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SCOPE OF MICROBIOLOGY
Microbiology - a specialized area of biology that deals with living things ordinarily too
small to be seen without magnification.
Some prominent areas that are heavily based on applications in microbiology are as
follows:
Immunology - studies the system of body defenses that protects against infection.
Public Health Microbiology and Epidemiology - aim to monitor and control the spread
of diseases in communities. Most of them work in government institutions.
Food Microbiology and Aquatic Microbiology - examine the ecological and practical
roles of microbes in food and water.
Agricultural Microbiology - is concerned with the relationships between microbes and
crops, with an emphasis on improving yields and combating plant diseases.
Biotechnology - includes any process in which humans use the metabolism of living
things to arrive at a desired product, ranging from bread making to gene therapy.

OVERVIEW OF MACROMOLECULES
Monomers - are the simple building blocks that, when polymerized, yield a
macromolecule.
Macromolecule - typically defined as a large and complex molecule with biological
function.
The structure of biological macromolecules is hierarchical, with distinct levels of
structure:
Primary Structure - (abbreviated as 1°) is the linear arrangement (or sequence) of
residues in the covalently linked polymer.
Secondary Structure - (abbreviated as 2°) is the local regular structure of a
macromolecule or specific regions of the molecule. These are the helical structures.
Tertiary Structure - (abbreviated as 3°) describes the global 3D fold or topology of the
molecule, relating the positions of each atom and residue in 3D space. For
macromolecules with a single subunit, the functional tertiary structure is its native
structure.
Quaternary Structure - (abbreviated as 4°) is the spatial arrangement of multiple distinct
polymers (or subunits) that form a functional complex.


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The arrangement of atoms or groups of atoms in a molecule is described by the terms
configuration and conformation. These terms are not identical.
Configuration - defines the position of groups around one or more nonrotating bonds or
around chiral centers, defined as an atom having no plane or center of symmetry.

Conformation - describes the spatial arrangement of groups about one or more freely
rotating bonds.



PROTEINS, CARBOHYDRATES AND AMINO ACIDS
Proteins
 The most abundant organic molecules in animals, playing important roles in all
aspects of cell structure and function.
 Proteins are biopolymers of acids, so named because the amino group is bonded to
the carbon atom, next to the carbonyl group.
 The physical and chemical properties of a protein are determined by its constituent
amino acids.
Amino Acid
 A type of organic acid that contains an acid functional group and an amine
functional group on adjacent carbon atoms.
 Amino acids are considered to be the building blocks of proteins.
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Carbohydrates
 Any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in foods and living tissues
and including sugars, starch, and cellulose.
 They contain hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as water (2:1) and typically
can be broken down to release energy in the animal body.




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MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF LIVING MATTER
I. Monosaccharides - have molecular formulas that are usually multiples of 2.
Glucose (6126) is the most common monosaccharide. Monosaccharides serve as a
major fuel for cells and as raw material for building molecules. All monosaccharides can
be grouped into two general classes as:
1. Aldoses: contain a functional aldehyde grouping (-CHO), or
2. Ketoses: contain a functional ketone grouping (>CO)

Common monosaccharides are:
a. Glucose (or dextrose) - one of aldohexoses which has two isometric forms: D-glucose
and L-glucose. It is the most common and most important hexose and is found in most
sweet fruits and in blood sugar.
b. Fructose - a keto sugar and is found in fruits and honey. Fructose sweeter than other
natural sugar. If we take the relative sweetness of cane sugar as one, glucose is
measured to be 0.7 whereas fructose is 1.7.


II. Disaccharides - formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. The
covalent bond in disaccharides is called a glycosidic linkage. Common disaccharides are:
a. Sucrose - known as table sugar, is comprised of α-D-glucose and β-D fructose.
Sucrose is the only nonreducing sugar among the four disaccharides.
b. Lactose - sugar present in milk, is a dimer of β-D-galactose bonded with D-glucose.
The aldehyde group of the left ring of lactose is used for linkage. However, the right
ring of the lactose can be opened to react because its aldehyde group is not used for
linkage. As a result, lactose is a reducing sugar.
c. Maltose - repeating units of starch and can be obtained by the hydrolysis of starch
using the diastase enzyme. Further hydrolysis of maltose yields two molecules of
glucose.
d. Cellobiose - a stereoisomer of maltose, is obtained by the partial hydrolysis of
cellulose. Maltose and cellobiose are both reducing sugars, since the right rings may
open to react, as reducing agents.

III. Polysaccharides - the polymers of sugars, have storage and structural roles. The
structure and function of a polysaccharide are determined by its sugar monomers and
the positions of glycosidic linkages. Common polysaccharides are:
a) Starch - a storage polysaccharide of plants, consists entirely of glucose monomers.
Plants store surplus starch as granules within chloroplasts and other plastids. The
two types of starch are:
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 Glycogen – form stored in animals for energy, coiled, mainly α 1-4 glycosidic
linkage. It is branched therefore also has 1-6 glycosidic linkage, easy to digest.
Found in animals: stored mainly in liver and muscle.
 Chitin - found in the exoskeleton of arthropods. Chitin also provides structural
support for the cellwalls of many fungi.
 Glycoproteins – carbohydrate and protein on outer surface of cell membranes.
b) Dextrins - products of the partial hydrolysis of starch, are polysaccharides of lower
molecular weight than starch. They are used in infant food because they are easier to
digest than starches. Dextrins are sticky when wet and are used as mucilage on
postage stamps and envelopes.
c) Cellulose - one of the three major structural components of all plant cell walls with
two other components, hemicellulose and lignin. Cellulose is the most abundant
organic compound of natural origin on the face of the earth. Complete hydrolysis of
cellulose gives glucose.

