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ON THE DAWN
OF THE NEXT DENIM HYPE

If you clicked on amazon.com in the last couple of months and searched for The Denim Bible:
Jeans Encyclopedia II, you might have been rather astonished to see the listed asking price
for a used copy of the book: up to US$899! People obviously tried to cash in there but supply
and prices really are caused by demand as even first-semester economics students know.
When we published the first Denim Bible in 2006, it became overnight (not quite unexpectedly
to be frank) such an overdue and in-demand reference book, a real guidebook for everybody who
was somehow – professionally or not – in touch with jeans and denim, that it was completely
sold out within the first year after publishing. This left us exulted and we were about to reprint
the book just one year after its appearance in the first place.
But waves in book selling are one thing and
waves in jeans selling another. And, as I learned,
they are connected to each other at the end of the
day somehow. After the big haul of the grand jeans
euphoria starting with the new century, in 2007-08
as a seismographic anticipation of a greater eco-
nomic landslide, so to speak, the market of jeans
making was still growing, but the market of jeans
selling slowed down significantly. There were still
some anti-cyclic winners as G-Star, True Religion
and J Brand to name just three true innovative and
authentic brands besides the money-spitting copy-
ists of Zara, Mango or H&M, but there were many
heavy losers.

Finally, together with almost all other industry
branches, the market tuned into the cacophony of
a comprehensive financial world crisis caused by
greedy bankers (or better call them criminal bub-
ble traders) and a vindictive departing American
President who envied the popularity of his succes-
sor and – more reprehensible – had no mercy with
his own people and economy by declining a crucial
state support for a key global money institution
known as Lehman Brothers.
And as mortgages and stocks tumbled and
even state bonds lost their grounding in the wake
of this ultimate and cynical winding-up of global
taxpayers, who finally still must settle the bill,
more unsold jeans piled up on the shelves of even
the top retailers and denim manufacturers. Clearly,
clients now had more important worries than de-
ciding whether to add a 28th pair of denim pants to
their closets. It was not a good time to publish the
second edition of The Denim Bible either…
Today however, since waves move down and up
again, we can constitute that the jeans and denim
market came back even faster than expected and
picked up the momentum of a general economic
upswing. It is a really great time to publish this
book again and take the wonderful opportunity to
display once more the full variety of new ideas and
concepts, products and brands, which were cre-
ated in the mills, the design studios and market-
ing offices of our never-sleeping market. Despite
heavy market turbulences, denim is more relevant
and thrilling than ever: jeans have become even
more indispensible in everybody’s wardrobe and
serve as a symbol of self-expression everywhere
from the high street to the red carpet.
So please take this book in your hands and read
it, use it, work with it – and start to love it. It’s defi-
nitely more than worth its cover price. It’s again a
grand and completely updated homage to our most
incredible and soulful item of clothing, the jean.
Klaus N. Hang
Editor-at-Large
1 Cover of Sportswear International's 100%Denim issue (#232/2010)
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HOW A PAIR OF JEANS IS MADE
At first glance, you would be forgiven for thinking that a pair of jeans is a simple enough
garment, but this is far from the truth: jeans manufacturing is a science of itself. Every step
in the production process must be just right. Every seam is thought through, every rivet
carefully positioned, every lug is there for a reason and every label has a purpose.
Typical jeans still resemble the original model,
the five-pocket trouser as worn by cowboys in the
Wild West; after all it is this element of authenticity
that makes jeans such a desirable product, worn
and loved by billions of people all over the world.
The material used to make jeans is of course denim,
and the raw material for denim is cotton. The cotton
plant is grown as a bush on enormous fields in the
Southern States of the USA, in the Middle East and
in Asia (particularly in Egypt, Pakistan and India).
When the white fluff bursts out of the ripe seed cap-
sules, the crop is ready for harvest. Cotton thread is
spun from the soft white down that surrounds the
seeds in the capsules. The cleaned cotton fibers
are first drawn onto the spinning machines in a
sliver. There are two different ways the cotton can
be spun. In open-end spinning, the thread for the
production of denim is spun evenly. The individual
fibers are fed into a turbine rotating at 100,000 rpm,
where they are pressed together in parallel, produc-
ing open-end thread. This smooth and even thread
is principally used for lower-cost denim. In the more
complex ring spinning, a ring thread is produced
which naturally varies in width, giving a coarse,
authentic effect. The rapid rotation of the spindle
exerts a very strong pull on the thread, so that it is
more tightly twisted and is finally more robust and
more tear proof, and has a higher tensile strength.
1 Mustang – cotton
2 Jack &Jones – weaving
3 Jack &Jones – design
4 Mustang – cut
5 Mustang – cut
6 Mustang – sewing
7 Mustang – sewing
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How a pair of jeans is made How a pair of jeans is made
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Back Belt Loop
Back Pockets
Baeyer, Adolf von
Baggy Pants
Ball Warping
Bar Tacks
Barneys New York
Basics
Bell Bottoms
Belt Loop
Ben-Avraham, Sam
Beran, Dieter A.
Berti, Luca
Big E
Big Star
Black Denim
Bleach
Block 60
Blogs
Blue Bell
Blue Black Denim
Blue Blood
Blue Blue Denim
Blue Fire Jeans
Blue Revolution, The
Blue Zone
Body Metrics
Bogner Jeans
Boot Leg
Bossa
Boysloft
Bray Steve Alan
Bread & butter
Brittania
Broadway NYC Fashion
Broken Twill
Brushed
Buckler
Buddy Lee
Buffalo David Bitton
Buffies
Bull Denim
Buttons
Button Fly
Buziol, Claudio
B 54 – 77
BAC – BUZ
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DIPS
Historically, the number of times the yarn is dipped
into the indigo dye bath, averaging 6 to 8, 12 to 16
and up to 24. Also achieved through changes in the
concentration of the indigo dye.
DIRTY FINISH
A finish that creates the look of stained jeans.
The effect is created with dyestuffs or by spraying.
dirty finish by Jack & Jones
DOCKERS

