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Student Instructional Material 1

Subject: Biology Type of Lesson: Questions/answers, Viewing videos,
Reading and discussing internet
Grade: 11 CSEC OBJ: Students should be able to:
D 1.1 distinguish among pathogenic,
deficiency, hereditary and
physiological diseases.
D 1.2 relate treatment and control to
the differences among the four main
groups of diseases
Term: 2 UNIT: 17 Disease and its Impact on Humans
Duration: 2 X 40
Lesson: 1 Types of Diseases
Week: 1
As a result of this lesson, you will be able to:
1) define and differentiate between deficiency, hereditary,
pathogenic and physiological diseases that affect humans.
2) give at least one example of each type of the above diseases
including the cause.
3) briefly describe how each example given above can be treated
and/or controlled.
4) develop an awareness of the importance of: maintaining good
health, not laughing at nor discriminating against persons with
illnesses and caring for the sick
Prerequisite Student Knowledge
You should be familiar with/know of:
1) the concept of communicable and non-communicable diseases
from your primary science education.
2) the names of diseases such as cold/flu, diabetes, hypertension/high
blood pressure, cancer, anaemia, malaria.
3) The existence of organisms such as bacteria, viruses, worms can
cause diseases.
4) many diseases can be treated with medicines.
5) the treatment of diseases by the use of medicines and maintenance
of healthy life styles
Student Instructional Material 2
Important Points
1) Health is what humans need to have for everyday living. It is not
just the absence of disease but more a state in which there is
physical, emotional, mental and social well-being.
2) A disease is a medical condition in which health is impaired and
there is abnormal functioning of the body as a whole or of various
affected body parts/systems.
3) Diseases can be classified as communicable which are transmitted
by various means from one person to another, and non-communi-
4) Communicable diseases are the diseases which we ‘catch’, i.e. they
can be transmitted from the victim to a healthy person through
different media e.g. (a) indirectly through air/ air-borne droplets,
contaminated water and food, or (b) directly by physical contact
with infected individuals and micro-organisms such as bacteria,
fungi, worms, protozoans and viruses, and by touching or handling
objects, clothing or secretions/body fluids of infected persons.
Transmission of these diseases is often by vectors that carry the
pathogens. Communicable diseases are often described as
contagious and also infectious. Some examples of communicable
diseases are: chicken pox, measles, tuberculosis, sexually
transmitted infections (STIs) such as syphilis and HIV.
5) The term ‘contagious disease’ is used to indicate one that is easily
passed to others by direct contact with someone who is infected
with the disease, so it is also a communicable disease. See
6) The terms contagious and infectious are often used interchange-
ably, but they have slightly different connotations; e.g. Athlete’s
foot and Syphilis are both contagious and infectious; skin lichen is
infectious but not contagious.
7) You cannot ‘catch’ non-communicable diseases e.g. diabetes,
cancer, from another person! Non-communicable diseases cannot
be transmitted from one individual to another. are caused by
dietary deficiencies, improper functioning of body parts, or else
they are inherited. You cannot ‘catch’ these diseases from another

Key Terms












Student Instructional Material 3




Challenge Areas
a. Find out what causes the diseases: elephantiasis, polio myelitis and

b. Work in a small group to find out about the role of diet and
exercise in controlling hypertension. Your textbook and this
website should help.
Use the information to prepare a flyer that could be displayed on
Notice Boards at your school or at your church or community.

Equipment/Materials Needed
Multi-media equipment including large screen that your teacher will
set up for whole-class viewing, laptop and internet connectivity.
Posters, flyers, brochures and pamphlets with information about
various diseases.

Note to Student

At Grade 6 primary level, you should have been introduced to
concepts of diseases especially infectious communicable diseases, how
they are transmitted and how they are generally treated. Build on your
knowledge and first-hand experiences in this series of lessons.

Student Instructional Material 4
1) Introductory activity
Lick you with diseases – Discussion, interpreting song

a. Your teacher will play this Jamaican song done by
Michigan and Smiley – ‘JAH WILL LICK YOU WITH
i. List the diseases which are mentioned in the lyrics
of the song.
Click for answer: Poliomyelitis, arthritis,
elephantiasis, diabetes.
ii. Identify the causes stated in the lyrics of the song
for the occurrence of these diseases
Click for answer: The lyrics indicate that people
get dangerous diseases because they are dressed up
in pants and shirts?
iii. Is that what really causes us to get diseases?
Click for answer: No! Note that some of you might
say ‘germs’ or ‘bacteria’; you need to understand
that the term ‘germs’ covers a wide range of
disease-causing organisms such as bacteria, viruses
and fungi, collectively called pathogens. Your
teacher will write that term on the board.
b. In this lesson you will be expected to draw on your previous
observations and experiences of what illnesses people can have
and how they get them.

Body of Lesson

1) Types of diseases – Discussion, Watching a video

a. Watch this video on screen. Note various terms used in it
and the meaning of the terms e.g. contagious, infectious,
immune, signs and symptoms of disease, resistance,
=related (Communicable diseases) Active Feb 2011

Based on the video, write answers to these:
i. What examples of diseases are mentioned?
Click for answer: Common cold, flu, malaria,
polio, cholera, dysentery, smallpox.
A disease is a
condition in
which the health
of the organism
is affected and
even impaired.