LIPIDS, FATS AND STEROIDS
Lipids - are the one class of large biological molecules that does not include true polymers,
and they are generally not big enough to be considered macromolecules.
Important Types of Lipids
a. Fats - constructed from two kinds of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acids. The
rest of the skeleton consists of a hydrocarbon chain.
 Glycerol - is an alcohol; each of its three carbons bears a hydroxyl group.
 Fatty Acid - has a long carbon skeleton, usually 16 or 18 carbon atoms in length.
The carbon at one end of the skeleton is part of a carboxyl group, the functional
group that gives these molecules the name fatty acid.
The types of fatty acids are:
 Saturated Fatty Acid - if there are no double bonds between carbon atoms
composing a chain, then as many hydrogen atoms as possible are bonded to the
carbon skeleton. Such a structure is said to be saturated with hydrogen.
 Unsaturated Fatty Acid has one or more double bonds, with one fewer hydrogen
atom on each double-bonded carbon. Nearly all double bonds in naturally
occurring fatty acids are cis double bonds, which cause a kink in the hydrocarbon
chain wherever they occur.

b. Phospholipids - are essential for cells because they make up cell membranes. Their
structure provides a classic example of how form fits function at the molecular level. A
phospholipid is similar to a fat molecule but has only two fatty acids attached to glycerol
rather than three.
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c. Steroids - are lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings.
Different steroids, such as cholesterol and the vertebrate sex hormones, are distinguished
by the particular chemical groups attached to this ensemble of rings.
d. Cholesterols - is a crucial molecule in animals. It is a common component of animal
cell membranes and is also the precursor from which other steroids are synthesized.

NUCLEIC ACIDS, DNA, RNA
Nucleic Acid
-Nucleic acids are polymeric macromolecules, or large biological molecules, essential for
all known forms of life
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
-DNA contains four different amine bases, two substituted purines (adenine and guanine)
and two substituted pyrimidines (cytosine and thymine)
-A molecule that encodes the genetic instructions used in the development and
functioning of all known living organisms and many virus
 Genes
-are made of DNA, a nucleic acid
-are made of monomers called nucleotides.
 Nucleotides
- are building blocks of DNA and RNA.
-major components are pentose sugar, phosphate and nitrogenous base
(purine or pyrimidines)






Ribonucleic Acid
- Plays a central role in protein synthesis.
- Perform multiple vital roles in the coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
- Contains guanine, adenine, cytosine and uracil as bases

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Adenosine Triphosphate-ATP is a nucleotide that contains a large amount of chemical
energy stored in its high-energy phosphate bonds. It releases energy when it is broken
down (hydrolyzed) into ADP (or Adenosine Diphosphate).
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is
copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase
Translation is the second part of protein biosynthesis (the making of proteins)

ANATOMY OF CELLS
Biological Actvities of Cells
1. Reproduction: Bearing Offspring
2. Metabolism: Chemical and Physical Life Processes
3. Irritability or Motility
4. Protection and Storage
5. Transport: Movement of Nutrients and Wastes
Animal cell
-Animal cells are eukaryotic cells. They are bound together by intercellular material to
form tissue. Tissue is customarily divided into four categories:
 Epithelial tissue -forms the covering or lining of all free body surfaces, both
external and internal.
 Connective tissue -the cells are always embedded in an extensive intercellular
matrix, which may be liquid, semisolid, or solid.
 Muscle cells- are usually elongate and bound together into sheets or bundles by
connective tissue.
 Nerve cells- are composed of a cell body, containing the nucleus, and one or more
long thin extensions called fibers
Animal Organelles and Functions
1. cell membrane - the thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell.
2. centrosome - (also called the "microtubule organizing center") a small body located
near the nucleus - it has a dense center and radiating tubules
3. cytoplasm - the jellylike material outside the cell nucleus in which the organelles are
located.
4. Golgi body - (also called the Golgi apparatus or golgi complex). It packages proteins
and carbohydrates into membrane-bound vesicles for "export" from the cell.
5. lysosome - (also called cell vesicles) round organelles surrounded by a membrane and
containing digestive enzymes. This is where the digestion of cell nutrients takes place.
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6. mitochondrion - spherical to rod-shaped organelles with a double membrane. The
mitochondrion converts the energy stored in glucose into ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
for the cell.
7. nuclear membrane - the membrane that surrounds the nucleus.
8. nucleolus - an organelle within the nucleus - it is where ribosomal RNA is produced.
Some cells have more than one nucleolus.
9. nucleus - spherical body containing many organelles, including the nucleolus. The
nucleus controls many of the functions of the cell (by controlling protein synthesis) and
contains DNA (in chromosomes).
10. ribosome - small organelles composed of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are
sites of protein synthesis.
11. rough endoplasmic reticulum - transports materials through the cell and produces
proteins in sacks called cisternae (which are sent to the Golgi body, or inserted into the
cell membrane).
12. smooth endoplasmic reticulum - transports materials through the cell. It contains
enzymes and produces and digests lipids (fats) and membrane protein.
13. vacuole - fluid-filled, membrane-surrounded cavities inside a cell. The vacuole fills
with food being digested and waste material that is on its way out of the cell.