*1986; USA; by Levi Strauss &Co. Amen’s casual
clothing company launched by Levi Strauss & Co.
A line of khaki pants made from flexible twill fabric
offered as an alternative to denimwere a success and
thecompanywent ontoproduceafeminineversiontwo
years later. Best known for khaki pants, a neutral color
palette and classic all-American design, Dockers
produces a full line of tops, footwear, outerwear
and accessories that are popular the world over.
Recently Dockers launched a special line, called K1 at
AmericanRagCie. Infall 2009 Dockers embarkedon
ajourney toreinvigoratethekhaki category, withanew
and improved Signature Khaki line and Soft Khakis
collection in stores across the United States, as well
as a global marketing campaign, “Wear the Pants.”

www.dockers.com
Dockers
DO-IT-YOURSELF JEANS
Before manufacturers introduced a wide variety
of washings and treatments, customers had to be
creative and personalize their own jeans. There
were several DIY methods of aging too-new jeans,
including leaving them for a month under a running
stream, bathing them in salt water and rubbing wet
sand or stones over the thigh, bottom and crotch.
DOLCE, DOMENICO &
GABBANA, STEFANO

Dolce, Domenico *1958; Palermo, Italy;
Gabbana, Stefano *1962; Milan, Italy.
Domenico Dolce knew from an early age that he
wanted to follow the steps of his father Saverio,
an apparel manufacturer. Stefano Gabbana
studied graphic design but chose fashion
instead. Shortly after meeting, these two enfants
terribles decided to start working together.
After stints at different fashion houses, they set
loose a prêt-à-porter women’s collection, Dolce
& Gabbana, on Milan catwalks in 1985. Their
sexy, Mediterranean-inspired style met with
immediate success. Five years later, they added
a menswear collection and, in 1994, D&G Dolce
& Gabbana, a younger collection produced under
a licensing agreement by Ittierre (renamed as IT
Holding) until s/s 2007. Madonna, whose 1993 tour
wardrobe was designed by the fashion house,
was one of the first in a long line of celebrities to
wear the brand. Ties to music have always been
strong, whether it involves dressing stars such
as Tina Turner, Jon Bon Jovi, Simon Le Bon and
Kyle Minogue or launching two CDs, one in 1996
and a follow- up in 1997. In 2004, they published a
book of rock star portraits called Music Dolce &
Gabbana featuring Jennifer Lopez, Beyoncé, Mary
J. Blige and Lenny Kravitz. Sports, especially
soccer, are another favorite theme. In 2004, they
published books dedicated to soccer players and
advertised Dolce & Gabbana underwear with the
Italian national soccer team stripped down in the
locker room.

