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You are on page 1of 6

**January 02-06, 2012, Port of Spain, Trinidad
**

DYNAMICAL EVALUATION OF GAS TURBINE ROTORS

Guilherme de Oliveira Marcório, gmarcorio@yahoo.com.br

Tiago de Oliveira Vale, tiago.vale@yahoo.com.br

Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica – São José dos Campos – SP

João Carlos Menezes, menezes@ita.br

Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica – São José dos Campos – SP

Abstract. One of the main requirements in the assessment of integrity of gas turbines is the correct evaluation of its

dynamic behavior. The natural frequencies which give the critical speeds must be determined through the development

of the Campbell diagram. The complexity of the turbine design and dynamic motion has forced the use of more

sophisticated tools such as the Finite Element Method. Computer programs as ANSYS have allowed dynamic analysis

of more complex rotating machinery. An equivalent rotor model has been created and compared with a real rotor

model using the software ANSYS. Considering a two degrees of freedom model, in the first case, the APDL

environment has been explored. For the second case, the real model has been examined using tools of the Workbench

in ANSYS. This study revealed the possibility of different approaches for obtaining the same results. Advantages and

deficiencies of the different types of modeling will be discussed and criticized.

Keywords: Rotordynamics; Finite Element Method; Gas Turbine

1. INTRODUCTION

Rotating machineries are characterized by high capacity to store energy. However, some of this energy is dissipated

as other forms of energy, for example the vibration, according Muszynska (2005). Therefore, the dynamic evaluation of

rotating system is very important to prevent mechanical failures.

Lalanne and Ferraris (2001) have worked on very detailed analyses of tipical rotordynamics problems, developing

equations for each element of the rotor (disks, shaft and bearings) using the Rayleigh-Ritz method for simple problems

and finite element method for engineering applications. Based on this study, the authors Chiang et al. (2004) use a

model with single and dual rotor system through an inertial coordinate system, with gyroscopic moment, rotary inertias,

bending and shear deformations, axial loads, and internal and external damping, obtaining satisfactory results. More

recently, Young et al. (2007) investigate the behavior of random axial forces in the lateral vibration of a disk-shaft

system supported by a pair of ball bearing, featuring the dynamic stability of this system. Shaohua and Xinyue (2010)

proposed the analytical mechanical knowledge to estabilsh the dynamic equation and applied in a propulsion shaft

supported by six bearing under base shock excitations. Bai et al. ( 2010) developed an experimental and numerical

study of the nonlinear dinamic behavior, evaluating the influence of subharmonic resonance in a rotor supported by ball

bearings, the numerical analysis also was accomplished with a finite element model.

A powerful method to develop a complete rotordynamic analysis is the Finite Element Method (FEM). The model

creation is a critical point of the simulation. It is necessary to translate the real behavior with an efficient model, making

correct choices to model and optimize some parameters like the computing time and costs.

Two types of elements have been frequently used, the beam element and the solid element. Kumar (2009) explored

some of the most important functions of the software ANSYS to developed a full rotordynamics analyses including

modal, hamonic and trasient analysis. Lu et al. (2010) also used ANSYS creating a 3D solid model which allowed the

analysis of the depedence of rotor natural frequency on road preload and vibration modes. Recently Creci et al. (2011)

performed a complete rotordynamic analysis in a 5-Kilonewton thrust gas turbine modeled with beam elements, also

using ANSYS. In the work of Marcório and Menezes (2011) a comparison between these two kinds of elements

reproducing a “Lalanne” three discs model was reported. In a simple model, the beam element has revealed superiority

concerning computational time.

The present work has the objective to compare these two alternatives for modeling, taking a real stage of a turbine

to show the advantages and deficiencies of each aproach. In the case of rotating machinery, for the successful design

and operation, it is important to obtain the Campbell diagram and consequently the critical speeds that may vary with

the type of excitation frequencies. Therefore, for the two cases, the Campbell diagram was obtained to predict the

natural frequencies and the critical speeds caused by the mass unbalance of

**in the disc. In addition, the
**

rotatory effects and gyroscopic inertia also were considered and the speed range was set from 0 to 30000 rpm.

2. ROTOR MODEL

The reference model used for the study is a stage of a turbine, with a shaft and a disk supported by a linear bearing.

The present work uses the Finite Element Method implemented by the software ANSYS. As previously stated, analysis

of the model was divided into two cases and these two types of modeling were previously validated in the work of

Proceedings of PACAM XII 12th Pan-American Congress of Applied Mechanics

January 02-06, 2012, Port of Spain, Trinidad

Marcório and Menezes (2011). Table 1 show the physical and geometric disc properties and Tab. 2 shows the bearing

parameter values. The shaft dimensions are the same for both cases.