Plant Cell Organelles and Functions
- Plant cells have distinctive features such as a rigid wall, a large vacuole, and the
presence of chloroplasts.
1. amyloplast - an organelle in some plant cells that stores starch.
2. ATP - adenosine triphosphate; it is a high-energy molecule used for energy storage by
organisms. ATP is produced in the cristae of mitochondria and chloroplasts.
3. Cell membrane - the thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell, but is inside
the cell wall. The cell membrane is semipermeable, allowing some substances to pass
into the cell and blocking others.
4. Cell wall - a thick, rigid membrane that surrounds a plant cell. This layer of cellulose
fiber gives the cell most of its support and structure.
5. Centrosome - (also called the "microtubule organizing center") a small body located
near the nucleus - it has a dense center and radiating tubules.
6. Chlorophyll - chlorophyll is a molecule that can use light energy from sunlight to turn
water and carbon dioxide gas into sugar and oxygen (this process is
called photosynthesis).
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7. Chloroplast - an elongated or disc-shaped organelle containing chlorophyll.
8. Christae - (singular crista) the multiply-folded inner membrane of a
cell's mitochondrion that are finger-like projections.
9. Cytoplasm - the jellylike material outside the cell nucleus in which the organelles are
located.
10. Golgi body - (also called the golgi apparatus or golgi complex).The golgi body
packages proteins and carbohydrates into membrane-bound vesicles for "export" from
the cell.
11. Granum - (plural grana) A stack of thylakoid disks within the chloroplast is called
a granum.
12. Mitochondrion - spherical to rod-shaped organelles with a double membrane. The
mitochondrion converts the energy stored in glucose into ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
for the cell.
13. Nuclear membrane - the membrane that surrounds the nucleus.
14. Nucleolus - an organelle within the nucleus - it is where ribosomal RNA is
produced.
15. Nucleus - spherical body containing many organelles, including the nucleolus. The
nucleus controls many of the functions of the cell (by controlling protein synthesis) and
contains DNA (in chromosomes).
16. Ribosome - small organelles composed of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are
sites of protein synthesis.
17. Rough endoplasmic reticulum - (rough ER) a vast system of interconnected,
membranous, infolded and convoluted sacks that are located in the cell's cytoplasm (the
ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane
18. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum - (smooth ER) a vast system of interconnected,
membranous, infolded and convoluted tubes that are located in the cell's cytoplasm (the
ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane).. Smooth ER transport materials
through the cell. It contains enzymes and produces and digests lipids (fats) and
membrane proteins.
19. Stroma - part of the chloroplasts in plant cells, located within the inner membrane
of chloroplasts, between the grana.
20. Thylakoid disk - thylakoid disks are disk-shaped membrane structures
in chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll.
21. Vacuole - a large, membrane-bound space within a plant cell that is filled with
fluid.
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CLASSES OF ORGANISMS

1. Prokaryotes - “prokaryote” meaning before nuclei. These cells lack membrane
bound organelles. Prokaryotic cells are unicellular organisms, which reproduce
through binary fission.
2. Eukaryotes- eukaryote means “true nucleus.” Eukaryotes are more complex
organisms and can be multicellular or single-celled.

BACTERIA
- Bacteria are unicellular microscopic organisms. Bacteria occur in a variety of
shapes such as:
 cocci: spherical or ovoid
 bacilli: cylindrical or rod shaped
 spirilla: helically coiled
All biological systems, from microorganisms to man, share a set of nutritional
requirements, which are:
1. Sources of energy
a. phototrophs: organisms which are capable of employing radiant energy.
b. chemotrophs: organisms which obtain the energy for their activities and self-
synthesis from chemical reactions that can occur in the dark.
2. Sources of carbon
a. autotrophs: organisms which can thrive on an entirely inorganic d:et, using
CO2 or carbonates as a sole source of carbon.
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b. heterotrophs: organisms which cannot use CO as a sole source of carbon but
require, in addition to minerals, one or more organic substances, such as glucose
or amino acids, as sources of carbon.
3. Sources of nitrogen: atmospheric nitrogen, inorganic nitrogen compounds, or other
derived nitrogen.

YEASTS
- are generally unicellular organisms and their shape is spherical to ovoid.
- The most common growth pattern for yeasts is budding, which is an asexual
process
- The most important yeasts are strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which are
used in the manufacture of wine and beer and in the leavening of bread

MOLDS
- Reproduce by means of tiny spores; the spores are invisible to the naked eye and
float through outdoor and indoor air.
- Aspergillus species are sometimes used to manufacture chemical and biological
products.
- A. niger produces most of the world's citric acid, a common preservative for foods,
detergents, and industrial products

ALGAE AND PROTOZOA

Algae- it is a way to describe photoautotrophs that lack the roots and stems of plants.
Some algae are unicellular; others form chains of cells (are filamentous); and a few have
thalli.
Protozoa are unicellular, eukaryotic organisms. Among the protozoa are many variations
on this cell structure,
 Schizogony is multiple fission; the process in which protozoa reproduce; the
nucleus undergoes multiple divisions before the cell divides.
Medically Important Protozoa
 Hemoflagellates- (blood parasites) are transmitted by the bites of blood-feeding
insects and are found in the circulatory system of the bitten host.
 Amebae - move by extending blunt, lobelike projections of the cytoplasm called
pseudopods
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 Ciliates - have cilia that are similar to but shorter than flagella. The cilia are
arranged in precise rows on the cell

