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Os balineses são descendentes de asiáticos que chegaram de distintos países da Ásia ao arquipélago

da Indonésia. Os primeiros registros datam de 2500 anos antes de Cristo. epois !oram os hindus"
quem chegou #00 anos antes de Cristo apro$imadamente.
Depois quando falamos da história de Bali temos que falar do Imperio Majapahit, quem fundou a primeira
colônia do Bali na Ilha de Java, depois da invasão muçulmana proporcionou que muitos fossem para a
ilha de Bali.
s europeus não che!aram " ilha at# $%&%, quando o e'plorador holand(s )ornelis *outman pôs os p#s
em terra +aline,a, esta+elecendo uma colônia comercial.Depois dos holandeses se esta+elecerem como
colônia própria, !erou uma s#rie de !uerras coloniais.
J- no s#culo .. che!ou outro tipo de invasão, mais pac/fica e que ao inv#s de retirar a rique,a, dei'ou
outra, a moeda. 0alamos do turismo, que começou a aparecer nos anos 12, que procurava o para/so das
praias +alinesas. 3m $4&5, Bali converteu6se em parte da 7ep8+lica da Indon#sia riental
http9::+ali.costasur.com:pt:historia.html
;e'to9 <337;=, )lifford. >m jo!o a+sorvente9 notas so+re a +ri!a de !alos +alinesa. In9 <eert,, ). ?
interpretação das culturas. 7io de Janeiro9 =ahar, $4@5, p. 1@56%1$.
A3m Bali, ser caçoado # ser aceito. 0oi justamente o ponto da reviravolta no que concerne ao nosso
relacionamento com a comunidade, e hav/amos sido literalmente BaceitosB. ;oda a aldeia se a+riu para nós,
provavelmente mais do que o faria em qualquer outra ocasião Ctalve, eu nunca che!asse at# o sacerdote e
nosso hospedeiro ocasional tornou6se meu melhor informanteD, e certamente com muito maior rapide,.
Eer apanhado, ou quase apanhado, numa incursão policial ao v/cio talve, não seja uma receita muito
!enerali,ada para alcançar aquela necessidade misteriosa do tra+alho de campo antropoló!ico F o acordo,
a harmonia F mas para mim ela funcionou admiravelmente. Gevou6me a uma aceitação s8+ita e total, não6
ha+itual, numa sociedade e'tremamente avessa " penetração de estran!eirosA C<eert,, $4@5, p.151 6 !rifo
nossoD.
Hessoas caminham apressadas de um lado para o outro, com o olhar fi'o no hori,onte. 3ntre elas, h- um
BoutroB9 um homem caminha num ritmo mais lento em relação "s pessoas que passam por ele, impass/veis,
das quais ele procura, um tanto desajeitadamente, chamar a atenção. 3sse movimento permanece at# que,
repentinamente, todos se voltam ao homem, apontando6o e rindo, ,om+ando dele. >ma misteriosa
alquimia se reali,a e eis que o BoutroB a!ora # capa, de se movimentar num ritmo praticamente
indistin!u/vel dos demais, que se!uem o seu intermin-vel vai6e6vem. ;udo indicaria que ele teria se
tornado um deles e perdido a sua condição de BoutroB, não fosse a sua peculiar forma de se mover, na
tentativa de imitar os que passam. ? sua Bhe'is corporalB marca6o, definitivamente, como BoutroB naquele
!rupo.
<eert, inicia seu te'to so+re a +ri!a de !alos +alinesa contando uma pequena história de seu tra+alho de
campo em Bali, que, apesar de seu car-ter anedótico, teria servido como ponto de acesso a uma
perspectiva que tornava poss/vel ao autor ler a cultura +alinesa Ipor cima dos om+rosJ dos nativos, depois
de ter permanecido durante diversos dias numa condição de invisi+ilidade em relação a eles.
Diferentemente do que acontecia em outras localidades, onde as pessoas, diante do estran!eiro, acorriam
a ele, em Bali, era com indiferença que os nativos rea!iam ante a presença do antropólo!o e de sua
mulher. s +alineses a!iam como se eles não e'istissem, como se fossem não6pessoas.
)om a proi+ição das +ri!as de !alos, não era incomum que uma rinha fosse interrompida pela s8+ita
presença de autoridades policiais indon#sias, como conta <eert,, que, o+servando uma importante luta,
envolvendo apostas altas e despertando !rande interesse na localidade F um Ijo!o a+sorventeJ6,
rapidamente v( o c/rculo que se formava ao redor dos !alos que se enfrentavam dissipar6se, quando se
desco+re que h- policiais na aldeia. antropólo!o e sua mulher fo!em, junto com os demais +alineses,
refu!iando6se na casa de um deles, numa demonstração de cumplicidade aos olhos dos nativos. Ko dia
se!uinte, <eert, # caçoado por eles, o que indicaria, de acordo com o autor, a sua aceitação Is8+ita e
totalJ entre os +alineses. s estran!eiros, tratados como quase ine'istentes at# o ato da fu!a da pol/cia,
tornam6se, num passe de m-!ica, pessoas.
? cena procurou produ,ir uma interrupção na leitura do te'to, estranhando sua construção e, procurando
su!erir como a estrat#!ia do antropólo!o em inici-6lo com tal história F na medida em que ele
IdesapareceJ do te'to a se!uir F !uarda elementos de um movimento pelo qual o autor constitui
te'tualmente sua autoridade etno!r-fica. ?ceito sem restriçLes pelos nativos, o analista pode se situar no
te'to como um o+servador que tem acesso transparente "quela cultura F que, a partir de então, como
escreve <eert,, Ise a+riuJ a ele. Depois de passar por uma esp#cie de iniciação, ele, melhor que nin!u#m,
estaria apto a, a partir de sua e'peri(ncia entre os nativos, IlerJ seus si!nificados culturais.
