A|F l|duc|ary oo||ga||or)
usua||y T or|y |as a s|or| ||re |o adr|r|s|er ar es|a|eco||ec| asse|s, do |rver|ory, pay oll cred||ors, d|s|r|ou|e
8u| a |rus|, or ||e o||er |ard, car |as| a |o| |orger. lrves| |arge surs ol rorey over a |org per|od ol ||re.
lerg|| ol ass|grrer| |s |orger (rore oppor|ur|||es |o oreac| l|duc|ary du||es).
3are oas|c du||es app|y |o adr|r|s|ers, execu|ors, ard |rus|ees.
8e carelu| aoou| accep||rg ||e ro|e ol execu|or or |rus|ee lor a c||er| (car ge| sued).
Trust Powers and Third Party Transactions with Trustees
Trus|ee or|y |as poWers |r ||e |rs|rurer| (|rus| docurer|) recessary |o carry ou| ||e |rus| purposes, ou| ros|
s|a|es |ave W|dered ||e|r poWer ||roug| |eg|s|a||or.
o 3e|||or car |rcorpora|e ||ese poWers oy relererce - don=t "et them automatically.
o 0||er s|a|e s|a|u|es g|ves mandatory poWers |o T unless |rus| |rs|rurer| g|ves poWer |o ||e cor|rary!
Texas la||s |r|o ||e secord ca|egory - |rus|ee |as ||ese s|a|u|ory poWers ur|ess ||e |rs|rurer|
spec|l|ca||y says |e doesr'| ge| ||ose poWers.
Trad|||ora| Cl ru|e aoou| 3
par||es W|o ergage |r |rarsac||ors W| |rus|ees. Trad|||ora||y ||ere Was a duty on a
third party to in2uire whether the trustee had authority |o ergage |r a |rarsac||or (suc| as se|||rg ar asse|).
uTC e||r|ra|es |||s du|y or ||e |||rd par|y ard rep|aces || W||| a duty to act in "ood #aith. 3ec. 81o ||s|s 24
spec|l|c |rarsac||ora| poWers ard a oroad ca|c|a||.
Texas law on trustee powers and third party transactions rule
TllC 113.002 or |rus|ee poWers. Trus|ee car exerc|se ary poWers in addition to the powers exerc|sed oy code
||a| are recessary ard appropr|a|e |o carry ou| poWers ol ||e |rus|. (gerera| poWers, ||er spec|l|c poWers)
o l|'s a good |dea |o ||s| ||ese poWers spec|l|ca||y |r ||e |rus| - ||e |||rd par||es War| |o see a spec|l|c ||s|.
l|us, |rus|ee r|g|| rove |o aro||er s|a|e, e|c.
T||rd par|y du|y. |||rd par|y does ro| |ave a du|y |o ra|e sure rorey |s pu| |o proper use! le |s ro| ||ao|e |l
rorey |s r|s|ard|ed. No du|y ol |rqu|ry!
Third-party 9uty 2,d parties that deal ;ith the Trust6
lrdeperder| 3d par|y cou|d oe g|ver ao||||y |o rod|ly ||e |rus| (`|rus| pro|ec|or')
Cl. ll poWer ro| recessary lor |rus| purposes or se|||or doesr'| g|ve you, ||er dor'| |ave ||a| poWer, bequ|red
||e 3d par|y |o |rqu|re |r|o W|e||er ||e T |ad ||e au||or||y |o ergage |r ||e |rarsac||or.
3|a|es |ave rod|l|ed |||s. TWo ||rds ol s|a|u|es.
o se|||or car |rcorpora|e poWers a| ||s d|scre||or, |l dor'| add ||e poWers, ||ey dor'| app|y
o grar|s poWers |o |rus|ee ur|ess ||e |rus| spec|l|es ||e cor|rary (TX)
lage 1"# ol 190
TA. Car exerc|se ary poWers |r add|||or |o ||ose au||or|zed |r ||e code ||a| are recessary or Allb0lblATF
|o carry ou| ||e purposes ol ||e |rus| (erurera|es ||e ||s| ol poWers), soreore W|o pays rorey |o a |rus| |s ro|
respors|o|e lor de|err|r|rg W|e||er ||e T pu|s ||e $ |o proper use.
o C|ause |r |rus| ||a| T doesr'| |ave du|y ol |rqu|ry, ||er dor'| |ave |o |rqu|re |r|o ||e du||es ol ||e T. lr
||e aoserce ol a c|ause, 3d par|y Wou|d |ave a du|y ol |rqu|ry |o de|err|re W|e||er T |ad au||or||y |o
ra|e ||a| |rarsac||or. A|so ||e 3d par|y |s pro|ec|ed |l ||ey gave la|r va|ue.
)T*. beroved ||e du|y ol |rqu|ry, roW 3d par|y jus| |as |o ac| |r good la|||.
3|||| good |dea |o pu| poWers |r ||e |rus| lor var|ous reasors (s|a|u|es c|arge, r|g|| rove |o a d|llerer|
jur|sd|c||or, 3d par|y |s corlor|ed |o see a ||s| ol poWersro corlus|or).
Trustees Po;ers: Cne of t;o options:
1. lrcorpora|e oy express relererce
2. (TX) 0rar|s |o |rus|ees oas|c poWers. l|s| ol poWers app||es ur|ess spec|l|es |o ||e cor|rary. 3o ro ques||or
aoou| spec|l|c poWers.
T $i(en po;er to sell certain real property under a certain condition 2that it&s necessary to pro(ide
support to A6. Cnly ha(e authority to sell property if necessary to support A.
o 8 |s ||e ouyer. w|a| s|ou|d 8 |ave dore? lad |aWyer rev|eW ||e |rus| |o see ||a| T |s W|o |e says |e
|s ard |oW ||e poWer |o do |||s. ls ||e sa|e ol proper|y ac|ua||y recessary lor ||e suppor| ol A? No.
8u| 8 ||oug|| ||a| || Was.
T has no authority to buy property that doesn&t produce income. Ne(erthelessD "and in the desert. No
chance of $ettin$ income from the land. 'hould seller ha(e to pay bac! the S that the T paid if the B
complains< T W|o so|d |ard Wou|d |ave |o relurd ||e purc|ase pr|ce |l 8 corp|a|rs. (0|llerer| urder uTC|l |r
good la|||, ||er pro|ec|ed.)
Texas Property *ode B --,.@.-. Eeneral 9uty
T|e |rus|ee s|a|| adr|r|s|er ||e |rus| |r good la||| accord|rg |o ||s |errs ard |||s suo||||e. lr ||e aoserce ol ary cor|rary |errs |r ||e
|rus| |rs|rurer| or cor|rary prov|s|ors ol |||s suo||||e, |r adr|r|s|er|rg ||e |rus| ||e |rus|ee s|a|| perlorr a|| ol ||e du||es |rposed or
|rus|ees oy ||e corror |aW.
Texas Property *ode B --,.@.0. "oan of Trust Funds to Trustee
(a) Fxcep| as prov|ded oy 3uosec||or (o) ol |||s sec||or, a |rus|ee ray ro| |erd |rus| lurds |o.
(1) ||e |rus|ee or ar all|||a|e,
(2) a d|rec|or, oll|cer, or erp|oyee ol ||e |rus|ee or ar all|||a|e,
(3) a re|a||ve ol ||e |rus|ee, or
(4) ||e |rus|ee's erp|oyer, erp|oyee, par|rer, or o||er ous|ress assoc|a|e.
(o) T||s sec||or does ro| pro||o||.
a |oar oy a |rus|ee |o a oerel|c|ary ol ||e |rus| |l ||e |oar |s express|y au||or|zed or d|rec|ed oy ||e |rs|rurer| or
|rarsac||or es|ao||s||rg ||e |rus|, or
(2) a depos|| oy a corpora|e |rus|ee W||| ||se|l urder 113.057 ol |||s Ac|.
B --,.@.,. Purchase or 'ale of Trust Property by Trustee
(a) Fxcep| as prov|ded oy 3uosec||ors (o), (c), (d), (e), (l), ard (g), a |rus|ee s|a|| ro| d|rec||y or |rd|rec||y ouy or se|| |rus| proper|y
lror or |o.
(1) ||e |rus|ee or ar all|||a|e,
(2) a d|rec|or, oll|cer, or erp|oyee ol ||e |rus|ee or ar all|||a|e,
(3) a re|a||ve ol ||e |rus|ee, or
(4) ||e |rus|ee's erp|oyer, par|rer, or o||er ous|ress assoc|a|e.
(o) A ra||ora| oar||rg assoc|a||or or a s|a|e-c|ar|ered corpora||or W||| ||e r|g|| |o exerc|se |rus| poWers ||a| |s serv|rg as
execu|or, adr|r|s|ra|or, guard|ar, |rus|ee, or rece|ver ray se|| s|ares ol ||s oWr cap||a| s|oc| |e|d oy || lor ar es|a|e |o ore or
rore ol ||s oll|cers or d|rec|ors |l a cour|.
lage 1"$ ol 190
(1) l|rds ||a| ||e sa|e |s |r ||e oes| |r|eres| ol ||e es|a|e ||a| oWrs ||e s|ares,
(2) l|xes or approves ||e sa|es pr|ce ol ||e s|ares ard ||e o||er |errs ol ||e sa|e, ard
(3) er|ers ar order au||or|z|rg ard d|rec||rg ||e sa|e.
(c) ll a corpora|e |rus|ee, execu|or, adr|r|s|ra|or, or guard|ar |s |ega||y au||or|zed |o re|a|r ||s oWr cap||a| s|oc| |r |rus|, ||e |rus|ee
ray exerc|se r|g||s |o purc|ase ||s oWr s|oc| |l |rcreases |r ||e s|oc| are ollered pro ra|a |o s|are|o|ders.
(d) ll ||e exerc|se ol r|g||s or ||e rece|p| ol a s|oc| d|v|derd resu||s |r a lrac||ora| s|are |o|d|rg ard ||e acqu|s|||or ree|s ||e
|rves|rer| s|ardard requ|red oy |||s suoc|ap|er, ||e |rus|ee ray purc|ase add|||ora| lrac||ora| s|ares |o rourd ou| ||e |o|d|rg
|o a lu|| s|are.
(e) A |rus|ee ray.
corp|y W||| ||e |errs ol a Wr|||er execu|ory cor|rac| s|gred oy ||e se|||or, |rc|ud|rg a cor|rac| lor deed, earres| rorey
cor|rac|, ouy|se|| agreerer|, or s|oc| purc|ase or rederp||or agreerer|, ard
se|| ||e s|oc|, oords, oo||ga||ors, or o||er secur|||es ol a corpora||or |o ||e |ssu|rg corpora||or or |o ||s corpora|e all|||a|e |l
||e sa|e |s rade urder ar agreerer| descr|oed |r 3uod|v|s|or (1) or corp||es W||| ||e du||es |rposed oy C|ap|er 117.
(l) A ra||ora| oar||rg assoc|a||or, a s|a|e-c|ar|ered corpora||or, |rc|ud|rg a s|a|e-c|ar|ered oar| or |rus| corpary, a s|a|e or
ledera| sav|rgs ard |oar assoc|a||or ||a| |as ||e r|g|| |o exerc|se |rus| poWers ard ||a| |s serv|rg as |rus|ee, or suc| ar
|rs|||u||or ||a| |s serv|rg as cus|od|ar W||| respec| |o ar |rd|v|dua| re||rerer| accour|, as del|red oy 3ec||or 408, lr|erra|
beverue Code, or ar erp|oyee oerel|| p|ar, as del|red oy 3ec||or 3(3), Frp|oyee be||rerer| lrcore 3ecur||y Ac| ol 1974
(29 u.3.C. 3ec||or 1002(3)), regard|ess ol W|e||er ||e cus|od|a| accour| |s, or Wou|d o||erW|se oe, cors|dered a |rus| lor
purposes ol |||s suo||||e, ray.
erp|oy ar all|||a|e or d|v|s|or W||||r a l|rarc|a| |rs|||u||or |o prov|de oro|erage, |rves|rer|, adr|r|s|ra||ve, cus|od|a|, or
o||er accour| serv|ces lor ||e |rus| or cus|od|a| accour| ard c|arge ||e |rus| or cus|od|a| accour| lor ||e serv|ces,
prov|ded, |oWever, ro|||rg |r |||s sec||or s|a|| a||oW ar all|||a|e or d|v|s|or |o ergage |r ||e sa|e or ous|ress ol |rsurarce |l
ro| o||erW|se perr|||ed |o do so, ard
rece|ve corpersa||or, d|rec||y or |rd|rec||y, or accour| ol ||e serv|ces perlorred oy ||e all|||a|e or d|v|s|or W||||r ||e
l|rarc|a| |rs|||u||or, W|e||er |r ||e lorr ol s|ared corr|ss|ors, lees, or o||erW|se, prov|ded ||a| ary arour| c|arged oy
||e all|||a|e or d|v|s|or lor ||e serv|ces |s d|sc|osed ard does ro| exceed ||e cus|orary or preva|||rg arour| ||a| |s c|arged
oy ||e all|||a|e or d|v|s|or, or a corparao|e er|||y, lor corparao|e serv|ces rerdered |o a persor o||er ||ar ||e |rus|.