SIX KINGDOMS OF LIFE
I. Archaebacteria
 Organisms: Methanogens, Halophiles, Thermophiles, Psychrophiles
 Cell Type: Prokaryotic
 Metabolism: Depending on species - oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, sulfur,
sulfide may be needed for metabolism.
 Nutrition Acquisition: Depending on species - nutrition intake may by absorption,
non-photosynthetic photophosphorylation, or chemosynthesis.
 Reproduction: Asexual reproduction by binary fission, budding, or fragmentation.
II. Eubacteria
 Organisms: Bacteria, Cyanobacteria(blue-green algae), Actinobacteria
 Cell Type: Prokaryotic
 Metabolism: Depending on species - oxygen may be toxic, tolerated, or needed for
metabolism.
 Nutrition Acquisition: Depending on species - nutrition intake may by absorption,
photosynthesis, or chemosynthesis.
 Reproduction: Asexual reproduction
III. Protista
 Organisms: Amoebae, green algae, brown algae, diatoms, euglena, slime molds
 Cell Type: Eukaryotic
 Metabolism: Oxygen is needed for metabolism.
 Nutrition Acquisition: Depending on species - nutrition intake may be by
absorption, photosynthesis, or ingestion.
 Reproduction: Mostly asexual reproduction. Meiosis occurs in some species.
IV. Fungi
 Organisms: Mushrooms, yeast, molds
 Cell Type: Eukaryotic
 Metabolism: Oxygen is needed for metabolism.
 Nutrition Acquisition: Absorption
 Reproduction: Asexual or sexual reproduction occur.
V. Plantae
 Organisms: Mosses, angiosperms (flowering plants), gymnosperms, liverworts,
ferns
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 Cell Type: Eukaryotic
 Metabolism: Oxygen is needed for metabolism.

 Nutrition Acquisition: Photosynthesis
 Reproduction: Some species reproduce asexually by mitosis. Other species exhibit
sexual reproduction.
VI. Animalia
 Organisms: Mammals, amphibians, sponges, insects, worms
 Cell Type: Eukaryotic
 Metabolism: Oxygen is needed for metabolism.
 Nutrition Acquisition: Ingestion
 Reproduction: Sexual reproduction

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE MICROBES
1. Temperature
 Psychrophile is a microorganism that has an optimum temperature below 15
o
C
and is capable of growth at 0
o
C
 Mesophileis a microorganism that grows at intermediate temperatures having
the optimum growth temperature ranges from 20
o
C to 40
o
C
 Thermophile is a microbe that grows optimally at temperatures from 45
o
C to
80
o
C.

2. Gas Requirements
 Aerobic organisms-organisms that require gaseous oxygen.
 Anaerobic organisms-organisms that do not require gaseous oxygen or live
in oxygen-poor environments: ocean bottoms, sulfur-rich puddles in
marshes and in sedimentation tanks of sewage-treatment plants.

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Different bacteria behave differently when grown in liquid culture:








a) Obligate aerobic bacteria gather at the top of the test tube in order to absorb
maximal amount of oxygen.
b) Obligate anaerobic bacteria gather at the bottom to avoid oxygen.
c) Facultative bacteria gather mostly at the top, since aerobic respiration is
advantageous (ie, energetically favorable); but as lack of oxygen does not hurt
them, they can be found all along the test tube.
d) Microaerophiles gather at the upper part of the test tube but not at the top.
They require oxygen, but at a lower concentration.
e) Aerotolerant bacteriaare not affected at all by oxygen, and they are evenly
spread along the test tube.

Although all microbes require some carbon dioxide in their metabolism,
capnophiles grow best at higher CO2 tensions than are the normally present in
the atmosphere.

3. Moisture
4. Effect of pH
 Neutrophiles are organisms that thrive in neutral (pH 7) environments.
 Alkaliphilesare microbes that thrive in alkaline (pH 9-11) environments.
 Acidophiles are those that thrive under highly acidic conditions (usually at pH
2.0 or below)
5. Salt / Sugar Concentrations
 Halophiles - organisms capable of growth in very salty environments
 Osmophiles- Organisms capable to live in environments high in sugar those
able concentration.
 Xerophiles- grow in very dry environments (made dry by lack of water)
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CLASSIFICATION OF NUTRIENT MEDIUM

1 Synthetic Medium – a medium consisting only of chemically defined nutrients.
2. Complex Medium – one that contains ingredients of unknown chemical composition.
Usually contains yeast extract, beef extract and peptone.

ISOLATION METHODS

1. Pour Plate – suspension of cell is mixed with the melted agar and poured into a petri
dish. When agar solidifies, cells are immobilized in the agar and grow into colonies.
2. Streak Plate – the sterile, melted and cooled medium is first poured into a sterile petri
dish and allowed to harden thoroughly; then the surface of the hardened agar is
inoculated by streaking the needle of swab across it.

STERILIZATION METHOD
1. Chemical
2. Mechanical
3. Thermal
4. Radiation

INHIBITORY AND INORGANIC CHEMICALS

1. Inhibitory Substances - prevent growth of particular microorganism in culture media.
2. Antibiotic – substances produced by microorganisms that inhibit or kill other
microorganisms; inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms
3. Microstatic Agents – Inhibit growth but do not kill the organism; when the agent is
removed, growth is resumed.
4. Disinfectants – kill or prevent the growth of pathogenic diseases.

REPRODUCTION AND GROWTH

Growth means an increase in the total number of cells due to reproduction of
individual microorganism in the culture.