estran!eiro, que na cena caminhava diferentemente dos demais, e era mal6sucedido em sua tentativa de
imitação, após uma caçoada, passa a a!ir como se fosse, a partir de então um nativo, sem se dar conta de
sua condição espec/fica ali. De um modo caricatural, +uscamos criar uma analo!ia com a estrutura do
te'to de <eert,, que nos permitisse estranhar a id#ia de aceitação e Io acordoJ e Ia harmoniaJ que se
teriam produ,ido após a +atida policial. ?s condiçLes ideais su!eridas parecem i!norar a sin!ularidade do
antropólo!o no interior de um determinado !rupo, ao qual não pertence, e a importMncia de, tendo isso em
consideração, pro+lemati,ar os limites de um te'to representacional, que pretenda dar conta de uma Iteia
de si!nificadosJ que, de acordo com o mesmo autor, define uma cultura.
I a+rupto desaparecimento de <eert, em sua relação F a quase6invisi+ilidade da o+servação participante
F # paradi!m-tico. )omo resultado, raramente ficamos cientes do fato de que uma parte essencial da
construção da +ri!a de !alos como te'to # dialó!ica F a conversa cara a cara com +alineses espec/ficos, e
não a leitura da cultura Npor cima dos seus om+rosOJ C)lifford, James. ? e'peri(ncia etno!r-fica9
antropolo!ia e literatura no s#culo ... 7io de Janeiro9 3ditora >07J, 1221, p. &16%.D.
http9::+enjamin+rechtantropolo!ia.+lo!spot.com:1225:$$:ts16caoando6de6!eert,.html
%he &alinese Coc'!ight
In Gan!ua!e, Eapir defines that culture is Athe sociallP inherited assem+la!e of practice and +eliefs that
determines the te'ture of our livesA. *ersQovits also defines culture as an essential construction Athat
descri+es the total +odP of +elief, +ehavior, QnoRled!e, sanctions, values, and !oals that marQ the RaP of
life of anP peopleA and throu!h culture, one is a+le to descri+e the thin!s that people have, thin!s that
theP do, and Rhat theP thinQ C4&5D.
GiQeRise, Sard <oodenou!h descri+es that culture is Athe various standards for perceivin!, evaluatin!,
+elievin!, and doin! that... Ta personU attri+utes to other persons as a result of his e'perience of their
actions and admonitions.A <eert, adds that Aculture denotes a historical AhistoricallP transmitted pattern
of meanin!s em+odied in sPm+ols, a sPstem of inherited conceptions e'pressed in sPm+olic forms +P
means of Rhich men communicate, perpetuate, and develop their QnoRled!e a+out and attitudes toRard
life.A <eert, perceives that cultures forms peopleBs actions.
;odaP, culture has +ecome a structural forces and material condition determined +P the dominant !roup in
a societP. <irou' C$45%D claims culture is Aconstituted as a dialectical instance of poRer and conflict,
rooted in the stru!!le over +oth material conditions and the form and content of practical activitPA )ulture
does not provide a co!nitive map +ut represents a !uide map to understand the +ehavior and
characteristics of certain people, in this case the Balinese.
?s a culture, people form non6conventional !atherin! Rith an understandin! to manifest acts and artifacts
throu!h traditional settin!. ;hrou!h culture, man maQes sense the patterns, ordered clusters of si!nificant
sPm+ols.
)ulture is not comple' +ut it represents Acustoms, usa!es, traditions, ha+it clustersA and a set of control
mechanism to !overn for humanBs social +ehavior. ?s a control mechanism to !overn for humanBs social
+ehavior, culture also sPm+oli,es a set of principles that Rould frame onesB e'perience in an event in
particular RaPs, +ut it does not set equili+rium on the Rorld.
?s a societP, the BalineseB cultures of cocQfi!htin! represents their +elief, not as a material phenomenon.
)ocQfi!htin! is a culture that does not e'ist in thin!s, people and their +ehavior or emotions +ut in a non6
formal or!ani,ational settin!. It introduces three attri+utes9 the immediate dramatic shape, metaphoric
content, and social content.
?ccordin! to <eert,, the Balinese cocQfi!htin! represents a cultural fi!ure a!ainst a social !round. *e
+elieves it portraPs a convulsive sur!e of sur!e of animal hatred, a mocQ Rar of oneBs sPm+ol, a formal
simulation of tensions, and an aesthetic poRer derives from a force of to!etherness of the diverse realities.
Balinese cocQfi!ht is defined as a sociolo!ical entitP that produces a dou+le altercation Rithout rules +ut
+etReen cocQs. ?s a sociolo!ical entitP, <reet, quoted the Rords of 3rvin! <offman Rho calls such event
as Afocused !atherin!A, Rhich is a structureless !roup of people !ather to!ether, en!a!e in a common
activitP, and relate to one another throu!h this activitP.
)ocQfi!ht has material effects and pride +ut also destruction. ?nother author descri+es that cocQfi!ht
displaPs certain characteristics 6 ones that radicallP has the atomistic structure MVI the match maQin!, the
+ettin!, the fi!ht, and the results of the defeat, the triumph, the hurried, or the passin! of the moneP. ;he
loser is not consoled and the Rinner is not con!ratulated. ;he match ends and the croRd turn its attention
to the ne't fi!ht.
ne interestin! thin! a+out the Balinese cocQ fi!htin! is that there are no rules that are literallP translated.