(g) lr add|||or |o o||er |rves|rer|s au||or|zed oy |aW lor ||e |rves|rer| ol lurds |e|d oy a l|duc|ary or oy ||e |rs|rurer| goverr|rg ||e
l|duc|ary re|a||ors||p, ard ro|W|||s|ard|rg ary o||er prov|s|or ol |aW ard suojec| |o ||e s|ardard cor|a|red |r C|ap|er 117, a oar|
or |rus| corpary ac||rg as a l|duc|ary, ager|, or o||erW|se, |r ||e exerc|se ol ||s |rves|rer| d|scre||or or a| ||e d|rec||or ol aro||er
persor au||or|zed |o d|rec| ||e |rves|rer| ol lurds |e|d oy ||e oar| or |rus| corpary as l|duc|ary, ray |rves| ard re|rves| |r ||e
secur|||es ol ar oper-erd or c|osed-erd raragerer| |rves|rer| corpary or |rves|rer| |rus| reg|s|ered urder ||e lrves|rer|
Corpary Ac| ol 1940 (15 u.3.C. 80a-1 e| seq.) |l ||e por|lo||o ol ||e |rves|rer| corpary or |rves|rer| |rus| cors|s|s
suos|ar||a||y ol |rves|rer|s ||a| are ro| pro||o||ed oy ||e goverr|rg |rs|rurer|. T|e lac| ||a| ||e oar| or |rus| corpary or ar
all|||a|e ol ||e oar| or |rus| corpary prov|des serv|ces |o ||e |rves|rer| corpary or |rves|rer| |rus|, suc| as ||ose ol ar
|rves|rer| adv|sor, cus|od|ar, |rarsler ager|, reg|s|rar, sporsor, d|s|r|ou|or, rarager, or o||erW|se, ard rece|ves corpersa||or lor
||ose serv|ces does ro| prec|ude ||e oar| or |rus| corpary lror |rves||rg or re|rves||rg |r ||e secur|||es |l ||e corpersa||or |s
d|sc|osed oy prospec|us, accour| s|a|erer|, or o||erW|se. Ar execu|or or adr|r|s|ra|or ol ar es|a|e urder a deperder|
adr|r|s|ra||or or a guard|ar ol ar es|a|e s|a|| ro| so |rves| or re|rves| ur|ess spec|l|ca||y au||or|zed oy ||e cour| |r W||c| suc|
es|a|e or guard|ars||p |s perd|rg.
B --,.@.5. 'ales From Cne Trust to Another
A |rus|ee ol ore |rus| ray ro| se|| proper|y |o aro||er |rus| ol W||c| || |s a|so |rus|ee ur|ess ||e proper|y |s.
(1) a oord, ro|e, o|||, or o||er oo||ga||or |ssued or lu||y guarar|eed as |o pr|rc|pa| ard |r|eres| oy ||e ur||ed 3|a|es, ard
(2) so|d lor ||s currer| rar|e| pr|ce.
B --,.@... Purchase of TrusteeMs 'ecurities
(a) Fxcep| as prov|ded oy 3uosec||or (o) ol |||s sec||or, a corpora|e |rus|ee ray ro| purc|ase lor ||e |rus| ||e s|oc|, oords,
oo||ga||ors, or o||er secur|||es ol ||e |rus|ee or ar all|||a|e, ard a rorcorpora|e |rus|ee ray ro| purc|ase lor ||e |rus| ||e s|oc|,
lage 1"9 ol 190
oords, oo||ga||ors, or o||er secur|||es ol a corpora||or W||| W||c| ||e |rus|ee |s correc|ed as d|rec|or, oWrer, rarager, or ary
o||er execu||ve capac||y.
(o) A |rus|ee ray.
re|a|r s|oc| a|ready oWred oy ||e |rus| ur|ess ||e re|er||or does ro| sa||sly ||e requ|rerer|s prescr|oed oy C|ap|er 117,
(2) exerc|se s|oc| r|g||s or purc|ase lrac||ora| s|ares urder 113.053 ol |||s Ac|.
lage 1#0 ol 190
2. 0u|y ol loya||y Caseooo|. 779-91, Fx. 27 (TllC 113.051-113.055)
9uty of loyalty rule: |us| pu| |r|eres|s ol oerel|c|ar|es aoove ||e|r oWr |r|eres| |r a|| dea||rgs||rarsac||ors re|a|ed |o
||e |rus| proper|y. |us| g|ve urd|v|ded |oya||y |o ||e oerel|c|ar|es. Trus|ee rus| adr|r|s|er |rus| so|e|y |r ||e |r|eres| ol
||e oerel|c|ar|es.
No self-dealin$ and no conflict of interest allo;ed.
o Sel#'dealin". se|||rg proper|y |o se|l or ouy|rg proper|y |r |rus|
No lur||er |rqu|ry requ|red. 0oesr'| ra||er |l |r good la|||.
o !on#lict o# interest. |rarsac||or W| soreore you |ave a re|a||ors||p W|||
Need rore ||ar jus| a re|a||ors||p. 3ee |l ||ere Was sore urla|rress or |l ||e oerel|c|ar|es
Were |arred.
%ules from the rele(ant cases on duty of loyalty.
o !on#lict o# 8nterest bulF. Trus|ee rus| relra|r lror p|ac|rg ||rse|l |r a pos|||or W|ere ||s persora|
|r|eres| or ||a| ol a |||rd persor does or may corl||c| W||| ||e |r|eres| ol ||e oerel|c|ar|es. Ar execu|or
W|o |roWs ||a| co-execu|or |s corr||||rg oreac|es ol |rus| ard ro| or|y la||s |o exer| ellor|s d|rec|ed
|oWard prever||or, ou| accedes |o ||er |s |ega||y ||ao|e ever |l |e ac|ed or ||e adv|ce ol course|.
o bulF aoou| |r|eres| |r ||e |rarsac||or. Trus|ee ro| ||ao|e jus| oecause |as ar |r|eres| |r ||e |rarsac||or
|l |e ac|ed |r good la||| & Was la|r (|.e. |rus|ee car oe a oerel|c|ary|lr|erd ge|||rg sore|||rg)
o bulF aga|rs| |rd|v|dua| capac||y. |rus|ee carro| dea| |r ||s |rd|v|dua| capac||y W||| ||e |rus| proper|y
(ex. car'| ||ve or proper|ycarro| oe |rus|ee ard |erar|)
o bulF aga|rs| sel#'dealin". as |rus|ee, carro| se|| proper|y |o yourse|l, ror |o your spouse |l you are ||e
|rus|ee. ll |rus|ee se||s proper|y |o ||rse|l or ouys proper|y lror ||e |rus|, ||a| |s se|l dea||rg ard ro
lur||er |rqu|ry |s reed, ever |l ac|ed |r good la||| (see oe|oW).
o No lur||er |rqu|ry bulF. 0rce || |s s|oWr ||a| a |rus|ee |as ergaged |r se|l-dea||rg, ||e ro-lur||er-
|rqu|ry ru|e |s |r|ggered, ||e |rus|ee W||| oe ||ao|e lor ary prol|| rea||zed, W|||ou| |rqu|ry oy ||e cour| as |o
||e |rus|ee's good la||| or ||e |rarsac||or's reasorao|eress. T|e s|r|c| ro-lur||er-|rqu|ry ru|e |s jus||l|ed
oy ||e l|duc|ary re|a||ors||p oe|Weer ||e |rus|ee ard ||e oerel|c|ar|es, W||c| |s |e|d |o a ||g|er
s|ardard ||ar arr's-|erg|| |rarsac||ors.
bered|es. see cases oe|oW aoou| du|y ol |oya||y lor reredy lorru|as ard apprec|a||or c|a|rs
0elerses ||e |rus|ees ray asser| aga|rs| a se|l-dea||rg c|a|r.
o (1) ||e se|l-dea||rg Was approved oy ||e se|||or or
o (2) se|l-dea||rg Was #ully disclosed |o ||e oerel|c|ar|es, W|o ||er gave ||e|r consent.
Two 9ays $uty of Loyalty can be Ciolated
1. Ac|ua| se|l dea||rg. Ac|ua||y do|rg sore|||rg |r W||c| ||ey are d|rec||y oerel|||rg lror ||e |rarsac||or (T se||s
proper|y |o |erse|l|ouys |rus| proper|y. 3e|||rg |o a spouse |s ||e sare as se|l-dea||rg.) A suose| ol corl||c| ol
|r|eres|. (lar|rar case)
o 0or'| |oo| |r|o la|rress ol ||e dea| excep| |o ca|cu|a|e darages.
2. Ac||rg W||| corl||c| ol |r|eres|. 3e|| proper|y |o soreore or a group |o W||c| ||e T |as a |oya||y. (lres|der| ol a
c|uo, ard se||s |o ||a| c|uo.) |us| oe sore |arr ard urla|rress.
Trustee -nani#ity8 Co!Trustee)Executor situation
Traditional Rule: Corser| ol a|| execu|ors |s requ|red |o |rarsac| ||e proper|y (|as |o oe urar|rous)
ulC. App||es sare ru|e lor execu|orsrus| ac| |r ur|sor lor ||e |rarsac||or |o oe va||d, |l lev|re |ad jus|
relused |o go a|org W||| |||s |rarsac||or, || Wou|dr'| |ave |appered.
TX. (d|llerer| lor execu|ors)
o lersora| lroper|y. Ary ore Fxecu|or car ac| a|ore |o |rarsac| W||| ||a| proper|y.
o bea| lroper|y. 3are as ulC ru|e (|ave |o ac| |oge||er |r ur|sor)
lage 1#1 ol 190
urder ||e |rad|||ora| ru|e, a|| |rus|ees rus| agree ard ac| |r ur|sor |o ergage |r |rarsac||or re|a||rg |o ||e
proper|y (|.e. a|| |rus|ees |ave |o agree |o a sa|e |rarsac||or)
o uTC app||es |||s sare ru|e |o execu|ors!
o Texas. ary execu|or ac|rg a|ore car dea| W| es|a|e excep| lor rea| proper|y. lr order |o corvey rea|
proper|y, execu|ors rus| jo|r |r corveyarce
Co-|rus|ee |s ||ao|e lor ||e Wrorglu| ac|s ol ||e o||er |rus|ees. A |rus|ee ||a| doesr'| jo|r |r a co-|rus|ee's ac||or
|sr'| ||ao|e lor ||e corsequerces ol ||ose ac||ors ur|ess ||e |rus|ee la||ed |o exerc|se reasorao|e care |o
prever||rec||ly a oreac| ol |rus|.
loWever, ||e ru|e ol |rus|ee urar|r||y |s lad|rg |r sore jur|sd|c||ors lor rajor||y ru|e. (C|ar||ao|e |rus|s |ave
|org delerred |o ||e rajor||y.)
Co-|rus|ees W|o |aver'| reac|ed a urar|rous dec|s|or car jus| go oy a rajor||y.
o Trus|ee W|o does ro| jo|r |r ar ac| ol a co-|rus|ee |s ro| ||ao|e lor ||e o||er's ac||or.