1. Sexual Reproduction - offspring are produced
through the union of sex cells, called gametes, from
two parents. The fusion of gametes is called
fertilization and resulting cell is called zygote which
contains a mixture of the two gametes through mitotic
division.
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2. Asexual Reproduction - offspring originate through the division of a single parent cell
into two daughter cells. Individual cells divide in a process called binary fission.


Binary fission is the method by which prokaryotes produce new individuals that are
genetically identical to the parent organism.

The following steps proceed during binary fission:

 Binary fission begins with the single DNA molecule replicating and both copies
attaching to the cell membrane.
 Next, the cell membrane begins to grow between the two DNA molecules. Once the
bacterium just about doubles its original size, the cell membrane begins to pinch
inward.
 A cell wall then forms between the two DNA molecules dividing the original cell into
two identical daughter cells.

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Others are divided in a process of budding.

A small bud (or daughter cell) is formed on the surface of a mature cell. The bud
grows and is filled with nuclear and cytoplasmic material from the parent cell. When the
bud is as large as the parent, nuclear apparatus in both cells is reoriented and the cells
are separated. The daughter cell may cling to the parent cell, often even after the cells are
divided.




MICROBIAL GROWTH PATTERN

A. Batch Culture
In nature, the growth curve of bacteria consists of four phases, namely; the lag
phase, the log phase, the stationary phase, and lastly the death phase:














1. Lag Phase –physiological adjustment of the organism to the environment to the
environment following organism to the environment following inoculation. No cell
division takes place but there is an increase in cell mass.
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2. Logarithmic Phase – cells divide at a constant rate. The rate of cellular increase
can be expressed in a natural exponential function.
3. Stationary Phase – visible amount of the organisms become constant; rate of
birth is equal to rate of death. This is due to any combination of the following:
a. exhaustion of nutrients
b. accumulation of metabolic by-products
c. change in pH
4. Death Phase- cause by bacterial lysis and cell destruction.


B. Continuous Culture

 Continuous culture demands continuous flow of nutrients and
corresponding flow of products. If the vessel is perfectly mixed, the number
of cells in the vessel is influenced by the growth rate and dilution rate.
 If the dilution rate is greater than the maximum growth rate, there is a
continuous decrease of cells in the reactor until all are washed out. When
the dilution rate is less than the maximum growth rate, the population in
the vessel will build up until the concentration of the nutrients is reduced.
 The growth rate decreases and there is less biomass to utilize the nutrients.
The specific growth rate is equal to the dilution rate and no further build-
up of the cells occurs. The culture is at equilibrium and steady state is
attained.
 Continuous culture, in a device called a chemostat, can be used to maintain
a bacterial population at a constant density.
 Chemostat (from Chemical environment is static) is a bioreactor to which
fresh medium is continuously added, while culture liquid is continuously
removed to keep the culture volume constant.











 A turbidostat is a continuous culture device, similar to a chemostat, which has
feedback between the turbidity of the culture vessel and the dilution rate.
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METHABOLIC PATHWAYS

Metabolism is usually divided into two categories.

1. Catabolism – process of degrading the compound into smaller and simpler products
and produces energy for the cell by way of cellular respiration.

a. Stage 1 – large nutrient molecules are degraded to their major building blocks;
polysaccharides to simple sugars, lipids to fatty acids and glycerol, and proteins into their
20 component amino acids.
b. Stage 2 – products of stage 1 are converted into smaller and simpler molecules.
c. Stage 3- the products of stage 2 are converted to carbon dioxide and water.

2. Anabolism – uses energy to construct components of cells such as protein and nucleic
acid.












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Questionnaire
1. Defines the position of groups around one or more nonrotating bonds or around chiral
centers, defined as an atom having no plane or center of symmetry. Configuration
a. Configuration
b. Isomerization
c. Polymerization
d. Conformation

2. A crucial molecule in animals. It is a common component of animal cell membranes
and is also the precursor from which other steroids are synthesized. Cholesterols
a. Cholesterols
b. Phospholipids
c. Steroids
d. Cellulose

3. Are the one class of large biological molecules that does not include true polymers,
and they are generally not big enough to be considered macromolecules. Lipids
a. Dextrin
b. Lipids
c. Starch
d. Chitin

4. The spatial arrangement of multiple distinct polymers (or subunits) that form a
functional complex. Quaternary Structure
a. Primary Structure
b. Secondary Structure
c. Tertiary Structure
d. Quaternary Structure

5. Studies the system of body defenses that protects against infection. Immunology
a. Biotechnology
b. Agricultural Microbiology
c. Immunology
d. Microbiology

6. Has one or more double bonds, with one fewer hydrogen atom on each double-bonded
carbon. Nearly all double bonds in naturally occurring fatty acids are cis double bonds.
Unsaturated Fatty Acid
a. Saturated Fatty Acid
b. Unsaturated Fatty Acid
c. Supersaturated Fatty Acid
d. Unsaturated Fatty Acid

7. Are the simple building blocks that, when polymerized, yield a macromolecule.
Monomers
a. Isomers
b. Biomers
c. Monomers
d. Polymers

8. Formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. The covalent bond
in disaccharides is called a glycosidic linkage. Disaccharides
a. Monosaccharides
b. Disaccharides
c. Polysaccharides
d. Tetrasaccharides

9. The linear arrangement (or sequence) of residues in the covalently linked polymer.
Primary Structure
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a. Primary Structure
b. Secondary Structure
c. Tertiary Structure
d. Quaternary Structure