7ather the rules are Rritten doRn in palm leaf and passed on from !eneration to !eneration.
In classical times, as <reet, descri+es it, Rhere no +ureaucrats tried to improve moralitP, cocQfi!ht Ras
simplP a social matter. *e also +elieves that as a social matter, cocQfi!ht is an important event for adult
males to en!a!e in an open conflict Rith a themes of Adeath, masculinitP, ra!e, pride, lose, +eneficence,
chance, and relief MVW an ima!e, fiction, a model, a metaphorA Cp14&D. <eert,Bs description of the cocQfi!ht
sPm+oli,es the masculine poRer and the destructive poRer, a +loodP drama of hatred, crueltP, violence,
and death, +ut it could also have different meanin! to the Balinese.
?ccordin! to <reet,, the cocQfi!ht is a means of e'pression. Its function is neither to assua!e social
passions nor to hei!hten them. 7ather it is a medium Rhere one could see the feathers, the +lood, the
croRd, and the moneP.
;he fi!ht itself represents a cultural fi!ure a!ainst a social !round. ?s mentioned earlier, it is convulsive
sur!e of animal hatred and a mocQ Rar. ;he dimension of cocQfi!htBs structure is lacQ of temporarP
direction. It is liQe the se!ment of !eneral social life and its a!!ressiveness, Rithout temporarP direction.
Eome people tend to taQe culture for !ranted as theP travel. Kevertheless, all over the Rorld, other people
do determine the characteristics of other people C)lifford <eert,, $4@%D. ;heP assem+le te'ts and
determines to Rhich !roup a person comes from includin! his or her characteristics.
;hou!h livin! and enhancin! into moderni,ation, cocQfi!ht survives. It survives the politics of
moderni,ation. It +ecomes Balinese malesMVX o+session. It provides a mean for an open conflict Rith the
spirit of sportsmanship as neither loser nor Rinner is consoled or cele+rated.
Be it in anP form, cocQfi!ht is an open social event. It portraPs the su+tleness of the male to present
themselves as Rild and murderous even liQe persons Rith manic depression Rho have cruel instincts.
Balinese men form a special +ond and discover it in the rinQ of a cocQfi!ht.
?ccordin! to <reet,, 4YZ of the event is or!ani,ed and sponsored locallP +P small com+ination of pettP
rural merchants Rho have turned it as a commercial sport +ut often ar!ue that cocQfi!hts are !ood for
trade, +ecause theP can A!et the moneP out of the house and circulate it.A In a sense, cocQfi!ht is meant as
a social sport +ut it has +ecome a !am+lin! arena and one of the main means of the islandBs moneti,ation.
)ocQfi!ht, for everPdaP personMVXs e'perience, is onlP a !ame. But it is more than just a !ame. It is a
traditional medium of !am+lin! and a paradi!matic human event. It is enacted and reacted of the cocQs
Rithout ends, and at same time, the participant oRners are readin! and rereadin! as theP Ratch the cocQ
fi!ht. ;heP are calculatin! and contemplatin! a strate!P Rithout speculation. ;heir interest is no lon!er
merelP sport. ?s theP Ratch fi!ht after fi!ht, theP !roR familiar Rith it. ;heP +ecome sensi+le Rith it and
eventuallP theP +ecome su+ject to it as simplP a displaP. [et, a displaP that is radicallP different. ;o the
Balinese, cocQfi!ht is a realitP that projects the propertP of social hierarchP. It reaches toRard the
numinous transcendent societP set not in the matri' of Qinetic human emotion +ut in that of the animals.
)ocQfi!ht is a static and passionless event. It connects them Rith their !ods. In this static passionless of
divine mentalitP of the Brahman priest, it e'presses tranquilitP. It endorses the mass festivals and
mo+ili,es the people to visit their !ods at the temples Rith sin!in!, dancin!, and !ivin! offerin! and
assertin! their spiritual unitP a!ainst their inequalitP and trust.
Indeed, saPs <reet,, cocQfi!ht is part of the master QeP to the Balinese life. ;he slau!hter of the cocQ,
Rhich loses durin! the fi!ht at the rin!, is stratifactorP. It sPm+oli,es death and life MVI either Rins or
loses and dies. )ocQfi!ht also portraPs the temper of the Balinese societP, especiallP the male societP, liQe
the Epanish males and their +ullfi!ht. It portraPs that life is Rorth qualified and challen!ed. But life itself
and the societP contain their oRn interpretation. ;he onlP RaP to learn and understand them is to !et
access to them.
http9::RRR.!radin!rocQet.com:articles:;he\Balinese\)ocQfi!ht:
)omo uma sociedade, o BalineseB as culturas da rinha representa a sua crença, não como um fenômeno
material. ? rinha # uma cultura que não e'iste em coisas, !ente e o seu comportamento ou emoçLes mas
em uma colocação or!ani,acional não6formal. 3le introdu, tr(s atri+utos9 a forma dram-tica imediata,
conte8do metafórico, e conte8do social.
Ee!undo o <eert,, a rinha Balinese representa uma fi!ura cultural contra uma terra social. 3le acredita6o
retrata uma onda convulsiva da onda do ódio dos animais, uma !uerra falsa do s/m+olo de al!u#m, uma
simulação formal da tensão, e um poder est#tico deriva de uma força da intimidade das realidades
diversas.
ALI TRADITION AND RELIGION
- THE BALINESE HINDUISM -
;hou!h Bali is multi6reli!ious, consistin! of )hristian, Muslim and Buddhist minorities, the predominant
reli!ion is *induism.

