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IENG440

Project Narrative

Project Requirement: Establishing a Plant for manufacturing Electrical Switches and Plugs
in TRNC.
Dear students, as a requirement in this course, on April 2, 2012, you should submit the first
progressive report and on May 18, 2012, you should submit your final project report. Finally, on
May 21, 2012 you should make presentations of your final project reports.
The first project report must include the information about the following items as related to the
industry you are going to design:
1. Products,
2. Most sold products,
3. Available technologies,
4. Raw materials needed in manufacturing the Products,
5. Market survey,
6. TRNC related rules & regulations.
The final project report must include all items above plus the following items:
7. Design for the Products (at least 3 products) you decide to produce.
8. Process Design (You should provide information on the machinery and operations used
in such industries).
9. Demand forecasts for the products in item 7.
10. Transportation systems to be used by your Plant that you are going to design in IENG442
course.
11. Feasibility study for this Plant you are designing (Including technical and Economic
feasibility).
Useful Information about the Manufacturing Plants for Electrical Switches and Plugs [1]:
1. Products: Electrical switches sockets and plugs are made from electro plated metal and their
thermosetting plastic. They serve mainly in building construction sector for and control of electric
power supply.
2. Justification: The majority of building, mainly dwelling units, are electrically lighted. The
electric power supply needs switches, socket and plug for use of electricity to different purpose.
Presently there is high usage of electricity in urban houses and the spread of rural electrification
has been intensified. New customers of electricity users are increasing. It is necessary to have a
plant that produces the electrical components. TRNC has no single plant that produce electrical
switches socket and plug and it is necessary to establish a factory that serves the potential and
existing demand.
3. Market: The demand for electric switch, socket and plugs in TRNC is currently met entirely
from import. Construction of electrically lighted building/dwelling office and others is rapidly
increasing in all urban towns of the region. The building require large amount of electrical
components. There is also potential demand of the non-dwelling building constructions
(institutional, commercial, industrial etc).
4. Supply of Raw Material:-The major raw materials of such a plant are:
- Plastics
- Metal sheets
- Nickel plating material
- Zinc platting material
- Other chemicals
- Packing materials
The Production Process and Technology Required:
1) The Production Process: The production of the Electrical products basically involves the
process machining (lathing and punching of metal parts and spring making) galvanizing,
molding of plastic parts, assembling, inspection/testing and packing.
2) The Machinery and Equipments required are:
a) Presses - Cleaning (scouring) equipment
b) Trimming machine -Furnace
c) Sheering equipment - Electric planting equipment
d) Milling machine - Injection molding machine
e) Lath (Bench) - Air compressor
f) Drills (Bench) -Other (vise, carriage storage boxes work tables
g) Grinders racks and etc.
Electrical sockets: Are the small devices which are used to connect electric appliances to the
commercial power supply so that current can flow into them and they can operate. Electrical sockets
are paired with electrical plugs and both of them jointly are responsible for the proper running of
domestic as well as industrial electrical system.

Electrical sockets are also called power sockets are female electrical connectors having holes or
slots inside them. Pins or blades of power plugs are inserted in these slots and then electricity is
supplied to the appliances.

Types / Holes of Electrical Sockets:
Usually there are two or three slots or holes in electrical sockets. The two hole electrical sockets are
used for two pin plugs and three hole sockets for three pin plugs.

Two hole sockets: These electrical sockets carry two wires one of which is the live or hot wire
carrying alternating current from main AC supply to the appliances. The other wire is the neutral wire
that backs the current from the equipment to the mains supply.

Three hole sockets: In three hole electrical sockets, the function of two wires (live and neutral) are
similar to that of two hole sockets but the additional or the third wire is earth or ground wire that
grants electrical safety. In case of any fault in the electrical system, the ground wire ensures that the
exposed conductive surfaces should be at the same electrical potential equal to the earth. This
minimizes the risk of electrical shock if someone accidentally touches electrical device.
Electrical Switches:
An electrical switch is a commonly used device for making, breaking, or changing the course of an
electric circuit. There are different types of electrical switches being manufactured for use in different
applications.
Composition of Electrical Switches
It consists of two or more contacts that are mounted on an insulating structure and is so arranged
that they can be moved into and out of contact with each other with the help of a suitable operating
mechanism.
The two contacts in a switch are made of metal and the metal is chosen keeping in mind the
resistance to corrosion, as most metals are likely to form insulating oxides, which further prevents the
switch from working. Contacts in a switch are often plated with noble metal. The switch also has an
actuator - a moving part that is used for applying operating force to the contacts.

Arrangement of Contacts
All electrical Switches can be classified according to the arrangement of contacts. While few contacts
are normally open until closed by operation of the switch, others are normally closed and opened by
the switch action. An electrical switch having both types of contact is known as a changeover switch.

Two terms are used for describing the switch contacts-pole and throw. While a pole is a set of
contacts belonging to a single circuit. A throw is one of the positions that can be adopted in a switch.
Both the terms have given rise to certain abbreviations that are used for different types of switches in
the electronics industry. In British and American English, the terms two way and three way have
different meanings.

Types of Electrical Switches
There are various types of electrical switches available in the market for use in different applications.
The type of switch will differ for use in industries, residence and various heavy application areas.
Some of the switches being used are:
 Centrifugal Switches
 DIP Switches
 Foot Switches
 Mechanical Switches
 Rocker Switches
 Safety Sensor Switches
 Pushwheel Switches
 Slide Switches
 Specialty Switches
 Changeover Switches
 Disconnect Switches
 Key Lock Switches
 Membrane Switches
 Rotary Switches
 Push Button Switches
 Pressure Switches
 Snap Action Switches
Note: Information about the Switch Materials can be found in reference [4].
References:
1- https://sites.google.com/site/projectethio/home/electrical-electronics/1-electrical-
switches-socket-and-plug-making-plant
2- http://sourcing.indiamart.com/electrical/electrical-sockets/
3- http://www-materials.eng.cam.ac.uk/mpsite/plug/non_IE/page1.html
4- http://sourcing.indiamart.com/electrical/electrical-switches/switch-materials/
5- http://www.smeda.org/downloads/Cluster_Profile_EFI.pdf