Important Note

The symptoms of a
disease cannot be
seen by others but
they are
experienced by the
patient, e.g. a pain,
sore throat or a
headache, or the
inability of the liver
to produce insulin.
Important Note

Signs of a disease
are the visible
changes in either
the person’s
appearance or
behaviour that are
due to a disease and
which others can
see e.g. runny nose,
a ‘boil’ or a rash.

Student Instructional Material 5
ii. What does ‘immune’ mean? Use your
Glossary/dictionary if you are not sure!
iii. What causes contagious diseases?
Click for answer: Germs that enter the body.
iv. What are some ways of preventing yourself from
getting germs or pathogens?
Click for answers: Not drinking from other’s
containers, not putting fingers in the mouth and not
chewing on pencil erasers – all of which are
potential sources of germs.
v. How can you prevent/control some diseases, e.g.
cold, from spreading?
Click for answer: Wash hands with soap and water
making sure to scrub cuticles and under nails; use a
hand sanitizer if you cannot wash with soap and
water; sneeze into tissue and then throwing it away;
coughing onto arm so as not to spread droplets on
others; not sharing food.

b. Remember that you already learned in your primary school
science that diseases can be communicable or non-
communicable. Refer now to the Important Points to recall
the differences between the two terms.

c. To focus on the types of diseases, go through the following
definitions, causes and examples with your teacher.

Table 1.1: Types of diseases

Cause of Disease

Example of Disease

2) Physiological

3) Deficiency

Pathogens such as
bacteria, fungi, protozoa,
viruses, worms.

Malfunction of the body
as a whole or of specific
organs or systems.

A shortage or absence of
a chemical such as a
Cold/flu from a virus;
Malaria from a protozoan.
Elephantiasis from a worm
living in the lymphatic system

Diabetes from the inability of
the liver cells to produce
insulin to regulate the
concentration of blood sugar.
Coronary heart disease is a
lifelong problem from the
build up of plaque in the
Coronary Artery.
Rickets caused when calcium
is missing from the diet
Student Instructional Material 6

4) Hereditary

vitamin a mineral or
adequate protein in the

Genes passed from
parent to offspring.
especially in children, so their
bones do not calcify and so are
weak and become bent – called
‘bow legs’.
Anaemia caused from an
absence of adequate iron in the
diet, which results in lack of
energy, tiredness and inability
of blood to form enough red
blood cells.
Haemophilia - a defective
gene on the X chromosomes
makes blood unable to clot
(because a clotting factor
(protein) is not being made)
See websites below

Sickle cell anaemia – gene
causes red blood cells to be
properly shaped so they do not
carry enough oxygen in blood.

2) Pathogenic diseases – Watching videos, questions/answers

a. You should realize that because the disease-causing
organisms are collectively called pathogens,
communicable diseases are also known as pathogenic
diseases as indicated in the table above.

i. Note that dengue fever is a common disease in
Jamaica; read about it at the website below, as well
as from any pamphlets/brochures that you had
74.htm (Dengue fever ..text) Active Feb 2011
73.htm (Dengue haemorrhagic fever) Active Feb 2011

b. Be aware that continuous personal hygiene and good
sanitation practices can help control/ prevent the spread of
communicable pathogenic diseases. Share this information
with friends and family members who might not be aware
of it.

Student Instructional Material 7
3) An hereditary disease – Reading information, viewing video

a. Visit the following website to learn more about
haemophilia – what it is, the process/mechanism f clot
formation and how it is inherited.

i Remember that you have already done inheritance
so they should recall how the presence of the
haemophilia gene is passed from parent to children
and to note that its inheritance is sex-linked.
ii. First watch this short video to provide information
about how blood clotting occurs.
e=related (How does blood clot) Active Feb 2011

iii. Then, read from the two websites below and make
relevant notes about the disease, noting especially
how it is treated.
a/hemophilia_what.html (What is haemophila?)
Active Feb 2011
a/hemophilia_summary.html (Key points)

iv. Write two ways in which hereditary diseases differ
from pathogenic diseases.
Click for answer: Pathogenic diseases: caused by
microorganisms, can be prevented with good
hygiene practice; Hereditary diseases: caused by
defective genes, not affected by hygiene practice.