Balinese *induism, called ?!ama *indu Dharma, ori!inated from Java and is a +lend of Ehivaism and
Buddhism. ;he theolo!ical foundation for the reli!ion comes from Indian philosophP Rhile indi!enous
+eliefs form the +acQ+one of the rituals. ;his +lendin! is perfectlP accepta+le in Bali as the saPin! !oes
A;he truth is one] the interpretation, multiple.A

In Balinese *induism, the indi!enous +eliefs manifest in the +elief that nature is ApoRerA and each
element is su+ject to influence from spirits. ?ncestor Rorship is also a part of the +eliefs. Epirits and
ancestors are treated Rith respect, and theP are housed in a shrine and feted Rith offerin!s made from
a!ricultural products.

?s <unun! ?!un! is the a+ode of the !ods and the ancestors, it is revered as the AMotherA mountain and
is hi!hlP sacred to the Balinese. ?s Rater and volcanoes 6 considered as the Rrath of the !ods 6 come
from <unun! ?!un!, the mountain occupies the pole of puritP, Qaja.

In contrast, the pole of impuritP is the sea, or Qelod.Balinese *induism revolves around this Qaja6Qelod
a'is and determines the spatial or!ani,ation of rituals, architecture and dailP life. ne sleeps, for e'ample,
Rith oneBs head in the direction of the mountain.

7eli!ion in Bali varies accordin! to three principles9 desa CplaceD, Qala CtimeD and patra CcircumstancesD.
*induism acQnoRled!es five pillars of faith. ;heP are +elief in the one Eupreme <od CBrahaman of Ean!
*Pan! Siddhi SasaD] +elief in the soul as the universal principle of life and consciousness CatmaD] +elief
in the fruition of oneBs deeds CQarma phalaD] +elief in the process of +irth and death CsamsaraD] and +elief
in ultimate release CmoQsaD.

ne of the consequences of the principles of Qarma and samsara is the e'istence of the caste sPstem
Rhere an individual inherits his status as a result of his or her past life. ;he four castes in Bali are the
+rahmana, Rho deal Rith reli!ion and the holP te'ts] the satria or rulers] the Resia or merchants and the
sudras, the loRer class.

<od has a varietP of names. Bein! multiple and all pervadin!, he is the >ltimate ^oid or EunPa e'pandin!
in an infinitP of murti of manifestations from Rhich people select one as lstadeRata or a personal !od.
Eome of the names are indi!enous] Ean! *Pan! 3m+an!, and others of Indian ri!in, Ean! *Pan!
Harama _aRi. >ltimatelP hoRever, all !ods are seen as emanatin! from a sin!le source.

;he principle !ods are Brahma, the <od of )reation] Sisnu, the <od of Hrovidence] and EiRa, the <od of
Dissolution. ;hese three move the Rorld throu!h an unendin! process of +irth, +alance and destruction.
Man, a microcosm of the Rorld, is su+jected to the same process until he or she achieves moQsa, +lendin!
into the )osmos and <od. ;he cosmos and it movement is sPm+oli,ed +P the sRastiQa.

Man should endeavor to maintain the harmonP of the Rhole sPstem, hence the role of ritual. nlP +P
adherin! to the proper rules of +ehavior can the proper +alance +e Qept +etReen the tRo sets of !odlP and
demonic forces. Balinese reli!ion is QnoRn to the Rorld throu!h the richness of its rituals. <ods and
demons seem to +e everP Rhere and the life of the Balinese is therefore replete Rith rituals.

?s the tools for maintainin! the +alance of the Rorld there are rituals for everPthin! ima!ina+le, from
QnoRled!e, cleansin! machines to marria!e and +irth ceremonies 6 all of different tPpes and levels.
7ituals consist of callin! doRn the !ods and the ancestors for visits from their heavenlP a+ode in their
countrP a+ove the mountain. ;heP come doRn durin! temple festivals and are entertained Rith dances
and feted Rith offerin!s. ;heP can also +e called doRn throu!h the entreaties of a priest.

Balinese rituals are ruled +P a comple' calendar sPstem, a com+ination of the Indian EaQa
calendar and the SuQu calendar. ;he EaQa Pear rules the a!ricultural cPcle and is divided into lunar
months and fitted into the solar calendar +P the addition of an e'tra month, everP thirtieth month. ;he full
moon and the darQ moon are the most important ritual moments of this calendar. ;he first daP of the EaQa
Pear, hoRever, usuallP in March is the daP of Eilence and of profound importance throu!hout Bali.