CAvFAT. T |as |o exerc|se reasorao|e care |o prever| ||e co-T |o corr|| a ser|ous oreac| ol
|rus|. A|Ways ||ao|e |o prever| a ser|ous oreac| ol |rus|.
o w|er a rajor||y vo|e |o do X, ard A doesr'| go a|org W||| ||a|, ||er A |sr'| ||ao|e ur|ess || Was a ser|ous
oreac| ol |rus|.
o lr bo|||o, lev|re s|ou|d |ave gore |o ||e cour|.
o Ta|e |||r|s ||e sare ru|e app||es |o ||e execu|or (o||er Fs |ave du|y |o s|op ||a|).
Texas law on trustee < executor unani#ity
Fxecu|ors car ac| separa|e|y excep| W|er ||ey War| |o corvey rea| es|a|e ard ||er ||ey |ave |o ac| jo|r||y.
lor Trus|ees, |oWever, ||e ru|e |s d|llerer|. A rajor||y ol ||er |ave |o agree lor ||e sa|e |o oe va||d. N0
||ao||||y or co-|rus|ee, ou| ore excep||or - |l ||e T la||s |o exerc|se reas care |o prever| a ser|ous oreac| ol |rus|
lror occurr|rg or |o corpe| ||e o||er T |o rec||ly a ser|ous oreac|. 3are ru|e lor execu|ors.
Texas Probate *ode
B 05@. oint /xecutors or Administrators
3|ou|d ||ere oe rore ||ar ore execu|or or adr|r|s|ra|or ol ||e sare es|a|e a| ||e sare ||re, ||e ac|s ol ore ol ||er as suc| execu|or or
adr|r|s|ra|or s|a|| oe as va||d as |l a|| |ad ac|ed jo|r||y, ard, |r case ol ||e dea||, res|gra||or or rerova| ol ar execu|or or adr|r|s|ra|or, |l ||ere
oe a co-execu|or or co-adr|r|s|ra|or ol suc| es|a|e, |e s|a|| proceed W||| ||e adr|r|s|ra||or as |l ro suc| dea||, res|gra||or or rerova| |ad
occurred. lrov|ded, |oWever, ||a| |||s 3ec||or s|a|| ro| oe cors|rued |o au||or|ze ore ol severa| execu|ors or adr|r|s|ra|ors |o corvey rea|
es|a|e, ou| |r suc| case a|| ||e execu|ors or adr|r|s|ra|ors W|o |ave qua||l|ed as suc| ard are ac||rg as suc| s|a|| jo|r |r ||e corveyarce,
ur|ess ||e cour|, al|er due |ear|rg, au||or|zes |ess ||ar a|| |o ac|.
Texas Property *ode
B --,.@1.. /xercise of Po;ers by +ultiple Trustees
(a) Co|rus|ees ray ac| oy rajor||y dec|s|or.
(o) ll a vacarcy occurs |r a co|rus|ees||p, ||e rera|r|rg co|rus|ees ray ac| lor ||e |rus|.
(c) A co|rus|ee s|a|| par||c|pa|e |r ||e perlorrarce ol a |rus|ee's lurc||or ur|ess ||e co|rus|ee.
|s urava||ao|e |o perlorr ||e lurc||or oecause ol aoserce, |||ress, d|squa||l|ca||or urder o||er |aW, or o||er |erporary |rcapac||y, or
|as de|ega|ed ||e perlorrarce ol ||e lurc||or |o aro||er |rus|ee |r accordarce W||| ||e |errs ol ||e |rus| or app||cao|e |aW, |as
corrur|ca|ed ||e de|ega||or |o a|| o||er co|rus|ees, ard |as l||ed ||e de|ega||or |r ||e records ol ||e |rus|.
(d) ll a co|rus|ee |s urava||ao|e |o par||c|pa|e |r ||e perlorrarce ol a |rus|ee's lurc||or lor a reasor descr|oed oy 3uosec||or (c)(1) ard prorp|
ac||or |s recessary |o ac||eve ||e purposes ol ||e |rus| or |o avo|d |rjury |o ||e |rus| proper|y, ||e rera|r|rg co|rus|ee or a rajor||y ol ||e
rera|r|rg co|rus|ees ray ac| lor ||e |rus|.
(e) A |rus|ee ray de|ega|e |o a co|rus|ee ||e perlorrarce ol a |rus|ee's lurc||or ur|ess ||e se|||or spec|l|ca||y d|rec|s ||a| ||e lurc||or oe perlorred
jo|r||y. ur|ess a co|rus|ee's de|ega||or urder |||s suosec||or |s |rrevocao|e, ||e co|rus|ee ra||rg ||e de|ega||or ray revo|e ||e de|ega||or.
Texas Property *ode
B --5.@@?. "iability of *otrustees for Acts of Cther *otrustees
(a) A |rus|ee W|o does ro| jo|r |r ar ac||or ol a co|rus|ee |s ro| ||ao|e lor ||e co|rus|ee's ac||or, ur|ess ||e |rus|ee does ro| exerc|se
reasorao|e care as prov|ded oy 3uosec||or (o).
(o) Fac| |rus|ee s|a|| exerc|se reasorao|e care |o.
(1) prever| a co|rus|ee lror corr||||rg a ser|ous oreac| ol |rus|, ard
lage 1#2 ol 190
(2) corpe| a co|rus|ee |o redress a ser|ous oreac| ol |rus|.
(c) 3uojec| |o 3uosec||or (o), a d|sser||rg |rus|ee W|o jo|rs |r ar ac||or a| ||e d|rec||or ol ||e rajor||y ol ||e |rus|ees ard W|o |as ro||l|ed ary
co|rus|ee ol ||e d|sser| |r Wr|||rg a| or oelore ||e ||re ol ||e ac||or |s ro| ||ao|e lor ||e ac||or.
lage 1#3 ol 190
#artman (. #artle
Ne; ersey *ourt of *hanceryD -30,
3. N.. /F. -0,D -00 A. ?-.
Facts: Nared |Wo spouses ol |er c|||drer as execu|ors. Fxecu|ors so|d ||e proper|y |o ||e|r oro||er-|r-|aW,
W|o |s ore ol ||e T's 5 c|||drer, ou| as || |urrs ou|, |e |s ouy|rg ||e proper|y lor ||s s|s|er - W|o |s ||e W|le ol
ore ol ||e execu|ors ard |s ore ol ||e l|ve c|||drer. 3a|e Was 30 |ess ||ar rar|e| va|ue s|rce ||e W|le Was
ao|e |o se|| || lor 30 rore.
le|d. C|ear|y a oreac| ol du|y ol |oya||y. ll you |rea| ||e W|le as ||e rea| purc|aser, ||er oreac| ol du|y ol
|oya||y Was corr|||ed. T carro| se|| |o ||rse|l or spouse. 9oesn&t matter if acted in $ood faith ;ith self-
dealin$D once there has been self-dealin$ there is no further inFuiryL (see oe|oW) 8u|, |||s r|g|| oe
re|evar| |o ||e reredy.
o TWo rered|es.
(1) re|urr proper|y |o es|a|e ard urdue ||e |rarsac||or (car'| do ||a| |ere) 0b
(2) re|urr prol|| rade oy execu|or or ||s spouse |o ||e es|a|e (darages). 3|rce ||e |||rd-
par|y persor ooug|| ||e |ard |r good la|||, ||e cour| c|ooses ||e secord op||or.
Corp|a|rar| ge|s 1|5 ol ||e prol|| - s|rce 5 ||ds Were supposed |o sp||| ||e prol||s.
o No further inFuiry rule: Cnce there&s been self-dealin$D $o no further. /(en if she had sold the
property at mar!et (alueD there ;ould still be a breach of duty of loyaltyD but the Fuestion of
dama$es becomes stic!y. Fver |l s|e d|dr'| se|| || lor 30 rore - |||s Wou|d |ave s|||| oeer a
oreac|. Ca||ed ||e `ro lur||er |rqu|ry ru|e.'
o Apprec|a||or c|a|r. Corp|a|rar|s ray |ave a c|a|r |o ||e apprec|a||or, accord|rg |o Ta|e. T|ey
s|ou|d ge| W|a| ra|es ||er W|o|e - ||ey s|ou|d ge| W|a| proper|y |s Wor|| ||e day ol ||||ga||or.
Cou|d a|so |rpose pur|||ve darages |l ||e cour| a||oWs || ard |l ||ere |s ro apprec|a||or (TX
|as res|r|c||ors or W|er you car ge| pur|||ve darages, so Wou|d ro| Wor| |ere).
In re Eleeson&s 8ill
-05 N./.0d ?05 2Ill. App. -3..6
Facts: lady W|o d|ed |eased 1o0 acres |o lr|erd, ||er |r |er W||| s|e gave ||r ||e |ard, |e |e|d over |r ||re
al|er s|e d|ed lor a year, oas|ca||y |e s|ayed or ||e proper|y ||v|rg W|||e |e Was a |rus|ee
Held: lere, |e Was ac||rg as oo|| ||e |rus|ee ard ||e |erar|you rus| c|oose oe|Weer ||ese |Wo! Car'| oe
oo||! le oreac|ed ||s du|y ol |oya||y oy |o|d|rg over or ||e proper|y. 8reac| ol |rus|.
o 8e|rg a |o|dover T prooao|y |ad a |o| |o do W||| ||e cour|'s dec|s|or. 3|ou|d |ave e|||er ro| oeer
|rus|ee or accep|ed ||a| ard as|ed cour| |o ra|e excep||or, or roved oll ||e |ard. NoW ||ao|e lor a||
prol|| |e go| lror |ease.
Alternative course o# action: 0uy s|ou|d |ave as|ed cour| |l |e cou|d s|ay ||ere or ||e |ard.
o Texas. Jud|c|a| approva| car oe soug|| oy oar|s, rus| |ave s|a|u|ory au||or|za||or |o do so.
lessor. lro||o|||or or 3e|l-0ea||rg |s s|r|c|. ll you're |||r||rg aoou| ||, dor'| do ||. 3 cou|d au||or|ze ||, ou| T
Wou|d |ave |o prove au||or|za||or ard ||er s|oW ||a| || Was lAlb.
lage 1#4 ol 190
In re %oth!o
*ourt of Appeals of Ne; :or!D -344
,40 N./.0d 03-
Facts: dead aos|rac| pa|r|er's pa|r||rgs so|d lor a |o|, es|a|e |ad 798
pa|r||rgs, ||ree c|ose lr|erds Were |rus|eesore d|dr'| |ave a C0l, ou| go|
|r over ||s |ead. Fxecu|ors er|ered |r|o |Wo cor|rac| W||c| dea|| W||| ||e er||re 798
pa|r||rgs W||||r 3 Wee|s ol prooa|e. T|e cor|rac| gave |Wo ga||er|es corr|ss|ors ard pa|r||rgs |o d|sp|ay ard
se||, ou| ore ol ||e ga||ery d|rec|ors Was a |rus|ee (be|s). 3|aros Was ar ursuccesslu| ar||s| so ||e cor|rac|s
W||| ||e ga||ery |rproved ||s s|a|ure W||| ||e ga||er|es, so ||ere Was se|l-dea||rg. lev|re Was lourd |o ro| |ave
ac|ed W||| pruderce, ou| |e d|d ro| |ave ary se|l-dea||rg.
o Fiduciary Relationships: w||| ||e ga||ery ard ||e es|a|e. 8reac| ol ||e du|y ol |oya||y as |o beese ard
3|aros. lev|re d|dr'| |ave a C0l, ou| |e oreac|ed ||e du|y ol lbu0FNCF (s|ou|d |ave |rves||ga|ed
||e re|a||ors||p ard W|er |e d|scovered ||e corl||c|, s|ou|d |ave gore |o ||e cour| |o s|op |||s
Remedy: w|y |||s ra|es a d|llererce lor lev|re. loWers ||s ||ao||||y. 0||er |Wo a|so |ad |o
pay apprec|a||or darages.
Rule: A |rus|ee rus| relra|r lror p|ac|rg ||rse|l |r a pos|||or W|ere ||s persora| |r|eres| or ||a| ol a |||rd
persor does or ray corl||c| W||| ||e |r|eres| ol ||e oerel|c|ar|es.
Holdin": |rus|ees |ad a corl||c| ol |r|eres| ard d|v|ded |oya||y o|W ||e ga||er|es ard |o bo|||o's es|a|e, T|e
agreerer|s W||| ||e ga||er|es Were ro| la|r or |r ||e oes| |r|eres| ol ||e es|a|e
o -ama"es. rus| ra|e ||e oerel|c|ar|es W|o|e - darages rar|e| pr|ce a| ||e ||re ol ||e sa|e r|rus ||e
ar| a|ready rece|ved oy ||e es|a|e + |r|eres|. A coup|e ol excep||ors |o |||s. (1) |l ||e l|duc|ary |s
c|arged W||| a du|y ro| |o se|| ||e proper|y, ||ey W||| ge| s|uc| W||| ||e darages oased or currer|
rar|e| va|ue (2) ra|leasarce or |op ol la||ure |o ge| a good pr|ce lor la||ure ol ||e proper|y - suc| as a
ser|ous corl||c| ol |r|eres|
lage 1#5 ol 190
3. 0u|y ol lruderce
a. lr|roduc||or p. 791-92
Corror |r |rus| lNvF3T|FNT.
3ore |||rgs are c|ear|y |oo r|s|y.
8u| a|so car'| |e| asse|s s|| ||ere ard ro| ga|r ary |r|eres|.
8road rarge ol |rarsac||ors ||a| la|| oe|Weer ||ese ex|reres. w|e||er or ro| ar |rves|rer| |s perr|ss|o|e
deperds or a |o| ol lac|ors.
Fvo|v|rg area ol ||e |aW. 8|g c|arges a| erd ol |as| cer|ury.
o. 0|d Trus|-lrves|rer| laW. lruder| |ar bu|e p. 792-9o
Prudent Man Rule v4 Prudent Investor 'tandard
Prudent man 2old6 rule. |rves| |oW a pruder| rar Wou|d |rves|, |ad |o |rves| |r cer|a|r ca|egor|es.
o lrves|rer|s Were d|v|ded |r|o |Wo ca|egor|es.
(1) sale |rves|rer|s Were pruder| |rves|rer|s (o|ay |o |rves| |r) ard
(2) specu|a||ve |rves|rer|s Were |rpruder| |rves|rer|s (presurp||ve|y |rpruder|)
o Cou|d ac|ua||y |ose rorey |l ||e |rl|a||or ra|e exceeds re|urr or |rves|rer|
o T||s Was ||e delau|| ru|e - peop|e cou|d c|arge |||s |r ||e|r |rus| docurer|s ard avo|d ||e ru|e oy
spec|ly|rg a d|llerer| s|ardard.
o wasr'| a|Ways ||e oes| |o oe ||e sales| |rves|rer|. Corre|a||or oe|Weer r|s| ard re|urr. 3ore cou|d
ac|ua||y |ose rorey |l ||e |rl|a||or ra|e Was grea|er ||ar ||e re|urr or ||e |rves|rer|.
o No| sull|c|er||y |a||ored |o spec|l|c c|rcurs|arces ol eac| |rus|. las|ed so |org o|c || Was a delau|| ru|e.
o No du|y |o d|vers|ly.
/state of *ollins
*alifornia *ourt of AppealsD 'econd 9istrictD -344
40 *al. App.,d ??,D -,3 *al. %ptr. ?55
Facts: dec|ded urder o|d pruder| rar ru|e, |rus|ees |rves|ed es|a|e proper|y oy g|v|rg a |oar |o rea| es|a|e
deve|opers, |rus|ees la||ed |o d|vers|ly, la||ed |o |rves||ga|e (||ers, |aWsu||s, ard delau||s aga|rs| ||ese rea| es|a|e
deve|opers), la||ure |o ge| adequa|e secur||y, ard la||ure |o corsu|| exper|s (appra|sa|)
Rule: T|e |rus|ee |s urder a du|y |o ||e oerel|c|ary |o d|s|r|ou|e ||e r|s| ol |oss oy reasorao|e d|vers|l|ca||or ol
|rves|rer|s, ur|ess urder ||e c|rcurs|arces || |s pruder| ro| |o do so.
Holdin". Fx|rere|y |rpruder| ac||or. Fver |l |arguage |r ||e W||| |ad g|ver ||er aoso|u|e d|scre||or, ||ey
Wou|d |ave s|||| ac|ed |rpruder||y. A|so a oreac| ol |oya||y |r |||s case. (Case Wou|d |ave oeer dec|ded ||e
sare urder ||e pruder| |rves|or s|ardard)
o (1) prov|s|or a||oW|rg every ||rd ol |rves|rer| |rp||c|||y rears proper |rves|rer|s, ro| ary |rves|rer|
o (2) ever W|o |arguage ||a| |rus|ees are ||d oy l|duc|ary oo||ga||ors, cr| Wou|d s|||| |o|d ||e |rus|ee ||ao|e.
c. |oderr Trus|-lrves|rer| laW. lruder| lrves|or 3|ardard p. 79o-821
Prudent In(estor 'tandard > )niform Prudent In(estor (Texas adop|ed |r 2003). |rus|ee rus| |rves| ard rarage
|rus| asse|s as a pruder| |rves|or Wou|d. Fxar|re ||ese dec|s|ors |r cor|ex| ol W|o|e por|lo||o, ro| |rd|v|dua||y.
o ur|lorr lruder| lrves| Ac| sec. 2.
o Ac|roW|edges ||a| sore||res || |s recessary |o |ave r|s| |r a por|lo||o.
o belorrs |rc|ude. (1) rore sers|||ve |o r|s||re|urr |radeoll, (2) d|vers|l|ca||or |rpera||ve, ard (3) reversa|
ol ||e ror-de|ega||or ru|e (|a||ored |o ||e reeds ol eac| |rus|).
o Fx. |rl|a||or. ll a|| |rves|rer| are |oo corserva||ve ard ||e |rl|a||or ra|e |s ||g|, ||er a|| re|urrs are
ea|er up oy |rl|a||or.
lage 1#" ol 190
3ore||res a good |rves|rer| s|ra|egy |o pu| a|| ||e asse|s |r s|oc| ||a| doesr'| pay d|v|derds - Trus|ee car
|rves| |r W|a|ever Way car rax|r|ze ||e re|urr.
Trus|ee car crea|e a Wea||| rax|r|z|rg por|lo||o W|||ou| Worry|rg aoou| d|v|derd
ur|-|rus| - |rus|ee supposed |o pay percer|age ol |rus| asse|s |o oerel|c|ar|es eac| year.
)niform Prudent In(estor Act 2-3356
B 0. 'tandard of *areO Portfolio 'trate$yO %is! and %eturn CbTecti(es.
(a) A |rus|ee s|a|| |rves| ard rarage |rus| asse|s as a pruder| |rves|or Wou|d, oy cors|der|rg ||e purposes, |errs, d|s|r|ou||or
requ|rerer|s, ard o||er c|rcurs|arces ol ||e |rus|. lr sa||sly|rg |||s s|ardard, ||e |rus|ee s|a|| exerc|se reasorao|e care, s||||,
ard cau||or.
(o) A |rus|ee's |rves|rer| ard raragerer| dec|s|ors respec||rg |rd|v|dua| asse|s rus| oe eva|ua|ed ro| |r |so|a||or ou| |r ||e
cor|ex| ol ||e |rus| por|lo||o as a W|o|e ard as a par| ol ar overa|| |rves|rer| s|ra|egy |av|rg r|s| ard re|urr oojec||ves
reasorao|y su||ed |o ||e |rus|.
(c) Arorg c|rcurs|arces ||a| a |rus|ee s|a|| cors|der |r |rves||rg ard rarag|rg |rus| asse|s are suc| ol ||e lo||oW|rg as are
re|evar| |o ||e |rus| or ||s oerel|c|ar|es.
(1) gerera| ecoror|c cord|||ors,
(2) ||e poss|o|e ellec| ol |rl|a||or or del|a||or,
(3) ||e expec|ed |ax corsequerces ol |rves|rer| dec|s|ors or s|ra|eg|es,
||e ro|e ||a| eac| |rves|rer| or course ol ac||or p|ays W||||r ||e overa|| |rus| por|lo||o, W||c| ray |rc|ude l|rarc|a| asse|s,
|r|eres|s |r c|ose|y |e|d er|erpr|ses, |arg|o|e ard |r|arg|o|e persora| proper|y, ard rea| proper|y,
(5) ||e expec|ed |o|a| re|urr lror |rcore ard ||e apprec|a||or ol cap||a|,
(o) o||er resources ol ||e oerel|c|ar|es,
(7) reeds lor ||qu|d||y, regu|ar||y ol |rcore, ard preserva||or or apprec|a||or ol cap||a|, ard
(8) ar asse|'s spec|a| re|a||ors||p or spec|a| va|ue, |l ary, |o ||e purposes ol ||e |rus| or |o ore or rore ol ||e oerel|c|ar|es.
(d) A |rus|ee s|a|| ra|e a reasorao|e ellor| |o ver|ly lac|s re|evar| |o ||e |rves|rer| ard raragerer| ol |rus| asse|s.
(e) A |rus|ee ray |rves| |r ary ||rd ol proper|y or |ype ol |rves|rer| cors|s|er| W||| ||e s|ardards ol |||s [Ac||.
(l) A |rus|ee W|o |as spec|a| s||||s or exper||se, or |s rared |rus|ee |r re||arce upor ||e |rus|ee's represer|a||or ||a| ||e |rus|ee
|as spec|a| s||||s or exper||se, |as a du|y |o use ||ose spec|a| s||||s or exper||se.
'ocial Investing
3oc|a| |rves||rg. |rves||rg ||a| |as rore ||ar a l|rarc|a| s|a|e a|ore - |rves||rg |o ac||eve soc|a| goa|s.
ll you |rves| |r a `soc|a||y respors|o|e' ru|ua| lurd, you ray ge| |ess re|urr. Ta|e sugges|s ||a| ||e oes| |r|eres|
ol ||e oerel|c|ar|es |s ol|er ||e oes| op||or lor |||s |ype ol |rves||rg. (|r|er||ors ol se|||or ray corl||c| W||| ||ose
ol ||e ||v|rg oerel|c|ar|es)
$iversification (reduces por|lo||o r|s|)
Fuasi! duty to diversify is the de#ault position, ou| ||e se|||or car c|arge |||s |r ||e |rus| |rs|rurer|. loWever,
||e cour| W||| |r|erpre| ||ese prov|s|ors as rarroW|y as poss|o|e. T||s du|y |s ro| aoso|u|e. (0or'| War| `a|| eggs
|r ore oas|e|.')
Fxcep||ors |o d|vers|l|ca||or requ|rerer|. Trus|ee ray depar| lror usua| |rves|rer| s|ra|eg|es |r order |o
ra|r|a|r ||qu|d||y lor urar||c|pa|ed experses 0b ray c|ose ro| |o d|vers|ly o|c asse|s|s|oc| are lor lar||y
ous|ress or lar||y larr - a par||cu|ar reasor lor |o|d|rg or|o asse|s.)
b|s|s. |ar|e| r|s|, |rdus|ry r|s|, ard l|rr r|s| (d|vers|l|ca||or |e|ps ||e ros| W||| l|rr r|s|).
bereroer ||a| ||e ac|ua| ra|e ol |rl|a||or cou|d exceed ||e ar||c|pa|ed ra|e ol |rl|a||or, so |av|rg a r|s||er
|rves|rer| cou|d ac|ua||y reduce ||e r|s| ol urar||c|pa|ed |rl|a||or.
Corporate trusteeslave a ||g|er s|ardard ol care
9ama$es for Breach
Ac|ua| |osses ard |r|eres|
|a|e w|o|e beredy
o To pu| ||e oerel|c|ary |r a| |eas| as good a pos|||or ||a| s|e Wou|d |ave oeer |r ou| lor ||e |rus|ee's oreac|
lage 1## ol 190
Cl. Trad|||ora||y |rus|ee |s ro| supposed |o de|ega|e |o o||ers (|e s|ou|d oe p|ay|rg a ror|ra| ro|e), urder Cl,
car'| escape ||ao||||y oy say|rg ||a| you as|ed soreore e|se |o |a|e care ol ||.
o loWever, |rus|ee rus| de|ega|e sore respors|o||||y, suc| as jus| er|er|rg |rlorra||or |r|o a corpu|er
lor ||e purposes ol ||e du|y |o accour| ru|e (oe|oW).
