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Proceedings of PACAM XII 12th Pan-American Congress of Applied Mechanics

January 02-06, 2012, Port of Spain, Trinidad

DYNAMICAL EVALUATION OF GAS TURBINE ROTORS

Guilherme de Oliveira Marcório, gmarcorio@yahoo.com.br
Tiago de Oliveira Vale, tiago.vale@yahoo.com.br
Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica – São José dos Campos – SP

João Carlos Menezes, menezes@ita.br
Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica – São José dos Campos – SP

Abstract. One of the main requirements in the assessment of integrity of gas turbines is the correct evaluation of its
dynamic behavior. The natural frequencies which give the critical speeds must be determined through the development
of the Campbell diagram. The complexity of the turbine design and dynamic motion has forced the use of more
sophisticated tools such as the Finite Element Method. Computer programs as ANSYS have allowed dynamic analysis
of more complex rotating machinery. An equivalent rotor model has been created and compared with a real rotor
model using the software ANSYS. Considering a two degrees of freedom model, in the first case, the APDL
environment has been explored. For the second case, the real model has been examined using tools of the Workbench
in ANSYS. This study revealed the possibility of different approaches for obtaining the same results. Advantages and
deficiencies of the different types of modeling will be discussed and criticized.

Keywords: Rotordynamics; Finite Element Method; Gas Turbine

1. INTRODUCTION

Rotating machineries are characterized by high capacity to store energy. However, some of this energy is dissipated
as other forms of energy, for example the vibration, according Muszynska (2005). Therefore, the dynamic evaluation of
rotating system is very important to prevent mechanical failures.
Lalanne and Ferraris (2001) have worked on very detailed analyses of tipical rotordynamics problems, developing
equations for each element of the rotor (disks, shaft and bearings) using the Rayleigh-Ritz method for simple problems
and finite element method for engineering applications. Based on this study, the authors Chiang et al. (2004) use a
model with single and dual rotor system through an inertial coordinate system, with gyroscopic moment, rotary inertias,
bending and shear deformations, axial loads, and internal and external damping, obtaining satisfactory results. More
recently, Young et al. (2007) investigate the behavior of random axial forces in the lateral vibration of a disk-shaft
system supported by a pair of ball bearing, featuring the dynamic stability of this system. Shaohua and Xinyue (2010)
proposed the analytical mechanical knowledge to estabilsh the dynamic equation and applied in a propulsion shaft
supported by six bearing under base shock excitations. Bai et al. ( 2010) developed an experimental and numerical
study of the nonlinear dinamic behavior, evaluating the influence of subharmonic resonance in a rotor supported by ball
bearings, the numerical analysis also was accomplished with a finite element model.
A powerful method to develop a complete rotordynamic analysis is the Finite Element Method (FEM). The model
creation is a critical point of the simulation. It is necessary to translate the real behavior with an efficient model, making
correct choices to model and optimize some parameters like the computing time and costs.
Two types of elements have been frequently used, the beam element and the solid element. Kumar (2009) explored
some of the most important functions of the software ANSYS to developed a full rotordynamics analyses including
modal, hamonic and trasient analysis. Lu et al. (2010) also used ANSYS creating a 3D solid model which allowed the
analysis of the depedence of rotor natural frequency on road preload and vibration modes. Recently Creci et al. (2011)
performed a complete rotordynamic analysis in a 5-Kilonewton thrust gas turbine modeled with beam elements, also
using ANSYS. In the work of Marcório and Menezes (2011) a comparison between these two kinds of elements
reproducing a “Lalanne” three discs model was reported. In a simple model, the beam element has revealed superiority
concerning computational time.
The present work has the objective to compare these two alternatives for modeling, taking a real stage of a turbine
to show the advantages and deficiencies of each aproach. In the case of rotating machinery, for the successful design
and operation, it is important to obtain the Campbell diagram and consequently the critical speeds that may vary with
the type of excitation frequencies. Therefore, for the two cases, the Campbell diagram was obtained to predict the
natural frequencies and the critical speeds caused by the mass unbalance of

in the disc. In addition, the
rotatory effects and gyroscopic inertia also were considered and the speed range was set from 0 to 30000 rpm.

2. ROTOR MODEL

The reference model used for the study is a stage of a turbine, with a shaft and a disk supported by a linear bearing.
The present work uses the Finite Element Method implemented by the software ANSYS. As previously stated, analysis
of the model was divided into two cases and these two types of modeling were previously validated in the work of
Proceedings of PACAM XII 12th Pan-American Congress of Applied Mechanics
January 02-06, 2012, Port of Spain, Trinidad


Marcório and Menezes (2011). Table 1 show the physical and geometric disc properties and Tab. 2 shows the bearing
parameter values. The shaft dimensions are the same for both cases.