;he SuQu Pear consists of a cPcle of 1$2 daPs divided into thirtP RuQu ReeQs, each of Rhich
corresponds to a specific activitP. ;here is a ReeQ of Reapons and one of animals, for e'ample. ;here are
then other tPpes of ReeQs varPin! from one to ten daPs, each havin! a name and num+er, +ein!
auspicious or inauspicious. ;he most important daPs in this sPstem are <alun!an and _unin!an, Rhen all
the ancestors come doRn to visit.

;emples in Bali are simple Ralled open Pards from Rhich people can6communicate directlP Rith their
!ods and ancestors, <ods and ancestors normallP AvisitA their human Rorshipers or descendants durin!
temple festivals CodalanD. ;heP reside in miniature houses set in the temple, the pelin!!ih shrines and
ali!ht Rith effi!ies of !old, coins or offerin!s.

Durin! the len!th of their staP, the !ods and their companions are sPm+olicallP +athed. feted, put to +ed
and entertained Rith dances and other shoRs. MeanRhile mem+ers of the temple come and !o over three
or more daPs, Rith offerin!s and to !et their share of holP Rater sprinQled over them and the offerin!s
durin! the collective praPers.

;here are feR societies in the Rorld Rhere reli!ion plaPs a role such as it does in Bali. ;he incredi+le
+eautP and color that accompanies the rituals and offerin!s, Rhich seem to +e ever occurrin!, that Bali is
continuallP harmoni,in! the Rorld of Man Rith the cosmic Rorld of the <ods.
http9::RRR.+aliadvertisin!.com:tradition:+ali`hinduism.shtml
?pesar de Bali # multi6reli!ioso, constitu/do por cristãos, muçulmanos e +udistas minorias, o hindu/smo #
a reli!ião predominante.

Balinese hindu/smo, chamado ?!ama hindu Dharma, ori!inadas a partir de Java e # uma mistura de
Ehivaism e +udismo. fundamento teoló!ico para a reli!ião vem da filosofia indiana, enquanto crenças
ind/!enas formam a espinha dorsal dos rituais. 3sta mistura # perfeitamente aceit-vel em Bali como di, o
ditado A? verdade # uma, a interpretação, m8ltiplas.A
3m Balinese hindu/smo, crenças ind/!enas do manifesto, na convicção de que a nature,a # ApoderA e cada
elemento est- sujeito " influ(ncia de esp/ritos. ?ncestral culto # tam+#m uma parte das crenças. 3sp/ritos
ancestrais e são tratados com respeito, e estão alojados em um santu-rio e feted com oferendas feitas a
partir de produtos a!r/colas.

)omo <unun! ?!un! # a morada dos deuses e os antepassados, # reverenciada como a AMãeA montanha
sa!rada e # altamente ao Balinese. )omo -!ua e vulcLes 6 considerado como a ira dos deuses 6 prov(m de
<unun! ?!un!, a montanha ocupa o pólo de pure,a, _aja.

3m contrapartida, o pólo da impure,a # o mar, ou Qelod.Balinese hindu/smo _aja6!ira em torno deste
ei'o Qelod e determina a or!ani,ação espacial dos rituais, da arquitectura e da vida quotidiana. >m
dorme, por e'emplo, com uma ca+eça do em direção " montanha.
7eli!ião em Bali varia de acordo com tr(s princ/pios9 D3E? ClocalD, Qala CtempoD e Hatra CcircunstMnciasD.
*indu/smo reconhece cinco pilares da f#. 3les são a crença em um Deus Eupremo CBrahaman de Ean!
*Pan! Siddhi SasaD] crença na alma como o princ/pio universal da vida e da consci(ncia CatmaD] crença
na fruição de uma escrituraBs Ccarma phalaD] crença no processo de nascimento e morte CsamsaraD, e
crença na final release CmoQsaD.

>ma das consequ(ncias dos princ/pios do carma e samsara # a e'ist(ncia do sistema de castas em que um
indiv/duo herda seu status como um resultado de sua vida passada. ?s quatro castas em Bali são os
+rahmana, que lida com a reli!ião e os te'tos sa!rados, o satria ou !overnantes] Resia ou os comerciantes
e os sudras, a classe mais +ai'a.