8deal situation Wou|d oe ||a| ||e |rus|ee car de|ega|e ror-d|scre||orary |as|s, ou| N0T ror-d|scre||orary
dec|s|ors, |||e |rves|rer| dec|s|ors. (8u| oerel|c|ar|es dor'| a|Ways p|c| |rus|ees oased or ||e|r |rves|rer|
s||||s, so de|ega||or ol |||s |as| a|so |s |rev||ao|e.)
b3T & Texas. T|e ror-de|ega||or ru|e |as oeer reversed oy ||e 3
b3T ol Trus| v|a ||e lruder| lrves|or bu|e
ard ||e ur|lorr lruder| lrves|or Ac| sec. 9, p. 820 - roW sore de|ega||or a||oWed!
o A||oWs de|ega||or ol |rves|rer| dec|s|ors, ou| rus| exerc|se care |r se|ec||rg ||e ager|, es|ao||s| ||e
scope ard ||r||s ol ||e ager|'s poWers, ard per|od|ca||y rev|eW ager|'s ac||ors.
0|s||rc||or oe|Weer.
o 0|scre||orary respors|o||||ye.g., |oW |o rarage ||e |rus|
o Nor-d|scre||orary lurc||orse.g., |rpu|||rg da|a
)niform Prudent In(estor Act 2-3356
B 3. 9ele$ation of In(estment and +ana$ement Functions.
(a) A |rus|ee ray de|ega|e |rves|rer| ard raragerer| lurc||ors ||a| a pruder| |rus|ee ol corparao|e s||||s cou|d proper||y
de|ega|e urder ||e c|rcurs|arces. T|e |rus|ee s|a|| exerc|se reasorao|e care, s||||, ard cau||or |r.
se|ec||rg ar ager|,
es|ao||s||rg ||e scope ard |errs ol ||e de|ega||or, cors|s|er| W||| ||e purposes ard |errs ol ||e |rus|, ard
per|od|ca||y rev|eW|rg ||e ager|'s ac||ors |r order |o ror||or ||e ager|'s perlorrarce ard corp||arce W||| ||e |errs ol ||e
(o) lr perlorr|rg a de|ega|ed lurc||or, ar ager| oWes a du|y |o ||e |rus| |o exerc|se reasorao|e care |o corp|y W||| ||e |errs ol
||e de|ega||or.
(c) A |rus|ee W|o corp||es W||| ||e requ|rerer|s ol suosec||or (a) |s ro| ||ao|e |o ||e oerel|c|ar|es or |o ||e |rus| lor ||e dec|s|ors
or ac||ors ol ||e ager| |o W|or ||e lurc||or Was de|ega|ed.
Texas law on delegation
Texas eroraced ||e reversa| ol ||e ror-de|ega||or ru|e v|a ||e ur|lorr lruder| lrves|or Ac|
In re /state of anes
Summary. Trus|ee s|ou|d |ave d|vers|l|ed ||e Koda| asse|s|s|oc|. (l|rds|g|| o|as per|aps) 0arages Were
ca|cu|a|ed as va|ue ol |os| cap||a|.
o Factors to loo! at . arour| ol ||e es|a|e, s||ua||or ol ||e oerel|c|ar|es, |rl|a||or, del|a||or, rar|e|ao||||y
ol |rves|rer|, |ax |rp||ca||ors.
o |ay ro| |ave oeer |rpruder| |o se|| a|| ||e s|oc| - Koda| |s ard Was a |ead|rg corpary (o|ue c||p).
%ule of la;. 0u|y |o d|vers|ly roW, ur|ess ||e asse|s|s|oc| are par| ol ||e lar||y ous|ress or lar||y larr, |.e. a
par||cu|ar reasor lor |o|d|rg or|o ||e asse|.
'hriners #ospital for *rippled *hildren (. Eardiner
4,, P.0d ---@ 2AriQ. -3146
lauraoe| 0ard|rer crea|ed a |rus| |o pay |rcore |o |er daug||er, |ary Jare, ard |er |Wo grardc|||drer (C|ar|es
ard booer|), W||| ||e rera|rder |o ||e 3||rer losp||a|. |ary Jare Was appo|r|ed |rus|ee, ou| s|e Was
|rexper|erced, so s|e de|ega|ed |er joo ol |rves||rg |o ore C|ar|es. C|ar|es eroezz|ed $317,000, so 3|r|rers
oroug|| ac||or aga|rs| |ary Jare lor ||e rorey lor |rproper|y de|ega||rg du|y.
lage 1#$ ol 190
l33uF3 (1) w|e||er T cou|d de|ega|e |er au||or||y? No o|c d|scre||orary du|ycou|d adv|se, ou| ro| |ard|e
er||re|y. Ard (2) Was ||ere a oreac| ol du|y? es.
lage 1#9 ol 190
4. lrpar||a|||y ard ||e lr|rc|pa| & lrcore lroo|er p. 821, 827-30
|us| |rea| oerel|c|ar|es equa||y ur|ess ||ere |s a reasor ro| |o (|||e ||'s |r ||e |rus|)- |||s cores doWr |o oa|arce o|W
oerel|c|ar|es, g|v|rg due regard |o ||e|r respec||ve |r|eres|s.
o Trus|ees requ|red ro| jus| |o |rprejud|ce ||e|r oWr |r|eres|s over oerel|c|ar|es, ou| a|so |o avo|d lavor|rg
ore oerel|c|ar|es over ||e o||ers.
o Ts are supposed |o oe |||e |dea| |eg|s|a|ors, ard serve |r|eres|s ol a|| cors|||uer|s.
w|er |rus|ee |s corlused aoou| ||s oo||ga||ors |e s|ou|d. s|ar| W||| |rs|rurer|, |oo| |o s|a|e s|a|u|es, W|er |r douo|
as| cour| W|a| |o do.
w|ere ||e |rus| |s se| up as a ||le es|a|e
o T|e ||le |erar| |s or|y er||||ed |o ||e |rcore
o T|e rera|rder rer W||| oe er||||ed |o ||e pr|rc|p|e
o lrcore Wou|d |rc|ude rer|s, |r|eres|, ard d|v|derds
o lr|rc|pa| |rc|udes suc| cap||a| ga|rs ard groW||
1997 - ur|lorr laW ||a| g|ves ||e |rus|ee ||e poWer |o reoa|arce ||e equ|||es ard red|s|r|ou|e ga|rs oe|Weer
pr|rc|pa| ard |r|eres| oased upor la|rress
lr reac||rg a dec|s|or as |o |oW |o pruder||y |rves| ||e |rus| lurds, T r|g|| l|rd ||a| ||'s pruder| |o |rves| rore
ol ||e proper|y |r|o |rves|rer|s ||a| dor'| carry ar |rcore. ||g|| apprec|a|e las|er |l |rves|ed |r ror-|rcore-
produc|rg asse|s.
|ay 8 sue T lor ro| |rves||rg |r |rcore-produc|rg asse|s? es.
Principle of /Fuitable AdTustment7default rule. Car Wr||e |r ||e |rs|rurer| ||a| you dor'| War| || |o app|y.
Texas |as adop|ed ||e ull.
lage 1$0 ol 190
5. 3uo-ru|es be|a||rg |o ||e Trus| lroper|y p. 830-32
9uty to *ollect and Protect Trust Property Trus|ee rus| co||ec| ||e proper|y, up|eep, ard ra|r|a|r ||e
9uty to /armar! Property rus| a|so earrar| ||e proper|y - |eep || separa|e lror |er oWr ard rar| ||e
proper|y as oe|org|rg |o ||e |rus|
o la||ure |o earrar| crea|es ||ao||||y lor ary |oss ||a| resu||s lror ||e la||ure |o earrar|.
o 0uards aga|rs| dece|| ard persora| dea||rgs, prever|s T's persora| cred||ors lror reac||rg ||e proper|y,
prever|s corlus|or as |o W|o ge|s W|a|.
9uty to not commin$le property rus| |eep |rus| asse|s separa|e as poss|o|e.
o lrever|s r|s| ||a| T's persora| cred||ors W||| ge| |o asse|s
o lard |o |race lurds W|er corr|rg|ed.
9uty to !eep and maintain records 2ma!e an accountin$ ;hene(er the B demands it in most
TurisdictionsD not e(ery year6. |arda|ory W||| 8s W|ose |r|eres| |s ves|ed, ro| cor||rger|.
9uty to !eep B informed 2mandatory ;ith Bs o(er 0. yrs6
In re "a(arelles& /state
-, Pa. 9 & * 4@, 2Crph. -3,@6D aff+dD -@- Pa. 'uper 55. 2-3,-6
%ule of la;. Carro| |eep |rus| asse|s |r your persora| sale-depos|| oox (|rus|ee's oox) oecause ruooer-oard
cou|d orea| or Wr|||rg cou|d d|s|r|egra|e, e|c.
#ypothetical -7Pa$e 1,- 2/armar! #ypo6
A trustee deposits money in 'ecurity Ban! in the trustee&s o;n name. 'ecurity Ban! fails. Is the trustee liable
for the amount of the deposit<
Traditional Approach,The #ailure to earmar6 means the trustee has 5reached his duty.
9odern Approach,The trustee is only lia5le i# the #ailure to earmar6 caused the loss
8hat if the trustee ;as an officer of the ban! and !ne; it ;as in trouble<
/ther duties are 5reached, 5ut not the duty to earmar6.
lage 1$1 ol 190
o. 0u|y |o lrlorr & Accour| p. 83o-37
$uty to infor# )T* B1-,
0u|y |o |eep oerel|c|ar|es reasorao|y |rlorred aoou| adr|r|s|ra||or ol ||e |rus| ard ol ||e ra|er|a| lac|s
recessary lor ||er |o pro|ec| ||e|r |r|eres|,
Trus|ee rus| prorp||y respord |o oerel|c|ar|es reques| aoou| ||e adr|r|s|ra||or ol ||e es|a|e ur|ess
urreasorao|e urder ||e c|rcurs|arces.
T a||oWed |o c|arge leesou| |l T |s a|so a 8, rus| ra|e sure ||e |rarslers are c|ear|d|s||rc|.
$uty to give account if $EM/$E$ by beneficiaries TP* B --,.-.-
T|e oerel|c|ary rus| 0F|AN0 ar accour||rg
Trus|ee rus| s|||| |eep adequa|e records.
C0||0N lAw 0uT T0 KFFl 8FNFllClAblF3 lNl0b|F0N0 3TATuT0b bFulbF|FNT
Texas Property *ode B --,.-.-. 9emand for Accountin$
(a) A oerel|c|ary oy Wr|||er derard ray reques| ||e |rus|ee |o de||ver |o eac| oerel|c|ary ol ||e |rus| a Wr|||er s|a|erer| ol accour|s cover|rg a||
|rarsac||ors s|rce ||e |as| accour||rg or s|rce ||e crea||or ol ||e |rus|, W||c|ever |s |a|er. ll ||e |rus|ee la||s or reluses |o de||ver ||e
s|a|erer| or or oelore ||e 90|| day al|er ||e da|e ||e |rus|ee rece|ves ||e derard or al|er a |orger per|od ordered oy a cour|, ary
oerel|c|ary ol ||e |rus| ray l||e su|| |o corpe| ||e |rus|ee |o de||ver ||e s|a|erer| |o a|| oerel|c|ar|es ol ||e |rus|. T|e cour| ray requ|re ||e
|rus|ee |o de||ver a Wr|||er s|a|erer| ol accour| |o a|| oerel|c|ar|es or l|rd|rg ||a| ||e ra|ure ol ||e oerel|c|ary's |r|eres| |r ||e |rus| or ||e
ellec| ol ||e adr|r|s|ra||or ol ||e |rus| or ||e oerel|c|ary's |r|eres| |s sull|c|er| |o requ|re ar accour||rg oy ||e |rus|ee. loWever, ||e |rus|ee |s
ro| oo||ga|ed or requ|red |o accour| |o ||e oerel|c|ar|es ol a |rus| rore lrequer||y ||ar orce every 12 ror||s ur|ess a rore lrequer|
accour||rg |s requ|red oy ||e cour|. ll a oerel|c|ary |s successlu| |r ||e su|| |o corpe| a s|a|erer| urder |||s sec||or, ||e cour| ray, |r ||s
d|scre||or, aWard a|| or par| ol ||e cos|s ol cour| ard a|| ol ||e su|rg oerel|c|ary's reasorao|e ard recessary a||orrey's lees ard cos|s aga|rs|
||e |rus|ee |r ||e |rus|ee's |rd|v|dua| capac||y or |r ||e |rus|ee's capac||y as |rus|ee.
(o) Ar |r|eres|ed persor ray l||e su|| |o corpe| ||e |rus|ee |o accour| |o ||e |r|eres|ed persor. T|e cour| ray requ|re ||e |rus|ee |o de||ver a
Wr|||er s|a|erer| ol accour| |o ||e |r|eres|ed persor or l|rd|rg ||a| ||e ra|ure ol ||e |r|eres| |r ||e |rus| ol, ||e c|a|r aga|rs| ||e |rus| oy, or
||e ellec| ol ||e adr|r|s|ra||or ol ||e |rus| or ||e |r|eres|ed persor |s sull|c|er| |o requ|re ar accour||rg oy ||e |rus|ee.
Texas Property *ode B --,.-.0. *ontents of Accountin$
A Wr|||er s|a|erer| ol accour|s s|a|| s|oW.
(1) a|| |rus| proper|y ||a| |as core |o ||e |rus|ee's |roW|edge or |r|o ||e |rus|ee's possess|or ard ||a| |as ro| oeer prev|ous|y ||s|ed or
|rver|or|ed as proper|y ol ||e |rus|,
(2) a corp|e|e accour| ol rece|p|s, d|sourserer|s, ard o||er |rarsac||ors regard|rg ||e |rus| proper|y lor ||e per|od covered oy ||e accour|,
|rc|ud|rg ||e|r source ard ra|ure, W||| rece|p|s ol pr|rc|pa| ard |rcore s|oWr separa|e|y,
(3) a ||s||rg ol a|| proper|y oe|rg adr|r|s|ered, W||| ar adequa|e descr|p||or ol eac| asse|,
(4) ||e cas| oa|arce or |ard ard ||e rare ard |oca||or ol ||e depos||ory W|ere ||e oa|arce |s |ep|, ard
(5) a|| |roWr ||ao|||||es oWed oy ||e |rus|.
)niform Trust *ode 20@@@D as a#ended 0@@56 B 1-,. 9uty to Inform and %eport.
(a) A |rus|ee s|a|| |eep ||e qua||l|ed oerel|c|ar|es ol ||e |rus| reasorao|y |rlorred aoou| ||e adr|r|s|ra||or ol ||e |rus| ard ol ||e ra|er|a| lac|s
recessary lor ||er |o pro|ec| ||e|r |r|eres|s. ur|ess urreasorao|e urder ||e c|rcurs|arces, a |rus|ee s|a|| prorp||y respord |o a
oerel|c|ary's reques| lor |rlorra||or re|a|ed |o ||e adr|r|s|ra||or ol ||e |rus|.
(o) A |rus|ee.
upor reques| ol a oerel|c|ary, s|a|| prorp||y lurr|s| |o ||e oerel|c|ary a copy ol ||e |rus| |rs|rurer|,
W||||r o0 days al|er accep||rg a |rus|ees||p, s|a|| ro||ly ||e qua||l|ed oerel|c|ar|es ol ||e accep|arce ard ol ||e |rus|ee's rare,
address, ard |e|ep|ore ruroer,
W||||r o0 days al|er ||e da|e ||e |rus|ee acqu|res |roW|edge ol ||e crea||or ol ar |rrevocao|e |rus|, or ||e da|e ||e |rus|ee acqu|res
|roW|edge ||a| a lorrer|y revocao|e |rus| |as oecore |rrevocao|e, W|e||er oy ||e dea|| ol ||e se|||or or o||erW|se, s|a|| ro||ly ||e
qua||l|ed oerel|c|ar|es ol ||e |rus|'s ex|s|erce, ol ||e |der|||y ol ||e se|||or or se|||ors, ol ||e r|g|| |o reques| a copy ol ||e |rus|
|rs|rurer|, ard ol ||e r|g|| |o a |rus|ee's repor| as prov|ded |r suosec||or (c), ard
s|a|| ro||ly ||e qua||l|ed oerel|c|ar|es |r advarce ol ary c|arge |r ||e re||od or ra|e ol ||e |rus|ee's corpersa||or.
(c) A |rus|ee s|a|| serd |o ||e d|s|r|ou|ees or perr|ss|o|e d|s|r|ou|ees ol |rus| |rcore or pr|rc|pa|, ard |o o||er qua||l|ed or rorqua||l|ed
oerel|c|ar|es W|o reques| ||, a| |eas| arrua||y ard a| ||e |err|ra||or ol ||e |rus|, a repor| ol ||e |rus| proper|y, ||ao|||||es, rece|p|s, ard
lage 1$2 ol 190
d|sourserer|s, |rc|ud|rg ||e source ard arour| ol ||e |rus|ee's corpersa||or, a ||s||rg ol ||e |rus| asse|s ard, |l leas|o|e, ||e|r respec||ve
rar|e| va|ues. upor a vacarcy |r a |rus|ees||p, ur|ess a co|rus|ee rera|rs |r oll|ce, a repor| rus| oe ser| |o ||e qua||l|ed oerel|c|ar|es oy
||e lorrer |rus|ee. A persora| represer|a||ve, [corserva|or|, or [guard|ar| ray serd ||e qua||l|ed oerel|c|ar|es a repor| or oe|a|l ol a
deceased or |rcapac||a|ed |rus|ee.
(d) A oerel|c|ary ray Wa|ve ||e r|g|| |o a |rus|ee's repor| or o||er |rlorra||or o||erW|se requ|red |o oe lurr|s|ed urder |||s sec||or. A
oerel|c|ary, W||| respec| |o lu|ure repor|s ard o||er |rlorra||or, ray W|||draW a Wa|ver prev|ous|y g|ver.
lage 1$3 ol 190
VI. Trust %uration and Per*etuities
A. The %ule A$ainst Perpetuities Caseooo|. o71-78, Fx. 30 (TC ar|. l, 2o, TllC 112.03o)
1. loW |o avo|d bAl. 3av|rg c|ause.
a. log|ca| c|ause
2. w|a| c| W||| do |l you la|| |o avo|d ||e bAl proo|er.
bu|e del|red. |r|eres| |r rea| or pers. prop. rus| ves| or des|roy W||||r 21 years al|er ||e dea|| ol ar ascer|a|rao|e ||le |r
oe|rg (soreore W|o Was a||ve a| ||e ||re ol ||e crea||or ol ||e |r|eres|)
bu|e ol |og|ca| prool. ll ary poss|o||||y causes || |o ves| rore ||ar 21 years al|er ary ||le |r oe|rg, ||er ro| good.
3upposed |o ra|e proper|y rore a||erao|e ard |eep || lror oe|rg ||ed up lor severa| gerera||ors. Ta|e |||r|s
Ts are corserva||ve |rves|ors ||ar ||ose W|o oWr || ou|r|g||. |||| ro| oe good |o |ave a |o| ol proper|y ||ed up |r
a |rus|.
TWo cor|ex|s |r rea| ||le.
o C||er| War|s |o crea|e a |rus|.
o C||er| rece|ves a oeques| urder a |rus| ard you War| |o see |l || car oe c|a||erged urder ||e bAl
T|eory. |ead ol lar||y s|ou|d oe ao|e |o assess |e capao|||||es ol ||v|rg reroers ol ||s lar||y, ou| ro| uroorr
persors s|rce |e cou|d |roW ro|||rg aoou| ||er
bAl prever|s proper|y |r|eres|s lror oe|rg ||ed up lorever - || pro||o||s |r|eres|s ||a| |A rera|r cor||rger|
oeyord ||e perpe|u|||es per|od
lurposes. (1) |eep proper|y rar|e|ao|e ard ava||ao|e lor produc||ve deve|oprer| |r accordarce W| rar|e|
derards AN0 (2) ||r|| `dead |ard' cor|ro| over proper|y, W||c| prever|s ||e currer| oWrers lror us|rg ||e prop
|o respord |o preser| reeds
Cruc|a| ques||or. w|er W||| ||e |r|eres| ves|?
bAl & |rus|s. |rd|rec||y ||r||s ||e dura||or ol ||e |rus|, ascer|a|red oerel|c|ar|es car |err|ra|e ||e |rus| W|er ||e
bAl per|od exp|res
va||da||rg ||le. va||da||rg ||ves do ro| |ave |o |ave a correc||or a| a|| W| |e lar||y |rvo|ved - ||e so|e |ssue |s
W|e||er ||ese ||ves perr|| you |o prove |a| ||e g|l| W||| la|| or ves| W||r 21 yrs al|er ||e|r dea||. va||da||rg ||le
rus| oe a persor a||ve a| ||e se|||or's dea||. lor a W|||, va||da||rg ||le |as |o oe |r oe|rg a| ||e ||re ol T's dea||.
Texas law on R/P
bAl app||es |o |rus|s o||er ||ar c|ar||ao|e |rus|s.
Ary |r|eres| |r a |rus|, |oWever, ray oe relorred or cors|rued.
*onstitution of the 'tate of Texas
Art. ID B 0?. Perpetuities and monopoliesO primo$eniture or entailments
lerpe|u|||es ard roropo||es are cor|rary |o ||e ger|us ol a lree goverrrer|, ard s|a|| rever oe a||oWed, ror s|a|| ||e |aW ol
pr|roger||ure or er|a||rer|s ever oe |r lorce |r |||s 3|a|e.
Texas Property *ode
B --0.@,?. %ule A$ainst Perpetuities
T|e ru|e aga|rs| perpe|u|||es app||es |o |rus|s o||er ||ar c|ar||ao|e |rus|s. Accord|rg|y, ar |r|eres| |s ro| good ur|ess || rus| ves|, |l
a| a||, ro| |a|er ||ar 21 years al|er sore ||le |r oe|rg a| ||e ||re ol ||e crea||or ol ||e |r|eres|, p|us a per|od ol ges|a||or. Ary
|r|eres| |r a |rus| ray, |oWever, oe relorred or cors|rued |o ||e ex|er| ard as prov|ded oy 5.043.
lage 1$4 ol 190
Bypos pp. ?4?-?44
#ypo *ase -: 0 |rarslers a lurd |r |rus| |o `pay ||e |rcore |o A lor ||le, ||er |o A's c|||drer lor ||e|r ||ves, ||er
|o pay ||e pr|rc|pa| |o 8.' A |as ro c|||drer. A's ||le es|a|e |s ves|ed |r possess|or upon creation. T|e
rera|rder |o A's c|||drer lor ||e|r ||ves W||| ves| |r possess|or 0b |l ||ere are ro| c|||drer - la|| upor A's dea||.
8's rera|rder |s ves|ed |r |r|eres| upon creation ard |s ||erelore va||d. l| |s va||d desp||e ||e lac| ||a| || ray ves|
|r possess|or a| ||e dea|| ol A's c|||drer, W||c| cou|d oe We|| oeyord ||e re|evar| ||ves |r oe|rg p|us 21 years |l
A |as c|||drer oorr al|er ||e |rarsler. T|us, a|| |r|eres|s crea|ed oy ||e |rarsler are va||d. T||s |rus| ray erdure
lor ||e ||ves ol A's c|||drer oorr al|er ||e da|e ol ||e |rarsler. 3o ||e rus| r|g|| |as| |orger ||ar ||ves |r oe|rg a|
||e da|e ol ||e |rarsler p|us 21 yrs. Trus| |s ro| vo|d - ||e bAl does ro| d|rec||y ||r|| |rus| dura||or. l| |s or|y
corcerred W| ||e ||re W|er |r|eres|s ves|. bAl |rd|rec||y ||r||s ||e dura||or ol ||e |rus|.
#ypo *ase 0: T oequea||s $10| `|o A, W|er s|e rarr|es' & $5| |o `A's l|rs| c|||d.' A |s urrarr|ed ard W|o
c|||drer T|e oeques| |o A W||| ves| dur|rg A's ||le, |l a| a||, |s va||d. T|e oeques| |o A's l|rs| c|||d a|so W||| ves|
dur|rg A's ||le, |l a| a||, |s va||d. w||| ves| or ro| ves| dur|rg A's ||le||re, so ||'s va||d.