Table 1: Disc properties

Young’ modulus [GPa] 2.05e+11
Density [kg/m
3
] 7850
Poisson’s ratio 0.29
Mass [kg] 5.36
Bending moment of inertia [kg.m
2
] 1.93x10
-2
Torsional moment of inertia[kg.m
2
] 3.83x10
-2


Table 2: Technical features of the bearings

Stiffness Damping
K
xx
= 8x10
6
N/m C
xx
= 5.2x10
3
Ns/m
K
yy
= 8x10
6
N/m C
yy
= 5.2x10
3
Ns/m
K
xy
= K
yx
= 0 C
xy
= C
yx
= 0

2.1. Case I: Real Model

The first case is a real model of the rotor, where the disc supports blades, and all characteristics of the real rotor are
taken into account. The drawing is created in CAD software and imported to ANSYS Workbench. In this environment
the model setup can be accomplished. The bearing stiffness and damping, as well as, displacement constraints are
defined, as shown in Fig. 1. Taking this model, including all boundary conditions discussed before, a modal analysis has
been performed in Workbench and the Campbell diagram is generated.



Figure 1: Real Model with blades


Proceedings of PACAM XII 12th Pan-American Congress of Applied Mechanics
January 02-06, 2012, Port of Spain, Trinidad

2.2. Case II: Equivalent Model

The second case was developed in the APDL environment by beam element, using the direct mode. In this type of
solution it is necessary to determine the location of every node and all other parameters of elements such: size, shape
and connectivity. The shaft has the same dimension of the real model shaft, however, for the disc an equivalent model
without blades was created, with the same bending moment of inertia, torsional moment of inertia and mass of the real
disc. The new dimensions of the equivalent disc can be seen in Tab. 3. The model configuration is illustrated in Fig. 2
and Tab. 4 shows the coordinates of the nodes.

Table 3: Disc data

Dimensions Disc
Thickness (m) 0.021
Inner radius (m) 0.027
Outer radius (m) 0.116




Figure 2: Rotor model using beam element

Table 4: Coordinates of the nodes

Nodes z [m] Nodes z [m]
1 0.0 10 0.079
2 0.007 11 0.086
3 0.014 12 0.093
4 0.021 13 0.1
5 0.028 14 0.107
6 0.035 15 0.121
7 0.042 16 0.129
8 0.053 17 0.144
9 0.064
Proceedings of PACAM XII 12th Pan-American Congress of Applied Mechanics
January 02-06, 2012, Port of Spain, Trinidad



The shaft has 17 nodes and was built with 16 BEAM188 elements based on Timoshenko beam theory, and four
degrees of freedom was considered at each node. The disc has 2 PIPE16 elements that is a uniaxial element with
tension-compression, torsion, and bending capabilities. The bearing was modeled with COMBIN214 considering
stiffness and damping in the perpendicular directions of the shaft direction, as can be seen in Figure 3.



Figure 3: Combi214 element used for the bearings modeling

3. RESULTS

Figure 4 show the Campbell diagram with the first four bending modes and Tab. 5 shows the frequencies value for
each case obtained at 25000 rpm. It can be observed that the first and second whirling are very similar for both cases
with maximum difference of 3.2%. The accuracy of the frequencies results, error rate less than 5%, evidence that the
equivalent model is satisfactory. The performed mapping is very important to ensure that the operating speed range is
situate in a safe region and/or define which regions are safe for the rotor spin. These analyses considered only the rotor
bending modes.



Figure 4: Campbell Diagram
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000
F
r
e
r
q
u
e
n
c
y

(
H
z
)

Rotor Speed [RPM]
CAMPBELL DIAGRAM
Beam Element Model Real Model
2 FW
1 BW
2 BW
C1
F=N/60
F1
F2
F3
F4
F - Synchronous excitation line
C - Critical Speed
A
1 FW
Proceedings of PACAM XII 12th Pan-American Congress of Applied Mechanics
January 02-06, 2012, Port of Spain, Trinidad

Table 3: Frequencies in hertz at 25000 rpm

Frequency Case I Case II Variance
F1 103.43 106.77 -3.1%
F2 316.77 317.64 -0.3%
F3 755.45 746.71 1.2%
F4 1353.98 1312.52 3.2%

The Campbell diagram shows two intersection points with the synchronous line: point A in the BW mode at
approximately 9000 rpm and point C1 in the FW mode at approximately 16000 rpm. As the rotor-bearing are
symmetric, only the FW modes are excited because the BW mode vector is orthogonal to the unbalance force vector,
according Nelson (2007). This can be verified in Fig. 5 witch shows the unbalance response. Table 6 shows the
comparison of this critical speed caused by the mass unbalance. These results also were satisfactory with a maximum
difference of 5.8%.