Deus tem uma variedade de nomes. Eendo todos os m8ltiplos e vive, ele # o >ltimate ou Kulo EunPa
e'pandindo em uma infinidade de Murti de manifestaçLes a partir do qual as pessoas como uma escolha
pessoal lstadeRata ou um deus. ?l!uns dos nomes são ind/!enas] Ean! *Pan! 3m+an!, e outros de
ori!em indiana, Ean! *Pan! parama _aRi. 3m 8ltima an-lise, por#m, todos os deuses são vistos como
provenientes de uma 8nica fonte.
Balinese *induism is deeplP interRoven Rith art and ritual, and is less closelP preoccupied Rith scripture,
laR, and +elief than Islam in Indonesia. Balinese *induism lacQs the traditional *indu emphasis on cPcles
of re+irth and reincarnation, +ut instead is concerned Rith a mPriad of local and ancestral spirits. ?s Rith
Qe+atinan, these deities are thou!ht to +e capa+le of harm. Balinese place !reat emphasis on dramatic and
aestheticallP satisfPin! acts of ritual propitiation of these spirits at temple sites scattered throu!hout
villa!es and in the countrPside. 3ach of these temples has a more or less fi'ed mem+ership] everP
Balinese +elon!s to a temple +P virtue of descent, residence, or some mPstical revelation of affiliation.
Eome temples are associated Rith the familP house compound Calso called +anjar in BaliD, others are
associated Rith rice fields, and still others Rith QeP !eo!raphic sites. 7ituali,ed states of self6control Cor
lacQ thereofD are a nota+le feature of reli!ious e'pression amon! the people, Rho for this reason have
+ecome famous for their !raceful and decorous +ehavior. ne QeP ceremonP at a villa!e temple, for
instance, features a special performance of a dance6drama Ca +attle +etReen the mPthical characters
7an!da the Ritch Crepresentin! evilD and Baron! the lion or dra!on Crepresentin! !oodDD, in Rhich
performers fall into a trance and attempt to sta+ themselves Rith sharp Qnives.
7ituals of the life cPcle are also important occasions for reli!ious e'pression and artistic displaP.
)eremonies at pu+ertP, marria!e, and, most nota+lP, cremation at death provide opportunities for Balinese
to communicate their ideas a+out communitP, status, and the afterlife. C;he tourist industrP has not onlP
supported spectacular cremation ceremonies amon! Balinese of modest means, +ut also has created a
!reater demand for them.D
? priest is not affiliated Rith anP temple +ut acts as a spiritual leader and adviser to individual families in
various villa!es scattered over the island. ;hese priests are consulted Rhen ceremonies requirin! holP
Rater are conducted. n other occasions, folQ healers or curers maP +e hired.
http9::en.RiQipedia.or!:RiQi:*induism`in`Indonesiaa*induism`in`Bali
Balinese hindu/smo # profundamente interli!ada com a arte e ritual, e # menos intimamente preocupado
com escritura, direito, e de crença não Islã na Indon#sia. Balinese hindu/smo não possui a tradicional
hindu (nfase nos ciclos do renascimento e reencarnação, mas sim se preocupa com uma infinidade de
locais e de esp/ritos ancestrais. ;al como acontece com Qe+atinan, essas divindades são pensados para
serem capa,es de prejudicar. Balinese colocar a tónica no dram-tica e esteticamente satisfa,endo actos de
propiciação ritual desses esp/ritos em templos locais espalhadas por toda aldeias e no campo. )ada um
destes templos tem uma mais ou menos fi'o adesão] cada Balinese pertence a um templo, por força da
descida, de resid(ncia, ou al!uma revelação m/stica de inscrição. ?l!uns templos são associados " casa
familiar composto Ctam+#m chamado +anjar em BaliD, outros estão associados a campos de arro,, e outros
ainda com os principais sites !eo!r-fico. 7ituali,ada estados de auto6controle Cou falta deleD # uma
caracter/stica not-vel da e'pressão reli!iosa entre o povo, por esta ra,ão que se tornaram famosas por sua
!raciosa e decoroso comportamento. >m dos principais cerimônia no templo uma aldeia, por e'emplo,
apresenta um especial desempenho de uma dança6teatro Cuma +atalha entre os persona!ens m/ticos
7an!da a +ru'a Crepresentando o malD e Baron! o leão ou dra!ão Cque representa +oaDD, em que
int#rpretes queda em transe e tentar esfaquear6se com com facas afiadas.
7ituais do ciclo de vida tam+#m são ocasiLes importantes para a e'pressão reli!iosa e art/stica visor.
)erimônias na pu+erdade, casamento, e, so+retudo, a morte cremação proporcionar oportunidades para
Balinese a comunicar as suas ideias so+re a comunidade, estado e da vida. C? ind8stria tur/stica não só
tem apoiado espectacular cremação cerimônias entre Balinese de meios modestos, mas tam+#m criou uma
maior demanda por eles.D
>m sacerdote não # affiliated com qualquer templo, mas a!e como um l/der espiritual e conselheiro de
fam/lias individuais em diversas aldeias espalhadas ao lon!o da ilha. 3stes sacerdotes, são consultados
quando cerimônias e'ijam -!ua +enta são condu,idas. 3m outras ocasiLes, folQ ou curandeiros curers
podem ser contratados.
Balinese Hindu Gods: Learn about the in under ! inutes"