10. Includes any process in which humans use the metabolism of living things to arrive
at a desired product, ranging from bread making to gene therapy. Biotechnology
a. Agricultural Microbiology
b. Immunology
c. Biotechnology
d. Microbiology

11. Describes the spatial arrangement of groups about one or more freely rotating
bonds. Conformation
a. Configuration
b. Isomerization
c. Polymerization
d. Conformation

12. Typically defined as a large and complex molecule with biological function.
Macromolecule
a. Monomers
b. Biomers
c. Macromolecule
d. Isomers

13. Describes the global 3D fold or topology of the molecule, relating the positions of
each atom and residue in 3D space. For macromolecules with a single subunit, the
functional tertiary structure is its native structure. Tertiary Structure
a. Primary Structure
b. Secondary Structure
c. Tertiary Structure
d. Quaternary Structure

14. The most abundant organic molecules in animals, playing important roles in all
aspects of cell structure and function. Proteins
a. Proteins
b. Amino Acid
c. Fatty Acid
d. Carbohydrates

15. A type of organic acid that contains an acid functional group and an amine
functional group on adjacent carbon atoms. Amino Acid
a. Proteins
b. Amino Acid
c. Fatty Acid
d. Carbohydrates

16. Known as table sugar, is comprised of α-D-glucose and β-D fructose. Sucrose is the
only nonreducing sugar among the four disaccharides. Sucrose
a. Glucose
b. Sucrose
c. Fructose
d. Galactose

17. A specialized area of biology that deals with living things ordinarily too small to be
seen without magnification. Microbiology
a. Microbiology
b. Immunology
c. Agricultural Microbiology
d. Biotechnology
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18. Have molecular formulas that are usually multiples of 2. Glucose (6126) is
the most common type of this molecule. Monosaccharides
a. Monosaccharides
b. Disaccharides
c. Polysaccharides
d. Tetrasaccharides

19. Contain a functional aldehyde grouping (-CHO).Aldoses
a. Aldoses
b. Aetoses
c. Ketoses
d. Polyols

20. Products of the partial hydrolysis of starch, are polysaccharides of lower molecular
weight than starch. They are used in infant food because they are easier to digest than
starches. Dextrins
a. Dextrin
b. Lipids
c. Starch
d. Chitin

21. A keto sugar and is found in fruits and honey. It is sweeter than other natural sugar.
Fructose
a. Glucose
b. Sucrose
c. Fructose
d. Galactose


22. Determined by its sugar monomers and the positions of glycosidic linkages.
Polysaccharides
a. Monosaccharides
b. Diosaccharides
c. Polysaccharides
d. Tetrasaccharides

23. The local regular structure of a macromolecule or specific regions of the molecule.
These are the helical structures. Secondary Structure
a. Primary Structure
b. Secondary Structure
c. Tertiary Structure
d. Quaternary Structure

24. Contain a functional ketone grouping (>CO). Ketoses
a. Aldoses
b. Aetoses
c. Ketoses
d. Polyols

25. Sugar present in milk, is a dimer of β-D-galactose bonded with D-glucose. The
aldehyde group of the left ring of lactose is used for linkage. Lactose
a. Lactose
b. Sucrose
c. Fructose
d. Glucose

26. A storage polysaccharide of plants, consists entirely of glucose monomers. Plants
store surplus it as granules within chloroplasts and other plastids. Starch
a. Fats b. Carbohydrate
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c. Starch d. Grana

27. A major component of the tough wall of plant cells. Cellulose
a. Cellulose
b. Lignin
c. Fiber
d. Stomates

28. Found in the exoskeleton of arthropods. It also provides structural support for the
cell walls of many fungi. Chitin
a. Dextrin
b. Lipids
c. Starch
d. Chitin

29. Constructed from two kinds of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acids. The rest
of the skeleton consists of a hydrocarbon chain. Fats
a. Fats
b. Oils
c. Waxes
d. Lipids

30. Is an alcohol; each of its three carbons bears a hydroxyl group. Glycerol
a. Glycohol
b. Glycerol
c. Phenol
d. Octanol

31. Has a long carbon skeleton, usually 16 or 18 carbon atoms in length. The carbon at
one end of the skeleton is part of a carboxyl group. Fatty Acid
a. Fatty Acid
b. Lipids
c. Starch
d. Glycerol

32. Molecules having no double bonds between carbon atoms composing a chain, then
as many hydrogen atoms as possible are bonded to the carbon skeleton. Saturated Fatty
Acid
a. Saturated Fatty Acid
b. Unsaturated Fatty Acid
c. Supersaturated Fatty Acid
d. Unsaturated Fatty Acid

33. Are essential for cells because they make up cell membranes. Their structure
provides a classic example of how form fits function at the molecular level. Phospholipids
a. Cholesterols
b. Phospholipids
c. Steroids
d. Cellulose

34. Concerned with the relationships between microbes and crops, with an emphasis
on improving yields and combating plant diseases. Agricultural Microbiology
a. Biotechnology
b. Agricultural Microbiology
c. Microbiology
d. Immunology

35. Lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings. Steroids
a. Cholesterols
b. Phospholipids
c. Steroids
d. Cellulose
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36 It forms the covering or lining of all free body surfaces, both external and internal.
a. Epithelial tissue
b. Nerve cells
c. Muscle cells
d. Connective tissue

37. The cells that are always embedded in an extensive intercellular matrix, which may
be liquid, semisolid, or solid.
a. Epithelial tissue
b. Nerve cells
c. Muscle cells
d. Connective tissue