Table 4: Critical speeds in RPM caused by the mass unbalance

Critical Speed
Case I 16,766.90
Case II 15,799.82
Variance 5.8%



Figure 5: Unbalance response at node 16 using the equivalent model

The main advantage of the equivalent model is the lower computational time that allows a quickly
development of many analyses for the better understanding of the rotor dynamic behavior. In addition, a transient
analysis was performed to simulate the transition through the resonance using the model created for Case II. It was
assumed an angular acceleration of 3141.6

⁄ . Figure 6a shows the displacement responses at node 16 for 1
second total simulation time and Fig. 6b the total displacement at node 16 during the transition through the resonance. It
can be observed a peak close of 0.52 seconds that represent the critical speed C1 at approximately 15600 rpm
represented in Campbell diagram, Fig. 4.
1E-08
1E-07
1E-06
1E-05
1E-04
0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

[
m
]

Rotor Speed [RPM]
Proceedings of PACAM XII 12th Pan-American Congress of Applied Mechanics
January 02-06, 2012, Port of Spain, Trinidad



(a)


(b)
Figure 6: Transient analysis; (a) Transition through the resonance at node 16; (b) Total displacements at node 16 during
transition through resonance
4. CONCLUSION

An efficient model is very important in order to develop a dynamic evaluation of rotating system and to reproduce
the real behavior of a gas turbine rotor. A rotordynamic model was successfully implemented using the Finite Element
Method considering two different approaches. According to the literature review, this method has been increasingly
adopted for the more complex models solutions. For the present cases, solutions were obtained using the commercial
software ANSYS

which considers the rotatory effects and gyroscopic inertia.
An equivalent model using beam element has been compared to a more complex model using solid element, and
very close agreement has been observed. The beam model proved to be effective, presenting accurate results with lower
computation time and number of nodes much smaller compared to the solid model. However, for a full gas turbine
model, the expert labor time demand may became the most critical issue requiring a good design methodology to avoid
mistakes.

5. REFERECES

ANSYS
®
Documentation, 2010, Release 12.0
Bai, C., Zhang, H. and Xu, Q., August 2010, "Experimental and Numerical Studies on Nonlinear Dynamic Behavior of
Rotor System Supported by Ball Bearings", Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbine and Power, v. 132.
Chiang, H.W.D., Hsu, C.N. and Tu, S.H., December 2004, "Rotor-Bearing Analysis for Turbomachinery Single and
Dual-Rotor Systems", AIAA, Journal of Propulsion and Power , v. 20, n. 6, p. 1096-1104.
Creci, G., Menezes, J.C., Barbosa, J.R. and Corrá, J.A., April 2011, "Rotordynamic Analysis of a 5-Kilonewton Thrust
Gas Turbine by Considering Bearing Dyamics", Journal of Propulsion and Power, v. 27, n. 2.
Kumar, M.S., 2009, "Rotor Dynamic Analysis Using ANSYS", IUTAM Symposium on Emerging Trends in Rotor
Dynamics, New Delhi: Sprninger. p. 153-162.
Lalanne, M. and Ferraris, G., 2001, "Rotordynamics Prediction in Engineering", 2nd Edition. ed. New York: Wiley.
Marcório, G.O. and Menezes, J.C., October 2011, "Rotordynamics of Gas Turbine Using the Finite Element Model",
Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Mechanical Engineering, Natal.
Lu, M., Geng, H., Yang, B. and Yu, L., 4-7 August 2010, "Finite Element Method for Disc-Rotor Dynamic
Characteristics Analysis of Gas Turbine Rotor Considering Contact Effects and Rod Preload", Proceedings of
International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, Xi'an.
Muszynska, A., 2005, "Rotordynamics", Nevada: Taylor & Francis Group.
Nelson, F.C., July 2007, "Rotor Dynamics without Equations", International Journal of COMADEM, Medford.
Shaohua, H. and Xinyue, W., 2010, "Transient Dynamic Analysis for a rotor-bearing System Based on Energy
Equations", Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Advanced Computer Theory and Enginnering,
Chengdu, p. 3105-3108.
Young, T.H., Shiau, T.N. and Kuo, Z.H., 22 June 2007, "Dynamic Stability of Rotor-Bearing System Subjected to
Random Axial Forces", Jorunal of Sound and Vibration, p. 467-480.

-3,0E-05
-2,0E-05
-1,0E-05
0,0E+00
1,0E-05
2,0E-05
3,0E-05
0 0,25 0,5 0,75 1
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

[
m
]

Time [s]
0,0E+00
5,0E-06
1,0E-05
1,5E-05
2,0E-05
2,5E-05
0 6 12 18 24 30
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

[
m
]

Rotor Speed, 10
3
[RPM]