Balinese ?!ama *indu C?!ama meanin! reli!ionD is reallP an amal!am of traditional animist +eliefs Rith
*induism overlaid, rather liQe hoR )hristianitP is superimposed on ?frican +eliefs in Gatin ?merica. Etill
the Balinese still do reco!ni,e and Rorship *indu <ods and here is a run doRn of some of the most
mentioned.
 (angh)ang *idi *asa+
SidelP accepted as the Eupreme +ein! Rho is onlP ever alluded to. Most Balinese temples have stone
throne for the <ods Rhen theP come doRn to 3arth and Ean!hPan! Sidi Sasa has a throne called a
Hadmasana located in the holiest part of the temple, the center of the inner compound. ;hree other !ods,
Brahma, ^ishnu, Ehiva are the manifestations of Ean!hPan! Sidi Sasa.
 &rahma+
;he )reator, has the color red and can +e depicted +P a +ull.
 ,ishnu -*isnu.+
;he Hrotector, responsi+le for life !ivin! Raters and has the color +lacQ. Sisnu ride a Rin!ed horse called
<aruda and has several avatars includin! Buddha.
 (hi/a -(i0a.+
;he DestroPer or Dissolver, is associated Rith death : re6+irth and has the color Rhite. Eome temples
represent Ehiva Rith a lar!e phallic lin!!am.
 (ur)a+
;he Eun <od, a manifestation of Ehiva.
 urga+
;he female consort of Ehiva.
 1angda+
;he Balinese manifestation of Dur!a Rho is seen in dances as the evil Ritch.
 2anesh+
;he elephant liQe son of Ehiva and Dur!a.
;here are manP lesser deities in Bali Rho are associated Rith a particular place or thin!. ;hese are called
deRi if female and deRa if male and include9
 e0i (ri+
<oddess of rice and Rho farmers Rorship at small temples in the rice fields.
 e0i anu+
 <oddess of the crater laQes. ?nnual pil!rima!es are made to temple at the mountain laQes.
 e0a &aruna+
<od of the sea.
 e0i 3elanting+
<oddess of prosperitP.
http9::RRR.+ali+lo!.com:travel6tips:+ali6travel:+alinese6hindu6!ods6learn6a+out6them6in6under6Y6
minutes.html
Bali, also called the island of the <ods is streRn Rith temples and statues Rhich the practise dailP
decorate +P offerin!s.
Herhaps it is too copious if it is said that Bali is an island that is full of uniqueness Rhich distin!uishes it
Rith other islands in Indonesia.
?s Rritten in the Hurana Eada ;emple of _apal ;raditional ^illa!e, it is said that Rhen the continents and
various island had +een created on earth, Ida Ean! *Pan! Sidhi:Bathara Hasupati C<odD, summoned the
<ods to !ather to!ether on top of Mount Mahameru.
;hen Ean! *Pan! Hasupati uttered to the nine <ods occupPin! the nine direction, to the si' <ods CEad
SinaPaQaD, to the !roup four <ods C)atur DeRaD, to <od 7sis, to <od Dra!on, <ods from ;rinaPaQa
!roup and to <ods in the universe, to maQe a neR island QnoRn as Bali Island.
BedaRan! b Ka!a BasuQi
Bathara Hasupati e'plained to all <ods, that island that is !oin! to +e created is a special island for the
shrine of all <ods Rith the leader Bhatara Mahadeva:HutranjaPa. In this island, all <ods Rill +e
Rorshipped and dipuja ChonoredD till the end of the period. In this island the <ods Rill +e aRarded Rith
+i! offerin!s +P the dRellers. ;he <ods, is then, QnoRn as the name of Bali.
Shen this island Ras created, the <od Dra!on Ean! *Pan! ?nanta Bo!a entered the +ottom laPer of the
earth, and then this +i! dra!on +ecame the support of Bali Island.
?fter that, Ean! *Pan! _urma <ni CturtleD entered the earth and +ecame the foundation of it, and
BadaRan! Kala manifested himself as the +ottom laPer of the earth of Bali. Ean! *Pan! _ala, then,
created the soil and sQP of Bali Rhich is +ri!ht Rith colorful shine.
0inallP, a +eautiful island Ras created Rith the shine of e'traordinarP holiness. ;he <ods Rere verP
deli!htful Rith their successful RorQs, and then selected their everlastin! shrines at the neR earth C+anua
+ahruD named Bali. 0rom here it is disclosed that Bali is the place of <ods Cthe Island of <odsD. Shen
forei!ners came to Bali for the first time, theP said this island is the last paradise.
http9::RRR.flicQr.com:photos:15c4c251dK22:11@$Yc&55
Bali - desa #uta
n *ari <alun!an all the people of the villa!es are offerin! little canan! sari C offers D to the <ods .
Bali is the land of sPm+ol, all product of Balinese activitP is a sPm+oli,ation of their faith and +elief, and
offerin! is the hallmarQ of all Balinese sPm+oli,ation. fferin! is a sPm+ol of Balinese devotion the <od
and in some areas in Bali offerin! is even considered as sPm+oli,ation of <od.
HhilosophicallP, an offerin! is a Qind of self6sacrifice. ne spends time and moneP maQin! an offerin!,
puttin! somethin! of oneself into it. ?nd as such, the individual maQin! the offerin! is maQin! a small
personal sacrifice to !ive thanQs to <od. Most Balinese Rould pro+a+lP not e'press the idea this RaP.
;heP maQe offerin!s +ecause that is Rhat theP Rere tau!ht to do. ;heP QnoR <od enjoPs them, and that is
RhP theP are made.
http9::RRR.flicQr.com:photos:Qei6Qecil:1%%2@c@@51
Balinese $alendars
;he Balinese use tRo calendar sPstems, the *indu eaQa and their oRn HaRuQon. GiQe most Balinese