#ypo *ase ,: 0, a |eac|er, dec|ares a |rus| ol |er l|rs| ed|||or ol a 0|c|er's ooo|, o `||e l|rs| s|uder| |r 0's
currer| w&T c|ass |o oe sWorr |r as a judge.' T|e g|l| W||| ves| or la|| W||r ||e lives o# the students. T|e
s|uder|s as a group are ||e ||ves |r oe|rg - |||s |s a closed group, ro ore e|se car oe added. T|e cord|||or
preceder| W||| recessar||y oe re|, |l || |s ever re|, oelore ||e |as| surv|v|rg s|uder| d|es. va||d.
#ypo *ase 5: 0 |rarslers a lurd |r |rus| `|o pay ||e |rcore |o A lor ||le, ||er |o pay ||e pr|rc|pa| |o A's c|||drer
W|o reac| 21.' T|e rera|rder |s va||d o|c || W||| ves|, a| ||e |a|es|, 21 yrs al|er A's dea||, lor a|| A's c|||drer rus|
reac| 21 W||r 21 yrs al|er A d|es (p|us pd ol ges|a||or). va||d o|c W||| |roW |l ||ds reac| 21 |r 21 yr ||r||.
#ypo *ase .: T oequea||s a lurd |r |rus| `To A lor ||le, ||er |o ||e l|rs| c|||d ol A |o oe adr|||ed |o ||e oar.' A |s
reasur|rg ||le. lrva||d (v|o|a|es bAl) oecause || rus| ves| W||||r 21 years ard a c|||d ol A |ere ray oe
adr|||ed |o ||e oar |r 22 years. T |as a revers|or W|er A d|es ||e proper|y ray rever| |o T. A cou|d a|so |ave
c|||d oorr |a|er. No| va||d, so roW jus| |ave |rus| |o A lor ||le. T |as a revers|or. Cor||rger| rera|rder |s
Three-part hypo case ?:
a) To A lor ||le, ||er |o 8 |l 8 goes |o ||e p|are| 3a|urr. va||d. 8 |s reasur|rg ||le|||le |r oe|rg|va||da||rg ||le.
w||| recessar||y ves| or la|| dur|rg 8's ||le||re. F|||er W||| go ard || W||| ves| or 8 W||| d|e ard ro| |ave gore.
o) To A lor ||le, ||er |o 8 |l ary persor goes |o ||e p|are| 3a|urr. lrva||d. No reasur|rg ||le. (car'| use 8 as
va||da||rg ||le oecause || r|g|| ves| al|er 8's dea|| - ro cer|a|r|y). 3oreore cou|d go |o 3a|urr 21 years
al|er A's dea|| - proper|y Wou|d go |o 8's |e|rs o|c lee 3|rp|e. No reasur|rg ||le.
c) To A lor ||le, ||er |o 8 #or li#e |l ary persor goes |o ||e p|are| 3a|urr. va||d. 8 |s va||da||rg ||le. w||| |roW |l
|| W||| vest or #ail a| ||e erd ol 8's ||le - so |||s |s va||d. T||s |s jus| a ||le es|a|e.
urder cy pres doctrine, cou|d say `|o 8 |o ||le' or pu| a sav|rgs c|ause |r. 0r, say `|o A |o ||le, ||er
|o 8' - ro cor||rgercy.
#ypo case 4. 0|ves lurd |r |rus| |o A lor ||le, ||er |o suc| ol A's rep|eWs ard r|eces |o a||a|r 21. lrva||d
o|c cou|d |ave rore rep|eWs ard r|eces |l oro||er|s|s|er are s|||| a||ve. No| a|| ||ves are ascer|a|red a| ||e
rorer|. A cou|d a|so |ave rore oro||ers ard s|s|ers W|o cou|d |ave rore c|||drer W|o cou|d |ave rep|eWs
ard r|eces. A's parer|s are re|evar| oecause ||ey de|err|re |l A W||| |ave rore oro||ers ard s|s|ers. (|grores
lrozer sperr poss|o||||y) ll A's parer|s are dead, ||ere cou|d s|||| oe oro||ers ard s|s|ers ou| ||ere ol A. C|||drer
ol |a|l-s|o||rgs Wou|d oe r|eces ard rep|eWs.
lage 1$5 ol 190
B. Perpetuities %eform Caseooo|. o95-98, Fx. 31 (TllC 5.043)
'avings clause
3av|rgs c|ause ra|es sure ||a| ||e bAl |s ro| v|o|a|ed
JTrust ;ill automatically terminate 0- years after the death of the last sur(i(in$ beneficiary of the trust
2after the deaths of A"" beneficiaries6K (||r|| || |o ||ves |r oe|rg W|er ||e |rus| Was crea|ed ard say ||a| || W|||
|err|ra|e al|er ||e |as| surv|v|rg dea|| ol ||e 8s). To ra|e || s|re|c| ou| as |org as poss|o|e, g|ve ore ol ||e Ts
poWer |o rare add|||ora| 8s prov|ded ||a| ||ey Were a||ve W|er ||e |rus| Was crea|ed, ||er || car cor||rue
||roug|ou| ||e|r ||ves p|us 21 years. 0|ve 8 sore |o|er |r|eres|cou|d rare 10 |ea|||y oao|es oorr ||e day
||a| ||e |rus| Was crea|ed, g|ve ||er sore |rcore urder ||e |rus|, ard ||er you'|| |ave a |rus| ||a| W||| cor||rue
lor aoou| 100 years, ever urder ||e |rad|||ora| ru|e. ll ro| |r ||ere, sore bAl proo|er ||a| cou|d ra|e || vo|d.
3|ou|d g|ve soreore a poWer ol appo|r|rer| |o a||oW add|||or ol oerel|c|ar|es - |eep add|rg peop|e |o |eep
||e |r|eres| va||d lor 100 years po|er||a||y. (|easur|rg ||le rus| oe a||ve a| ||re ol |rus|, ou| car c|arge W|o oy
poWer ol appo|r|rer|) ||e doree ol a poWer ol app| car c|arge |e reasur|rg ||ves lor ||e |rus|, prov|ded ||e
doree does ro se|ec| soreore ro| a||ve W|er ||e rus| Was crea|ed.
|a|prac||ce ro| |o |ave |||s c|ause |r ||e |rus|.
ll0. No sav|rgs c|ause.
o C| Wou|d s|r||e ||e par| ol ||e |rus| ||a| v|o|a|es bAl.
o TX. C| relorrs ||e |rus| so as ro| |o v|o|a|e ||e ru|e (Cy pres ru|eas rear as poss|o|e |o ||e doror's
|r|er| W|o v|o|a||rg ||e ru|e)
/ttorney Liability
0re case lourd ||a| ar a||y |s ro| ||ao|e lor dral||rg a |rus| ||a| v|o|a|es ||e bAl - ou| Ta|e (ard ||e ooo|) |||r|s
ar a||y prooao|y cou|d oe ||ao|e lor ra|prac||ce lor ro| |rc|ud|rg ||e sav|rgs c|ause |o avo|d v|o|a||rg ||e bAl.
Perpetuities %eform
Cy Pres doctrine &TE=/' Rule(
|ears `as rear as poss|o|e' |r lrerc|
belorrs |rs|rurer| |o prever| || lror v|o|a||rg bAl, relorrs a |rus| ||a| v|o|a|es ||e bAl so as |o carry ou| ||e
T's |r|er| W||r ||e perpe|u|||es pd
Texas lo||oWs |||s ru|e - ||ey a||oW jud|c|a| relorra||or ol ar |rva||d |r|eres| a| ||e ||re ||e |rs|rurer| oecores
3|ou|d avo|d |av|rg |o re|y or |||s doc|r|re oy dral||rg ||e |rus| |rs|rurer| correc||y
3ore||res relorr oy reduc|rg ar age cor||rgercy ||a| causes a g|l| |o la|| |o 21 yrs o|d |rs|ead
9ait and 'ee $octrine
we s|ou|d Wa|| ard see W|a| ac|ua||y |appers - We do ro| |rva||da|e ar |r|eres| o|c ol W|a| r|g|| |apper.
bAl pera||zes peop|e W|o do ro| go see a s||||ed dral|er. T||s doc|r|re equa||zes peop|e.
Argurer|s aga|rs|. (1) |rcorver|erces cou|d ar|se lror ro| |roW|rg W|e||er ar |r|eres| Was va||d or |rva||d, (2) |||s |s a
|org s|ep |r ex|erd|rg ||e cor|ro| ol ||e dead |ard, ard (3) sore cr|||cs oe||eved ||e Cl d|d ro prov|de ary reasur|rg
||ves lor |||s doc|r|re
Texas Property *ode
B ..@5,. %eformation of Interests Iiolatin$ %ule A$ainst Perpetuities
(a) w||||r ||e ||r||s ol ||e ru|e aga|rs| perpe|u|||es, a cour| s|a|| relorr or cors|rue ar |r|eres| |r rea| or persora| proper|y ||a| v|o|a|es
||e ru|e |o ellec| ||e ascer|a|rao|e gerera| |r|er| ol ||e crea|or ol ||e |r|eres|. A cour| s|a|| ||oera||y cors|rue ard app|y |||s
prov|s|or |o va||da|e ar |r|eres| |o ||e lu||es| ex|er| cors|s|er| W||| ||e crea|or's |r|er|.
(o) T|e cour| ray relorr or cors|rue ar |r|eres| urder 3uosec||or (a) ol |||s sec||or accord|rg |o ||e doc|r|re ol cy pres oy g|v|rg ellec|
|o ||e gerera| |r|er| ard spec|l|c d|rec||ves ol ||e crea|or W||||r ||e ||r||s ol ||e ru|e aga|rs| perpe|u|||es.
(c) ll ar |rs|rurer| ||a| v|o|a|es ||e ru|e aga|rs| perpe|u|||es ray oe relorred or cors|rued urder |||s sec||or, a cour| s|a|| erlorce ||e
prov|s|ors ol ||e |rs|rurer| ||a| do ro| v|o|a|e ||e ru|e ard s|a|| relorr or cors|rue urder |||s sec||or a prov|s|or ||a| v|o|a|es or
r|g|| v|o|a|e ||e ru|e.
lage 1$" ol 190
(d) T||s sec||or app||es |o |ega| ard equ||ao|e |r|eres|s, |rc|ud|rg rorc|ar||ao|e g|l|s ard |rus|s, corveyed oy ar |r|er v|vos
|rs|rurer| or a W||| ||a| |a|es ellec| or or al|er 3ep|eroer 1, 19o9, ard |||s sec||or app||es |o ar appo|r|rer| rade or or al|er
||a| da|e regard|ess ol W|er ||e poWer Was crea|ed.
ourges| oerel|c|ary |s s|x years o|d.
Texas does ro| |ave a 90 year Wa|| ard see s|a|u|e. T|e ||||e W||| oe urcer|a|r lor |oo |org. Cy pres app||es |o
W|||s ard |r|er v|vos |rus|s. |ore |rus|s are crea|ed |r a W||| oecause ou| prooa|e sys|er |s good.
Texas s|||| |as bAl. lrooa|e corr|||ee proposed |eg|s|a||or ou| ||e |eg|s|a|ure rever cors|dered ||.
loWer ol appo|r|rer|- ros| |rus|s W||| |ave sore ||rd ol poWer ol appo|r|rer|. Aryore car ge| a l0A, W||c|
|s d|llerer| lror ||e ro|e ol |rus|ee oecause ||ere are ro l|duc|ary respors|o|||||es.
A|| 8erel|c|ar|es corser| ro| |rcors|s|er| W| purpose, uTC 411(o) 0a||ar|s 443-444, TX (a)(5) 3upp. 155-15o
urar||c|pa|ed c|rcurs|arces, lur||ers purpose, uTC 412(a) 0a||ar|s 447, TX 3upp. 155.
TX. lrop. 3ec||or 111.0035 127-128 0elau|| or rarda|ory ru|es. uTC 105, 0a||ar|s 417.
0erera| poWer ol a||orrey car oe exerc|sed |r lavor ol ||e doree, ||e doree's es|a|e, or doree's cred||ors. A|so
good |l you War| |o |a|e advar|age ol arrua| exc|us|ors.