38. These are composed of a cell body, containing the nucleus, and one or more long
thin extensions called fibers
a. Epithelial tissue
b. Nerve cells
c. Muscle cells
d. Connective tissue

39. These are usually elongate and bound together into sheets or bundles by connective
tissue.
a. Epithelial tissue
b. Nerve cells
c. Muscle cells
d. Connective tissue

40. It packages proteins and carbohydrates into membrane-bound vesicles for "export"
from the cell.
a. Golgi body
b. Mitochondrion
c. Lysosome
d. Ribosome

41. It converts the energy stored in glucose into ATP (adenosine triphosphate) for the
cell.
a. Golgi body
b. Mitochondrion
c. Lysosome
d. Ribosome

42. Small organelles composed of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites of protein
synthesis.
a. Golgi body
b. Mitochondrion
c. Lysosome
d. Ribosome

43. Round organelles surrounded by a membrane and containing digestive enzymes
a. Golgi body
b. Mitochondrion
c. Lysosome
d. Ribosome

44. A stack of thylakoid disks within the chloroplast is called a granum.
a. Christae
b. Centrosome
c. Cytoplasm
d. Granum


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45. The multiply-folded inner membrane of a cell's mitochondrion that are finger-like
projections
a. Christae
b. Centrosome
c. Cytoplasm
d. Granum
46. A small body located near the nucleus. It has a dense center and radiating tubules.
a. Christae
b. Centrosome
c. Cytoplasm
d. Granum
47. The jellylike material outside the cell nucleus in which the organelles are located.
a. Christae
b. Centrosome
c. Cytoplasm
d. Granum
48. Bacteria that is spherical or ovoid in shape
a. cocci
b. bacilli
c. dendritic
d. spirilla


49. Cylindrical or rod shaped bacteria
a. cocci
b. bacilli
c. dendritic
d. spirilla

50. Helically coiled-shaped bacteria
a. cocci
b. bacilli
c. dendritic
d. spirilla

51. Organisms which cannot use CO as a sole source of carbon
a. phototrophs:
b. heterotrophs
c. chemotrophs
d. autotrophs

52. Organisms which are capable of employing radiant energy.
a. phototrophs:
b. heterotrophs
c. chemotrophs
d. autotrophs

53. Organisms which obtain the energy for their activities and self-synthesis from
chemical reactions that can occur in the dark.
a. phototrophs:
b. heterotrophs
c. chemotrophs
d. autotrophs

54. Organisms which can thrive on an entirely inorganic diet, using CO2 or carbonates
as a sole source of carbon
a. phototrophs:
b. heterotrophs
c. chemotrophs
d. autotrophs
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55. A photoautotrophs that lack the roots and stems of plants.
a. yeast
b. molds
c. protozoa
d. algae

56. Reproduce by means of tiny spores; the spores are invisible to the naked eye and
float through outdoor and indoor air.
a. yeast
b. molds
c. protozoa
d. algae

57. Are unicellular, eukaryotic organisms. The process by which it reproduce is termed
as schizogony.
a. yeast
b. molds
c. protozoa
d. algae

58. Are generally unicellular organisms and their shape is spherical to ovoid
a. yeast
b. molds
c. protozoa
d. algae

59. Methanogens, Halophiles, Thermophiles, Psychrophiles
a. Archaebacteria
b. Eubacteria

c. Fungi
d. Protista
60. Mushrooms, yeast, molds
a. Archaebacteria
b. Eubacteria

c. Fungi
d. Protista
61. Bacteria, Cyanobacteria(blue-green algae), Actinobacteria
a. Archaebacteria
b. Eubacteria

c. Fungi
d. Protista
62. Amoebae, green algae, brown algae, diatoms, euglena, slime molds
a. Archaebacteria
b. Eubacteria

c. Fungi
d. Protista
63. Gather at the upper part of the test tube but not at the top. They require oxygen,
but at a lower concentration.
a. Obligate aerobic bacteria
b. Aerotolerant bacteria
c. Microaerophiles
d. Facultative bacteria

64. Not affected at all by oxygen, and they are evenly spread along the test tube.
a. Obligate aerobic bacteria
b. Aerotolerant bacteria
c. Microaerophiles
d. Facultative bacteria

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65. Gather at the top of the test tube in order to absorb maximal amount of oxygen.
a. Obligate aerobic bacteria
b. Aerotolerant bacteria
c. Microaerophiles
d. Facultative bacteria

66. Gather mostly at the top but as lack of oxygen does not hurt them so they can be
found all along the test tube.
a. Obligate aerobic bacteria
b. Aerotolerant bacteria
c. Microaerophiles
d. Facultative bacteria

67. Are also called blood parasite
a. Hemoflagellates
b. Ciliates
c. Aspergillus flavus
d. Amebae

68. Move by extending blunt, lobelike projections of the cytoplasm called pseudopod
a. Hemoflagellates
b. Ciliates
c. Aspergillus flavus
d. Amebae

69. All of the following are eukaryotic except:
a. plantae
b. fungi
c. eubacteria
d. protista

70. Produces most of the world's citric acid, a common preservative for foods,
detergents, and industrial products
a. A. niger
b. Aspergillus
c. Saccharomyces cerevisiae
d. Hemoflagellates

1. Bioreactor to which fresh medium is continuously added while culture liquid is
continuously removed
a. Turbidostat c. Fermenter
b. Chemostat d. None of the Above

72. Phase where in no cell division takes place but there is an increase in cell mass.
a. Log Phase c. Lag Phase
b. Death Phase d. Stationary Phase

73. Offspring are produced through the union of sex cells from two parents
a. Sexual c. Asexual
b. Budding d. Binary Fusion

74. A medium consisting only of chemically defined nutrients.
a. Complex Medium c. Natural Medium
b. Simple Medium d. Synthetic Medium
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75. It prevents growth of particular microorganism in culture media.
a. Antibiotic c. Microstatic Agents
b. Disinfectants d. Inhibitory Substance

76. Intercellular process of degrading a compound into simple products and produces
energy for the cell.
a. Anabolism c. Glycolysis
b. Photosynthesis d. Catabolism

77. Intercellular process uses energy to construct components of cells such as protein
and nucleic acid.
a. Anabolism c. Glycolysis
b. Photosynthesis d. Catabolism

78. An isolation method where in suspension of cell is mixed with the melted agar and
poured into a petri dish.
a. Pour Plate c. Streak Plate
b. Separation d. Sedimentation

79. Methods by which unicellular cell reproduce.
a. Sexual c. Asexual
b. Budding d. Binary Fusion

80. An isolation method where in melted and cooled medium is first poured into a sterile
petri dish and allowed to harden thoroughly.
a. Pour Plate c. Streak Plate
b. Separation d. Sedimentation

81. Phase where in cells divide at a constant rate.
a. Log Phase c. Lag Phase
b. Death Phase d. Stationary Phase

82. Stage where products of the previous stage are converted into smaller and simpler
molecules.
a. Stage I c. Stage II
b. Stage III b. Catabolism

83. Replication of the circular prokaryotic chromosome begins at ____________
a. Origin of Replication c. Midpoint of the cell
b. FtsZ Protein d. Nucleus

84. The cell begins to elongate, FtsZ migrate towards __________________
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a. Origin of Replication c. Midpoint of the cell
b. FtsZ Protein d. Nucleus

85. Stage where the products of the previous stage are converted to carbon dioxide and
water.
a. Stage I c. Stage II
b. Stage III b. Catabolism

86. Bioreactor which has feedback between the turbidity of the culture vessel and the
dilution rate.
a. Turbidostat c. Fermenter
b. Chemostat d. None of the Above

87. When this agent is removed, growth is resumed.
a. Antibiotic c. Microstatic Agents
b. Disinfectants d. Inhibitory Substance

88. Stage where large nutrient molecules are degraded to their major building blocks.
a. Stage I c. Stage II
b. Stage III b. Catabolism

89. Phase where in rate of birth is equal to rate of death.
a. Log Phase c. Lag Phase
b. Death Phase d. Stationary Phase

90. Yeast is produced in the process of ________
a. Sexual c. Asexual
b. Budding d. Binary Fusion

91. This phase cause by bacterial lysis and cell destruction.
a. Log Phase c. Lag Phase
b. Death Phase d. Stationary Phase

92. It inhibits the growth of pathogenic microorganisms.
a. Antibiotic c. Microstatic Agents
b. Disinfectants d. Inhibitory Substance

93. If the dilution rate is greater than the maximum growth rate, _____________________
a. there is a continuous decrease of cells in the reactor
b. there is a continuous increase of cells in the reactor
c. there is a continuous decrease of culture liquids in the reactor
d. there is a continuous increase of culture liquids in the reactor

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94. It kills or prevents the growth of pathogenic diseases.
a. Antibiotic c. Microstatic Agents
b. Disinfectants d. Inhibitory Substance

95. Due to the formation of a __________, the daughter cells separate to form individual
cells.
a. Septum c. FtsZ Protein
b. Cleavage Furrow d. Cell Wall

96. Replication of the bacterial DNA is ___________
a. Consecutively c. Consequently
b. Reverse d. Bidirectional

97. The chromosome is attached to the plasma membrane at about _______________
a. Origin of Replication c. Midpoint of the cell
b. FtsZ Protein d. Nucleus

98. When the dilution rate is less than the maximum growth rate, ________________
a. the population in the vessel will build up until the concentration of the nutrients is
reduced
b. the population in the vessel will build up until the concentration of the nutrients is
produced
c. the concentration in the vessel will break up until the population of the nutrients is
produced
d. the concentration in the vessel will break up until the population of the nutrients is
reduced

99. The time required for one cell to divide into two cells.
a. generation time c. conception
b. reproduction time d. multiplying time

100. Which of the following has a required time to generate of 17 minutes?
a. E-coli c. Mycobacterium
b. Yeast d. Gametes







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Answer Key
1. a
2. a
3. b
4. d
5. c
6. d
7. c
8. b
9. a
10. c
11. d
12. c
13. c
14. a
15. b
16. b
17. a
18. a
19. a
20. a
21. c
22. c
23. b
24. c
25. a
26. c
27. a
28. d
29. a
30. b
31. a
32. a
33. b
34. b

35. c
36. a
37. d
38. b
39. c
40. a
41. b
42. d
43. c
44. d
45. a
46. b
47. c
48. a
49. b
50. d
51. b
52. a
53. c
54. d
55. d
56. b
57. c
58 a
59. a
60. c
61. b
62. d
63. c
64. b
65. a
66. d
67. a
68. d
69. c
70. a
71. b
72. c
73. a
74. d
75. d
76. d
77. a
78. a
79. d
80. c
81. a
82. c
83. a
84. c
85. b
86. a
87. c
88. a
89. d
90. b
91. b
92. a
93. a
94. b
95. a
96. d
97. c
98. a
99. a
100. a