Table 1: Disc properties

Young’ modulus [GPa] 2.05e+11

Density [kg/m

3

] 7850

Poisson’s ratio 0.29

Mass [kg] 5.36

Bending moment of inertia [kg.m

2

] 1.93x10

-2

Torsional moment of inertia[kg.m

2

] 3.83x10

-2

Table 2: Technical features of the bearings

Stiffness Damping

K

xx

= 8x10

6

N/m C

xx

= 5.2x10

3

Ns/m

K

yy

= 8x10

6

N/m C

yy

= 5.2x10

3

Ns/m

K

xy

= K

yx

= 0 C

xy

= C

yx

= 0

2.1. Case I: Real Model

The first case is a real model of the rotor, where the disc supports blades, and all characteristics of the real rotor are

taken into account. The drawing is created in CAD software and imported to ANSYS Workbench. In this environment

the model setup can be accomplished. The bearing stiffness and damping, as well as, displacement constraints are

defined, as shown in Fig. 1. Taking this model, including all boundary conditions discussed before, a modal analysis has

been performed in Workbench and the Campbell diagram is generated.

Figure 1: Real Model with blades

Proceedings of PACAM XII 12th Pan-American Congress of Applied Mechanics

January 02-06, 2012, Port of Spain, Trinidad

2.2. Case II: Equivalent Model

The second case was developed in the APDL environment by beam element, using the direct mode. In this type of

solution it is necessary to determine the location of every node and all other parameters of elements such: size, shape

and connectivity. The shaft has the same dimension of the real model shaft, however, for the disc an equivalent model

without blades was created, with the same bending moment of inertia, torsional moment of inertia and mass of the real

disc. The new dimensions of the equivalent disc can be seen in Tab. 3. The model configuration is illustrated in Fig. 2

and Tab. 4 shows the coordinates of the nodes.

Table 3: Disc data

Dimensions Disc

Thickness (m) 0.021

Inner radius (m) 0.027

Outer radius (m) 0.116

Figure 2: Rotor model using beam element

Table 4: Coordinates of the nodes

Nodes z [m] Nodes z [m]

1 0.0 10 0.079

2 0.007 11 0.086

3 0.014 12 0.093

4 0.021 13 0.1

5 0.028 14 0.107

6 0.035 15 0.121

7 0.042 16 0.129

8 0.053 17 0.144

9 0.064

Proceedings of PACAM XII 12th Pan-American Congress of Applied Mechanics

January 02-06, 2012, Port of Spain, Trinidad

The shaft has 17 nodes and was built with 16 BEAM188 elements based on Timoshenko beam theory, and four

degrees of freedom was considered at each node. The disc has 2 PIPE16 elements that is a uniaxial element with

tension-compression, torsion, and bending capabilities. The bearing was modeled with COMBIN214 considering

stiffness and damping in the perpendicular directions of the shaft direction, as can be seen in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Combi214 element used for the bearings modeling

3. RESULTS

Figure 4 show the Campbell diagram with the first four bending modes and Tab. 5 shows the frequencies value for

each case obtained at 25000 rpm. It can be observed that the first and second whirling are very similar for both cases

with maximum difference of 3.2%. The accuracy of the frequencies results, error rate less than 5%, evidence that the

equivalent model is satisfactory. The performed mapping is very important to ensure that the operating speed range is

situate in a safe region and/or define which regions are safe for the rotor spin. These analyses considered only the rotor

bending modes.

Figure 4: Campbell Diagram

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000

F

r

e

r

q

u

e

n

c

y

(

H

z

)

Rotor Speed [RPM]

CAMPBELL DIAGRAM

Beam Element Model Real Model

2 FW

1 BW

2 BW

C1

F=N/60

F1

F2

F3

F4

F - Synchronous excitation line

C - Critical Speed

A

1 FW

Proceedings of PACAM XII 12th Pan-American Congress of Applied Mechanics

January 02-06, 2012, Port of Spain, Trinidad

Table 3: Frequencies in hertz at 25000 rpm

Frequency Case I Case II Variance

F1 103.43 106.77 -3.1%

F2 316.77 317.64 -0.3%

F3 755.45 746.71 1.2%

F4 1353.98 1312.52 3.2%

The Campbell diagram shows two intersection points with the synchronous line: point A in the BW mode at

approximately 9000 rpm and point C1 in the FW mode at approximately 16000 rpm. As the rotor-bearing are

symmetric, only the FW modes are excited because the BW mode vector is orthogonal to the unbalance force vector,

according Nelson (2007). This can be verified in Fig. 5 witch shows the unbalance response. Table 6 shows the

comparison of this critical speed caused by the mass unbalance. These results also were satisfactory with a maximum

difference of 5.8%.