Domenico Dolce &
Stefano Gabbbana
DOLLHOUSE
*1994; USA. Targeting females ages 15 to 25,
Dollhouse has been a powerful name in the
juniors’ sector since its first denim jean hit retail
in 1995. The brand’s aims to offer new trend-right
merchandise at an affordable price virtually every
month. Dollhouse is distributed in North America,
Europe, Asia and South America.

www.dollhouse.com
DONDUP

*1999; Italy; by Arcadia. Sportswear and
jeanswear expert Massimo Berloni has produced
and distributed his Dondup denim brand since 1999
through the company Arcadia, based in Central Italy.
Designed by Manuela Mariotti, with a henna-tattoo
logo motif, the clothes are high quality and made
with a refined technique that appeals to a large, yet
discerning public. All pieces are made in the town of
Sant’Ippolito from 100% Italian materials. The label
expanded to a series of lifestyle products including a
men’s collection launched in 2003, a denim total-look
for kids’ launched two years later plus accessories
and cashmere items. In 2005, Dondup also presented
a special edition of Diamond jeans, tailor-made
jeans made to order with a small white-gold D logo,
punctuated with a diamond.

www.dondup.com
Dondup
DONNA IDA
*2006; London, UK; by Donna Ida Thornton.
Founded by an Australian-born denim devotee,
Donna Ida is London's most respected one-stop
shop for denim. Valued for its wide-reaching and
informed offer, the shop stocks jeans in every style
and color, as well as separates that go well with
jeans. Classic, trusted brands are as important
to the mix as the latest new additions. J Brand,
Current/Elliott, 7 For All Mankind, Genetic
Denim and James Jeans are some of the labels
that form part of the eclectic mix. Currently, Donna
Ida operates four shops and an online store.

www.donnaida.com
Donna Ida store

DOUBLE-DYED DENIM

Historically, denim made from warp yarn that
is dipped into the indigo dye bath 12 to 16 times
instead of the standard 6 to 8. Results in a deeper,
richer, brighter blue color. Also achieved through
changes in the indigo concentration.
DOUBLE STITCHING
Stitching with two parallel needles, often used
to give jeans strength and durability. Back pocket
double stitching is an integral part of a classic
jeans look.
double stitching by Uco
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LEE, HENRY DAVID
*1849; West Randolf, Vermont, USA; †1928. Henry
David Lee was an executive in the oil business in
the Eastern US when he moved west and founded
the H.D. Lee Mercantile Co. as a wholesale grocery
business in Salina, Kansas, in 1889. His enterprise
prosperedandin1911 he built his owngarment factory
inSalinatoensureareliablesupply of workwear items.
Lee's tradition of innovation began in 1913, when he
suggestedthat his firmproduce a one-piece workwear
garment that hischauffeur couldwear over hisuniform
whileheworkedonthecar.That wasthebirthof Union-
Alls, later to become the USArmy fatigue uniformof
WWI. During his tenure as head of the Lee Co., he
also introduced the forerunner of the Lee Rider, a 13
oz. cowboy pant, thefirst denimpantswithzippersand
work clothes with slide fasteners.
Henry David Lee
LEFT HAND
Term indicating the direction of the denim weave.
This type has the diagonal twill line rising to the
left, which provides a very soft texture after washing
but is also much more difficult to produce, because
it requires more attention in the sanforization and
finishing processes.
LEGLER
*1875; Italy. This specialized, fully vertical
manufacturer of denim, corduroy and flat fabrics was
founded by David Legler in Ponte San Pietro, near
Bergamo. In1989, whenFredyLegler left thecompany,
Legler cededownershiptothe Polli family. After years
of financial difficulties, Legler group, composed of
Legler SpAandthree controlledcompanies (all based
in Southern Italy), declared insolvency in 2008.Thanks
to a special temporary formal protection supported
by Italian law, the company’s debts were frozen and
Legler had avoided Chapter Eleven. However, as of
September 2010, no buyer had offered yet to purchase
the company and Legler might be declared bankrupt.

www.legler.it
LEGLER, FEDERICO

*1916; Schwanden, Switzerland; †2002. Fredy
Legler, as he was known, entered the family
textile business in 1945. In 1962 he created the
first Italian mail order catalog, Vestro; in 1969 he
introduced electronically controlled production
for corduroy. In 1970 he became the company
president. A man of farsighted commercial
wisdom, Legler’s most important achievement
was being the catalyst for “Made in Europe”
denim production. In 1972, acknowledging and
forecasting the demand of a growing indigenous
jeanswear trade, he introduced denim technology
and focused Legler’s production in this area. He
left the company in 1989.