4) Dietary deficiency diseases – Reading from internet

a. Use your textbook and the website below to be reminded of
some deficiency diseases.
i. As you read, make relevant notes to recall some
dietary deficiency diseases.
(Deficiency diseases ) Active Feb 2011
(Nutritional deficiency diseases –text) Active Feb 2011

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ii. In general, how does treatment of deficiency
diseases differ from that of the inherited disease,
Click for answer: The use of natural products as
against manufactured ones is emphasized to treat
dietary deficiencies. e.g. By eating fresh fruits and
vegetables and maintaining a balanced diet
according to the person’s age, activities, body size
etc. can be reasonably easily done to treat most
dietary deficiency diseases instead of having to use
injections of compounds with clotting factors.
Inherited diseases such as haemophilia rely on
practices such as injections (to introduce
compounds with clotting factors into the body)

5) Serious physiological diseases – Watching videos, discussion

a. Diseases of the heart and circulatory system are among the
most common physiological diseases, along with diabetes
so the focus will be on finding out more about a few of
i. Watch this video on the screen:
os/000013.htm (Short Video - Blood pressure)
Active Feb 2011
(Video – Understanding heart disease)Active Feb 2011

ii. Then, click and read from:
(Healthy hearts - text) Active Feb 2011
(Hypertension) Active Feb 2011
Click and read from the following headings: Causes,
Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention. Active Feb 2011

b. You may need to watch the video clips more than once in
order to be able to answer the following questions:

i. What are the four main areas of focus for the
treatment of Coronary heart disease?
Student Instructional Material 9
Click for answer: It cannot really be cured but can
be controlled by the following methods:
1. Lifestyle changes such as regular exercise,
proper diet devoid of fats, excessive
amounts of salt and not smoking, that treat
the symptoms and are used to treat other
related risks such as high levels of
cholesterol, but cannot fix the problem.
2. Various procedures to help expand the
blood vessels and restore blood flow and
also support the artery so that it remains
open for a longer period of time.
3. Surgery e.g., Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
in which blood vessels from other areas are
grafted on to heart vessels in order to
improve the flow of blood to the heart
muscles and therefore the delivery of
oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle.

c. To find out about diabetes diseases, in your groups visit
the websites below and read through the articles:
what-is-it.html (What is diabetes? - video)
Active Feb 2011
(Diabetes: Can You Beat It?) Active Feb 2011

Note the two types of diabetes and the ways in which they
are treated. Answers this:

i. What is the importance of exercise and physical
fitness in the treatment of diabetes?
Click for answer: It helps the body to ‘burn’ stored
foods to release energy, so glucose tends to be used
up and will not accumulate in the blood. Remember
that eating a healthy, balanced diet according to age,
body size and activities and exercising more/being
more active may help you lose weight. Losing
weight may help you get your blood glucose levels
into a more normal range and helps your body use
up all the insulin it makes.

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6) “Prevention better than cure!” Internet use and Discussion

a. This is a saying that most of you no doubt have heard from
your elders. From this lesson you should remember that
good hygiene and sanitary practices can prevent
communicable/pathogenic diseases; healthy balanced diet
can prevent deficiency diseases. Others, such as diabetes,
can be treated and controlled with medication. An
important point stated in the video emphasizes the need for
engaging in lifestyle changes (such as good diet and
regular physical activity/exercise) to help control diabetes
and heart disease.

b. Watch as your teacher scrolls through scrolls through this
final set of slides taken from:
(Prevention is better than cure!)

In-Class Assignments

1) Make a list stating one example of a Jamaican disease representing
each of the four categories.
Out-of-Class Assignment/Homework

Glossary of Terms
contagious disease

means catching easily, infectious or
communicable disease

is the process by which the body heals cut blood
deficiency disease


disease prevention

disease resulting from the absence of something
such as proteins, vitamins or minerals in the diet.

a determination by examination of the nature and
circumstances of a diseased condition.

is done to protect patients or other members of
the public from actual or potential health threats
by teaching/promoting methods and/or measures
that have been proven effective in avoiding
illness and/or lessening its effects.
Student Instructional Material 11


being made resistant to a specific disease either
naturally acquired or by artificial means.

a disease-causing organism such as bacterium,
fungus, virus, worm
sexually transmitted disease


to pass the disease to some one else
vector an organism which carries the causative agent for
a disease and which is not itself infected .

CSEC Questions

1) Paper 2 Question 5 - 2003; Paper 3 Question 6 - 2003
2) Paper 3 Question 4 - 2001
3) Paper 3 Question 5 - 2002
4) Paper 2 Question 2 - 2005; Paper 3 Question 6 - 2005
5) Paper 3 Question 5 - 2006
6) Paper 2 Question 5 - 2007; Paper 3 Question 4 - 2007
7) Paper 2 Question 6 - 2008

Recommended Materials
Websites to visit
(Blood clotting) Active Feb 2011
(Causes of haemophilia; text with genetic cross diagram) OK Feb 2011
signs.html (Signs and symptoms of haemophilia) Active Feb 2011
(Series – Diabetes - What Is It?; Types Diabetes; Treatment of
Diabetes; Effects of Diabetes; Diabetes Lifestyle; Diabetic Diet)


1. Atwaroo-Ali, L (2003) CXC Biolog;y Macmillan Caribbean
2. Campbell, N. A. (1996) Biology 4
Edition; The Benjamin
/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc
3. Chinnery, L., Glasgow,J., Jones,M., Jones, G. CXC Biology;
(Latest edition) Cambridge.
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4. Roberts, M. B. V. & Mitchelmore, J. (1985) Biology for CXC;
Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd