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Cover photo: <o#rnalists an& a'tivists $arti'i$ate in a rally or $ress ree&om an&
against t!e &etention o .o#rnalists #n&er anti=terrorism la+s in t!e 'a$ital% An>ara%
Mar'! 3*((,
6 REUTERS9?mit 4e>ta@


Amnesty International is a global movement o more t!an " million s#$$orters%
members an& a'tivists in more t!an ()* 'o#ntries an& territories +!o 'am$aign
to en& grave ab#ses o !#man rig!ts,
-#r vision is or every $erson to en.oy all t!e rig!ts ens!rine& in t!e Universal
De'laration o /#man Rig!ts an& ot!er international !#man rig!ts stan&ar&s,
0e are in&e$en&ent o any government% $oliti'al i&eology% e'onomi' interest or
religion an& are #n&e& mainly by o#r members!i$ an& $#bli' &onations,

C-NTENTS
Introduction .................................................................................................................5
Legal protections to the right to freedom of expression......................................................7
Prosecutions threatening freedom of expression brought under Penal Code articles ..............9
Article 30! "enigration of the #ur$ish nation ............................................................0
Article 3%! Alienating the public from militar& ser'ice................................................
Article (5! "efamation...........................................................................................3
Article (5! Praising a crime or a criminal .................................................................)
Article (*! Incitement to hatred or hostilit& ..............................................................5
Prosecutions under anti+terrorism legislation threatening freedom of expression ................7
#he definition of terrorism........................................................................................%
Article 3)! ,embership of a terrorist organi-ation .....................................................9
Article ((0.*! Committing a crime in the name of a terrorist organi-ation......................(3
Article ((0.7! Assisting a terrorist organi-ation...........................................................()
Article 7.(! ,a$ing propaganda for a terrorist organi-ation...........................................(7
Article *.(! Printing or publishing of declarations or statements of terrorist organi-ations...30
/ecommendations ......................................................................................................33
0ndnotes ...................................................................................................................3)


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INTR-DUCTI-N
1reedom of expression is under attac$ in #ur$e&. 2undreds of abusi'e criminal prosecutions
are brought e'er& &ear against political acti'ists3 human rights defenders3 4ournalists3 la5&ers
and others. #hese prosecutions represent one of the most deepl& entrenched human rights
problems in #ur$e& toda&. 6uch cases are generall& instigated against indi'iduals 5ho
critici-e the state or 5ho express opinions contrar& to official positions on sensiti'e issues.
7hile there has been progress in allo5ing pre'iousl& taboo sub4ects to be discussed more
freel&3 such as criticism of the arm&3 discussion of the position of minorities in #ur$e& and
5hether the massacres of Armenians in 95 constitute genocide3 a number of inherentl&
problematic la5s continue to be used to protect public officials from legitimate criticism and
prosecute dissenting opinions on contro'ersial issues in #ur$ish politics3 most notabl& the
conflict bet5een the armed 8urdistan 7or$ers9 Part& :P88; and the #ur$ish Armed 1orces
and the 8urdish <uestion more broadl&. #he most negati'e de'elopment in recent &ears has
been the increasingl& arbitrar& use of anti+terrorism la5s to prosecute legitimate acti'ities
including political speeches3 critical 5riting3 attendance of demonstrations and association
5ith recognised political groups and organi-ations + in 'iolation of the rights to freedom of
expression3 association and assembl&.
In order to pre'ent these abuses from continuing3 #ur$e& must o'erhaul the inade<uate
constitutional protection of the right to freedom of expression and pro'isions 5ithin the Penal
Code and the Anti+#errorism La5. In recent &ears3 a succession of legislati'e reform pac$ages
ha'e failed to bring about the fundamental change re<uired. #he third3 and most recent3
=4udicial pac$age>3 adopted in ?ul& (0(3 made some limited impro'ements3 most notabl& to
offences used to prosecute 4ournalists publishing articles about ongoing criminal
in'estigations and prosecutions. #he reform pac$age also resulted in the conditional
suspension of man& cases that threatened the right to freedom of expression and lessened
the penalties associated 5ith other pro'isions.

2o5e'er3 it failed to address the underl&ing
problem @ namel&3 the definition of offences in la53 5hich either directl& 'iolate the right to
freedom of expression or are so broadl& 5orded as to allo5 for abusi'e prosecutions.
Ao'ernment statements initiall& indicated that the =1ourth 4udicial pac$age> 5ould see$ to
bring prosecutions of expression related offences in line 5ith international human rights
standards and the case la5 of the 0uropean Court of 2uman /ights. 2o5e'er3 the draft la53
currentl& before Parliament does not go nearl& far enough. It proposes amendments to fi'e
offences fre<uentl& used in 5a&s that 'iolate the right to freedom of expression.
(
#he
proposals lea'e on the statute a number of la5s that directl& limit the right to freedom of
expression that should be repealed entirel&. Bther offences that threaten the right to freedom
of expression through their o'erl& broad 5ording are not brought into line 5ith international
standards on the right to freedom of expression under the current proposals. If passed b&
Parliament in its present form3 the =1ourth 4udicial pac$age> 5ould represent another missed
opportunit& to deli'er genuine human rights reform.
#his report is based on research that has included obser'ing scores of trials3 the re'ie5 of
hundreds of criminal cases that threaten the right to freedom of expression and inter'ie5s
5ith ci'il societ& organi-ations3 la5&ers3 academics3 indi'iduals under prosecution and public
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officials. It pro'ides an anal&sis of the current la5 and practice related to the most
problematic articles threatening freedom of expression and ma$es concrete recommendations
to the #ur$ish authorities and Parliament for the repeal or substantial amendment of articles
in the Penal Code and anti+terrorism legislation that are needed bring #ur$ish la5 in line 5ith
international standards on the right to freedom of expression.

















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LEAAL 1R-TECTI-NS T- T/E RIA/T
T- 2REED-M -2 E51RESSI-N
#ur$e& is part& to both the International Co'enant on Ci'il and Political /ights :ICCP/; and
the 0uropean Con'ention on 2uman /ights :0C2/;3 5hich3 in their Articles 9
3
and 0
)

respecti'el&3 guarantee the right to freedom of expression. 6tates are allo5ed to appl& certain
limited restrictions to the right to freedom of expression3 as set out in these instruments. As
such3 the instruments set out a strict three point test to ascertain if restrictions on the right
to freedom of expression are compatible 5ith a state9s human rights obligations. /estrictions
must aim at respecting the rights or reputations of others3 or the protection of national
securit& or of public order or of public health or morals. An& restrictions to the right to
freedom of expression must be pro'ided b& la53 be necessar& and be proportionate to the aim
pursued.
5
Amnest& International is concerned that man& of the articles of #ur$ish Penal La5
used to restrict the freedom of expression do not satisf& this test.
In some exceptional circumstances3 international human rights la5 re<uires states to restrict
particular t&pes of expression. In this manner3 Article (0 of the ICCP/ states that! =. An&
propaganda for war shall be prohibited by law CandD 2. Any advocacy of national, racial or
religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence shall be
prohibited by law”. /estrictions that are imposed in compliance 5ith Article (0 must meet
the same strict tests as an& other limitation on free expression3 including a clear sho5ing of
necessit& and proportionalit&.
*

#he Enited Fations 2uman /ights Committee :2/C; monitors compliance 5ith the Co'enant
and has issued guidance on the interpretation of Article 9.
7
#he 0uropean Court of 2uman
/ights :0Ct2/; has examined numerous criminal prosecutions in #ur$e&3 and has repeatedl&
found 'iolations of the right to freedom of expression. In (0( 4udgments on #ur$e&
represented more than percent of the caseload examined b& the court3 the second highest
:after /ussia; of the )7 member states. 0ight of #ur$e&9s (3 cases 5ere rulings finding
'iolations to the right to freedom of expression3 the highest number for an& state.
%

Prosecutions examined in this report also threaten other human rights protected b&
con'entions to 5hich #ur$e& is a part&. In particular prosecutions brought due to conduct in
the context of peaceful protest and association 5ith recogni-ed organi-ations ma& 'iolate the
rights to peaceful assembl& and the right to freedom of association3 set out in Articles ( and
(( of the ICCP/ and Article of the 0C2/.
9

7here the authorities selecti'el& implement legal restrictions on the right to freedom of
expression onl& to indi'iduals 5ho express certain political opinions3 or because of their
belonging to another group3 this ma& additionall& 'iolate the right to non+discrimination on
grounds of political opinion.
0

#he right to freedom of expression is protected in #ur$e&9s constitution. 2o5e'er3 the
restrictions imposed on this right are broader than those permissible in international la5. #he
grounds on 5hich freedom of expression can be restricted include CprotectingD =Gthe basic
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characteristics of the Republic and safeguarding the indivisible integrity of the State with its
territory and nation.” #hese pro'isions go be&ond the permissible restrictions to the right to
freedom of expression found in international la5. #he full Article (* of the constitution
states!
“Everyone has the right to epress and disseminate his thoughts and opinion by speech, in
writing or in pictures or through other media, individually or collectively. !his right includes
the freedom to receive and impart information and ideas without interference from official
authorities. !his provision shall not preclude sub"ecting transmission by radio, television,
cinema, and similar means to a system of licensing.

!he eercise of these freedoms may be restricted for the purposes of protecting national
security, public order and public safety, the basic characteristics of the Republic and
safeguarding the indivisible integrity of the State with its territory and nation, preventing
crime, punishing offenders, withholding information duly classified as a state secret,
protecting the reputation and rights and private and family life of others, or protecting
professional secrets as prescribed by law, or ensuring the proper functioning of the "udiciary.”

#he E.F. 2uman /ights Committee has been clear that restrictions on the right to freedom of
expression are onl& permitted for the reasons explicitl& cited in the Co'enant! national
securit&3 public order3 public health or morals3 and respect for the rights and reputation of
others.

Permissible restrictions on freedom of expression include such restrictions as are
strictl& necessar& to prohibit ad'ocac& of hatred that incites directl& to 'iolence or
discrimination b& ad'ocating hatred3 as stipulated in Article (0 of the International Co'enant
on Ci'il and Political /ights. An& other reasons3 prima facie constitute impermissible
restrictions on this right. It falls to the go'ernment to pro'e that restrictions are la5ful3
strictl& necessar&3 and aimed at fulfilling one of the permissible ob4ecti'es.
6eparatel& to the process of 4udicial reform pac$ages3 the go'ernment has also signalled its
intention to adopt a ne5 constitution. Amnest& International urges the go'ernment and the
Parliament to re'ie5 the constitutional protection of the right to freedom of expression
enshrined in Article (*3 so as to ensure its consistenc& 5ith international human rights
standards.



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9
1R-SECUTI-NS T/REATENINA
2REED-M -2 E51RESSI-N 4R-UA/T
UNDER 1ENAL C-DE ARTICLES
#his section examines the Articles of the #ur$ish Penal Code that are most commonl& used to
restrict free speech and gi'es case examples of the $inds of expression that are criminali-ed
in 'iolation of #ur$e&9s obligations under international human rights la5. All the articles form
part of the current Penal Code 5hich came into force in (005 and ha'e been used to limit
freedom of expression since this time.
(
In man& cases the offences replaced 'er& similarl&
5orded articles in the pre'ious Penal Code and ha'e been a longstanding concern.
6e'eral pro'isions directl& limit the right to freedom of expression in a manner that is not
permitted b& international legal standards and are used to prosecute speech that is protected
b& international human rights la5. Bthers are so broadl& 5orded that the& lend themsel'es to
abuse3 impermissibl& limiting freedom of expression through their implementation. Indeed3
the interpretation of la5 b& 4udges and prosecutors is fre<uentl& arbitrar& and not in line 5ith
#ur$e&9s international obligations to respect the rights to freedom of expression3 due process3
and e<ualit& under the la5.
In recent &ears3 4udges and prosecutors ha'e tended to interpret some broadl& 5ritten Penal
Code pro'isions more in line 5ith international standards on free speech and 4udicial
guarantees. Critical references to the massacre of Armenians in 95 are no longer certain to
be prosecuted3 and references to =8urdistan> or referring to imprisoned P88 leader Abdullah
Hcalan as =mister> :sa&In3 a fre<uentl& used term of respect e<ui'alent to =mister>; are no5
far less fre<uentl& prosecuted than the& 5ere onl& fi'e &ears ago.
3
7here cases are opened3
fe5er lead to con'ictions. It remains common for prosecutions of identical speech to result in
con'ictions in some courts and ac<uittals in others. #his 'ariable interpretation of the
pro'isions leads to legal uncertaint&.
It is also common for identical utterances to be prosecuted in different courts under different
articles of the Penal Code. In some other cases3 expression generall& found not to constitute
a crime under Penal Code Articles has been found to 'iolate more serious anti+terrorism
pro'isions. 1or example3 the use of sa&In to refer to imprisoned P88 leader Abdullah Hcalan
has 'ariousl& been found to be protected b& the right to freedom of expression but also3 b& a
separate court3 to amount to terrorist propaganda.
)

In man& cases3 indi'iduals prosecuted for non+'iolent offences related to freedom of
expression under the 'arious Penal Code Articles examined belo5 ha'e been ac<uitted3 and it
is rare for those con'icted to be imprisoned rather than fined. 0'en in such cases3 ho5e'er3
the prosecutions impact negati'el& on the right to freedom of expression as the& are often
percei'ed as a form of 4udicial harassment. Indeed3 man& of those 5hose cases are included
in this report ha'e faced multiple prosecutions at an& one time3 contributing cumulati'el& to
an oppressi'e en'ironment in 5hich the exercise of the freedom of expression on contested or
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sensiti'e sub4ects al5a&s brings 5ith it the ris$ of prosecution.
5

ARTICLE ,)*% DENIGRATION OF THE T&R0ISH NATION
Article 30 of the #ur$ish Penal has long been one of the most problematic articles as far as
freedom of expression is concerned. Ep until (00%3 the article criminali-ed =denigrating
#ur$ishness>. /eforms replaced =denigrating #ur$ishness> 5ith =denigration of =the #ur$ish
nation3 the state of the /epublic of #ur$e&3 the #ur$ish Parliament :#J,,;3 the go'ernment
of the /epublic of #ur$e& and the legal institutions of the state> and added the additional
re<uirement of the authorisation of the ,inister of ?ustice before prosecutors could initiate
proceedings.
*
Feither of these ostensible safeguards has been sufficient for the 0Ct2/ to
find the article compatible 5ith the right to the freedom of expression as protected in the
0uropean Con'ention on 2uman /ights. In the case of Altu# !aner A$%am v. !ur$ey the
0uropean Court found that a =s&stem of prior authorisation b& the ,inistr& of ?ustice in each
indi'idual case is not a lasting solution 5hich can replace the integration of the rele'ant
Con'ention standards into the #ur$ish legal s&stem and practice.>
7
#he 0uropean Court 5ent
on to note that that =despite the replacement of the term =#ur$ishness> b& =the #ur$ish
Fation>3 there seems to be no change or ma4or difference in the interpretation of these
concepts because the& ha'e been understood in the same manner b& the Court of Cassation.
Accordingl&3 the legislator9s amendment of the 5ording in the pro'ision in order to clarif& the
meaning of the term =#ur$ishness> does not introduce a substantial change or contribute to
the 5idening of the protection of the right to freedom of expression>.
%

In practice3 as the case of #emel "emirer demonstrates3 the amendment re<uiring permission
from the ,inister of ?ustice has reduced but not eliminated the use of the Article to
prosecute criticism of the state in 'iolation of the right to freedom of expression. Bfficials
from the ,inistr& of ?ustice told Amnest& International that the ,inister ga'e permission for
% in'estigations to proceed in (0 from a total of 305 re<uested b& prosecutors.
9

Temel Demirer i$ .n ./.demi/ .nd h1m.n riht$ de!ender2 On +) 3.n1.r- +))4 he .ve . $#ee/h .t . #rote$t
in An5.r. .6o1t the .$$.$$in.tion the d.- 6e!ore o! Hr.nt Din5 in 7hi/h he $.id th.t he h.d 6een 5illed not
81$t 6e/.1$e he 7.$ Armeni.n9 61t .l$o 6e/.1$e he t.l5ed #16li/l- .6o1t the m.$$./re$ o! Armeni.n$ in
T1r5e- in *:*;2 He .l$o m.de .lle.tion$ .6o1t the $t.te<$ role in the 5illin o! Hr.nt Din52 On De/em6er +'
+))49 he 7.$ indi/ted 1nder Arti/le ,)* =Denir.tion o! the Re#16li/ o! T1r5e-> .nd Arti/le +*? =In/itement to
reliio1$ or r./i.l h.tred>2
Temel Demirer /h.llened the 31$ti/e Mini$ter<$ de/i$ion to r.nt #ermi$$ion !or the #ro$e/1tion to o .he.d
.nd .r1ed th.t the Mini$ter h.d inter!ered 7ith the inde#enden/e o! the 81di/i.r- 7hen he $.id in . #16li/
$t.tement =I 7ill not .llo7 the $t.te to 6e /.lled . m1rderer> .##.rentl- dire/tin the 81di/i.r- on the /.$e2
+)

The /rimin.l #ro$e/1tion 1nder Arti/le$ +*? .nd ,)* h.d rem.ined $t.lled .7.itin the de/i$ion o! the
hihe$t Admini$tr.tive Co1rt9 the Co1n/il o! St.te @D.nABt.-C9 re.rdin the le.lit- o! the 31$ti/e Mini$ter<$
de/i$ion to .llo7 the #ro$e/1tion to #ro/eed 1nder Arti/le ,)*2 Ho7ever9 .t . he.rin on *: Fe6r1.r- +)*,9 the
/rimin.l /o1rt he.rin the ,)* /.$e r1led th.t it $ho1ld 6e $1$#ended !or three -e.r$ 1nder the term$ o! the
=Third 81di/i.l #./5.e> de$#ite Temel Demirer<$ reD1e$t th.t the Co1rt i$$1e . !in.l verdi/t r.ther th.n .
$1$#en$ion2 The #ro$e/1tion 7ill rem.in $1$#ended !or three -e.r$ 6e!ore 6ein dro##ed2 I! Temel Demirer i$
!o1nd to h.ve /ommitted .n e"#re$$ion rel.ted /rime d1rin the three -e.r #eriod9 the $1$#ended /.$e 7ill 6e
reEo#ened2 On le.vin the /o1rtho1$e Temel Demirer m.de . #16li/ $t.tement re#e.tin the 7ord$ he $#o5e in
+))4 th.t re$1lted in the /.$e 6ein o#ened ..in$t him2 In M.r/h +)*, it 7.$ re#orted th.t An5.r. #oli/e
h.d $ent noti!i/.tion to the #ro$e/1tor<$ o!!i/e th.t Temel Demirer h.d ..in viol.ted Arti/le ,)* 6- re#e.tin
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the $t.tement2 At the time o! 7ritin it 7.$ not 5no7n 7hether the #ro$e/1tor 7o1ld reD1e$t the #ermi$$ion o!
the Mini$tr- o! 31$ti/e to 6rin .n inve$ti.tion 1nder Arti/le ,)* o! the Pen.l Code2
+*

Article 30 continues to constitute a direct and impermissible limitation to the right to
freedom of expression despite some cosmetic reforms made to the Article in (00%. Its partial
reform in (00% must no5 be brought to the onl& conclusion compatible 5ith #ur$e&9s
international obligations @ its repeal.
ARTICLE ,*F% ALIENATING THE P&GLIC FROM MILITARH SERVICE
Article 3% of the #ur$ish Penal Code criminali-es =Alienating the public from militar&
ser'ice>. It carries a maximum sentence of t5o &ears imprisonment3 5hich can be increased
b& another &ear in the e'ent of the offence being committed through the media.
((
As the
multiple prosecutions of 2alil 6a'da documented belo5 illustrate3 the article is fre<uentl&
used to prosecute public support for the right to conscientious ob4ection to militar& ser'ice
'oiced at street demonstrations or in ne5spaper articles.
(3

#his Article does not satisf& the strict conditions for permissible restrictions of the right to
freedom of expression under international human rights la53 namel& respect for the rights or
reputation of others or the protection of national securit&3 public order or public health or
morals.
()
0'en if the ostensible aim is the protection of national securit&3 the pro'ision is too
broad and the connection 5ith national securit& too remote to 4ustif& the s5eeping
restrictions imposed b& this article. Indeed3 conscientious ob4ection3 the promotion of 5hich
is directl& targeted b& this pro'ision3 is itself a recogni-ed right under international human
rights la5.
(5

Article 3%3 and its predecessor3 Article 553 ha'e long been critici-ed b& international
human rights mechanisms. In Ergin v. !ur$ey, the 0uropean Court considered a case in
5hich the applicant had been con'icted under Article 55 of the pre'ious Penal Code. #he
applicant had been con'icted in 99% on the basis of a ne5spaper article critici-ing the
ceremon& mar$ing conscripts9 departure for militar& ser'ice. According to the Court =In
literar& language the author explained that the enthusiasm surrounding these departures 5as
a denial of the tragic end suffered b& some of the conscripts concerned3 namel& death and
mutilation>. #he 0Ct2/ found the con'iction of the applicant did not meet a pressing social
need3 that the restriction 5as therefore not =necessar& in a democratic societ&> and 'iolated
Article 0 of the 0C2/ :freedom of expression;.
(*

As the ,inistr& of ?ustice does not pro'ide disaggregated statistics per Penal Code Article it
is impossible to state ho5 fre<uentl& this Article is used. 2o5e'er3 as of 1ebruar& (033 a
number of 5ell+publici-ed ongoing cases under Article 3% illustrate the use of the Article to
target criticism of the arm& and to prosecute public statements in support of the right to
conscientious ob4ection to militar& ser'ice :see for instance the case of 2alil 6a'da3 page (;.
A #ro$e/1tion 7.$ .l$o 6ro1ht ..in$t Taraf ne7$#.#er 8o1rn.li$t Yasemin Bongar !or .n .rti/le in the
ne7$#.#er titled =I don<t 7.nt to 6e . $oldier> #16li$hed on *) Novem6er +)*)2 The .rti/le $t.ted =Not ever-
T1r5 i$ 6orn . $oldier 61t ever- d.- I . T1r5 I die$ in thi$ /o1ntr- 6e/.1$e he i$ . $oldier2>
+4
The /.$e 7.$
o#ened !ollo7in . /om#l.int !rom the O!!i/e o! the He.d o! the Armed For/e$2 In 31ne +)*+ H.$emin Jon.r
7.$ ./D1itted o! the o!!en/e2
+F

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Amne$t- Intern.tion.l M.r/h +)*, Inde"% E&R ''())*(+)*,
( (
#he draft =1ourth 4udicial pac$age> put before Parliament proposes the follo5ing amendment
to paragraph of Article 3%!
“&eople who urge those carrying out their military service to desert or suggest to those who
are yet to carry out their military service to be dissuaded from carrying it out are imprisoned
for si months to two years.”

#he amendment changes the definition of the offence from alienating the public from
militar& ser'ice to dissuading those currentl& or &et to perform militar& ser'ice from doing so.
0'en in its amended form3 the Article 5ould continue to allo5 for the prosecution of those
ad'ocating conscientious ob4ection in 'iolation of #ur$e&9s commitments under international
human rights la5.
Amnest& International recommends that Article 3% be repealed in its entiret& on account of
its imposition of restrictions to the freedom of expression that are not permissible under
international human rights la5.
Con$/ientio1$ o68e/tor .nd h1m.n riht$ de!ender /alil Sav&a h.$ 6een #ro$e/1ted .nd /onvi/ted on m1lti#le
o//.$ion$ 1nder Arti/le ,*F in #rotr./ted /.$e$ m.r5ed 6- del.-$ t-#i/.l o! /rimin.l /.$e$ 7ithin T1r5e-<$
81$ti/e $-$tem2
He 7.$ #ro$e/1ted 1nder Arti/le ,*F o! the Pen.l Code !or . #16li/ $t.tement he m.de in +))? d1rin .
#rote$t o1t$ide the I$r.eli em6.$$- in I$t.n61l in $1##ort o! the riht to /on$/ientio1$ o68e/tion .nd t7o
I$r.eli /on$/ientio1$ o68e/tor$ in #.rti/1l.r2
+:
He re/eived . *))Ed.- #ri$on $enten/e in 31ne +))F .t . lo/.l
/o1rt 7hi/h 7.$ /on!irmed 6- the S1#reme Co1rt o! A##e.l$ @H.rAt.-C in Novem6er +)*)2 Hi$ $enten/e 7.$
not e"e/1ted !or over t7o -e.r$9 61t in Fe6r1.r- +)*+ he 7.$ im#ri$oned .nd $erved #.rt o! hi$ $enten/e in
#ri$on in DoK16e-.LAt in e.$tern T1r5e-2 He 7.$ /ondition.ll- rele.$ed h.l! 7.- thro1h d1e to . /h.ne in the
l.7 on e"e/1tion o! $enten/e$2
He .l$o !./e$ . !1rther $e#.r.te $i"Emonth #ri$on $enten/e 1nder Arti/le ,*F !or voi/in hi$ $1##ort !or the
riht to /on$/ientio1$ o68e/tion9 h.nded do7n 6- . lo/.l /o1rt in 31ne +)*)9 7hi/h9 .$ o! Fe6r1.r- +)*,9 i$
$till 6ein /on$idered 6- the S1#reme Co1rt o! A##e.l$2
In De/em6er +)*+ H.lil S.vd. 7.$ ./D1itted 6- lo/.l /o1rt$ in t7o $e#.r.te /.$e$ 1nder Arti/le ,*F2 In one
/.$e he 7.$ #ro$e/1ted .lon$ide ./tivi$t$ Me!met Ata> .nd 2a!ri 2ati!9 A!met Ay&emir9 !.ther o!
/on$/ientio1$ o68e/tor Enver A-demir .nd hi$ l.7-er Dav#t Er>an !ollo7in their #.rti/i#.tion in . $treet
demon$tr.tion in 3.n1.r- +)*) in $1##ort o! /on$/ientio1$ o68e/tor Enver A-demir2 Eviden/e #re$ented .t the
tri.l in/l1ded $lo.n$ $ho1ted .t the demon$tr.tion 6- the de!end.nt$% =/on$/ientio1$ o68e/tor$ !or #e./e>9
=Rele.$e Enver A-demir> .nd =ever-one i$ 6orn . 6.6->2 In the $e/ond /.$e !or 7hi/h he 7.$ ./D1itted in
De/em6er +)*+9 H.lil S.vd. 7.$ .//1$ed o! =Alien.tin the #16li/ !rom milit.r- $ervi/e> 6- re.din . #re$$
$t.tement in 3.n1.r- +)** o1t$ide the Co1rtho1$e in E$5iBehir on the d.- o! . he.rin in the .6ove /.$e2
A//ordin to the indi/tment H.lil S.vd. $t.ted =Me do not 6elieve th.t .lien.tin the #16li/ !rom milit.r-
$ervi/e i$ . /rime9 7e 6elieve th.t it i$ . demo/r.ti/ riht li5e .n- e"#re$$ion2 Me 7ill /ontin1e to /ommit thi$
/rime .nd e"#re$$ed thi$ .l$o in /o1rt2 Me .re $.-in it ..in here% Me .re $.-in to the #eo#le% 6e .lien.ted
!rom milit.r- $ervi/e9 in !./t 6e/ome i/eEli5e9 6e/.1$e 7hen #eo#le .re .lien.ted !rom the milit.r- $ervi/e9
then #e./e 7ill /ome .6o1t2 Mhen $o/iet- i$ .lien.ted !rom milit.r- $ervi/e9 !reedom$ .re re.li$ed .nd the
/o1ntr- demo/r.tiLed2>
,)

DECRIMINALIZE DISSENT
Time to deliver on the riht to !reedom o! e"#re$$ion
Inde"% E&R ''())*(+)*, Amne$t- Intern.tion.l M.r/h +)*,
3
A//ordin to the indi/tment revie7ed 6- Amne$t- Intern.tion.l9 no eviden/e 7.$ #re$ented o! $#ee/h th.t
miht /on$tit1te .dvo/./- o! h.tred .$ de!ined in intern.tion.l l.79 or other mi$/ond1/t th.t miht
leitim.tel- 6e $168e/t to $t.te intervention2
ARTICLE *+;% DEFAMATION
Article (5
3
of the Penal Code criminali-es defamation defined as attributing an =act or fact
to a person in a manner that ma& de'alue that person9s honour3 dignit& or prestige orG. an
attac$ on someone9s honour3 dignit& or prestige b& s5earing>. It pro'ides for a maximum
penalt& of t5o &ears imprisonment3 or a fine. #he Article carries additional penalties for
defamation of public officials. Amnest& International is informed of do-ens of prosecutions
brought under this Article e'er& &ear. In the absence of official statistics it is impossible to
$no5 the full extent of the numbers of prosecutions for defamation but it is li$el& that the
number is far higher.
Article (5 is fre<uentl& used to prosecute criticism of the actions of politicians and other
public officials3 despite authoritati'e interpretations of international freedom of expression
standards that re<uire public officials to 5ithstand greater public criticism than pri'ate
citi-ens.
3(
?ournalists exposing human rights abuses and commenting criticall& on the actions
of public officials are particularl& at ris$ of prosecution. Prosecutors t&picall& initiate
in'estigations follo5ing complaints b& public officials3 5ho later bring ci'il claims for
damages in addition to see$ing a criminal con'iction.
33
#he Prime ,inister in particular has
brought a number of cases under this pro'ision.
3)

It is rare for those con'icted of criminal defamation to recei'e custodial sentences. In the
'ast ma4orit& of cases3 con'ictions result in fines. Ai'en the scale of the pa&ments a5arded3
fre<uentl& in excess of 03000 #ur$ish lira and the fre<uenc& of cases brought against
4ournalists under Article (53 its existence and use are nonetheless li$el& to constitute a
significant deterrent to criticism3 thus to some extent shielding public officials from
accountabilit& 5ith regard to their actions in fulfilling official functions.
35

E".m#le$ o! /rimin.l de!.m.tion /.$e$ viol.tin the riht to !reedom o! e"#re$$ion in/l1de the /.$e ..in$t
Contem#or.r- L.7-er$ A$$o/i.tion @JHDC l.7-er SelC#> KoDaEaClF 7ho 7.$ #ro$e/1ted in Fe6r1.r- +)*)
1nder Arti/le *+; !ollo7in . #re$$ $t.tement in De/em6er +)):9 /.llin !or 81$ti/e !or the de.th$ o! #ri$oner$
in the =ret1rn to li!e> @h.-.t. dNnOBC #ri$on o#er.tion o! De/em6er +))) in 7hi/h ,) #ri$oner$ .nd t7o
$oldier$ died !ollo7in the milit.r- intervention in +) #ri$on$ ./ro$$ the /o1ntr- to end . #roloned h1ner
$tri5e2
,?
The #ro$e/1tion 7.$ 6ro1ht !ollo7in . /om#l.int !rom .n I$t.n61l #ro$e/1tor<$ o!!i/e .nd the
An5.r. Se/1rit- He.dD1.rter$ @Emni-et GOvenli5 P16e MOdOrlOKOC2 The #re$$ $t.tement /.lled !or Ali S1.t
Erto$1n9 the Gener.l M.n.er o! Pri$on$ .t the time o! the =ret1rn to li!e> o#er.tion9 to 6e 6ro1ht to 81$ti/e
!or hi$ role in the de.th$2 Ali S1.t Erto$1n i$ no7 one o! the mo$t $enior mem6er$ o! the 81di/i.r-9 . S1#reme
Co1rt o! A##e.l$ 81de .nd . mem6er o! the Hih Co1n/il o! 31de$ .nd Pro$e/1tor$ @HSH0C2
,4
SelQ15
0oL.K.QlA 7.$ ./D1itted in the /rimin.l /.$e in +)** 61t . /ivil /l.im !or +;9))) TL @**9*?? RC 7.$ 6ro1ht
!ollo7in the de/i$ion2 In 3.n1.r- +)*, in . $e#.r.te indi/tment9 SelQ15 0oL.K.QlA 7.$ /h.red 7ith
mem6er$hi# o! the 6.nned le!ti$t ro1#9 the Revol1tion.r- Peo#le$< Li6er.tion P.rt-EFront @DH0PECC2 A$ o!
Fe6r1.r- +)*, he rem.ined in #reEtri.l detention2 The o1t/ome o! the /ivil /l.im !or d.m.e$ 7.$ not 5no7n
6- hi$ l.7-er$2
A #ro$e/1tion 7.$ 6ro1ht 1nder Arti/le *+; ..in$t 7riter YalCFn KGCG> .nd re$#on$i6le editor Me!met
DECRIMINALIZE DISSENT
Time to deliver on the riht to !reedom o! e"#re$$ion

Amne$t- Intern.tion.l M.r/h +)*, Inde"% E&R ''())*(+)*,
) )
4oD>#rt re.rdin . /.rtoon ill1$tr.tin H.lQAn 0OQO5<$ /ol1mn in Aydınlık ne7$#.#er2 The /rimin.l /.$e 7.$
o#ened !ollo7in . /om#l.int 6- the Prime Mini$ter Re/e# T.--i# ErdoK.n2 The /.rtoon9 #16li$hed in the +F
Se#tem6er +)** i$$1e o! the ne7$#.#er9 $ho7$ the Prime Mini$ter $ittin 1# .nd /h.ined to . &nited St.te$
!l.2
,F
In M.r/h +)*+ the Co1rt /onvi/ted Mehmet GoL51rt .nd $enten/ed him to ** month$ .nd +) d.-$
im#ri$onment9 /onverted to . !ine o! 4))) T1r5i$h Lir. @.##ro"im.tel- ,))) E1ro$C2 The Co1rt ./D1itted H.lQAn
0OQO5 o! the o!!en/e2 The 81dment 7.$ $ent to the S1#reme Co1rt o! A##e.l$ 61t then $1$#ended .//ordin
to the term$ o! the =Third 81di/i.l #./5.e> 7itho1t the S1#reme Co1rt o! A##e.l$ i$$1in . verdi/t2
International human rights standards put a high 'alue on uninhibited expression in the
context of =public debate concerning public figures in the political domain and public
institutions.>
39
#he 2uman /ights Committee has been clear that the =mere fact that forms
of expression are considered to be insulting to a public figure is not sufficient to 4ustif& the
imposition of penalties.>
)0
#he use of defamation la5s 5ith the purpose or effect of inhibiting
legitimate criticism of go'ernment or public officials 'iolates the right to freedom of
expression. Amnest& International opposes la5s prohibiting insult or disrespect of heads of
state or public figures3 the militar& or other public institutions or flags or s&mbols :such as
l'se ma"est( and desacato la5s;. Amnest& International also opposes la5s criminali-ing
defamation3 5hether of public figures or pri'ate indi'iduals3 5hich should be treated as a
matter for ci'il litigation. Public officials should not recei'e state assistance or support in
bringing ci'il actions for defamation. Amnest& International therefore recommends that
#ur$e& decriminali-e defamation.
ARTICLE +*;% PRAISING A CRIME OR A CRIMINAL
Article (5 of the Penal Code criminali-es =Praising a crime or a person because of the
crime the& committed> and is punishable b& up to t5o &ears imprisonment.
)
#he broad
5ording of this pro'ision goes be&ond the legitimate aim of criminali-ing incitement to
commit a criminal act3 5hich is separatel& pro'ided for in Article (7
)(
and pa'es the 5a& for
prosecutions 'iolating the right to freedom of expression. #he application of Article (5
fre<uentl& exceeds the permissible restrictions on the freedom of expression set out in
international standards. It has3 historicall&3 been 5idel& used for instance to prosecute
speech referring to imprisoned P88 leader Abdullah Hcalan as =mister> :sa&In;
)3
3 armed P88
members as =guerrillas> and the commemoration of leaders of 9*0s radical left@5ing
groups.
In M.- +)*+ the S1#reme Co1rt o! A##e.l$ overt1rned the /onvi/tion o! Selim Sa&a> .nd /ati$ Di'le 1nder
Arti/le +*; !or 1$e o! “s.-An” .nd =1errill.> on the ro1nd$ th.t the $#ee/h 7.$ #rote/ted 1nder the riht to
!reedom o! e"#re$$ion2
''
Mhile the S1#reme Co1rt o! A##e.l$ 81dment i$ #o$itive9 in the T1r5i$h le.l $-$tem9
the 81ri$#r1den/e o! the S1#reme Co1rt i$ not 6indin on lo7er /o1rt$9 thi$ r1lin doe$ not there!ore #revent
lo7er /o1rt$ /onvi/tin #eo#le on the 6.$i$ o! $1/h $#ee/h in the !1t1re2 Moreover9 individ1.l$ re!errin to
A6d1ll.h S/.l.n .$ =$.-An> /ontin1e to 6e #ro$e/1ted 1nder the more $erio1$ o!!en/e o! =M.5in #ro#..nd.
!or .n .rmed or.niL.tion2> &$e o! the 7ord$ =01rdi$t.n> .nd =1errill.> h.$ !reD1entl- 6een 1$ed .$
eviden/e to $16$t.nti.te /h.re$ o! mem6er$hi# o! . terrori$t or.niL.tion @$ee /.$e o! Zi-. Ji/e5Qi9 #.e ,)C2
Article (5 is also used to prosecute publications on contro'ersial sub4ects in 5hich
descriptions of indi'iduals di'erge from accounts put for5ard b& the authorities. #he case of
Le'ent KIlma- pro'ides a stri$ing example of this.
C.$e$ 1nder Arti/le +*; in/l1de th.t ..in$t Taraf 8o1rn.li$t Levent YFlmaD !or .n .rti/le entitled =Homo
DECRIMINALIZE DISSENT
Time to deliver on the riht to !reedom o! e"#re$$ion
Inde"% E&R ''())*(+)*, Amne$t- Intern.tion.l M.r/h +)*,
5
S./er ol.r.5 A6d1ll.h S/.l.n> @A6d1ll.h S/.l.n .$ homo $./erC #16li$hed in the ne7$#.#er on ++ 31ne +)**2
In the .rti/le he de$/ri6ed A6d1ll.h S/.l.n .$ . =le.der9 ver- #o#1l.r 61t e"/l1ded #er$on9 . od !or 01rdi$h
#eo#le9 . hero9 .$ the onl- #er$on.lit- 7ho m.5e the 01rd$ /onne/t 7ith their #.$tT . #er$on 7ho$e $t.t1te$
.nd 61$t$ 7o1ld 6e ere/tedT .$ . #er$on 7ho $h.ll h.ve hi$ o7n hi$tor-9 n.rr.tive .nd in$tit1te$ o! the
revol1tionT .nd .$ $ome6od- 7ho$e n.me $h.ll 6e iven to $treet$ .nd even .ir#ort$>2
';
The #ro$e/1tion 7.$
.l$o 6ro1ht 1nder Arti/le 4(+ o! the AntiETerrori$m L.7 =M.5in #ro#..nd. !or . terrori$t or.niL.tion>2 In
M.r/h +)*+ Levent HAlm.L 7.$ ./D1itted o! the o!!en/e 6- the lo/.l /o1rt2
'?

#he follo5ing amendment to Article (5 is proposed 5ithin the =1ourth 4udicial pac$age>!
“)n the case of a clear and present danger to public order as a result of praising a crime or a
criminal, the person carrying out the offence will be punishable by up to two years
imprisonment.”

#he amendment to Article (5 proposed 5ithin the =1ourth 4udicial pac$age> ostensibl&
introduces a restriction based on a legitimate ground3 the protection of public order.
2o5e'er3 the Article remains extremel& broad 5ith significant potential for abuse. 7hile
potential for abuse 5ould be reduced b& clear guidelines to prosecutors on the human rights
compliant application of such an offence3 legitimatel& prosecutable acts could be brought
under other Articles of the Penal Code.
Amnest& International therefore recommends that Article (5 of the Penal Code be repealed
in its entiret&.
ARTICLE +*?% INCITEMENT TO HATRED OR HOSTILITH
Article (* of the #ur$ish Penal Code currentl& reads as follo5s!
“*+, A person who openly incites groups of the population to breed enmity or hatred towards
one another based on social class, race, religion, sect or regional difference in a manner
which might constitute a clear and imminent danger to public order shall be sentenced to
imprisonment for a term of one to three years.

*2, A person who openly denigrates section of the population on grounds of social class, race,
religion, sect, gender or regional differences shall be sentenced to imprisonment for a term of
si months to one year.

*-, A person who openly denigrates the religious values of a section of the population shall be
sentenced to imprisonment for a term of si months to one year in case the act is li$ely to
distort public peace.”

#his Article is extremel& broad in scope3 'aguel& defined3 and far 5ider than the permissible
limitations to the right to freedom of expression under international human rights la5.
Fominall& this pro'ision is aimed at criminali-ing incitement to hatred3 in potential
compliance 5ith Article (0 of the International Co'enant on Ci'il and Political /ights3
paragraph (; of 5hich states that =an& ad'ocac& of national3 racial or religious hatred that
constitutes incitement to discrimination3 hostilit& or 'iolence shall be prohibited b& la5>.
2o5e'er3 the o'erbroad definition and criminali-ation of =derogator& comments> in paragraph
:(; ma$es it incompatible 5ith Article 9 of the same Co'enant 5hich states that the onl&
DECRIMINALIZE DISSENT
Time to deliver on the riht to !reedom o! e"#re$$ion

Amne$t- Intern.tion.l M.r/h +)*, Inde"% E&R ''())*(+)*,
* *
permissible restrictions on the freedom of expression are those that are necessar& for the
respect of the rights and reputations of others and for the protection of national securit& or
public order3 health or morals.
As the 0uropean Court of 2uman /ights has stated in respect of the broadl& similar pro'ision
on freedom of expression in the 0uropean Con'ention on 2uman /ights3 =freedom of
expression constitutes one of the essential foundations of Ca democraticD societ&3 one of the
basic conditions for its progress and for the de'elopment of e'er& man CGD it is applicable
not onl& to LinformationL or LideasL that are fa'ourabl& recei'ed or regarded as inoffensi'e or
as a matter of indifference3 but also to those that offend3 shoc$ or disturb the 6tate or an&
sector of the population.>
)7

It follo5s that insults alone ought not to be prosecuted and nor should =derogator&
comments> that are not ad'ocac& of hatred constituting incitement to 'iolence.
In practice3 Article (* has been used to prosecute criticism of dominant beliefs and po5er
structures and has not3 to Amnest& International9s $no5ledge3 been used to prosecute actual
incitement to 'iolence or discrimination against at+ris$ groups. In 1ebruar& (0( Chair of the
Parliamentar& 2uman /ights 0n<uir& Commission3 A&han 6efer MstNn critici-ed the
application of Article (* 5hich he said 5as introduced in (005 as a pro'ision to combat
hate speech but had not been applied as such b& prosecutors.
)%

The /.$e o! F.LAl S.- #rovide$ . #.rti/1l.rl- $tri5in e".m#le o! the 5ind o! #ro$e/1tion th.t Arti/le +*? i$
/1rrentl- 1$ed to 6rin2 In A#ril +)*+ 2aDFl Say% . #i.ni$t o! intern.tion.l reno7n9 7.$ #ro$e/1ted 1nder Arti/le
+*? !or t7eet$ he m.de mo/5in reliio1$ individ1.l$ .nd I$l.mi/ /on/e#tion$ o! he.ven2 The indi/tment li$t$
nine t7eet$ m.de or reEt7eeted 6- F.LAl S.- .$ /on$tit1tin the =in$1lt o! reliio1$ v.l1e$> .$ /rimin.liLed
1nder Arti/le +*?(, o! the Pen.l Code2 The t7eet$ D1oted in the indi/tment .$ re#re$entin eviden/e o! the
/rime .re the !ollo7in% UI$ God $omethin !or 7hi/h -o1 7o1ld live !or9 die !or9 or i$ it $omethin !or 7hi/h -o1
7o1ld 6e/ome .nim.lEli5e .nd 5ill !orV Thin5 .6o1t thi$UT UMh.t i! there i$ r.5i in he.ven .nd not in hell9 61t
there i$ Chiv.$ Re.l W. 6r.nd o! 7hi$5e-X in hell .nd not in he.venV Then 7h.t 7ill h.##enV Thi$ i$ ./t1.ll-
the im#ort.nt D1e$tionYYYUT UI .m not $1re i! -o1 h.ve noti/ed9 61t 7here there i$ . lo1$e9 . nonEentit-9 . lo7E
li!e9 thie! or !ool9 the- .re .ll I$l.mi$t$2 I$ thi$ . #.r.do"VUT UThe m1eLLin re/ited the evenin #r.-er in ++
$e/ond$2 Pretissimmo con fuca!!! Mh.tZ$ -o1r h1rr-V A loverV R.5AVUT UI .m .n .thei$t9 .nd I .m #ro1d to $.-
thi$ 7ith $1/h e.$eUT UI .m .n .thei$t9 I donZt 5no7 .6o1t the re$tUT UIt i$ .$ i! h.l! the #o#1l.tion .re tr1e
.thei$t$9 .nd the other h.l! .re tr.1m.ti/ .thei$t$ @tr.vm.ti5 .tei$tC9 61t donZt 5no7 it -etYUT UHo1 $.- th.t the
river$ !lo7 7ith 7ine9 i$ he.ven . t.vernV Ho1 $.- th.t -o1 7ill ive ever- 6eliever t7o ver- 6e.1ti!1l 7omen9 i$
he.ven . 6rothelVUT UThi$ evenin9 m.n- #eo#le 6e/.me .thei$t$9 m.n- th.n5$ to themU2
':
A$ o! Fe6r1.r-
+)*,9 there h.d 6een t7o /o1rt he.rin$T . third 7.$ $/hed1led !or *; A#ril2
Amnest& Internal urges the #ur$ish authorities to amend Article (* 5ithout dela& so as to
ensure that the restrictions imposed on the freedom of expression are in line 5ith those
allo5ed b& international la5. In particular3 Amnest& International recommends the repeal of
paragraphs :(; and :3; 5hich3 in their current form3 exceed the permissible restrictions on
the freedom of expression.
DECRIMINALIZE DISSENT
Time to deliver on the riht to !reedom o! e"#re$$ion
Inde"% E&R ''())*(+)*, Amne$t- Intern.tion.l M.r/h +)*,
7
1R-SECUTI-NS UNDER ANTI=
TERR-RISM LEAISLATI-N
T/REATENINA 2REED-M -2
E51RESSI-N
“.the wor$ of a terrorist organi/ation doesn0t "ust ta$e place in the mountains, the plains,
the cities, the streets, simply by setting itself up in bac$ streets and callously attac$ing in
the night, it is not solely armed terror. )t has another wing. !here is psychological terror,
scientific terror. !here is a bac$ room, feeding terror. )n other words, there is propaganda,
there is terrorist propaganda. 1ow does this get transmitted, maybe he is drawing a picture
and reflecting it on the canvas, in a poem, in a column in the newspaper, in a "o$e. 1e
cannot stop himself, he targets the soldier, 2and3 the police officer who are ta$ing part in the
fight against terrorism in his wor$, in his art in order to demorali/e them. !hose who fight
terrorism are sub"ected to a struggle against them. !he bac$ room where terror is hovering
about and conducting these activities, and the bac$ room is )stanbul, )/mir, 4ursa, 5ienna,
6ermany, 7ondon, wherever it is, a rostrum in a university, an association, a civil society
organi/ation. ) thin$ the fight against the one in the mountains is easy and this bac$ room
weed and cress are all mied up. !hey all loo$ green. !hey are mied up, some are poisonous,
some very healthy. 8hich one is healthy which is poisonous, you only $now when you eat it.”
Then Mini$ter o! the Interior9 H&ris Naim Ia!in .ddre$$in . #oli/e $-m#o$i1m on /o1nterin terrori$m9 +? De/em6er +)**
;)


#his section loo$s at the use of anti+terrorism pro'isions to criminali-e conduct that is
protected under international human rights la5. It focuses on fi'e pro'isions! Article *.( of
the Anti+#errorism La5 =Printing or publishing of declarations or statements of terrorist
organi-ations>3 Article 7.( of the Anti+#errorism La5 =,a$ing propaganda for a terrorist
organi-ation>3 Article 3) of the Penal Code =,embership of a terrorist organi-ation> and
the related Article ((0.* of the Penal Code 5hich punishes those 5ho =Commit crimes in the
name of a CterroristD organi-ation and ((0.7 5hich criminali-es =8no5ingl& and 5illingl&
assisting a CterroristD organi-ation>.
/egional and international bodies including the Council of 0urope9s Commissioner for 2uman
/ights3 the 6pecial /apporteur on 2uman rights 5hile Countering #errorism and the
Brgani-ation for 6ecurit& and Co+operation in 0urope :B6C0; in addition to Amnest&
International and other national and international ci'il societ& organi-ations ha'e consistentl&
raised concerns regarding the impact of anti+terrorism prosecutions on the right to freedom of
expression in #ur$e&.
5
A number of amendments to anti+terrorism legislation 5ere made in
(00 and (0(3 including the remo'al of child demonstrators from the scope of
prosecutions under anti+terrorism legislation
5(
3 greater discretion for 4udges to reduce
sentences in respect of certain offences
53
and the repeal of Article *.5 of the Anti+#errorism
DECRIMINALIZE DISSENT
Time to deliver on the riht to !reedom o! e"#re$$ion

Amne$t- Intern.tion.l M.r/h +)*, Inde"% E&R ''())*(+)*,
% %
La53 5hich pro'ided for the temporar& suspension of periodicals.
5)
2o5e'er3 these reforms @
as 5ith others affecting the right to freedom of expression @ ha'e left the $e& problem
untouched. #ur$e&9s la5 still contains articles 5ith such broad and imprecise 5ording that
prosecutions are still brought and con'ictions secured3 solel& on the basis of beha'iour
protected b& the rights to freedom of expression3 association and assembl& including critical
5riting3 political speeches3 attendance at demonstrations and association 5ith registered
organi-ations percei'ed b& the authorities to be s&mpathetic to armed groups.
In the absence of accurate3 up+to+date and disaggregated official statistics from the ,inistr&
of ?ustice regarding the number of terrorism related prosecutions3 it is impossible to $no5 the
exact number of prosecutions b& Article. 2o5e'er3 partial information periodicall& pro'ided b&
the ,inistr& of ?ustice indicates that tens of thousands of prosecutions are brought each &ear
under anti+terrorism legislation and that the number has increased in recent &ears. /esearch
carried out b& the Associated &ress in (0 found that of approximatel& 303000 con'ictions
under anti+terrorism legislation 5orld5ide since (003 more than a third3 approximatel&
(3000 had ta$en place in #ur$e&.
55

,inistr& of ?ustice statistics put the number of completed criminal in'estigations b& 6pecial
2ea'& Penal Courts 5ith 4urisdiction for organi-ed crime3 crimes against state securit& and
terrorism at *%30% in (00 :the last &ear for 5hich figures are a'ailable;. Criminal
prosecutions 5ere opened against 3*33*) people. 1igures also sho5 that the number of
criminal in'estigations ha'e increased tenfold since (00%. Jet5een (00+(007 criminal
in'estigations 5ere bet5een se'en and nine thousand per &ear. In (00% the figure 5as
(35*) 5hile in (009 and (00 criminal in'estigations 5ere launched against *93000
people each &ear.
5*

THE DEFINITION OF TERRORISM
,an& of the problems relating to the use of anti+terrorism legislation to prosecute conduct in
'iolation of the right to freedom of expression are reflected in the definition of terrorism
contained in Article of the Anti+#errorism La53 5hich states that!
9!errorism is any $ind of act done by a person or persons belonging to an organi/ation with
the aim of changing the characteristics of the Republic as defined in the :onstitution, the
political, legal, social, secular and economic system, damaging the indivisible unity of the
State with its territory and nation, endangering the eistence of the !ur$ish State and
Republic, wea$ening, destroying or sei/ing State authority, eliminating fundamental rights
and freedoms, damaging the internal and eternal security of the State, public order or
general health by means of coercion and violence; pressure, intimidation, deterrence,
suppression or threats.”
57

As the EF 6pecial /apporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and
fundamental freedoms 5hile countering terrorism noted follo5ing his (00* mission to
#ur$e&3 this definition of terrorism is extremel& broad and defines terrorism in terms of its
aims 5ithout the re<uirement for tactics that amount to deadl& or other gra'e 'iolence
against persons to be emplo&ed in the furtherance of these aims. As a result3 anti+terrorism
related offences =ma& put se'ere limitations on the legitimate expression of opinions critical
of the Ao'ernment or 6tate institutions3 on the forming of organi-ations for legitimate
purposes3 and on the freedom of peaceful assembl&.>
5%

DECRIMINALIZE DISSENT
Time to deliver on the riht to !reedom o! e"#re$$ion
Inde"% E&R ''())*(+)*, Amne$t- Intern.tion.l M.r/h +)*,
9
Indeed3 in practice prosecutions ha'e fre<uentl& been brought against indi'iduals 5ho
ad'ocate political ideas that are shared b& armed groups3 e'en 5hen the prosecuted
indi'iduals ha'e not themsel'es ad'ocated 'iolence3 hatred3 or discrimination3 and are not
prosecuted for direct in'ol'ement in 'iolent acts. Indi'iduals ha'e3 for instance3 been
prosecuted under terrorism+related pro'isions in cases substantiated b& their demands for
education in the 8urdish language3 greater regional autonom&3 free education3 an end to
militar& operations against the P883 the cessation of armed clashes bet5een the arm& and
the P883 negotiated agreement to be reached on the 8urdish <uestion3 protests against
police 'iolence and other alleged human rights abuses and participation in funeral marches
of P88 members.
A report published in (0( b& the 6pecial /apporteur on the promotion and protection of
human rights and fundamental freedoms 5hile countering terrorism entitled =#en areas of
best practices in countering terrorism>3 recommended the follo5ing definition of terrorism3
suggesting that an& definition that 5ent be&ond it =5ould be problematic from a human
rights perspecti'e>!
“!errorism means an action or attempted action where<

+. !he action<
*a, :onstituted the intentional ta$ing of hostages; or
*b, )s intended to cause death or serious bodily in"ury to one or more members of the
general population or segments of it; or
*c, )nvolved lethal or serious physical violence against one or more members of the
general population or segments of it; and

2. !he action is done or attempted with the intention of<
*a, &rovo$ing a state of terror in the general public or a segment of it; or
*b, :ompelling a 6overnment or international organi/ation to do or abstain from doing
something; and

-. !he action corresponds to<
*a, !he definition of a serious offence in national law, enacted for the purpose of
complying with international conventions and protocols relating to terrorism or with
resolutions of the Security :ouncil relating to terrorism; or
*b, All elements of a serious crime defined by national law.”
59


Amnest& International recommends that the #ur$ish authorities bring its national la5
definition of terrorism into line 5ith this definition.
ARTICLE ,*'% MEMGERSHIP OF A TERRORIST ORGANIZATION
#he problematic definition of terrorism reflects the understanding of terrorist acti'it&
expressed in the <uote b& the #ur$ish ,inister of Interior at the start of this chapter. #his
'ie53 5hich fails to distinguish bet5een3 on the one hand3 peaceful protest3 dissent and anti+
state opinions and3 on the other3 'iolent acti'ities in pursuance of the same goals is deepl&
entrenched amongst #ur$ish la5 enforcement and 4udicial officials and results in precisel&
the $inds of abusi'e prosecutions documented in this report.
DECRIMINALIZE DISSENT
Time to deliver on the riht to !reedom o! e"#re$$ion

Amne$t- Intern.tion.l M.r/h +)*, Inde"% E&R ''())*(+)*,
(0 (0

#his attitude and the definition of terrorism that flo5s from it has particularl& significant
implications for prosecutions for membership of a terrorist organi-ations under Article 3) of
the Penal Code. Article 3) stipulates that membership of a terrorist organi-ation is
punishable 5ith imprisonment for a term of bet5een 0 and 5 &ears.
*0
As the cases belo5
demonstrate3 conduct 5hich is not itself criminal3 or3 on its face3 e'idence of a lin$ 5ith a
terrorist organi-ation3 is often represented as such merel& because the prosecution percei'es
it as ha'ing the same o'erall ob4ecti'e as a terrorist group. As a result3 indi'iduals ha'e been
prosecuted for membership of terrorist organi-ation on charges relating solel& to their
engagement in peaceful and3 in themsel'es3 la5ful pro+8urdish acti'ities.
Follo7in . 7.ve o! .rre$t$ in I$t.n61l in O/to6er +)**9 /h.re$ 7ere 6ro1ht ..in$t *:, individ1.l$ !or
their .lleed mem6er$hi# o!9 or $1##ort !or the 6.nned 01rdi$t.n Comm1nitie$ &nion @0C0C9 . P00 lin5ed
or.niL.tion2 The de!end.nt$ $t.nd .//1$ed o! t.5in #.rt in ./tivitie$ on 6eh.l! o! the I$t.n61l $tr1/t1re o!
the 0C02 Amon tho$e 6ein #ro$e/1ted i$ ./.demi/ 4G@ra ErsanlF 7ho h.$ 6een /h.red 7ith 6ein . le.der
o! the 0C0 1nder Arti/le ,*'(* o! the Pen.l Code2 The #ro$e/1tion i$ l.rel- 6.$ed on her #.rti/i#.tion in the
Politi/.l A/.dem- o! the Pe./e .nd Demo/r./- P.rt- @GDPC9 . re/oniLed #roE01rdi$h #oliti/.l #.rt-2
?*

Pro$e/1tor$ $t.te th.t the Politi/.l A/.dem- i$ .n in$tit1tion o! 0C0 .nd o#er.ted 7ith the #1r#o$e o!
te./hin the ideolo- o! the P00 .nd re/r1itin ne7 mem6er$ to it2
?+

The tot.lit- o! the eviden/e ..in$t GOBr. Er$.nlA /on$i$t$ o! in!orm.tion .6o1t her role 7ith the Politi/$
A/.dem-9 her #.rti/i#.tion in #e./e!1l demon$tr.tion$ $een 6- the .1thoritie$ .$ $1##ortin the .im$ o! the
0C0 .nd v.rio1$ note$ .nd do/1ment$9 det.iled 6elo79 !o1nd d1rin . #oli/e $e.r/h o! her ho1$e9 /.r .nd
#l./e o! 7or52
?,

The #oli/e h.d GOBr. Er$.nlA<$ tele#hone t.##ed9 .nd the #ro$e/1tion li$ted the !ollo7in in!orm.tion9 6.$ed
on tho$e t.#e$9 .$ eviden/e o! her 6ein . le.der o! the 0C0 in the indi/tment%
?'

She $ent do/1ment$ to the Politi/$ A/.dem-T $he re/ommended other$ .$ #er$on$ to ive le$$on$9 $he .$5ed
!or the #ror.mme o! the le$$on$T $he e"#re$$ed the intention to o to . * Se#tem6er 7orld #e./e d.-
demon$tr.tion @61t didn<t 6e/.1$e $he h.d other thin$ to doC .nd e"#re$$ed !e.r$ o! the e"/e$$ive 1$e o!
!or/e 6- #oli/e .t the demon$tr.tionT $he 7ent on . @1n$#e/i!iedC 8o1rne- 7ith . #er$on 7ho h.d 6een to the
demon$tr.tionT $he re8e/ted .n invit.tion to .##e.r on Roj TV to $#e.5 on the /on$tit1tion9 on the ro1nd$ th.t
$he 7.$ not .v.il.6le .t th.t time .nd inD1ired 7hether other$ /o1ld $#e.5 on Roj TV in her #l./eT $he $#o5e
.6o1t .ttendin . $itEin #rote$t $1##orted 6- GDP @to #rote$t no $ol1tion 6ein !o1nd to 01rdi$h #ro6lemCT $he
.$$i$ted $t1dent$ 7ho 7.nted to $t1d- !or . M.$ter$ deree .t M.rm.r. &niver$it- @7here $he i$ .n
./.demi/CT $he .reed to .ttend . ro1nd t.6le de6.te .t Heinri/h GNll Sti!tOn A$$o/i.tion @.n .$$o/i.tion
!1nded 6- the Germ.n Green P.rt-C on their invit.tionT $he di$/1$$ed medi. re#ort$ o! milit.r- o#er.tion$ .nd
0C0 detention$ 7ith Se6.h.t T1n/el9 . GDP #.rli.ment.ri.nT $he t.l5ed .6o1t milit.r- o#er.tion$ 7ith
8o1rn.li$t N1r.- MertT $he 7.$ invited vi. te"t me$$.e to . H1m.n Riht$ A$$o/i.tion @. le.din T1r5i$h
NGOC meetin to #rote$t A6d1ll.h S/.l.n not 6ein .6le to meet 7ith hi$ l.7-er$2
From the $e.r/h o! her ho1$e9 /.r .nd #l./e o! 7or5 the !ollo7in in!orm.tion 7.$ !o1nd .nd #re$ented .$
eviden/e in the indi/tment%
?;

A do/1ment9 in 7hi/h $he $t.ted th.t $he h.d $ent in!orm.tion to Fırat News9 . #roE01rdi$h ne7$ $ite .lleed
DECRIMINALIZE DISSENT
Time to deliver on the riht to !reedom o! e"#re$$ion
Inde"% E&R ''())*(+)*, Amne$t- Intern.tion.l M.r/h +)*,
(
6- the .1thoritie$ to 6e /lo$e the P009 note$ re!errin to =.1tonom->T h.nd7ritten note$ $.id 6- the
#ro$e/1tor$ to rel.te to . +))F /on!eren/e held in Di-.r6.5Ar on the $168e/t o! =lo/.l .dmini$tr.tion$ .nd
7omen>E m.5in re!eren/e$ to re$erv.tion$ to the CEDAM /onvention9 .nd $te#$ le.din to /on!eder.li$m9
7hi/h #ro$e/1tor$ $.- mirror the thin5in o! the 0C0T do/1ment$ 7ith h.nd7ritten re!eren/e$ to demo/r.ti/
.1tonom- .nd /it- /o1n/il$ @5ent 5on$e-leriC9 .lleed to 6e #.rt o! 0C0<$ $tr1/t1reT . #16li/l- .v.il.6le
do/1ment $.id to 6e =. dr.!t 7omen<$ /on$tit1tion(/ontr./t> I .lleed to 6e . 0C0 do/1ment2 The indi/tment
re!eren/e$ . P.rt- !or . Free Li!e in 01rdi$t.n @P3A0C 7e6$ite 7ith thi$ do/1ment $t.tin th.t it h.$ 6een $ent
o1t !or di$/1$$ion9 do/1ment$ on the ./tivitie$ o! the ./.demie$ ./ro$$ T1r5e-9 . #16li$hed m..Line entitled
=A tho1$.nd ho#e$ !or #e./e .nd demo/r./-> @G.rAB ve demo5r.$i iQin 6in 1m1tC2
Fello7 ./.demi/ RagF$ Zara>ol# i$ .l$o . de!end.nt in the /.$e9 .nd the eviden/e ..in$t him i$ $imil.rl-
6.$ed on hi$ #.rti/i#.tion in the ./tivitie$ o! the Politi/$ A//.dem-2
??
R.A# Z.r.5ol1<$ mem6er$hi# o! 0C0 i$
6.$ed #rim.ril- on hi$ ivin le/t1re$ .t the Politi/.l A/.dem-2 Ho7ever9 he i$ /h.red 1nder Arti/le ++)(4 o!
the Pen.l Code9 7hi/h /rimin.liLe$ =0no7inl- .nd 7illinl- .$$i$tin . terrori$t or.niL.tion>2 Eviden/e to
$16$t.nti.te R.A# Z.r.5ol1<$ le/t1re$ .nd other involvement 7ith the ./.dem- /on$i$t$ o! ne7$ item$
$t.tin th.t R.A# Z.r.5ol1 7.$ #re$ent .t the o#enin /eremon- .nd .t . r.d1.tion /eremon- o! the Politi/$
A/.dem-2
?4
The ne7$ item$ D1oted in the indi/tment m.5e no re!eren/e to .n- mention o! the 0C0 6- R.A#
Z.r.5ol1 .nd $im#l- $erve to $16$t.nti.te hi$ .ttend.n/e .t the o#enin /eremon-2 Another $#e.5er .l$o
#re$ent i$ re#orted 6- Dicle News Aency to h.ve m.de . $#ee/h /riti/iLin the 0C0 #ro$e/1tion .$ 1n!.ir in
th.t it i$ 6.$ed $olel- on t.##ed tele#hone /onver$.tion$ .nd 61$ .t event$ .nd $o1ht to #ro$e/1te
leitim.te #oliti/.l ./tivitie$2 In the re#ort o! R.A# Z.r.5ol1<$ $#ee/h he $t.te$ th.t #oliti/.l ./.demie$9
ener.ll-9 h.ve 6een .n im#ort.nt $#1r to $o/i.li$t movement$ .ro1nd the 7orld .nd th.t the /re.tion o! $1/h
.n ./.dem- 6- the 01rd$ 7.$ me.nin!1l2 He $t.ted th.t the Germ.n $o/i.li$t movement h.d 6ene!ited
re.tl- !rom $1/h .n ./.dem- .nd th.t there 7.$ . lot to 6e le.rnt !rom the 01rd$ .nd !rom the ./.demie$2
He o!!ered W1n$#e/i!iedX .$$i$t.n/e to the ./.dem-2 The ne7$ re#ort o! . Politi/$ A/.dem- r.d1.tion
/eremon- $t.te$ th.t it 7.$ .ttended 6- the $i$ter o! . P00 mem6er in .ddition to . GDP #.rli.ment.ri.n .nd
le/t1rer$ in/l1din R.A# Z.r.5ol12 Gr.d1.tion$ 7ere tho$e !or le/t1re$ in =m.n.ement> =#hilo$o#h->
=D1.nt1m #h-$i/$>9 =hi$tor- o! /iviliL.tion>9 =hi$tor- o! the middle e.$t>9 =#oliti/.l hi$tor- o! T1r5e->9
=7omen<$ li6er.tion ideolo->9 =demo/r.ti/ e/oloi/.l $o/iet->9 =/.#it.li$t modernit- .nd demo/r.ti/
/on!eder.li$m>2
The onl- other item #re$ented .$ eviden/e in the indi/tment i$ the $t.tement o! . 7itne$$9 7ho .##.rentl- 7.$
$ee5in to h.ve hi$ $enten/e red1/ed or 7ithdr.7n .//ordin to the term$ o! =e!!e/tive reret> thro1h 7hi/h
tho$e /onvi/ted o! /rime$ /.n h.ve their $enten/e$ red1/ed or removed 6- te$ti!-in ..in$t other$2
?F
The
7itne$$ /l.im$ to h.ve #.rti/i#.ted in the Politi/$ A/.dem- .$ . $t1dent 61t to h.ve le!t .!ter he di$/overed
it$ tr1e .im$ W.$$i$tin the P00X2 The 7itne$$ .llee$ in the $t.tement th.t the le/t1re$ t.1ht the ideolo- o!
the P00 7ith the .im o! re/r1itin mem6er$ to the P002 The indi/tment !1rther $t.ted in re!eren/e to the
7itne$$ te$timon- th.t 81$t .$ it 7.$ norm.l to h.ve n.il$ to re#.ir . ho1$e or to 61- . mo6ile tele#hone9
the$e item$ /o1ld 6e 1$ed 6- the P00 in /.rr-in o1t e"#lo$ion$2 The #ro$e/1tor dre7 the /om#.ri$on to R.A#
Z.r.5ol1<$ le/t1re$ #rovidin !or the re/r1itment o! .rmed mem6er$ o! the P00 .nd their 1r6.n /ell$2
?:

A #oli/e $e.r/h o! R.A# Z.r.5ol1<$ home9 /.r .nd #l./e o! 7or5 1n/overed h.nd7ritten note$ re/ordin the
detention o! individ1.l$ rel.ted to the 0C0 #ro$e/1tion .he.d o! hi$ .rre$t .nd other note$ rel.tin to #oliti/$
7ith no /onne/tion to ./tivitie$ o! the 0C02
4)

GOBr. Er$.nlA 7.$ rele.$ed on 6.il in 31l- +)*+ !ollo7in more th.n eiht month$ o! #reEtri.l detention2 R.A#
Z.r.5ol1 7.$ rele.$ed on 6.il in A#ril +)*+2 A$ o! F M.r/h +)*,9 +; /o1rt he.rin$ h.d 6een held in the /.$e2
DECRIMINALIZE DISSENT
Time to deliver on the riht to !reedom o! e"#re$$ion

Amne$t- Intern.tion.l M.r/h +)*, Inde"% E&R ''())*(+)*,
(( ((
O! the *:, de!end.nt$9 **F 7ere $till in #reEtri.l detention2
#he case of 6ultani AcIbuca is another example of acti'it& related to the exercise of the rights
to freedom of assembl&3 association and expression being considered e'idence of
membership of a terrorist organi-ation. In 6ultani AcIbuca9s case3 this acti'it& consisted of
participation in peaceful3 pro+8urdish demonstrations and participation in a social mo'ement
calling for an end to the armed conflict.
?+ -e.rEold S#ltani A'Fb#'a i$ . mem6er o! the J#e./e mother$>9 . ro1# m.de 1# o! mother$ 7ho h.ve lo$t
$on$ or h.d $on$ im#ri$oned on 6oth $ide$ o! the /on!li/t 7ith the P002 On : 31ne +)*) $he 7.$ /onvi/ted o!
6ein . mem6er o! . terrori$t or.niL.tion on the 6.$i$ o! her .ttend.n/e .t $i" #e./e!1l demon$tr.tion$ in
the 7e$tern /it- o! ILmir 6et7een 3.n1.r- +))? .nd M.r/h +))F .nd . $#ee/h $he m.de .t one o! the$e
demon$tr.tion$2 The $#ee/h /.lled !or #e./e .nd .n end to the /on!li/t 6et7een the P00 .nd the T1r5i$h
.rmed !or/e$2 The .lle.tion$ $et o1t in the indi/tment 7ere 6.$ed on #oli/e re/ord$ o! demon$tr.tion$9
#hotor.#h$ o! the demon$tr.tion$9 .nd .1dio re/ordin$2
4*
A$ det.iled 6elo79 the /ond1/t 7hi/h h.$ 6een
1$ed .$ eviden/e to $e/1re the /onvi/tion o! S1lt.ni A/A61/. i$ #rote/ted 1nder the riht$ to !reedom o!
e"#re$$ion9 .$$o/i.tion .nd #e./e!1l .$$em6l-2
The #ro$e/1tion ..in$t S1lt.ni A/A61/. 7.$ initi.ted in +))F2 The indi/tment li$t$ the !ollo7in /h.re$%
6ein . mem6er o! . terrori$t or.niL.tion @Arti/le ,*' o! the Pen.l CodeC9 m.5in #ro#..nd. !or . terrori$t
or.niL.tion @Arti/le 4(+ o! the AntiETerrori$m L.7C .nd #r.i$in . /rime or . /rimin.l9 @Arti/le +*; o! the
Pen.l CodeC2 The #ro$e/1tion relied on eviden/e th.t S1lt.ni A/A61/. 7.$ #.rt o! . ro1# th.t $ho1ted $lo.n$
th.t h.ve 6een !o1nd 6- the E1ro#e.n Co1rt o! H1m.n Riht$ to !.ll 7ithin the #ermi$$i6le limit$ o! the riht
to !reedom o! e"#re$$ion2 The- in/l1de =lon live #e./e9 lon live S/.l.n> .nd =Momen 7.nt #e./e9 not to
!iht>2
4+
In the $#ee/h9 7hi/h #ro$e/1tor$ $.- #r.i$ed /rimin.l ./tivitie$9 S1lt.ni A/A61/. /.lled !or #e./e2
4,
In
thi$ $#ee/h9 $he $.id th.t the $it1.tion o! m.rt-r$ @1$in the terminolo- t-#i/.ll- em#lo-ed 6- the T1r5i$h
$t.te to re!er to !.llen mem6er$ o! the .rmed !or/e$C .nd 1errill.$ @re!errin to .rmed mem6er$ o! the P00C
7.$ the $.me9 .nd /.lled !or T1r5i$h .nd 01rdi$h mother$ to 1nite2 She .l$o /.lled on Prime Mini$ter ErdoK.n
to $end hi$ $on to the .rm-9 $.-in =#oor !.milie$ $end their $on$ to the .rm-9 7e donZt 7.nt to !iht 7ith
them2 The- $ho1ld $end their o7n $on$ to the .rm-9 the- $ent 1$ o1t o! o1r vill.e$9 o1t o! o1r home$ @re!errin
to !or/i6le di$#l./ement 6- the .rmed !or/e$C9 o1r 6ride$ .re T1r5i$h9 7e .ve o1r d.1hter$ to T1r5$9 =lon
live the 6rotherhood o! the #eo#le9 lon live the !reedom o! 7omen>2
S1lt.ni A/A61/. 7.$ 1ltim.tel- onl- /onvi/ted o! mem6er$hi# o! . terrori$t or.niL.tion !or 7hi/h $he 7.$
$enten/ed to $i" -e.r$ .nd three month$ in #ri$on2 The /o1rt did not /onvi/t her o! m.5in #ro#..nd. !or .
terrori$t or.niL.tion or #r.i$in . /rime or /rimin.l$ on the 6.$i$ th.t the$e 7ere =element$ o! the /rime o!
mem6er$hi# o! . terrori$t or.niL.tion !or 7hi/h $he 7.$ /onvi/ted>2
4'
The /o1rt re./hed it$ de/i$ion to
/onvi/t S1lt.ni A/A61/. !or mem6er$hi# o! . terrori$t or.niL.tion on the 6.$i$ th.t% $he 7.$ . mem6er o! the
#e./e mother$9 . ro1# the /o1rt $.id I 7itho1t re!eren/e to .n- $16$t.nti.tin eviden/e E 7.$ develo#ed 6-
the P00 7ith the intention o! m.5in #ro#..nd.T th.t $he /.rried o1t ./tivitie$ !or thi$ ro1# in the #rovin/e
o! ILmirT th.t $he #l.-ed .n ./tive role in the$e demon$tr.tion$ .nd $ho1ted $lo.n$T th.t $he m.de the
@.6ove de$/ri6edC $#ee/h 7hi/h .mo1nted to terrori$t #ro#..nd.T .nd th.t $he /.lled o1t the $lo.n$ !or
other$ on the demon$tr.tion to re#e.t2
4;

The #ro$e/1tion did not #rovide .n- eviden/e o! . /onne/tion 6et7een the ro1# .nd the P00 6e-ond the !./t
th.t the demon$tr.tion$ too5 #l./e .nd 7ere #16li/iLed 6- Roj TV9 . !orein 6.$ed /h.nnel 7hi/h in other
/.$e$ de$/ri6ed in thi$ re#ort i$ .lleed to 6e lin5ed to the P002
DECRIMINALIZE DISSENT
Time to deliver on the riht to !reedom o! e"#re$$ion
Inde"% E&R ''())*(+)*, Amne$t- Intern.tion.l M.r/h +)*,
(3
The /o1rt /on/l1ded th.t S1lt.ni A/A61/.<$ /ond1/t9 t.5en .$ . 7hole9 .mo1nted to . =/on$i$tent
#.rti/i#.tion> in di!!erent t-#e$ o! the or.niL.tion<$ ./tivitie$T .nd th.t t.5in into /on$ider.tion her
=le.din role 7ithin the /ro7d>9 it h.d 6een e$t.6li$hed th.t $he 7.$ . mem6er o! . terrori$t or.niL.tion2
4?

A$ o! Fe6r1.r- +)*, the /.$e rem.in$ #endin .t the S1#reme Co1rt o! A##e.l$2
ARTICLE ++)(?% COMMITTING A CRIME IN THE NAME OF A TERRORIST
ORGANIZATION
Article ((0.* of the #ur$ish Penal Code allo5s the state to punish indi'iduals 5ho ha'e not
been pro'en in court to be members of terrorist organi-ation as though the& 5ere3 if deemed
to ha'e performed a criminal act =in the name of an organi-ation>. In full3 the Article reads!
“A person who commits a crime in the name of an organi/ation without being a member of
that organi/ation is punished as a member of the organi/ation. !he punishment for
membership of an organi/ation can be reduced by up to one half.”

Courts ha'e used this Article as the basis for imposing increased sentences for supposedl&
criminal acti'it& 5ith little e'idence3 either of the commission of a recogni-abl& criminal
offence or an& demonstrable lin$ to a =terrorist organi-ation>. As 5ith direct membership
cases3 the e'idence presented for ha'ing committed a crime =in the name of an organi-ation>
fre<uentl& amounts to nothing more than participation in demonstrations3 or the 5riting of
pro+8urdish articles.
The #ro$e/1tion o! Ke&at K#r@#n i$ ill1$tr.tive o! m.n- o! the thre.t$ to !reedom o! e"#re$$ion #o$ed 6-
#ro$e/1tion$ 6ro1ht 1nder Arti/le ++)(?2 The #ro$e/1tion 7.$ 6.$ed $olel- on the /ontent o! ne7$#.#er
.rti/le$ #16li$hed 6et7een Fe6r1.r- +))4 .nd 31ne +))F 7hi/h the /o1rt o! !ir$t in$t.n/e !o1nd to /on$tit1te
=M.5in #ro#..nd. !or . terrori$t or.niL.tion> -et even on the 6.$i$ o! the /o1rt<$ de$/ri#tion o! the
eviden/e it i$ /le.r th.t the /ontent doe$ not re#re$ent #ro#..nd. !or 7.r or .n- other .dvo/./- o! violen/e2
44

In 3.n1.r- +)): Ved.t 01rB1n9 re$#on$i6le editor .nd o7ner o! A!adiya "elat# T1r5e-<$ onl- 01rdi$h l.n1.e
ne7$#.#er 7.$ #ro$e/1ted 1nder Arti/le ++)(? !or =Committin . /rime in the n.me o! . terrori$t
or.niL.tion> .nd m1lti#le /o1nt$ o! =M.5in #ro#..nd. !or . terrori$t or.niL.tion> 1nder Arti/le 4(+ o! the
AntiETerrori$m L.72 A!ter the /h.re$ 7ere i$$1ed9 he 7.$ t.5en to #ri$on !or #reEtri.l detention on ,) 3.n1.r-
+)):9 7here he rem.ined !or the ne"t t7o .nd h.l! -e.r$2 The /o1rt /om6ined ,, $e#.r.te indi/tment$ in one
#ro$e/1tion2
4F
In M.- +)*)9 Ved.t 01rB1n 7.$ /onvi/ted o! in!rinement o! 6oth Arti/le$2 The /o1rt $enten/ed
Ved.t 01rB1n to t7elve -e.r$ in #ri$on 1nder Arti/le ++)(?2
4:
&nder the #rovi$ion$ !or =M.5in #ro#..nd. !or
. terrori$t or.niL.tion>9 the Co1rt /onvi/ted Ved.t 01rB1n on *), /o1nt$9 $enten/in him to one -e.r .nd $i"
month$ im#ri$onment !or e./h o//.$ion2 The $enten/e$ 7ere *;' -e.r$ .nd $i" month$ !or #ro#..nd. .nd *+
-e.r$ im#ri$onment !or mem6er$hi#2 The tot.l $enten/e !or Ved.t 01rB1n9 there!ore9 7.$ *?? -e.r$ .nd $i"
month$2
F)

Amne$t- Intern.tion.l h.$ not revie7ed in !1ll .ll the ne7$#.#er .rti/le$ #re$ented in the /.$e 61t h.$ re.d
.ll the e"/er#t$ /on$idered relev.nt 6- the .1thoritie$ .nd #re$ented .$ eviden/e in the /.$e2 The *, M.-
+)*) 81dment in the /.$e re.rdin Ved.t 01rB1n r.i$e$ /on/ern$ on . n1m6er o! level$2 Ved.t 01rB1n 7.$
/onvi/ted o! =Committin . /rime in the n.me o! . terrori$t or.niL.tion> $olel- on the 6.$i$ o! ne7$#.#er
.rti/le$ .nd de$#ite the l./5 o! .n- eviden/e lin5in him to . #ro$/ri6ed or.niL.tion2
F*
He 7.$ .l$o /onvi/ted
o! m1lti#le /o1nt$ o! =M.5in #ro#..nd. !or . terrori$t or.niL.tion> on the 6.$i$ o! ne7$#.#er .rti/le$
7hi/h9 .t le.$t in the e"/er#t$ #re$ented9 do not re#re$ent .dvo/./- o! violen/e I .nd 7hi/h o1ht9 there!ore9
DECRIMINALIZE DISSENT
Time to deliver on the riht to !reedom o! e"#re$$ion

Amne$t- Intern.tion.l M.r/h +)*, Inde"% E&R ''())*(+)*,
() ()
to h.ve /on$tit1ted #rote/ted $#ee/h 1nder the riht to !reedom o! e"#re$$ion2
F+
The Co1rt /on$idered the
.rti/le$ to 6e #ro#..nd. on 6eh.l! o! the P00 on .//o1nt o! their re!eren/e$ to the e.$t .nd $o1thEe.$t o!
T1r5e- .$ =01rdi$t.n>9 =1errill.$> in re!eren/e to .rmed mem6er$ o! the P00 .nd their de$/ri#tion$ o!
A6d1ll.h S/.l.n .$ =#eo#le<$ le.der> .nd =le.der o! the 0C0>2 In .ddition9 . $16$t.nti.l #.rt o! the eviden/e
#re$ented in the /.$e 7.$ th.t the ne7$#.#er #16li$hed $t.tement$ 6- the P00 7itho1t .n- di$/1$$ion o! the
/ontent o! the $t.tement or 7hether it /on$tit1ted .dvo/./- o! violen/e2
F,

In it$ !in.l 81dment9 the /o1rt /ited . +))F 81dment o! the Gener.l Pen.l Go.rd o! the S1#reme Co1rt o!
A##e.l$< r1lin9 $t.tin%
“$n %artici%ation in actions w&ere t&ere is a eneral call from t&e orani!ation %u'lici!ed in t&e media of t&e
orani!ation# it is not necessary to esta'lis& t&at t&ere was instruction to an indi(idual to esta'lis& t&at t&ey
were actin in t&e name of a terrorist orani!ation in order to sentence accordin to t&e %ro(isions for
mem'ers&i% of a terrorist orani!ation in addition to t&e crimes committed as %art of t&e action t&ey
%artici%ated in”)
*+

The /o1rt 7ent on to /on$ider the /ontent o! the ne7$#.#er .rti/le$ in A!adiya "elat 7.$ in it$el! $1!!i/ient
eviden/e to /onvi/t Ved.t 01rB1n o! /ommittin . /rime in the n.me o! . terrori$t or.niL.tion .nd 7itho1t
e$t.6li$hin .n- .ddition.l eviden/e9 or intent either to .dvo/.te violen/e or to #.rti/i#.te in the ./tivitie$ o!
the P002
On ++ Fe6r1.r- +)** the S1#reme Co1rt o! A##e.l$9 re8e/ted the lo7er /o1rt<$ .##li/.tion o! Arti/le ++)(?9 .nd
r1led th.t the eviden/e #re$ented Wthe /ontent o! the ne7$#.#er .rti/le$X 7.$ not $1!!i/ient to $e/1re .
/onvi/tion 1nder the o!!en/e o! =Committin . /rime in the n.me o! . terrori$t or.niL.tion>2
F;
The S1#reme
Co1rt o! A##e.l$9 ho7ever9 1#held Ved.t 01rB1n<$ /onvi/tion !or =M.5in #ro#..nd. !or . terrori$t
or.niL.tion> 1nder Arti/le 4(+ o! the AntiETerrori$m L.79 61t r1led th.t he $ho1ld not 6e $enten/ed $e#.r.tel-
!or e./h o! the *), /o1nt$2 Follo7in the overt1rnin o! the 81dment 6- the S1#reme Co1rt o! A##e.l$9 the
lo/.l /o1rt in 31ne +)** ./D1itted Ved.t 01rB1n 1nder Arti/le ++)(? .nd $enten/ed him to *) -e.r$ .nd ?
month$ im#ri$onment 1nder Arti/le 4(+ o! the AntiETerrori$m L.72
F?
In 31l- +)*+9 .!ter more th.n t7o -e.r$
.nd $i" month$ o! detention9 the lo/.l /o1rt /on!irmed the de/i$ion o! the S1#reme Co1rt o! A##e.l$ .nd the
$enten/e o! *) -e.r$ .nd $i" month$ !or =M.5in #ro#..nd. !or . terrori$t or.niL.tion>2 The Co1rt .l$o r1led
th.t Ved.t 01rB1n $ho1ld 6e rele.$ed 1nder the term$ o! the /ondition.l $1$#en$ion o! $enten/e$ 6ro1ht into
l.7 1nder the term$ o! the =Third 81di/i.l #./5.e>2
F4

Amnest& International considers that ((0.* is neither necessar& for the prosecution of
indi'iduals for genuinel& terrorist+related offences3 nor3 in practice3 applied in such a 5a& as
to uphold the right to freedom of expression. Amnest& International therefore recommends
that the Article be repealed and that legitimate prosecutions be brought instead under other3
existing Penal Code articles re<uiring proof of membership or intent to assist a terrorist
organi-ation.
ARTICLE ++)(4% ASSISTING A TERRORIST ORGANIZATION
Article ((0.7 of the #ur$ish Penal Code criminalises assisting a terrorist organisation. Enli$e
Article ((0.*3 it is a self+standing offence that does not re<uire the commission of a further
criminal act. Li$e Article ((0.*3 ho5e'er3 it allo5s for the sentencing of those con'icted
under it as though the& 5ere members of the organisation the& are found to ha'e assisted. In
full the article reads!
DECRIMINALIZE DISSENT
Time to deliver on the riht to !reedom o! e"#re$$ion
Inde"% E&R ''())*(+)*, Amne$t- Intern.tion.l M.r/h +)*,
(5
“A person who $nowingly and willingly assists the organi/ation but is not within the
hierarchical structure of the organi/ation is punished as a member of the organi/ation. !he
punishment given for membership can be reduced by one third, depending on the nature of
the assistance given.”

As 5ith Article ((0.*3 this Article is often used to prosecute conduct protected b& the rights
to freedom of expression3 association and assembl&. Indeed3 the choice of prosecutors to
prosecute under ((0.* or ((0.7 often appears arbitrar&3 5ith similar beha'iour sometimes
prosecuted under one3 sometimes under the other @ and sometimes under Article 3)
:criminali-ing membership of a terrorist organi-ation; directl&. As 5ith prosecutions under
((0.*3 5hen prosecutors see$ to con'ict a person under Article ((0.7 the& often do not
pro'ide e'idence demonstrating a lin$ to a terrorist organi-ation3 nor do the& attempt to pro'e
that the accused 5as engaged in an& criminal offence3 or in aiding and abetting3 other than
supposedl& assisting the proscribed organi-ation.
It is incumbent on the #ur$ish authorities to ensure that Article ((0.7 is not used to bring
prosecutions that 'iolate the rights to freedom of expression3 association and assembl& or
other human rights. #o this end3 the go'ernment should issue and publish guidelines for
prosecutors that set out clear criteria for 5hen assisting an armed group can be criminali-ed3
including the re<uirement that such assistance must either in and of itself be a recogni-able
criminal offence3 or be directl& lin$ed to the planning or commission of one. 6hort of
e'idence of such acts3 no inference should be dra5n from someone underta$ing a la5ful act3
such as for example participating in a peaceful demonstration. #his is so3 e'en if such acts
benefit3 through la5ful means3 goals shared b& a terrorist organi-ation. #he moti'e of the
indi'idual 5ho is carr&ing out the la5ful acts is irrele'ant! an&one carr&ing out a la5ful act
5hich does not aid and abet the planning or commission of a crime should not be
criminali-ed on the sole basis of their political con'ictions.
The #ro$e/1tion o! A!met IF> .nd Ne&im Iener i$ .nother e".m#le o! #olemi/.l9 .ntiEovernment 7ritin9
7hi/h $ho1ld 6e #rote/ted .$ !ree e"#re$$ion9 6ein 1$ed .$ eviden/e o! the .1thor<$ #.rti/i#.tion in terrori$t
/rime$2 Ahmet PA5 .nd Nedim Pener .re .mon the 8o1rn.li$t$ /1rrentl- 6ein #ro$e/1ted .$ #.rt o! the
=ODATV /.$e2> ODATV i$ . ne7$ 7e6$ite /riti/.l o! the overnment 7hi/h i$ .//1$ed o! $1##ortin the
./tivitie$ o! the =Erene5on .rmed terrori$m or.niL.tion> =.$ #.rt o! it$ medi. $tr1/t1re>2
FF

Goth Ahmet PA5 .nd Nedim Pener .re inve$ti.tive 8o1rn.li$t$ 7ith . hi$tor- o! 1n/overin .61$e$ 6- #16li/
o!!i/i.l$2 Goth h.ve #revio1$l- 6een #ro$e/1ted !or their inve$ti.tive 8o1rn.li$m2 In the ODATV /.$e Ahmet PA5
.nd Nedim Pener .re .//1$ed 1nder Arti/le ++)(4 o! the Pen.l Code !or =0no7inl- .nd 7illinl- $1##ortin .
terrori$t or.niL.tion>2 The- 7ere det.ined on , M.r/h +)** .nd rele.$ed !rom #reEtri.l detention on *+ M.r/h
+)*+2 A$ o! M.r/h +)*,9 their tri.l 7.$ onoin2
The indi/tment in /1rrent /.$e de$/ri6e$ Erene5on .$ .n .rmed terrori$t or.niL.tion 7ith the .im$ o!
/re.tin /h.o$ .nd di$order thro1h e/onomi/ /ri$i$9 ethni/ /on!li/t .nd terrori$m9 7e.5enin the $t.te .nd
m.5in the /o1ntr- 1novern.6le to en.6le the overthro7 o! the overnment 6- !or/e2
F:
It de$/ri6e$ v.rio1$
medi. o1tlet$ .$ 6ein either !ormed 7ith the #1r#o$e o! .$$i$tin thi$ $tr.te- or h.vin 6een t.5en 1nder
the /ontrol o! .nd dire/ted 6- Erene5on2 It i$ .lleed th.t 1nder the dire/tion o! H.lQAn 0OQO59 . de!end.nt in
the m.in Erene5on #ro$e/1tion9 the ODATV ne7$ 7e6$ite /.rried o1t it$ 6ro.d/.$t ./tivitie$ to in!l1en/e the
#16li/ .//ordin to the W#oliti/.lX o.l$ .nd .im$ o! the Erene5on .rmed terrori$t or.niL.tion2
DECRIMINALIZE DISSENT
Time to deliver on the riht to !reedom o! e"#re$$ion

Amne$t- Intern.tion.l M.r/h +)*, Inde"% E&R ''())*(+)*,
(* (*
The eviden/e ..in$t Ahmet PA5 #re$ented in the indi/tment i$ 6.$ed l.rel- on . dr.!t m.n1$/ri#t 7ritten 6-
him .nd d1e to 6e #16li$hed .$ . 6oo5 entitled =The Im.m<$ Arm-> @Im.mAn Ord1$1C2
:)
The m.n1$/ri#t9 7hi/h
h.$ $in/e 6een #16li$hed9 .llee$ the e"i$ten/e o! . net7or5 7ithin $t.te in$tit1tion$ .nd /ivil $o/iet- m.de
1# o! !ollo7er$ o! the T1r5i$h I$l.mi/ $/hol.r in e"ile9 Fet1ll.h GOlen9 . $1##orter o! the 31$ti/e .nd
Develo#ment #.rt- @A0PC overnment2
:*
There i$ no .lle.tion th.t the 6oo5 #r.i$e$ Erene5on9 it$ $tr.te- or
th.t it #rove$ th.t Ahmet PA5 #l.-$ .n ./tive role in the or.niL.tion2 The indi/tment .llee$ th.t the 6oo5 7.$
#re#.red 7ith the .im o! $1##ortin the o.l$ o! Erene5on2 It /ite$ .$ eviden/e o! thi$ the !./t th.t . dr.!t o!
the 6oo5 7.$ di$/overed on /om#1ter$ 6elonin to ODATV .nd th.t it i$ di$/1$$ed in . 7ord do/1ment9 !o1nd
.t the $.me time9 entitled =n.tion.l medi. +)*)9> .l$o !o1nd on ODATV /om#1ter$2
:+
The .1thoritie$ /l.im the
6oo5 i$ Erene5on<$ or.niL.tion.l $tr.te- do/1ment2
:,
De!end.nt$ in the /.$e 7ho .re 8o1rn.li$t$ 7or5in
!or ODATV re8e/t the /h.re$ .nd .ddition.ll- /onte$t the .1thenti/it- o! the $tr.te- do/1ment9 /l.imin th.t
it 7.$ #l.nted on the /om#1ter2 The indi/tment .llee$ the 6oo5 7.$ /ommi$$ioned 6- the Erene5on terrori$t
or.niL.tion .nd .llee$ th.t the $tr.te- do/1ment re!er$ to the or.niL.tion<$ .ttem#t$ to in!l1en/e Ahmet
PA5 .$ #.rt o! it$ $tr.te-2
:'
Ho7ever9 in the $tr.te- do/1ment9 there i$ no re!eren/e to .n ./tive #.rt #l.-ed
6- Ahmet PA5 in the Erene5on or.niL.tion2
In .ddition to the 6oo5 m.n1$/ri#t .nd the di$#1ted 7ord do/1ment9 #ro$e/1tor$ .l$o #re$ented .$ eviden/e .
t.##ed tele#hone /onver$.tion in 7hi/h Ahmet PA5 di$/1$$e$ the #o$$i6ilit- o! hi$ .rre$t !ollo7in medi.
re#ort$ o! r.id$ th.t 1n/overed the dr.!t o! hi$ 6oo5 in ODATV /om#1ter$2
Poli/e /ond1/ted r.id$ on Ahmet PA5<$ home9 the o!!i/e$ o! hi$ l.7-er$9 #16li$hin ho1$e .nd Radikal
ne7$#.#er 7here he #revio1$l- 7or5ed in .n e!!ort to $eiLe /o#ie$ o! the 1n#16li$hed 6oo52 No eviden/e o! .n-
/onne/tion 6et7een Ahmet PA5 .nd Erene5on or even 7ith ODATV 7.$ di$/overed in the r.id$ or t.##ed
tele#hone /.ll$2
Ahmet PA5 .l$o !./e$ #ro$e/1tion 6.$ed on . $t.tement he m.de 7hen he 7.$ rele.$ed !rom #reEtri.l
detention2 In the $t.tement he /riti/iLe$ the #ro$e/1tion ..in$t him .$ #oliti/.ll- motiv.ted9 1n!.ir .nd
6.$ed on hi$ 7or5 .$ . 8o1rn.li$t2 A//ordin to the indi/tment he $.id% =[ I .m $im#l- $.-in 7here 7e 7ere
.nd I 7ill /.rr- on !rom 7here I le!t o!!2 From no7 on9 i! thi$ i$ . 7.r9 then the 7.r i$ $t.rtin no72 Ever-one
$ho1ld mind their $te#2 There i$ no 81$ti/e here2 Tho$e 7ho h.ve /oo5ed 1# thi$ /on$#ir./- 7ill end 1# in
#ri$on2> Pro$e/1tor$ .r1e th.t thi$ $t.tement /on$tit1ted . thre.t ..in$t the 81di/i.r-2 The indi/tment
$t.te$% =@[C it i$ 1nder$tood in the /onte"t o! the 7hole o! the inve$ti.tion th.t9 the .6ove $e/tion /ont.ined
in the $t.tement$ o! the $1$#e/t i$ o1t$ide the 6o1nd.rie$ o! /riti/i$m .nd !reedom o! tho1ht9 th.t the ./t$
o! thre.t o! the $1$#e/t 7ho h.$ 6een det.ined .nd #ro$e/1ted !or mem6er$hi# o! .n .rmed terrori$t
or.niL.tion .re o! . n.t1re to o 6e-ond #er$on.l $trenth9 1$in the !rihtenin #o7er /re.ted 6- e"i$tin
or.niL.tion$ or tho$e #re$1med to e"i$tT hi$ ./t$ o! de!.m.tion h.ve 6een re.liLed thro1h .n .tt./5 in .
7.- th.t 1ndermine$ the hono1r9 dinit- .nd re$#e/t.6ilit- o! #16li/ o!!i/i.l$ 7ho h.ve 6een vi/timiLed 6-
.ttri61tin to them . /on/rete ./t or . !./t9 the $1$#e/t$ /ontin1ed ./tion$ .re indi/.tin the /on$i$tent
intent in /ommittin the o!!en/e9 @[C 7ere not.6le2>
:;
The 6.$i$ o! the /h.re i$ the .$$1m#tion th.t Ahmet
PA5 i$ #.rt o! the =Erene5on .rmed terrori$t or.niL.tion> th.t 1$e$ violent method$ .nd th.t .$ . re$1lt hi$
$t.tement re!er$ to ./t1.l violen/e .$ o##o$ed to 1$in the 7ord$ =7.r> .$ . e1#hemi$m !or 81di/i.l ./tion2
The /h.re !.il$ to t.5e into .//o1nt Ahmet PA5<$ $t.tement$ th.t he i$ the vi/tim o! . #oliti/.ll- motiv.ted
#ro$e/1tion d1e to hi$ 7or5 .$ 8o1rn.li$t2
A$ . re$1lt o! the .6ove $t.tement9 Ahmet PA5 i$ .ddition.ll- 6ein #ro$e/1ted 1nder Arti/le *)? o! the Pen.l
Code @m.5in violent thre.t$C on the ro1nd$ th.t the $t.tement re#re$ent$ =m.r5in 81de$ .nd #ro$e/1tor$
.$ t.ret$ o! . terrori$t or.niL.tion .nd m.5in thre.t$>2
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(7
The eviden/e in the /.$e #re$ented ..in$t Nedim Pener !or =0no7inl- .nd 7illinl- $1##ortin . terrori$t
or.niL.tion> /on$i$t$ o! . t.##ed tele#hone /onver$.tion in 7hi/h .n ODATV em#lo-ee /.ll$ him re.rdin .
ne7$ $tor- .nd other t.##ed #hone /onver$.tion$ 6et7een Nedim Pener .nd ODATV de!end.nt$ H.ni!e Av/A
.nd Soner H.lQAn .6o1t m.tter$ not rel.ted to .n- /rime$2
:?
The indi/tment .l$o $t.te$ th.t the #oli/e
di$/overed . dr.!t /o#- o! Nedim Pener<$ 6oo5 =Erene5on 6elelerinden Fet1ll.h GOlen ve Cem..t> @Fet1ll.h
GOlen .nd hi$ !ollo7er$ !rom Erene5on do/1ment$C9 in the diit.l .r/hive$ o! ODATV2
:4
Thi$ i$ #re$ented .$
eviden/e o! hi$ #.rti/i#.tion in the medi. $tr1/t1re o! Erene5on2 The di$#1ted 7ord do/1ment9 re!erred to
.6ove9 .l$o re!er$ to =Nedim> $.id 6- #ro$e/1tor$ to re!er to Nedim Pener .lleed to $16$t.nti.te the !./t o!
hi$ #.rti/i#.tion 7ithin the =Erene5on .rmed terrori$t or.niL.tion>2 In .ddition Nedim Sener i$ .//1$ed o!
/ontri61tin9 on 6eh.l! o! Erene5on9 to the 6oo5 6- ODATV de!end.nt H.ni!e Av/A =H.liQte -.B.-.n Simonl.r>
7hi/h e"#lore$ the net7or5 o! Fet1ll.h GOlen !ollo7er$ 7ithin the $t.te .nd Ahmet PA5<$ 6oo5 The Im.m<$
Arm-2
:F

ARTICLE 4(+% MA0ING PROPAGANDA FOR A TERRORIST ORGANIZATION
Article 7.( Bf the Anti+#errorism La5 currentl& reads as follo5s!
“Any person ma$ing propaganda for a terrorist organisation shall be punished with
imprisonment from one to five years. )f this crime is committed through means of printed
press or broadcasting, the penalty shall be increased by one half. )n addition, editors=in=chief
*., who have not participated in the perpetration of the crime shall be punished with a
"udicial fine from one thousand to fifteen thousand days0 rates.

!he acts and behaviours below are also punished under this Article<

a, &artial or complete covering of the face during meetings and demonstrations that have
been turned into propaganda of the terrorist organi/ation for the purpose of hiding one0s
identity.

b, )n a manner to indicate being a member or a supporter of a terrorist organi/ation, even if it
isn0t during a meeting or a demonstration;

+. hanging or carrying symbols, images or signs of the organi/ation,
2. chanting slogans,
-. broadcasting with megaphones,
>. wearing a uniform with symbols, images or signs of the organi/ation.”

Bn account of its broad 5ording and the pre'ailing attitudes of prosecutors and 4udges3 the
application of this Article fre<uentl& fails to distinguish bet5een supporting political aims
5hich are shared b& a terrorist organi-ation and are protected b& the right to freedom of
expression from statements that promote 'iolent acts and methods and 5hich ought3 indeed3
to be criminali-ed.
#he draft =1ourth 4udicial pac$age> proposes the follo5ing amendments to Article 7.(
:changes in bold;!
“Any person ma$ing the propaganda for the methods of a terrorist organi/ation constituting
coercion, violence or threats through legitimising or praising or encouraging the use of these
methods is sentenced to one to five years in prison. )f this crime is committed through means
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(% (%
of printed press or broadcasting, the penalty shall be increased by one half. )n addition,
editors=in=chief *., who have not participated in the perpetration of the crime shall be
punished with a "udicial fine from one thousand to fifteen thousand days0 rates.

!he acts and behaviours below are also punished under this Article<

a, &artial or complete covering of the face during meetings and demonstrations that
have been turned into propaganda of the terrorist organi/ation for the purpose of hiding
one0s identity

b, )n a manner to indicate being a member or a supporter of a terrorist organi/ation,
even if it isn0t during a meeting or a demonstration;

+. hanging or carrying symbols, images or signs of the organi/ation,
2. chanting slogans,
-. broadcasting with megaphones,
>. wearing a uniform with symbols, images or signs of the organi/ation.”

#he proposed amendments do narro5 the offence and might therefore pre'ent some of the
t&pes of abusi'e prosecutions under the Article in its current form3 such as the prosecution of
statements in support of political aims that are shared b& armed groups. 2o5e'er3 the
proposed amendment is still too broad insofar as it includes the 'ague concepts of threat and
coercion 5ithout specif&ing in respect of these a lin$ to 'iolence. As a result3 there remains
the real possibilit& that this Article 5ould be used to prosecute statements that do not
amount to incitement to 'iolence. 1urthermore3 the extremel& problematic paragraph b;
5ould remain in force allo5ing the current abuses seen under the Article :for instance3 see
case of 6ultani AcIbuca3 page ((; to continue. Paragraph b; should be remo'ed entirel& as it
imposes far greater restrictions on the right to freedom of expression than are permissible
under international human rights la5.
#he first paragraph should be amended in such a 5a& as to explicitl& re<uire propaganda for
'iolent criminal methods.
It 5ould certainl& be legitimate for the authorities to prosecute statements that amount to
ma$ing propaganda for 5ar3 or an& other sort of ad'ocac& of hatred that constitutes
incitement to 'iolence or discrimination. 6uch statements are not protected b& the right to
freedom of expressionO indeed3 as noted abo'e3 Article (0 of the International Co'enant on
Ci'il Political /ights expressl& re<uires their prohibition. 2o5e'er3 in cases re'ie5ed b&
Amnest& International3 Article 7.( has been used to prosecute non+'iolent opinions in
'iolation of the right to freedom of expression.
Cases re'ie5ed b& Amnest& International fre<uentl& relate to prosecutions of 4ournalists in
the mainstream national media for commentar& on issues related to 8urdish rights and
politics. In particular3 issues related to the P883 inter'ie5s 5ith P88 leaders3 or publici-ing
statements made b& the P88 or other armed groups fre<uentl& result in prosecution. 6ome
editors and 4ournalists 5riting in pro+8urdish ne5spapers ha'e repeatedl& been prosecuted
under Article 7.( and other terrorism+related offences including Article *.( of the Anti+
#errorism La5 for =printing or publishing a notice or statement of a terrorist organi-ation>
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(9
though the published scripts do not ad'ocate 'iolence or incite hatred. #he authorities ha'e
also prosecuted3 under Article 7.(3 non+'iolent expression in the context of speeches at
political rallies and demonstrations related to 8urdish rights and politics and left 5ing groups
percei'ed b& the authorities to be s&mpathetic to armed groups :see for example the case of
6ultani Acibuca page ((;.
In cases re'ie5ed b& Amnest& International3 courts ha'e issued con'ictions under Article 7.(
for =,a$ing propaganda for a terrorist organi-ation> b& 5rongl& interpreting permissible
restrictions to the right to freedom of expression found in international la53 ignoring the
established case+la5 of the 0Ct2/. 1or example3 slogans shouted at demonstrations3 such as
=long li'e President Hcalan> :Ji4i 6ero$ Apo; referring to imprisoned P88 leader Abdullah
Hcalan3 ha'e repeatedl& been found b& the 0Ct2/ to be protected b& the right to freedom of
expression.
99
Prosecutions for shouting these slogans continue under Article 7.( :see case of
6ultani AcIbuca3 page ((; despite the rulings of the 0Ct2/ finding pre'ious con'ictions for
the same conduct to 'iolate the right to freedom of expression.
In a number of cases re'ie5ed b& Amnest& International3 domestic courts ha'e cited 0Ct2/
cases ?ana v. !ur$ey and S@re$ v. !ur$ey.
+AA
In these t5o cases the 0Ct2/ found that the
prosecutions under Article 7.( did not represent a 'iolation of the right to freedom of
expression
0
as the statements in <uestions 5ere deemed to ad'ocate 'iolence. In the
0Ct2/ case of ?ana v. !ur$ey the applicant had made a statement in support of the 'iolent
tactics used b& the P88. #he 0Ct2/ <uoted the statement made to the media as =I support
the P88 national liberation mo'ementO on the other hand3 I am not in fa'our of massacres.
An&one can ma$e mista$es3 and the P88 $ill 5omen and children b& mista$e G>
0(
In the
case of S@re$ v. !ur$ey the 0Ct2/ ruled that =there is a clear intention to stigmati-e the
other side to the conflict b& the use of labels such as =the fascist #ur$ish arm&>3 =the #C
murder gang> and =the hired $illers of imperialism> alongside references to =massacres>3
=brutalities> and =slaughter>. In the 'ie5 of the 0Ct2/ the =impugned letters amount to an
appeal to blood& re'enge b& stirring up base emotions and hardening alread& embedded
pre4udices 5hich ha'e manifested themsel'es in deadl& 'iolence.> #his coupled 5ith the fact
that the letters attac$ed named indi'iduals 5ho might potentiall& be 'ictims of 'iolent
re'enge3 lead the Court to find that the statements represented ad'ocac& of 'iolence and that
the interference in the applicant9s right to freedom of expression 5as 4ustified.
03
In the
cases 5here domestic courts cited the ?ana v. !ur$ey and S@re$ v. !ur$ey 'erdicts to 4ustif&
con'ictions3 the speech 5as 'er& different3 constituting discussion of the P88 that did not
ad'ocate 'iolence as :see3 for instance3 the case A&dIn Juda$ belo5;.
Amnest& International calls on the #ur$ish authorities to amend Article 7.( so as to ensure
that it onl& prohibits ad'ocac& of incitement to 'iolence in line 5ith international human
rights la5 standards.
In +))F Ay&Fn 4#&a>9 m.-or o! the CiLre m1ni/i#.lit- in $o1thEe.$tern T1r5e-9 m.de . $#ee/h .ttri61tin
im#rovement$ in the $it1.tion in T1r5e- to the 1nil.ter.l /e.$e!ire de/l.red 6- the P00 .nd /riti/iLin the
$t.te<$ re/ord in !.ilin to do .n-thin to im#rove the $it1.tion2 A-dAn G1d.5 .l$o /riti/iLed the $t.te !or
!.ilin to neoti.te . #e./e!1l $ettlement .nd inorin o##ort1nitie$ #rovided 6- the P00 to neoti.te2 On +)
M.- +))F A-dAn G1d.5 7.$ /onvi/ted o! =M.5in #ro#..nd. !or .n .rmed or.niL.tion> 1nder Arti/le 4(+ o!
the AntiETerror L.72
*)'
In it$ re.$oned 81dment the Co1rt /on/l1ded th.t the $#ee/h @the $ole #ie/e o!
eviden/eC .mo1nted to . #16li/ #rovo/.tion to /ommit . terrori$t o!!en/e 7ithin the term$ o! the Co1n/il o!
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30 30
E1ro#e Convention on the #revention o! terrori$m notin th.t the Convention doe$ not reD1ire dire/t .dvo/./-
o! terrori$t o!!en/e$2
*);
Ho7ever9 the Co1rt #rovided no eviden/e to demon$tr.te .n intent to in/ite violen/e .$
reD1ired 6- the Convention .nd relied $olel- on the te"t o! the $#ee/h 7hi/h e"#li/itl- $1##orted . /e.$e!ire2
*)?

The Co1rt held th.t 6- re!errin to mem6er$ o! the P00 .$ #e./e .m6.$$.dor$ .nd $t.tin th.t it 7.$
ne/e$$.r- to neoti.te 7ith A6d1ll.h S/.l.n9 the $#ee/h re#re$ented #ro#..nd. !or the P00<$ violent ./tion$
.nd method$2 The Co1rt $enten/ed him to ten month$ im#ri$onment .!ter red1/tion$ .nd the remov.l o! hi$
riht$ to $t.nd !or ele/tion or hold #16li/ o!!i/e2
*)4
The /onvi/tion .nd $enten/e 7.$ 1#held 6- the S1#reme
Co1rt o! A##e.l$ in M.r/h +)*+2 A$ o! Fe6r1.r- +)*, .n .##li/.tion to the E1ro#e.n Co1rt o! H1m.n Riht$
7.$ #endin2
#he case of Pi&a QiRe$Ri is t&pical of the $ind of legitimate if contentious anal&sis and
commentar& on 8urdish related issues that is liable to prosecution under Article 7.(.
In +)*) the I$t.n61l *4
th
S#e/i.l He.v- Pen.l Co1rt /onvi/ted ne7$#.#er editor Ziya BiCe>Ci 1nder Arti/le 4(+
o! the AntiETerrori$m L.7 !or =M.5in #ro#..nd. !or . terrori$t or.niL.tion>2 The /onvi/tion rel.ted to t7o
.rti/le$ #16li$hed in the #roE01rdi$h ,-nl-k ne7$#.#er entitled =S.- $to# to o#er.tion$>9 o##o$in milit.r-
o#er.tion$ ..in$t the P009 .nd =P00T i$ it Pe5e5e or Pe5.5.V>9 re!errin to the #ron1n/i.tion o! P00 in
01rdi$h .nd T1r5i$h re$#e/tivel-2 The .rti/le e"#re$$ed the vie7 th.t tho$e 7ho #rono1n/ed it Pe5e5e @01rdi$h
#ron1n/i.tionC 7ere more in !.vo1r o! #e./e th.n tho$e th.t did not2
*)F
The$e ne7$#.#er .rti/le$ re#re$ent
.n.l-$i$ .nd /riti/i$m th.t do not in/ite violen/e2
=S.- $to# to o#er.tion$> i$ D1oted 6- the Co1rt%
“T&ey .t&e o%erations/ are su%%ortin t&e mentality of t&e 0tate t&at is aimin to eliminate t&e %ro'lem 'y
smas&in t&e 1urdis& Freedom 2o(ement) T&e a%%roac& t&at &as its roots in t&e &atred of 3calan and t&e P11
and t&at states 4if t&e P11 didn5t e6ist and uerillas didn5t fi&t# t&is %ro'lem would 'e resol(ed muc& more
easily5 is ludicrous)”
The Co1rt D1ote$ !rom the !ollo7in #.$$.e o! the te"t o! =P00T i$ it Pe5e5e or Pe5.5.V> .$ /on$tit1tin
=M.5in #ro#..nd. !or . terrori$t or.niL.tion>2
“T&ere is indeed t&is trut&7 T&ose w&o are of t&e (iew t&at t&e 1urdis& issue s&ould 'e democratically resol(ed
or t&at 1urdis& %eo%le5s ri&ts s&ould 'e uaranteed under t&e law %ronounce P11 enerally as 4Pekeke5)
T&ose w&o do not want t&e 1urdis& issue to 'e resol(ed %ronounced it as 4Pekaka5)”
On the 6.$i$ o! the$e $t.tement$9 the Co1rt $enten/ed Zi-. JiQe5Qi to one -e.r .nd $i" month$ im#ri$onment2
A$ o! Fe6r1.r- +)*, the /.$e rem.in$ #endin .t the S1#reme Co1rt o! A##e.l$2 Zi-. JiQe5Qi h.$ .l$o 6een
/onvi/ted 1nder Arti/le ?(+ o! the AntiETerrori$m L.7 =#rintin or #16li$hin de/l.r.tion$ or $t.tement$ o!
terrori$t or.ni$.tion$> @$ee 6elo78) He i$ .l$o 6ein #ro$e/1ted !or mem6er$hi# o! . terrori$t or.niL.tion .$
#.rt o! . 0C0 tri.l2
*):
At . he.rin in Fe6r1.r- +)*, he 7.$ rele.$ed !ollo7in *' month$ o! #reEtri.l detention2
ARTICLE ?(+% PRINTING OR P&GLISHING OF DECLARATIONS OR STATEMENTS OF
TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS
Article *.( of the Anti+#errorism La5 criminali-es the =printing or publishing of declarations
or statements of terrorist organi-ations>.
0
It allo5s for sentences of bet5een one and three
&ears imprisonment.
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3
#he current 5ording of Article *.( is e'en broader than that of Article 7.( since it ma$es no
reference to the content of the statement b& the =terrorist> organi-ation 5hatsoe'er3 or the
intent of the subse<uent of publisher. #his Article is 5ritten in such a broad manner that it
can be used to prosecute the publication of an& statement coming from a representati'e from
a group considered =terrorist>3 irrespecti'e of its specific content @ or the context in 5hich it
is <uoted. Indeed3 on its face3 it reads as a strict liabilit& offence.

As such it represents an
undue limitation to freedom of expression and is applied as such in practice. 7hile the
publishing of a statement of an organi-ation ma& 5ell amount to ad'ocac& of 'iolence
depending on its content and the context of its publication3 an& legitimate prosecution under
Article *.( could also be made under an amended Article 7.(.
#he draft =1ourth 4udicial pac$age> proposes the follo5ing amendment to Article
*.(:changes in bold;!
!hose who print or publish declarations or statements of terrorist organisations constituting
coercion, violence or threats through legitimising or praising or encouraging the use of these
methods shall be punished with imprisonment from one to three years.

#he proposed amendment to Article *.( mirror those proposed to Article 7.( of the Anti+
#errorism La5 and suffer the same 5ea$nesses. 7hile it does narro5 the offence to pre'ent
the prosecution of an& publication of the statement of an armed group3 irrespecti'e of its
content3 the definition of the offence remains too broad and open to abuse. It 5ould still
allo5 for the prosecution of indi'iduals for publishing statements that do not amount to
incitement to 'iolence. 0'en in this amended form therefore3 Article *.( 5ould continue to
impose restrictions on freedom of expression that are not permissible under international
human rights la5. Amnest& International therefore recommends that this Article3 5hich is
open to abuse and ser'es no legitimate purpose that cannot be met b& other Penal Code
articles3 be repealed.
In se'eral recent cases re'ie5ed b& Amnest& International brought under Article *.( for
=printing or publishing the statements of terrorist organi-ations>3 courts did not see$ to
4ustif& the interference 5ith the right to freedom of expression in terms of the permissible
limitations to this right found in international la5. #he case of Pi&a QiRe$Ri described belo5
:a separate prosecution to the one brought under Article 7.( described abo'e; is t&pical of
other recent 4udgments anal&-ed b& Amnest& International3 in 5hich courts ha'e applied
Article *.( in a manner that is incompatible 5ith the right to freedom of expression. Pi&a
QiRe$Ri 5as con'icted under Article *.( for a ne5spaper article that did not amount to
incitement of hatred or ad'ocac& of 'iolence3 in 'iolation of the right to freedom of
expression.
In De/em6er +)**9 Zi-. JiQe5Qi 7.$ /onvi/ted o! =#rintin or #16li$hin de/l.r.tion$ or $t.tement$ o! terrori$t
or.ni$.tion$> 1nder Arti/le ?(+ o! the AntiETerrori$m L.7 6- the *4
th
I$t.n61l He.v- Pen.l Co1rt !or .n .rti/le
#16li$hed on *, Se#tem6er +)** in the #roE01rdi$h ne7$#.#er 3!-r ,-ndem9 entitled =The- .re tr.m#lin
on the l.7 .t Imr.lA> @\mr.lA<d. h1515l.rAnA QiKni-orl.rC2
**+
The .rti/le !e.t1red e"tr./t$ !rom .n intervie7 7ith
M1r.t 0.r.-Al.n9 . le.der o! the P002 In the intervie7 M1r.t 0.r.-Al.n /riti/iLed the #ri$on /ondition$ o!
im#ri$oned P00 le.der A6d1ll.h S/.l.n9 in/l1din the !./t th.t he h.d not 6een .llo7ed to meet 7ith hi$
l.7-er$ .nd 7.$ 6ein held in $olit.r- /on!inement2 In it$ 81dment the Co1rt de$/ri6ed M1r.t 0.r.-Al.n .$
he.d o! the E"e/1tive Committee o! the 0C02 It .l$o re!erred to Fırat News .en/- @!rom 7here the intervie7
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3( 3(
oriin.tedC9 7hi/h it /on$idered . medi. or.n o! the P002 It /on/l1ded th.t the .rti/le #16li$hed . $t.tement
o! . terrori$t or.niL.tion2 It o!!ered no !1rther .n.l-$i$ o! the /ontent o! the $t.tement$ or the 6ro.der /onte"t
o! the .rti/le in 7hi/h the- 7ere D1otedT indeed9 $1/h .n .n.l-$i$ i$ not reD1ired to $.ti$!- the element$ o! the
o!!en/e2
**,
Zi-. JiQe5Qi 7.$ $enten/ed to *) month$ im#ri$onment .!ter di$/retion.r- red1/tion$2
**'
In
Se#tem6er +)*+9 the /.$e 7.$ $1$#ended 1nder the term$ o! the =Third 81di/i.l #./5.e>2

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33
REC-MMENDATI-NS
Amnest& International urges the #ur$ish go'ernment to!
/epeal Article 30 of the Penal Code :"enigrating the #ur$ish Fation;O
/epeal Article 3% of the Penal Code :Alienating the public from militar& ser'ice;O
/epeal Article (5 of the Penal Code :Praising a crime or a criminal;O
/epeal Article (5 of the Penal Code :Criminal defamation;O
Amend Article (* of the Penal Code :Incitement to hatred or hostilit&; b& repealing
paragraphs ( and 3 so as to ensure that onl& ad'ocac& of hatred constituting incitement to
'iolence is prosecutedO
Amend the definition of terrorism Article of the Anti+#errorism La5 so as to bring it in
line 5ith the definition proposed b& the EF 6pecial /apporteur on the promotion and
protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms 5hile countering terrorismO
/epeal Article ((0.* of the Penal Code :Committing a crime in the name of an
organi-ation;O

/epeal Article *.( of the Anti+#errorism La5 :Printing or publishing
declarations.statements of a terrorist organi-ation;O

Amend Article 7.( of the Anti+#errorism La5 :,a$ing propaganda for a terrorist
organi-ation; so as to ensure that it onl& prohibits ad'ocac& of incitement to 'iolence

Adopt guidelines for prosecutors on the application of Article ((0.7 of the Penal Code
that set out clear criteria for 5hen assisting an armed group can be criminali-ed3 including
the re<uirement that such assistance must either in and of itself be a recogni-able criminal
offence3 or be directl& lin$ed to the planning or commission of one.

Amend Article (* of the Constitution so as to ensure that the permissible grounds for
restricting the right to the freedom of expression are consistent 5ith international human
rights standards.





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3) 3)
ENDN-TES

La5 on Legal Amendments /e<uired to 0nhance the 0fficienc& of ?udicial 6er'ices and 6uspension of
the Proceedings and Penalties for Crimes Committed 'ia the ,edia and the Press3 La5 Fo. *35(3
entered into force on ( ?ul& (0(. #he bill contained 07 articles and three temporar& articles. A
number of articles fre<uentl& used in prosecutions that threaten the right to freedom of expression 5ere
repealed or amended as part of the reform pac$age. Penal Code Articles (%5 and (%% that had
fre<uentl& been used to unfairl& prosecute 4ournalists 5riting regarding ongoing criminal cases both
amended. #he re'ised Article (%5 offers greater protections against improper use re<uiring the reporting
of the in'estigation to =a; 'iolateG the right to presumption of innocenceGconfidentialit& of
communications or the right to a pri'ate lifeG> or =b; to obstruct the in'estigation9s disco'er& of the
:material; truth.> #he amendments made changes to Article (%%3 re<uiring that the attempt to influence
a fair trial must be made 5ith the intent of pro'o$ing a false statement or 4udgment or procedure in
'iolation of la53 and pro'iding for con'ictions to be sentenced to fines rather than imprisonment as
pre'iousl&. Article *.5 of the Anti+#errorism La5 5as repealed as part of the reform pac$age. #he Article
pro'ided for the temporar& suspension of publications including the future editions of entire ne5spapers
the content of 5hich is un$no5n. #he offences contained 5ithin Article ((0 of the Penal Code3 5hich
are used to prosecute indi'iduals =as if the& 5ere members of a terrorist organi-ation> :see pages (3+(7
of this report; 5ere unchanged but the sentencing under the Articles 5as amended3 pro'iding 4udges 5ith
the option to reduce sentences b& a half :((0.*; and a third :((0.7;. #he #hird 4udicial pac$age also
pro'ided in its #emporar& Article for the temporar& suspension of in'estigations3 prosecutions and
sentences relating to offences committed before 3 "ecember (0 that 5ereO committed though the
press or broadcast media or other5ise related to the expression of ideasO carr& a term of imprisonment of
no more than fi'e &ears.
(
"raft La5 on Amendments to Certain Legislation in the context of 2uman /ights and 1reedom of
0xpression3 sent to Parliament on 7 ,arch (03. Articles 5+0 of the reform pac$age relate to
amendments of offences fre<uentl& used in prosecutions that threaten the right to freedom of expression.
3
#ur$e& ratified the ICCP/ on (3 6eptember (0033 Article 9 of the ICCP/ states that e'er&one should
ha'e the right to hold opinions 5ithout interference3 and exercise their right to freedom of expression
through an& medium of their choice. /estrictions made to these rights must be both pro'ided b& la5 and
necessar& “*a, Bor respect of the rights or reputations of others; *b, Bor the protection of national security
or of public order *ordre public,, or of public health or morals.” #he full text is a'ailable at
http!..555.ohchr.org.0F.ProfessionalInterest.Pages.CCP/.aspx
)
#ur$e& ratified the 0uropean Con'ention on 2uman /ights :0C2/; on % ,a& 95). Article 0 of the
Con'ention pro'ides that e'er&one has the right to freedom of expression 5ithout interference b& public
authorit&. #he Article also states that “!he eercise of these freedoms, may be sub"ect to such
formalities, conditions, restrictions or penalties as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a
democratic society, in the interests of national security, territorial integrity or public safety, for the
prevention of disorder or crime, for preventing the disclosure of information received in confidence, or for
maintaining the authority and impartiality of the "udiciary.” #he full text is a'ailable at
http!..555.echr.coe.int.F/.rdonl&res."5CC()A7+"C3+)3%+J)57+
5C90)9*"7A.0.CBFS0F#IBFT0FAT70J.pdf
5
Aeneral Comment Fo. 3) on Article 93 para. (( clarifies that restrictions are not allo5ed on grounds
DECRIMINALIZE DISSENT
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Inde"% E&R ''())*(+)*, Amne$t- Intern.tion.l M.r/h +)*,

35
not specified in paragraph 33 e'en if such grounds 5ould 4ustif& restrictions to other rights protected in
the Co'enant. /estrictions must be applied onl& for those purposes for 5hich the& 5ere prescribed and
must be directl& related to the specific need on 5hich the& are predicated. #he full text is a'ailable at
http!..555(.ohchr.org.english.bodies.hrc.docs.gc3).pdf
*
6ee Aeneral Comment Fo. 3)3 para. 50 :=#he acts that are addressed in article (0 are all sub4ect to
restriction pursuant to article 93 paragraph 3. As such3 a limitation that is 4ustified on the basis of
article (0 must also compl& 5ith article 93 paragraph 3>;.
7
#he 2uman /ights Committee addresses concerns and ma$es recommendations to states parties on
their submission of regular reports on steps ta$en to implement the Co'enant. 1ull text of the
International Co'enant on Ci'il and Political /ights :ICCP/; a'ailable here
http!..555.ohchr.org.0F.ProfessionalInterest.Pages.CCP/.aspx
%
6ee 0uropean Court of 2uman /ights3 Annual Report 2A+2, &rovisional version, page 53. A'ailable at
http!..555.echr.coe.int.F/.rdonl&res.9A%C0(9+09)1+)7A0+9%3C+
J)1*0)1C003C.0.(0(T/apportTAnnuelT0F.pdf
9
Article ( of ICCP/ pro'ides that “!he right of peaceful assembly shall be recogni/ed. Co restrictions
may be placed on the eercise of this right other than those imposed in conformity with the law and
which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, public
order *ordre public,, the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms
of others.”
Article (( clearl& states that “*+., Everyone shall have the right to freedom of association with others,
including the right to form and "oin trade unions for the protection of his interests. *2., Co restrictions
may be placed on the eercise of this right other than those which are prescribed by law and which are
necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, public order *ordre
public,, the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.
!his article shall not prevent the imposition of lawful restrictions on members of the armed forces and of
the police in their eercise of this right. *-., Cothing in this article shall authori/e States &arties to the
)nternational 7abour Drganisation :onvention of +E>F concerning Breedom of Association and &rotection
of the Right to Drgani/e to ta$e legislative measures which would pre"udice, or to apply the law in such a
manner as to pre"udice, the guarantees provided for in that :onvention”.
Article of the 0uropean Con'ention on 2uman /ights :0C2/; pro'ides that “*+., Everyone has the
right to freedom of peaceful assembly and to freedom of association with others, including the right to
form and to "oin trade unions for the protection of his interests. *2., Co restrictions shall be placed on
the eercise of these rights other than such as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic
society in the interests of national security or public safety, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for
the protection of health or morals or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others. !his Article
shall not prevent the imposition of lawful restrictions on the eercise of these rights by members of the
armed forces, of the police or of the administration of the State”.
0
Article (. of ICCP/ pro'ides that “Each State &arty to the present :ovenant underta$es to respect
and to ensure to all individuals within its territory and sub"ect to its "urisdiction the rights recogni/ed in
the present :ovenant, without distinction of any $ind, such as race, colour, se, language, religion,
political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.”

Aeneral Comment 3) of the 2uman /ights Committee clearl& underlines the specific conditions
DECRIMINALIZE DISSENT
Time to deliver on the riht to !reedom o! e"#re$$ion

Amne$t- Intern.tion.l M.r/h +)*, Inde"% E&R ''())*(+)*,

3* 3*
re<uired to 4ustif& an& restrictions on freedom of expression in paragraph ((! “&aragraph - lays down
specific conditions and it is only sub"ect to these conditions that restrictions may be imposed< the
restrictions must be “provided by law”; they may only be imposed for one of the grounds set out in
subparagraphs *a, and *b, of paragraph -; and they must conform to the strict tests of necessity and
proportionality. Restrictions are not allowed on grounds not specified in paragraph -, even if such
grounds would "ustify restrictions to other rights protected in the :ovenant. Restrictions must be applied
only for those purposes for which they were prescribed and must be directly related to the specific need
on which they are predicated”
(
#ur$ish Penal Code3 La5 Fo. 5(37 entered into force on ?une (005
3
In (00%3 then ,inister of ?ustice ,ehmet Ali Uahin said that o'er 73000 people had been prosecuted
for referring to Abdullah Hcalan as =sa&In>. 6ee Jianet3 !@r$iye G$i HIlda J.FF> KiLiyi 9Su%u, Su%luyu
Mvme$9ten HargIladI. A'aialble at http!..bianet.org.bianet.bianet.597+tur$i&e+i$i+&ilda+7+%%)+$isi&i+
sucu+suclu&u+o'me$ten+&argiladiO
)
6ee for example the case of ,ehmet AN-el. 2e 5as among man& acti'ists 5ho too$ part in a campaign
to protest the prosecution of people for use of =6a&In Hcalan>. As part of the campaign he 5rote in (00%
to the Bffice of the Chief Prosecutor stating >If to sa& sa&In is a crime then I too sa& sa&In Hcalan and
commit this crime and 5arn &ou of it m&self>. As a result he 5as prosecuted under Article ((0.* of the
Penal Code =Committing a crime in the name of an organi-ation>; and Article 7.( of the Anti+#errorism
La5 =,a$ing propaganda for a terrorist organi-ation>. In "ecember (0 he 5as con'icted of ma$ing
propaganda for a terrorist organi-ation and sentenced to 0 months in prison b& the local court
:4udgment of (9 "ecember (03 no (0.555;.
5
6ee for example the case of 2alil 6a'da3 page (.
*
Article -A+ N *Amended by 7aw OJOE of -A April 2AAFPArticle +, Insulting the #ur$ish nation3 the
#ur$ish /epublic3 the institutions and organs of the state :; Public denigration of the #ur$ish nation3
the state of the /epublic of #ur$e&3 the #ur$ish Parliament :#J,,;3 the go'ernment of the /epublic of
#ur$e& and the legal institutions of state3 shall be punishable b& imprisonment of bet5een six months
and t5o &ears. :(; Public denigration of the militar& or securit& authorities shall be punished according to
the terms of paragraph :;. :3; 0xpression of thoughts intended to critici-e shall not constitute a crime.
:); #he in'estigation of this crime is sub4ect to the permission of the ,inister of ?ustice.
7
0uropean Court of 2uman /ights3 Altu# !aner A$%am v. !ur$ey :Application no. (75(0.07;3
4udgement of (5 Bctober (03 para. 77. A'ailable at
http!..hudoc.echr.coe.int.sites.eng.pages.search.aspxViW00+07(0*
%
Ibid3 para. 9(
9
,eeting 5ith officials from the ,inistr& of ?ustice3 An$ara3 1ebruar& (0(.
(0
#he ,inister of ?ustice later said that he made the comments in his personal capacit& not as a
,inister of 6tate. 6ee /adi$al3 Qevletime $atil dedirtmem3 7 Fo'ember (00%. A'ailable at
http!..555.radi$al.com.tr./adi$al.aspxVa#&peW/adi$al"eta&S3XArticleI"W90%737XCategor&I"W77
(
6ee Jianet3 6a/eteci QemirerRe 4ir -A+ Qaha3 ( ,arch (03. A'ailable at
http!..555.bianet.org.bianet.ifade+o-gurlugu.)50(0+ga-eteci+demirer+e+bir+30+daha
((
Article -+F = Alienating the public from military service :; An& person 5ho encourages3 or conducts
propaganda 5hich 5ould ha'e the effect of discouraging the public from performing militar& ser'ice3
DECRIMINALIZE DISSENT
Time to deliver on the riht to !reedom o! e"#re$$ion
Inde"% E&R ''())*(+)*, Amne$t- Intern.tion.l M.r/h +)*,

37
shall be punishable b& imprisonment of bet5een six months to t5o &ears. :(; 7here the act is committed
through the press or broadcasting3 the penalt& shall be increased b& one half.
(3
6ee Amnest& International3 !ur$ey< !ime to recognise right to conscientious ob"ection. A'ailable at
http!..555.amnest&.org.en.librar&.info.0E/)).00.(0(.en
()
An& such restrictions must additionall& be pro'ided b& la53 strictl& necessar& and proportionate to the
aim pursued.
(5
#he right to refuse militar& ser'ice for reasons of conscience is inherent in the notion of freedom of
thought3 conscience and religion as laid do5n in a number of international human rights instruments3
including the Eni'ersal "eclaration of 2uman /ights and the International Co'enant on Ci'il and
Political /ights :ICCP/; to 5hich #ur$e& is a part&. #he Arand Chamber if the 0uropean Court of 2uman
/ights ruled in 4ayatyan v. Armenia :Application no. (3)59.03; in ?ul& (0 that the state had 'iolated
the right to freedom of thought3 conscience and religion :Article 9;. ?udgement a'ailable at
http!..hudoc.echr.coe.int.sites.eng.pages.search.aspxViW00+05*
(*
6ee 0uropean Court of 2uman /ights Ergin v. !ur$ey :Fo. *;3 :Application no )7533.99;3 4udgment of
) ,a& (00*3 para. 35. A'ailable at http!..hudoc.echr.coe.int.sites.eng.pages.search.aspxViW00+753(7O
Article 55 of the former #ur$ish Penal Code reads! =It shall be an offence3 punishable b& t5o months9
to t5o &ears9 imprisonment and a fine ... to publish articles inciting the population to brea$ the la5 or
5ea$ening national securit&3 to issue publications intended to incite others to e'ade militar& ser'ice...>
(7
#he reference pla&s on the #ur$ish pro'erb =0'er& #ur$ is born a soldier>
(%
?udgment of ) ?une (0(. As of 1ebruar& (03 the 5ritten reasoned 4udgment 5as not a'ailable.
(9
6ee Amnest& International3 #ur$e&! #ur$ish human rights defender imprisoned! 2alil 6a'da. A'ailable
at http!..555.amnest&.org.en.librar&.info.0E/)).00).(0(.en
30
Indictment no. (0.3(93 ( August (0
3
Article +2O = Qefamation :; A person 5ho undermines the honour3 dignit& or respectabilit& of another
person or 5ho attac$s a personYs honour b& attributing to them a concrete act or a fact3 or b& means of
an insult shall be sentenced to imprisonment for a term of three months to t5o &ears3 or punished 5ith a
4udicial fine. In order to con'ict for an insult made in the absence of the 'ictim3 the act must ha'e been
5itnessed b& at least three persons. :(; If the act is committed b& means of a spo$en3 5ritten or 'isual
message addressing the 'ictim3 the perpetrator shall be sentenced to the penalties set out abo'e. :3; If
the offence of defamation is committed! a; against a public official in connection 5ith their dut&O b; in
response to expression3 modification3 efforts for dissemination of one9s religious3 political3 social3
philosophical beliefs3 thoughts and opinions3 the indi'idual9s compliance 5ith the rules and prohibitions
of his religion3 c; b& reference to the hol& 'alues of a person9s religion3 the penalt& shall be not less than
one &ear. :); :Amended b& La5 5377 of (9 ?une (005 .Article 5; 7here the defamation is committed
in public3 the penalt& shall be increased b& one sixth. :5; :Amended b& la5 5377 of (9 ?une (005
.Article 5; 7here public officials 5or$ing as Joard ,embers are exposed to defamation3 and the
allegation is connected 5ith their public status or the public ser'ice the& pro'ide3 the offence is deemed
to ha'e been committed against the ,embers of the Joard. 2o5e'er3 in this case the pro'isions
indicated in the article on consecuti'e crimes do appl&.
3(
Paragraph 3% of the 2uman /ights Committee9s Aeneral Comment 3) clearl& states 5here =Gthe
mere fact that forms of expression are considered to be insulting to a public figure is not sufficient to
DECRIMINALIZE DISSENT
Time to deliver on the riht to !reedom o! e"#re$$ion

Amne$t- Intern.tion.l M.r/h +)*, Inde"% E&R ''())*(+)*,

3% 3%
4ustif& the imposition of penalties3 albeit public figures ma& also benefit from the pro'isions of the
Co'enant.

,oreo'er3 all public figures3 including those exercising the highest political authorit& such as
heads of state and go'ernment3 are legitimatel& sub4ect to criticism and political opposition. Accordingl&3
the Committee expresses concern regarding la5s on such matters as3 lese ma4est&3 desacato3

disrespect
for authorit&3 disrespect for flags and s&mbols3 defamation of the head of state

and the protection of the
honour of public officials3 and la5s should not pro'ide for more se'ere penalties solel& on the basis of
the identit& of the person that ma& ha'e been impugned. 6tates parties should not prohibit criticism of
institutions3 such as the arm& or the administration.> 1ull text a'ailable at
http!..555(.ohchr.org.english.bodies.hrc.docs.gc3).pdf
33
Article () of the Ci'il Code pro'ides for the circumstances in bringing ci'il claims for insult. =Persons
5hose indi'idual rights are infringed in contra'ention to legislation are entitled to re<uest 4udges to
protect their indi'idual rights against the perpetrators of the infringement.'iolation. All infringements of
indi'idual rights are illegal3 unless the& are based on consent b& the 'ictim3 are 4ustified b& superior
pri'ate or public interest or the& are carried out in order to fulfil an authorit& granted b& la5.>
3)
In addition to the case belo53 see for instance the case brought against a 7 &ear old for a post
regarding the Prime ,inister on the social net5or$ing site3 1aceboo$. In ?ul& (0( 2e 5as sentenced to
months and (0 da&s in prison. As of 6eptember (0( the case remained pending on appeal. 6ee
6abah3 Erdo#anRa ha$arete hapis ce/asI3 ( ?ul& (0(. A'ailable at
http!..555.sabah.com.tr.Kasam.(0(.07.(.basba$an+erdogana+ha$arete+hapis+ce-asi
35
03000 #ur$ish Lira is e<ui'alent to approximatel& )3(50 0uros
3*
6ee Amnest& International3 !ur$ey< Restrictive laws, arbitrary application = the pressure on human
rights defenders. A'ailable at http!..amnest&.org.en.librar&.info.0E/)).00(.(00).en
37
#he 2igh Council of ?udges and Prosecutors has a number of competencies3 including admitting3
appointing and promoting 4udgesO selecting 4udges and prosecutors to sit on cases being heard at the
higher courts3 and o'erseeing the lo5er courtsO and deciding on proposals b& the ,inistr& of ?ustice
concerning the abolition of a court or an office of 4udge or public prosecutor3 or changes in the
4urisdiction of a court. #he ,inister of ?ustice ser'es as chairman of the high council alongside the
Endersecretar& of the ,inistr& of ?ustice3 three members from the Court of Cassation3 and t5o members
from the Council of 6tate.
3%
Indictment no. (0.%3973 ) Fo'ember (0
39
6ee Aeneral Comment Fo. 3)3 para. 3%. A'ailable at
http!..555(.ohchr.org.english.bodies.hrc.docs.gc3).pdf
)0
Ibid
)
Article 2+O = &raising a crime and a criminal :; A person publicl& praising a crime or a person on the
basis of the crime he has committed3 shall be punished 5ith imprisonment for up to t5o &ears.
)(
Article (7 of the #ur$ish Penal Code states =An& person 5ho openl& pro'o$es people not to obe& the
la5s is punished 5ith imprisonment from six months to t5o &ears3 or imposed puniti'e fine3 if such act
causes potential for public peace.>
)3
In (00%3 then ,inister of ?ustice ,ehmet Ali Uahin said that o'er 73000 people had been prosecuted
for referring to Abdullah Hcalan as =sa&In>. 6ee Jianet3 !@r$iye G$i HIlda J.FF> KiLiyi 9Su%u, Su%luyu
Mvme$9ten HargIladI, (* "ecember (00%. A'ailable at http!..bianet.org.bianet.bianet.597+tur$i&e+i$i+
DECRIMINALIZE DISSENT
Time to deliver on the riht to !reedom o! e"#re$$ion
Inde"% E&R ''())*(+)*, Amne$t- Intern.tion.l M.r/h +)*,

39
&ilda+7+%%)+$isi&i+sucu+suclu&u+o'me$ten+&argiladiO and Jianet3 HargItay< 9SayIn9 ve 96erilla9 Qeme$
Gfade M/g@rl@#@, ( ,a& (0(. A'ailable at http!..bianet.org.bianet.ifade+o-gurlugu.3%)%%+&argita&+
sa&in+'e+gerilla+deme$+ifade+o-gurlugu
))
Ibid
)5
Indictment no. (0.3(%3 ( ?ul& (03 page
)*
?udgment no. (0(.**3 (9 ,arch (0(
)7
1andyside vs SK, application no 5)93.7(, ?udgment of 7 "ecember 97*
)%
A&han 6efer MstNn made the comments follo5ing a demonstration in Istanbul in 1ebruar& (0(3
commemorating the 99( 8ho4al& ,assacre of A-erbai4ani citi-ens b& Armenian soldiers. Protestors
shouted slogans praising the person con'icted of shooting 2rant "in$ and carried placards reading =Kou
are all Armenians3 Kou are all bastards> moc$ing the 4ustice campaign slogan =7e are all Armenians3 5e
are all 2rant "in$>. 2e is reported as sa&ing regarding the (005 introduction of Article (* =Brada Ro$
aRI$ &a-I&or3 a&rImcIlI$ &apanlarIn hangi ce-a&a maru- $alacaZI. 1a$at sa'cIlar bu maddeleri henN- tatbi$
etmedi$leri iRin bu a&rImcI3 Ir$RI s[&lemler de'am edi&orL. \uoted from Agos Fe5spaper3 !a$sim0de$i
pan$artlara Teclis0ten tep$i3 (% 1ebruar& (0(. A'ailable at http!..555.agos.com.tr.ta$simde$i+
pan$artlara+meclisten+tep$i+%0.html
)9
Indictment no. (0(.75)3 (5 ,a& (0(
50
\uoted in Jianet3 4en 4ir AyrI$ Dtuyum, ( ?anuar& (0(. A'ailable at
http!..bianet.org.bianet.bianet.35)*+ben+bir+a&ri$+otu&um
5
6ee for example para. ()+(* of #homas 2ammarberg3 Commissioner for 2uman /ights of the Council
of 0urope Report on Breedom of epression and media freedom in !ur$ey. A'ailable at
https!..5cd.coe.int.Sie5"oc.4spVidW%)0%5
6ee also para. (*+33 Tission to !ur$ey< Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and
protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism A'ailable at
http!..daccess+dds+n&.un.org.doc.EF"BC.A0F.A0*.)9.)(.P"1.A0*)9)(.pdfVBpen0lementO Also see
B6C0 Tain Bindings of the !able of )mprisoned Uournalists in !ur$ey, A&R)7 2A+2. A'ailable at
http!..555.osce.org.fom.%937
In addition3 in (00 Amnest& International published a report All :hildren have rights< End prosecutions
of children under anti=terrorism legislation in !ur$ey that loo$ed into the abuse of anti+terrorism
legislation to prosecute demonstrators3 man& of them children. #he report is a'ailable at
http!..555.amnest&.org.en.librar&.info.0E/)).0.(00.en
5(
Amnest& International issued the follo5ing statement regarding the (00 amendments! !ur$ey ends
prosecution of child demonstrators under anti=terror laws. A'ailable at http!..555.amnest&.org.en.ne5s+
and+updates.tur$e&+ends+prosecution+child+demonstrators+under+anti+terror+la5s+(00+07+(3
53
?ul& (0( amendments to the Anti+#errorism La5 5ithin the =#hird ?udicial Pac$age> pro'ided 4udges
5ith the option to reduce sentences b& a half :((0.*; and a third :((0.7;.
5)
Article *.5 of the Anti+#errorism La5 allo5ed 4udges to suspend periodicals from bet5een fifteen da&s
to one month for =public incitement of crimes 5ithin the frame5or$ of acti'ities of a terrorist
organisation3 praise of committed crimes or of criminals or the propaganda of a terrorist organisation>. It
5as found b& the 0Ct2/ to 'iolate the right to freedom of expression3 most recentl& in the case of Vrper
DECRIMINALIZE DISSENT
Time to deliver on the riht to !reedom o! e"#re$$ion

Amne$t- Intern.tion.l M.r/h +)*, Inde"% E&R ''())*(+)*,

)0 )0
and others v. !ur$ey :Applications no9s 5503*.073 555*).073 ((%.0%3 )7%.0%3 )0%*.0%3 *30(.0%
and 7(00.0%;3 4udgement of (* ?ul& (00. A'ailable at
http!..hudoc.echr.coe.int.sites.eng.pages.search.aspxViW00+9*9)9
55
6ee Jianet3 En Wo$ 9!erXr 1@$@ml@s@9 !@r$iyeRde, 5 6eptember (0. A'ailable at
http!..555.bianet.org.bianet.insan+ha$lari.3(5*+en+co$+teror+hu$umlusu+tur$i&ede
5*
Bn the number of in'estigations brought see /adi$al3 M6TRlere GliL$in Adli Sicil ve Gstatisti$ 6enel
T@d@rl@#@ resmi istatisti$lerine ba$ma$, bu mah$emelerin niteli#i ha$$Inda yeterli fi$ri veriyor, (9
1ebruar& (0(. A'ailable at
http!..555.radi$al.com.tr./adi$al.aspxVa#&peW2aberKa-dirXArticleI"W0%0((
57
Anti+#errorism La53 La5 Fo. 3733 entered into force ( April3 99
5%
6ee paragraphs +% and 7* Tission to !ur$ey< Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion
and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism. A'ailable at
http!..daccess+dds+n&.un.org.doc.EF"BC.A0F.A0*.)9.)(.P"1.A0*)9)(.pdfVBpen0lement
59
/eport of the EF 6pecial /apporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and
fundamental freedoms 5hile countering terrorism3 ,artin 6cheinin3 on #en areas of best practices in
countering terrorism3 EF "oc A.2/C.*.5 :(( "ec (00;3 paras (*+(%. A'ailable at
http!..555(.ohchr.org.english.bodies.hrcouncil.docs.*session.A+2/C+*+5.pdf
*0
Article -+> = Armed organi/ation :; An& person 5ho3 in order to commit crimes defined in the fourth
:crimes against the securit& of the state; and fifth :crimes against the constitutional order and the
functioning of this order; sections3 establishes or leads an armed organi-ation shall be punished 5ith
imprisonment for a term of 0 to 5 &ears. :(; An& person 5ho becomes a member of the armed
organi-ation as defined in clause :; shall be sentenced to imprisonment for a term of fi'e to ten &ears.
:3; All the related sentences to the crime of establishing an organi-ation to commit a crime 5ill be
applied to this crime.
*
Indictment no. (0(.(33 9 ,arch (0(3 page (07*
*(
Indictment no. (0(.(33 9 ,arch (0(
*3
Indictment no. (0(.(33 9 ,arch (0(3 page (07*+(0
*)
Indictment no. (0(.(33 9 ,arch (0(3 page (07*+(0%%
*5
Indictment no. (0(.(33 9 ,arch (0(3 page (0%%+(0
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Indictment no. (0(.(33 9 ,arch (0(3 page (0
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"icle 2aber A4ansI ne5s item of 3 ?une (003 cited in Indictment no. (0(.(33 9 ,arch (0(3
page (0 and a second "icle 2aber A4ansI ne5s item dated (3 1ebruar& (03 cited in the
indictment3 page (0(.
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Indictment no. (0(.(33 9 ,arch (0(3 #estimon& of "elil Jotan 8ahraman3 page (0)
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Indictment no. (0(.(33 9 ,arch (0(3 page (0*
70
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7
Indictment no. (00%.(0(3 ( ?une (00%3 page )
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7(
6ee 0uropean Court of 2uman /ights3 Kor$ma/ v. !ur$ey *Application no. >2OEAPEF,3 4udgement of
(0 "ecember (005. A'ailable in 1rench at http!..hudoc.echr.coe.int.sites.eng.pages.search.aspxViW00+
77(
73
Indictment of ( ?une (00%3 no. (00%.(0(3 page 3
7)
/easoned 4udgment 9 ?une (003 no.(00.*0
75
/easoned 4udgment 9 ?une (003 no.(00.*0
7*
/easoned 4udgment 9 ?une (003 no.(00.*0
77
/easoned 4udgment 3 ,a& (003 no.(00.357
7%
Indictment no. (00%.(5(3 07 ,arch (00%O Indictment no. (00%.5033 ( April (00%O Indictment no.
(007.7*53 ( ?une (007O Indictment no. (00%.353 (7 ,arch (00%O Indictment no. (007.%793 5
6eptember (007O Indictment no. (007.9*%3 9 Bctober (007O Indictment no. (007.553 )
"ecember (007O Indictment no. (007.3(3 5 "ecember (007O Indictment no. (00%.*0%3 ( ,a&
(00%O Indictment no. (007.)(*3 ) April (007O Indictment no. (007.)*3 9 April (007O Indictment no.
(007.)%3 3 April (007O Indictment no. (007.)93 3 April (007O Indictment no. (007.)(3 3 April
(007O Indictment no. (007.)53 3 April (007O Indictment no. (007.*553 % ,a& (007O Indictment
no. (007.*5)3 % ,a& (007O Indictment no. (00%.*%53 (( ,a& (00%O Indictment no. (007.%073
?ul& (007O Indictment no. (00%.573 5 ?anuar& (00%O Indictment no. (007.*%%3 (9 ,a& (007O
Indictment no. (00%.)3 * Bctober (00%O Indictment no. (007.93*3 ( Bctober (007O Indictment
no. (007.9)73 ( Bctober (007O Indictment no. (007.)*)3 9 April (007O Indictment no. (007.%0%3
?ul& (007O Indictment no. (007.9(93 (5 6eptember (007O Indictment no. (007.)*3 3 April (007O
Indictment no. (00%.90*3 % ?ul& (00%O Indictment no. (00%.9*3 (3 ?ul& (00%O Indictment no.
(00%.%73 (7 ?une (00%O Indictment no. (007.9(%3 (5 6eptember (007O Indictment no. (00%.*5*3
* ,a& (00%
79
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Indictment no. (0.)(53 (* August (03 page *)
9
1or information on 1etullah ANlen see Fe5 Kor$ #imes3 !ur$ey Beels Sway of Reclusive :leric in the
S.S3 () April (0(. A'ailable at http!..555.n&times.com.(0(.0).(5.5orld.middleeast.tur$e&+feels+
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s5a&+of+fethullah+gulen+a+reclusi'e+cleric.htmlVpage5antedWall
9(
Indictment no. (0.)(53 (* August (03 page %0
93
Indictment no. (0.)(53 (* August (03 page %0
9)
Indictment no. (0.)(53 (* August (03 page %
95
1or the full <uote see Jianet3 YI$RIn :e/aevi WI$ILInda$i SX/leri QavalI$, 30 ?ul& (0(. A'ailable at
http!..bianet.org.bianet.ifade+o-gurlugu.)00%+si$in+ce-ae'i+ci$isinda$i+so-leri+da'ali$
9*
Indictment no. (0.)(53 (* August (03 pages 9%+99
97
Indictment no. (0.)(53 (* August (03 page 97
9%
Indictment no. (0.)(53 (* August (03 pages 9%+0)
99
6ee for example 0uropean Court of 2uman /ights3 SavgIn v. !ur$ey :Application no. 330).3;3
4udgement of ( 1ebruar& (00. A'ailable in 1rench at
http!..hudoc.echr.coe.int.sites.eng.pages.search.aspxViW00+970(O and KIlI% and Eren v. !ur$ey
:Application no )3%07.07;, 4udgment of (9 Fo'ember (0. A'ailable at
http!..hudoc.echr.coe.int.sites.eng.pages.search.aspxViW00+0759
00
6ee for instance the case of A&dIn Juda$3 page 30
0
0uropean Court of 2uman /ights3 ?ana v. !ur$ey :Application no9s *9.99*.*%%.%%0;3 4udgement of
(5 Fo'ember 997. A'ailable at http!..hudoc.echr.coe.int.sites.eng.pages.search.aspxViW00+5%5 O
and S@re$ v. !ur$ey :Application no. (**%(.95;3 4udgement of % ?ul& 999. A'ailable at
http!..hudoc.echr.coe.int.sites.eng.pages.search.aspxViW00+5%(79. Joth cases are cited b& the courts.
0(
6ee 0uropean Court of 2uman /ights3 ?ana v. !ur$ey :Application no9s *9.99*.*%%.%%0;3
4udgement of (5 Fo'ember 9973 para (. A'ailable at
http!..hudoc.echr.coe.int.sites.eng.pages.search.aspxViW00+5%5
03
6ee 0uropean Court of 2uman /ights3 S@re$ v. !ur$ey :Application no. (**%(.95;3 4udgement of %
?ul& 9993 para *(. A'ailable at http!..hudoc.echr.coe.int.sites.eng.pages.search.aspxViW00+5%(79
0)
?udgment no. (00%.((03 (0 ,a& (00%
05
?udgment no. (00%.((03 (0 ,a& (00%3 page 0
0*
6ee :ouncil of Europe :onvention on the &revention of !errorism3 a'ailable at
http!..con'entions.coe.int.#reat&.en.#reaties.2tml.9*.htm. Article 5. states that! 1or the purposes of
this Con'ention3 Lpublic pro'ocation to commit a terrorist offenceL means the distribution3 or other5ise
ma$ing a'ailable3 of a message to the public3 5ith the intent to incite the commission of a terrorist
offence3 5here such conduct3 5hether or not directl& ad'ocating terrorist offences3 causes a danger that
one or more such offences ma& be committed.
07
6ee Article 53 on the #ur$ish Criminal Code on ad'ising the 5itness of the importance of his dut& @
“*+, 4efore the witness gives his testimony, he shall be cautioned; a, About the importance of the telling
of the truth, b, !hat he shall be punished of per"ury if he doesn0t tell the truth, c, !hat he has to ta$e an
oath that he is going to tell the truth, and d, !hat he is not allowed to leave the courtroom without an
open permission of the presiding "udge or the "udge.>
0%
Joth articles 5ere published on ( ?une (009 edition of 6@nl@$ ne5spaper. "ecision no. (00.*%3 7
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)3
April (00.
09
As of 1ebruar& (03 a number of large scale trials targeted alleged membership and support for the
8urdistan Communities Enion :8C8;. Pi&a QiRe$Ri is one of )) 4ournalists accused of 8C8 membership
in an Istanbul trial that began in 6eptember (0(.
0
Article Z = Announcement and publication :; #hose 5ho announce or publish that a crime 5ill be
committed b& terrorist organisations against persons3 in a 5a& that ma$es possible that these persons
can be identified3 5hether or not b& specif&ing their names and identities3 or those 5ho disclose or
publish the identities of state officials that 5ere assigned in fight against terrorism3 or those 5ho mar$
persons as targets in the same manner shall be punished 5ith imprisonment from one to three &ears. :(;
#hose 5ho print or publish declarations or announcements of terrorist organisations shall be punished
5ith imprisonment from one to three &ears. :3; #hose 5ho3 in 'iolation of article ) of this La53 disclose
or publish the identities of informants shall be punished 5ith imprisonment from one to three &ears.
:Amended b& La5 553( on (9 ?une (00*. Art 5; If an& of the offences indicated in the paragraphs
abo'e are committed b& means of mass media3 editors+in+chief :G; 5ho ha'e not participated in the
perpetration of the crime shall be punished 5ith a 4udicial fine from one thousand to fifteen thousand
da&s9 rates. 2o5e'er3 the upper limit of this sentence for editors+in+chief is fi'e thousand da&s9 rates.

Fot re<uiring intent for the elements of the crime to be satisfied.
(
6ee H-gNr ANndem, [GmralI0da 1u$u$larInI Wi#niyorlar0, 3 6eptember (0. A'ailable at
http!..555.o-gur+
gundem.com.index.phpVhaberI"W(0()5XhaberJasli$W]0(]%0]9%]C)]J0,/ALI]0(]%0]99"A
](02E8E8LA/IFI](0]C3]%7]C)]J0]C)]90F]C)]J0KB/LA/]0(]%0]99XactionWhaberT
deta&XmoduleWnuce
3
?udgement no. (0.93 (% "ecember (0
)
?udgement no. (0.93 (% "ecember (0

































amnesty,org

Inde"% E&R ''())*(+)*,
M.r/h +)*,
TURKEY: DECRIMINALIZE DISSENT
TIME T- DELIKER -N T/E RIA/T T-
2REED-M -2 E51RESSI-N
T!e rig!t to ree&om o e7$ression is #n&er atta'> in T#r>ey, Criminal
$rose'#tions targeting &issenting o$inions re$resent one o T#r>eyLs most
entren'!e& !#man rig!ts $roblems, Des$ite a series o legislative reorm
$a'>ages% #nair la+s remain on t!e stat#te an& 'ontin#e to be ab#se&,
1revio#sly taboo iss#es M s#'! as t!e sit#ation o Armenians in T#r>ey or
'riti'ism o t!e arme& or'es M are more +i&ely &is'#sse& in t!e
mainstream me&ia, /o+ever% t!e la+s #se& to 'riminaliDe s$ee'! on
t!ese iss#es remain in or'e an& 'ontin#e to be a$$lie&,
T!e most negative &evelo$ment in re'ent years !as been t!e in'reasingly
arbitrary #se o anti=terrorism la+s to $rose'#te legitimate a'tivities
in'l#&ing $oliti'al s$ee'!es% 'riti'al +riting% atten&an'e o
&emonstrations an& asso'iation +it! re'ognise& $oliti'al gro#$s an&
organiDations = in violation o t!e rig!ts to ree&om o e7$ression%
asso'iation an& assembly,
In t!is re$ort% Amnesty International analyses t!e $roblems in la+ an&
$ra'ti'e relating to ten o t!e most $roblemati' oen'es an& ma>es
'on'rete re'ommen&ations on t!e legislative '!anges nee&e& to bring
t!ese ab#ses to an en&,