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UNIT II: ECOSYSTEM & BIODIVERSITY

Ecosystem
Manmade
(Crop lands, dams, etc.)
Natural
Aquatic
Marine
Fresh water
Terrestrial
Running water (river)
Standing water
(lake, pond)



Structure of Ecosystem
Abiotic components
(non-living)
Biotic components
(Living)
Physical
(Energy, climate,
temperature, sunlight)
Chemical
(Nutrients, proteins)
Producers (Autotrophs)
- Green plants, trees by
photosynthesis
Consumers
(Heterotrophs)
- Herbivores &
Carnivores (insects,
rabbits, goat)
Decomposers
(Microorganisms)
Primary consumer
(Insect, goat, deer)
Secondary consumer
(Cat, frog, snakes)
Tertiary consumer
(Tiger, lion,)

Function of Ecosystem
Primary Function

(Production of food by photosynthesis)
Secondary Function

(Distribution of energy to higher levels)
Tertiary Function

(Decomposing dead species)
Cycles in Ecosystem

- Nutrient cycle
- Hydrological cycle (water cycle)
- Carbon cycle
- Nitrogen cycle
- Phosphorous cycle




Water Cycle




Carbon Cycle




Ecological Succession

Progressive replacement of one community by another

Types - Primary succession & Secondary succession


Process of Ecological Succession (Steps involved)

1. Nudation - Development of area without life
2. Invasion - One or more species formed
3. Competition - Growth of species
4. Reaction - New and stable species are formed
5. Stabilization - Leads to stable community

Energy Pyramid



Food Chain



Food Web


Land Ecosystem

Biotic components Forest Ecosystem Grassland
Ecosystem
Desert Ecosystem
1. Producers Trees, Shrubs
Ground vegetation
Grasses, Forbs
Shrubs

Shrubs, Bushes
Cactus, Dates
Consumers
a) Primary consumer (Herbivores) Ants, Flies
Insects, Mice
Deer, Squirrels
Cows, Buffaloes
Deer, Sheep
Squirrel, Mice
Foxes, Rabbis
Reptiles, Camel
b) Secondary consumers
(Primary Carnivores)
Snake
Birds
Foxes

Snakes
Lizards
Birds
Jackals

2.
c) Tertiary Consumers Tiger, Lion Hawks, Eagles
3. Decomposers

Bacteria, Fungi Bacteria, Fungi Bacteria, Fungi
Forest Ecosystem




Aquatic Ecosystem


Biotic Components Pond Ecosystem Lake Ecosystem River Ecosystem Ocean
Ecosystem
Estuarine
Ecosystem
1. Producers
a) Phytoplankton Algae, Small
floating plants
like volvax,
pandorina
Phytoplankton,
algae, flagellates
Phytoplankton,
algae, water
grass, aquatic
mass, amphious
plants
Phytoplankton,
unicellular ale,
marine plants like
sea weeds,
chlorophyceae
Marsh grass, sea
weeds, sea grass,
phytoplankton
b) Microphytes Large floating
plants and plants
like hydrilla,
jussiaea, wolfiam
demma

2. Consumers
a) Primary consumer
(Zooplanktons)
Protozoa, small
fish, ciliates,
flagellates
Cilictes, protozoa Water insects,
snail, fishes
Crustaceans,
moiluscs, fish
Oysters, crabs,
seabirds, small
fish
b) Secondary consumers
(Primary Carnivores)
Insects like water
beetles, small fish
Insects, small
fishes
Birds, mammals Herring sahd,
Mackerel

c) Tertiary Consumers Large fish Large fish Cod, Haddock
3. Decomposers

Fungi, bacteria,
flagellates
Fungi, bacteria,
actinomycetes
Fungi, bacteria Fungi, bacteria Fungi, bacteria,
actenomycetous
Biodiversity

- Variety of species living in same place

Importance of Biodiverstiy

- Important for human survival
- Protects fresh air, clean water, and productive land
- Loss of biodiversity leads to serious economic & social problems.

Types of Biodiversity

- Genetic diversity
Diversity within species (rice varieties, teak varieties)

- Species diversity
Diversity between different species (large number of species of plants, animals, etc.)

- Community (or) Ecosystem diversity
Diversity at habitat level (River ecosystem)

Value of Biodiversity

- Consumptive Value
Food
Drugs
Fuel

- Productive Value
Animal products
Plant products
Medicinal products

- Social Value
Holy plants (tulsi), Holy animals

- Ethical Value
- Aesthetic Value
- Option Value

Measurement of Biodiversity

1. Point richness:- Refers to number of species found in single point in a give space

2. Alpha richness ():- Refers to number of species found in small homogeneous area

3. Beta richness ():- Refers to rate of change in species composition across different habitats.

4. Gamma richness ():- Refers to rate of change across large landscape.

Biodiversity Hotspots

Geographic area which posses high endemic species

Threats to Biodiversity

1. Habitat loss
- Deforestation
- Illegal trade
- Urbanization / Industrialization
- Modern Agriculture
- Construction of Dams

2. Poaching
- For food
- Hunting for fun
- Valuable products

3. Increase in human population

4. Pollution of air, water, soil.

Conservation of Biodiversity

1. In-situ Conservation (within habitat)

- Declaring areas as Protected areas
- Biosphere reserves, National parks, wildlife santuaties.

Role
- Gives long term survival of ecosystem
- Protects endangered species
- Serves site of recreation and tourism
- Educational and research purposes

2. Ex-situ Conservation (outside natural habitat)

Mainly crops and some endangered species

- Seed bank (National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources) in Newdelhi
- National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources, Kurnul, Haryana

Role
- Maintenance and breeding of endangered species
- Identifies species which are more risk of extinction


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