Federico Legler
LENGTH

Jeans length is measured along the inseam, from
crotch to hem. The shortest commercial adult jeans
leg is 20 inches; the longest can reach 40 inches.
LEVI’S

*1853; USA. Levi’s began in 1853 as a dry-goods
wholesale company in San Francisco founded by
Bavarian immigrant Levi Strauss. Twenty years
later, Levi Strauss and Nevada tailor Jacob Davis
created the world's first jeans when they patented
the process of putting rivets in pants for strength
in response to a need for work clothes during the
gold rush. The company remains privately held by
descendants of the Strauss family and Levi Strauss &
Co. (LS&CO) is one of the world‘s largest brand-name
apparel marketers. The company sells in more than
110 countries through three geographic divisions:
North America, Europe and Asia Pacific. No less
noteworthy is its lengthy list of styles and labels across
all price points. The brand recently restructured and
streamlined its premium offering into one global
division, headquartered in Amsterdam. Known as
Levi's XX, this division designs the newly introduced,
premium collection Levi's Made and Crafted (for men
and women) along with the relaunched and expanded
Levi's Vintage Clothing (men and women) collection.
Additional collections include Levi's Red Tab (for
men and women), Levi's Silver Tab (men only), Levi's
RED (men and women), and budget-conscious Levi
Strauss Signature, available through stores such as
Target. Levi’s has also collaborated with a number of
notable design partners recently, including Opening
Ceremony, Robert Geller and Shepard Fairey's
Obey apparel line, among others. Levi’s also has a
licensee through the Warhol Foundation to re-create
images of his pop art on denim. In partnership with
Apple, it has created the Levi‘s Red Wire DLX jean,
with a docking cradle and retractable headphones
made to use with iPods. In November 2009, Levi’s
began a collaboration with the people of Braddock,
Pennsylvania with the goal of promoting a line of
workwear clothing that harkens back to the brand’s
150-year heritage. Levi’s decided to produce its new
Go Forth marketing campaign in Braddock. The
campaign features Braddock’s citizens doing real
work. Another new marketing strategy is the Levi’s
Curve ID. For this campaign, Levi’s has observed
moderation of 60,000 women worldwide. The result of
this made-to-measure initiative is that there is not the
perfect body but there is the perfect jeans fit. Many
specialized jeans retailers such as Yeans Halle in
Stuttgart are inviting their female customers for the
individual tailor-made campaign.

www.levi.com

www.levistrauss.com
Levi's
LIBERTO

*1976; †2009; France. Named after one of the
founders, Liberto Alpuente, this brand hit it big
in 1981 with the launch of the five-pocket model
Cody. After producing basic jeans bleached
in chlorine, Liberto also became a pioneer of
stonewashing in Europe in the early ’80s. In
the ’90s Liberto was one of the leaders in the
French jeans market. Its cultlike products were
beside the Cody, the Norman jean, Berrigan
dungarees and most notably, the famous Arizona
leather jacket. At the beginning of the ’90s the
brand was acquired by the French André Group,
changing its name to Vivarte in 2001. Under the
new owner the brands Creeks and Liberto were
converged and some administrative departments
were consolidated. Over the years, the denim
range of Liberto was extended to include more
sportswear garments. In 2006 the enterprise
started a franchise system to better manage its
image and around 15 franchise stores eventually
were opened. But the measures couldn’t regain
the important position it had in the ’90s. The
brand Liberto was given up and the enterprise
shut down in November 2009. The brand Creeks
is still distributed today by the Vivarte discount
centers La Halle.


www.lahalle.com

Liberto
LEE – LEV LEV – LIB
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