culture, the HaRuQon is verP rich and intricate. ItBs +ased on ten concurrent ReeQs, Rhich have one to ten
daPs Calthou!h the one6daP ReeQ is reallP a copP of the tRo6daP ReeQ Rith onlP one daP namedD. ;o
confuse matters, onlP the three6daP, five6daP, si'6daP and seven6daP ReeQs run re!ularlP9 the others are
derived in various RaPs. ;he Rhole sPstem repeats everP 1$2 daPs9 these 1$2 daPs are divided into thirtP
named cPcles of the seven6daP ReeQ. ;here are various other cPcles and holP daPs defined on top of this.
Most of this Pou can find specified in volume I of Bali: Sekala & Niskala, +P 0red B. 3iseman Jr. I had a
copP, +ut unfortunatelP I lost it Rhile movin!.
I visited Bali in $455 and $44&9 each time I +rou!ht +acQ paper calendars. IBve scanned as much of the
JanuarP pa!e of the $44& calendar as Rill fit on mP scanner9 I also have an enlar!ement of the top6ri!ht
corner, shoRin! detail.
3ach calendar consists of thirteen $1.YA'$4A sheets of thin paper, +ound at the top +P metal, Rith a small
+end6out han!er. ;he months a printed on the front of the first tRelve sheets. ?ll te't is in Indonesian,
e'cept for certain names used in various calendars.
3ach month6pa!e is laid out for the <re!orian sPstem, and each daP shoRs the date in the Islamic,
)hinese b *indu eaQa sPstems, the moon a!e, the daPs of the various HaRuQon ReeQs, and other
information Rhich I donBt understand. EundaPs and holidaPs are marQed in red, or Rith a red rin!, and
neR and full moons are marQed Rith +lacQ and red circular +lo+s.
Beneath and to the ri!ht of the main calendar !rid are e'planations of festivals and holP daPs of the
Balinese, *indu, Islamic, )hristian and other traditions, as Rell as foundin!6anniversarP C1$2 daP cPcleD
festivals of the more important temples in Bali, auspicious daPs for various activities, and more
information Rhich I donBt understand. ?t the top is listed Pear and month information for vaious calendric
sPstems. In the emptP !rid space is a picture of the creator, I _etut Ban!+an! <ede 7aRi, and at the
+ottom of the pa!e is the name and address of, presuma+lP, his companP9 B;.>. Sarta *indu Dharma,
Jalan Kan!Qa 1% Denpasar Bali ;elp. 11$YcB.
;he +acQ of the tRelfth sheet, and +oth sides of the last sheet, have Pet more information, ta+ulated
accordin! to the 7oman horoscope, the thirtP named seven6daP ReeQ6cPcles, the %Y com+inations of the
five6daP and seven ReeQs, and apparentlP as an alpha+etical definition of terms.
http9::semantic.or!:time:calendars:+alinese:
%u&u 'alendar: Bali Museu Den(asar
;he Balinese wuku calendar is one of the 1 traditional calendars Cthe
other +ein! the *indu, saka calendarD used to determine the dates
for auspicious events, such as ceremonies. ;he wuku calendar, also
called the uku, or pawukon, uses the 1$2 daP lunar cPcle. IntricatelP
desi!ned, this calendar divides the daPs into ReeQs that are $ to $2
daPs in len!th. ?ll the ReeQs operate concurrentlP, each havin! a
special name. 3verP daP, of everP ReeQ also has a special name.
3ach one of the %2 @6daP ReeQs also has its oRn name.
Balinese priests are e'pert in analPsin! this sPstem and the Bali
Museum has a Ronderful wuku calendar on the Rall, each daP represented Rith its oRn picture, depictin!
various dailP scenes. ;his calendar, Rhen vieRed laterallP Pou have the %2 ReeQs CwukuD. ^ieRed top to
+ottom, Pou have the @ daPs ReeQs. ;he $st ReeQ is called *u'u (inta, the 1nd ReeQ *u'u 4andep,
the %rd ReeQ *u'u 5'ir and so on. ;he %2th ReeQ is called *u'u *atugunung. 3ach square is
painted Rith a lucQP, or unlucQP scene, meanin! certain activities, such as +uildin! a neR house, or a
cremation ceremonP can onlP taQe place on special daPs and ReeQs.
http9::RRR.+ali+lo!.com:travel6tips:RuQu6calendar6+ali6museum6denpasar.html
Jue!o profundo9
notas so+re la rifa de !allos en Bali
Ga incursión policial
? principios de a+ril de $4Y5, mi mujer P Po, con al!o de fie+re pal8dica P
desconfiados, lle!amos a una aldea de Bali que nos propon/amos estudiar como antropólo!os.
3ra una po+lación pequefa de alrededor de quinientos ha+itantes P relativamente
alejada de todo centro, era un mundo en s/ misma. Kosotros #ramos intrusos,
intrusos profesionales, P los aldeanos nos trataron como, se!8n parece, los +alineses
siempre tratan a la !ente que no pertenece a su vida, pero que, as/ P todo, se les
impone9 como si no estuvi#ramos all/. Hara ellos, P hasta cierto punto para nosotros
mismos, #ramos seres humanos invisi+les, no personas, espectros.
http9::ima!es.!oo!le.com.+r:im!resgim!urlhhttp9::%.+p.+lo!spot.com:`K6@rHQ_t6vQ:EGdev[cIi6
I:?????????7?:&v1c`SnEP6
&:E1&2:Derrida.jp!bim!refurlhhttp9::conceptualdelacultura.+lo!spot.com:1225:24:jue!o6profundo6notas6
so+re6la6ria6de.htmlbus!h``e<t.+3fE7M0m;6*@antDJ+vn`Qshbhh1&2bRh$44bs,h$2bhlhpt6
B7bstarth$1bsi!1hr6J;7R>hc=+nR@0f6
.=!KRbt+nidh5Y&sv2+jj0i>lM9bt+nhh$$2bt+nRh4$bprevh:ima!esZ%0qZ%D;ihin!an6Z1B<eert,
Z1c!+vZ%D1Z1chlZ%Dpt6B7Z1csaZ%D<beihiMjnEe6.[`3M=.!4ec0

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