T|e sare reasors you r|g|| War| |o crea|e a d|scre||orary |rus| are ||e sare lor W|y you r|g|| War| |o rod|ly
a |rus|.
In re /state of Bro;n: woo|sor ard boserary 8roWr, ||e ||le||re oerel|c|ar|es, |ave a rarda|ory |r|eres| |r
||e |rus| |rcore ard a d|scre||orary |r|eres| |r ||e pr|rc|pa|. A|| ||e oerel|c|ar|es agree ||a| ||ere |s ro
rera|r|rg purpose lor ||e |rus|. Trus|ee does ro| War| ||e |rus| |o erd oecause ||ey are ge|||rg |rus|ee's lees.
Trus|ee |s argu|rg |||s |s a suppor| |rus|. ll |||s |s a suppor| |rus|, ||e ra|er|a| purpose |as ro| oeer lu|l|||ed.
T||s |s ro| a suppor| |rus| oecause ||ey are guarar|eed |o ge| ||e |rcore. 3e|||or W|o War|s a sperd||r|l|
pro|ec||or W||| |oo| lr a s|a|e ||a| says sperd||r|l| c|ause |s a ra|er|a| purpose ol ||e |rus|.
lg. 127 ol supp|erer| are ||e rarda|ory |aWs.
Texas prov|s|or does ro| g|ve ||e cour| ||e poWer |o |err|ra|e ||e |rus|. T|e |rus|ee |s g|ver ||e poWer.
l| ray ac|ua||y oe eas|er |o rerove a |rus|ee |r Texas ||ar urder ||e uTC.
uTC 70o 0elau|| |aW you car op| ou| ol. 8roader rarge lor |oW ||e |rus|ee car oe reroved. serves ||e
oerel|c|ar|es as del|red |r ||e |rus| ard does ro| go aga|rs| a ra|er|a| purpose.
Texas-112.054 app||es |o |rus|ee rerova|. |ore pro-oerel|c|ary ||ar uTC. |us| |ave c|ar||ao|e |r|er| or ||e
ru|e aga|rs| perp app||es.
uTC 413 was|elu|ress.
0|l| over |o aro||er c|ar||y does ro| prec|ude cy pres or ||e or|g|ra| g|l|.
uTC |as grar|ed s|ard|rg |o ||e se|||or ard o||ers |o erlorce ||e |rus|.
lage 1$# ol 190
lar|rar v. lar||e- l ouys |ard lor $3900, ou| |e |s rea||y ouy|rg ||e |ard lor ore ol ||s s|s|ers. T|e s|s|er's
|usoard |s ore ol ||e execu|ors. T|e s|s|er ||er se||s ||e |ard lor $5500, ra||rg $1o00 prol||. Aro||er s|o||rg
corp|a|rs ||a| s|e deserves 1|5 ol ||e prol||s urder ||e |rus|. T|e cour| agrees.
lr re 0|eesor's w|||- Co|oroo| cou|d |ave cor||rued as |rus|ee ou| ro| rereW ||e |ease 0b dec||re ||e |rus|ee
pos|||or ou| |o|d over. le cou|d |ave soug|| ||e approva| ol ||e oerel|c|ar|es or see| cour| approva|.
uTC lrcapac||a|ed peop|e ard c|||drer car Wa|ve se|l-dea||rg ru|e.
largoe|r |s correc| or |||s |ssue.
Texas *ommerce Ban! (. EriQQle- T|e oar|s are locus|rg or W|a| |s oe||er lor ||e|r oar|s ||ar ||e |rus|. T|e
oar| sWap cou|d |ave oeer dore a| a d|llerer| ||re. Cour| ol appea|s says ||e excu|pa|ory c|ause does ro|
pro|ec| |rus|ee lror |osses lror se|l-dea||rg. T||s par||cu|ar c|ause rade ar excep||or. T|ese ac||ors d|d ro|
cors|||u|e gross reg||gerce, so ||e |rus|ee Was ro| ||ao|e. T|e cour| crea|ed ||e |rus|. T|ere |s ro se|||or. T|e
|r|eres| ol ||e oerel|c|ar|es are served W|er a persor |s W||||rg |o |a|e or ||e joo ol a |rus|ee. Trus|ee War|s
||e|r du||es |r ||e |rus| |o oe up|e|d |rs|ead ol c|arged. ll || Werer'| lor ||e excu|pa|ory c|ause, ||ere cou|d oe a
oreac| ol pruderce argurer|.
In re %oth!o- 3|aros Was a le||oW ar||s|. lev|re s|ou|d ro| |ave gore a|org W||| ||ese cor|rac|s oecause ||e
lees Were |oo |oW ard ||e corr|ss|or |oo ||g|. lev|re oreac|ed ||s du|y ol pruderce. lev|re s|ou|d |ave
||red ar exper| |r ar| |o assess ||e va|ue ol ||e pa|r||rgs. l| Was ro| W|se |o go W||| ||e l|rs| ga||ery ||ey lourd.
lev|re |a||ed |o ar a||orrey. Fxecu|ors cou|d |ave |r|ed |o ge| cour| approva| oelore |||s |rarsac||or. T|e cour|
prooao|y Wou|d ro| |ave approved. Ka|e Wou|d |ave |o argue |||e ||e W|le ol ||e doror |r ||e 3r|||ers case,
Ka|e |s ro| ge|||rg ary|||rg urder ||e W|||, s|e War|s |o ra|e sure |er la||er's W|s|ed are carr|ed ou|. beredy .
lev|re |ad good la||| ard ro corl||c| ol |r|eres|. \
w|a| |l lev|re |ad ro| approved ||e |rarsac||or. urder ulC execu|ors |ave |o ac| |r ur|sor lor ||e|r ac||ors |o
oe va||d.
Texas- ac| ol ary ore execu|or |s va||d ur|ess || regards rea| proper|y.
uTC- car ac| oy rajor||y vo|e, excep| ||e |rus|ee |s ro| ||ao|e lor ac|s ||e |rus|ee does ro| jo|r |r ur|ess |e does
ro| ac| |o reredy ||e oreac|.
No lur||er |rqu|ry ru|e or|y app||es |o se|l-dea||rg.
Prudent man rule- ||rds|g|| o|as ard |rl|a||or proo|er. laWyers cou|d op| ou| ol ||e pruder| rar ru|e, so
||ere Was ro| a |o| ol pressure |o c|arge ||. bu|e Was |oo corserva||ve as |o W|a| Was specu|a||ve.
Jares- |ar||a| 0educ||or |rus| Was 50 ol ||e es|a|e, W|le ge|s ||a| ||le |rcore ard ||e |es|arer|ary l0A.
C|ar||ao|e rera|rder |rus| Was 25, W|le ge|s ||e ||le||re |rcore. T|e rera|rder ol |||s |rus| goes |r|o ||e
c|ar||ao|e |rus| a|org W||| 25 ol ||s or|g|ra| asse|s. boc|es|er oar| |s ||e |rus|ee lor a|| ol ||e |rus|s. T|e
|usoard's d|ed |r 1973. T|e accour||rg d|d ro| |apper ur||| 1980. T|e va|ue ol Koda| s|oc| le|| |r |||s ||re.
Tr|a| cour| l|rds ||e oar| ac|ed |rpruder||y. lr|erred|a|e cour| agrees ou| reduces ||e arour| ol darages.
l|ra| cour| sa|d ||e darages |s ||e preser| va|ue ol ||e s|oc| as || s|ou|d |ave oeer so|d |r 1973. wou|d ||
|ave oeer pruder| |o se|| a|| ol ||e Koda| s|oc|? T|e oar| d|d ro| |ave a corl||c| ol |r|eres| |||e be|s ard
3|aros |r bo|||o.
ur|lorr lruder| lrves|or Ac|- Texas |as ||. 3ec||or 1.
Texas a||oWs ||e se|||or |o ra|e s|up|d dec|s|ors oecause We |oo| |o ||e se|||or's |r|er|.
uTC- W|er ||e |rus| |s revocao|e ||e du|y ol ||e |rus|ee |s or|y |o ||e se|||or.
lage 1$$ ol 190
lroceeds lror sa|e
Cap||a| 0a|rs
l|le ard Casua||y |rsurarce proceeds
Fr|rer| dora|r
T||rd lar|y re|rourserer|s
lr|eres| or loars, oords, oar| accour|s
Cas| d|v|vderds
Ne| ous|ress ard larr|rg prol||s
loWer ol equ||ao|e adjus|rer|- |rus|ee car rea|oca|e |rcore or pr|rc|pa|. 0elau|| ru|e ||a| ||e se|||or car ress
W|||. T||s doc|r|re or|rgs ||e |Wo ullA's |oge||er. T||s doc|r|re |s corp||ca|ed ard does ro| pro|ec| lror
||||ga||or |s you are ro| la|r.
ur||rus|- |ard |o argue W||| as |org as ||e ra|| |s dore correc||y.
0||er du||es (lror ||e ra|r 3)
0uy| ol |rpar||a|||y - |rea| ||e oer|l|ca|ry equa||y, ur|ess |r ||e |rus| docurer| d|llerer|
o lave |o lo||oW ||e |rus| docurer|
o 3are lor execu|ors
ur|lorr pruder| |rves|or ac|
NeW ru|e ||a| requ|res ||er |o |||r| corpre|e|sv|y ard |oo| a| rar|e| |rves|rer|s
o 3o ruc| rore l|ex|o||||y ||a| sore|||rg |ad |o c|arge
ullA - |rus|ee car ac| ard rea||oca|e ||e pr|rc|pa| ard |rcore lor a|| oerel|c|ary
Carro| do adjus|rer| poWer |l ||e |rus|ee |s a|so a oer|l|c|ary
o Car corver| |o ur||rus| - g|ves a se| percer|age |o ||e oerel|c|ary
0u|y |o earrar| ard ro| |o cor|rg|e
o Fxposes rorey |o cred||ors ol ||e |rus|ee
0u|y |o |rlorr ard repor|
o Cor|rovers|a|
Arrua| exc|us|or - 13| |o ar |rd|v|dua| orce a year ||a| |s ro| |axao|e
ur|l|ed g|l| |ax cred|| -
o lor ||e rex| year ||e g|l| |ax |as oeer ra|sed |o 5 r||||or
3are as es|a|e |ax
o 8u| use sore ol excu|s|or
8u| do ro| |ave |o pay |axes or || ur||| you ge| 5 r||||or
0ross es|a|e (every|||rg ||a| passes oy W||| or |rus|)
o l|le |rsurarce car
o loWers ol appo|r|rer| (|rus|ees W||| a|ros| ur||r||ed poWers)
0ross es|a|e r|rus deduc||ors
o |os| |rpor|ar| deduc||or (rarr|age deduc||ors)
o Adr|r|s|ra||ve experse deduc||or
lage 1$9 ol 190
o C|ar||ao|e deduc||or
T|er add deduc||ors lror g|l|s
3|ep-up |r oas|s
o 8as|s as a dore |s ||e sare as ||e dore
o ll |e|d or|o ur||| dea|| ard l |s ||e |eg||ee
T|er ro ga|r
2503(c) |rus| excep||or |o ||e |ax proo|er |r ||e |as| read|rg ass|grrer|
Cruree |rus| - |oo| up (oerel|c|ary |as a poWer |o W|||draW ||e rorey)
|ar||a| deduc||or (ur||r||ed g|l| |o spouse ard N0 |axes ur||| ||ey d|e)
o Trea| ||e rarr|ed peop|e as a ur||
-||p |rus| - qua||l|ed |err|||o|e |r|eres|
o 0||er ||r||a||ors (ra|es sure ||ey are ge|||rg a oerel||)
o las |o oe a u3 c|||zer
Fxerp||ors are por|ao|e (car oe used oy ||e o||er spouse |l you do ro| use ||er)
o Carro| use oo|| yours ard |ers ou| car use ||e oes| ol ||e |Wo
ou |ave |o l||e a|| ||e paperWor| |l you are ||e execu|or.
Tes| lor rer|a| capac||y p. 159 ol ||e ooo| ard ||e |exas |aW |s ||e sare
Na|ure ard ex|ere|
Na|ura| oojec|
be|a||rg e|erer|s
lac|ors lor urdue |rl|uerce
0rce |||s |s prove || s||l| |o ||e
Texas doesr'| |ave ourder s||l||rg
lage 190 ol 190