Table 4: Critical speeds in RPM caused by the mass unbalance

Critical Speed

Case I 16,766.90

Case II 15,799.82

Variance 5.8%

Figure 5: Unbalance response at node 16 using the equivalent model

The main advantage of the equivalent model is the lower computational time that allows a quickly

development of many analyses for the better understanding of the rotor dynamic behavior. In addition, a transient

analysis was performed to simulate the transition through the resonance using the model created for Case II. It was

assumed an angular acceleration of 3141.6

**⁄ . Figure 6a shows the displacement responses at node 16 for 1
**

second total simulation time and Fig. 6b the total displacement at node 16 during the transition through the resonance. It

can be observed a peak close of 0.52 seconds that represent the critical speed C1 at approximately 15600 rpm

represented in Campbell diagram, Fig. 4.

1E-08

1E-07

1E-06

1E-05

1E-04

0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

[

m

]

Rotor Speed [RPM]

Proceedings of PACAM XII 12th Pan-American Congress of Applied Mechanics

January 02-06, 2012, Port of Spain, Trinidad

(a)

(b)

Figure 6: Transient analysis; (a) Transition through the resonance at node 16; (b) Total displacements at node 16 during

transition through resonance

4. CONCLUSION

An efficient model is very important in order to develop a dynamic evaluation of rotating system and to reproduce

the real behavior of a gas turbine rotor. A rotordynamic model was successfully implemented using the Finite Element

Method considering two different approaches. According to the literature review, this method has been increasingly

adopted for the more complex models solutions. For the present cases, solutions were obtained using the commercial

software ANSYS

which considers the rotatory effects and gyroscopic inertia.

An equivalent model using beam element has been compared to a more complex model using solid element, and

very close agreement has been observed. The beam model proved to be effective, presenting accurate results with lower

computation time and number of nodes much smaller compared to the solid model. However, for a full gas turbine

model, the expert labor time demand may became the most critical issue requiring a good design methodology to avoid

mistakes.

5. REFERECES

ANSYS

®

Documentation, 2010, Release 12.0

Bai, C., Zhang, H. and Xu, Q., August 2010, "Experimental and Numerical Studies on Nonlinear Dynamic Behavior of

Rotor System Supported by Ball Bearings", Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbine and Power, v. 132.

Chiang, H.W.D., Hsu, C.N. and Tu, S.H., December 2004, "Rotor-Bearing Analysis for Turbomachinery Single and

Dual-Rotor Systems", AIAA, Journal of Propulsion and Power , v. 20, n. 6, p. 1096-1104.

Creci, G., Menezes, J.C., Barbosa, J.R. and Corrá, J.A., April 2011, "Rotordynamic Analysis of a 5-Kilonewton Thrust

Gas Turbine by Considering Bearing Dyamics", Journal of Propulsion and Power, v. 27, n. 2.

Kumar, M.S., 2009, "Rotor Dynamic Analysis Using ANSYS", IUTAM Symposium on Emerging Trends in Rotor

Dynamics, New Delhi: Sprninger. p. 153-162.

Lalanne, M. and Ferraris, G., 2001, "Rotordynamics Prediction in Engineering", 2nd Edition. ed. New York: Wiley.

Marcório, G.O. and Menezes, J.C., October 2011, "Rotordynamics of Gas Turbine Using the Finite Element Model",

Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Mechanical Engineering, Natal.

Lu, M., Geng, H., Yang, B. and Yu, L., 4-7 August 2010, "Finite Element Method for Disc-Rotor Dynamic

Characteristics Analysis of Gas Turbine Rotor Considering Contact Effects and Rod Preload", Proceedings of

International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, Xi'an.

Muszynska, A., 2005, "Rotordynamics", Nevada: Taylor & Francis Group.

Nelson, F.C., July 2007, "Rotor Dynamics without Equations", International Journal of COMADEM, Medford.

Shaohua, H. and Xinyue, W., 2010, "Transient Dynamic Analysis for a rotor-bearing System Based on Energy

Equations", Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Advanced Computer Theory and Enginnering,

Chengdu, p. 3105-3108.

Young, T.H., Shiau, T.N. and Kuo, Z.H., 22 June 2007, "Dynamic Stability of Rotor-Bearing System Subjected to

Random Axial Forces", Jorunal of Sound and Vibration, p. 467-480.

-3,0E-05

-2,0E-05

-1,0E-05

0,0E+00

1,0E-05

2,0E-05

3,0E-05

0 0,25 0,5 0,75 1

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

[

m

]

Time [s]

0,0E+00

5,0E-06

1,0E-05

1,5E-05

2,0E-05

2,5E-05

0 6 12 18 24 30

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

[

m

]

Rotor Speed, 10

3

[RPM]

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