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PROVA DE INGLÊS

INSTRUÇÕES: As questões de 21 a 28 dizem respeito ao conteúdo do TEXT 1. Leia atentamente antes
de respondê-las. Escolha a melhor resposta para cada questão e marque-a em seu Cartão de Respostas;
TEXT l
Short-termism and genuineness in environmental initiatives: a comparative case study of two oil
companies

Methodology.
This research is based on the comparative case study analysis of ExxonMobil and Royal Dutch Shell.
Climate change is a litmus test for the oil companies' commitment to social and environmental
responsibility because the ‘oil industry earns its livelihood from oil, natural gas and coal –the main sources of
emissions of greenhouse gases – and will be severely affected by regulatory measures to curb Greenhouse Gas
emissions’ (Skjaerseth and Skodvin, 2001, p. 44.) The case studies are drawn from the oil industry because it 5
helps to contain ‘extraneous variations’ (Eisenhardt, 1989, p537). The oil industry is currently dealing with
pressure from environmental, social and economic sectors. Environmental issues include global warming and
pressure on all the developed societies in the world to combat this threat; social issues cover the political and
ethical implications of exploiting third-world countries for non-renewable resources (typified by the Iraq War);
and economic issues include rapidly rising energy prices and ever-increasing demand from China. 10
Case studies are defined by Yin ‘as an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon
within its real life context, when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident, and
in which multiple sources are used’ (Yin, 1989, p. 23). The case study method was used over other qualitative
methods firstly, because this study satisfies Yin’s definitional requirements of case study. The study is an
empirical study into the current debate over the genuineness of oil companies environmental initiatives. 15
Multiple sources for the study were used in the form of company and public documents, Secondly, in this
study, we examined the meanings rather than events, thus not intending to collect a large number of responses
with little detail, but several in depth accounts. Thirdly, compared with a single case study; the multiple case
study approach allowed us to compare and contrast the two cases to draw conclusions about emerging themes.
A multiple case study design was useful to generate more robust and compelling data. The disadvantages of 20
the case method, especially in business and management research are its less desirable form of empirical
research methodology, bias and the tendency to use incomplete evidence.
This research follows Pettigrew’s (1988) idea of using extreme examples when conducting case studies
to make the area under investigation ‘transparently observable’. ExxonMobil was selected because it is
vehemently opposed to any efforts requiring the incorporation of environmental or social costs into its bottom 25
line (Skjaerseth et al., 2004, Skjaerseth and Skodvin, 2001 and Levy and Kolk, 2002). Shell was chosen
because it has begun to engage proactively in managing both social and environmental issues (Skjaerseth et
al., 2004, Skjaerseth and Skodvin, 2001, Levy and Kolk, 2002 and Livesey and Kearins; 2002).
Due to several reasons, the case study data in this research consists primarily of secondary data. First, the
nature of the issues is very sensitive, and adverse findings could seriously damage an organisation’ s carefully 30
sculpted public persona. Though Shell might have agreed to participate in this research, ExxonMobil would
not have, because the findings would probably reflect badly on the company. Second, there is a need to
analyse actual behaviour rather than professed intentions regarding behaviour. This requirement aligns with
the findings of Bird and Waters (1989) that hypothetical tests of moral and ethical behaviour of management
bear little or no relation to management's actual actions in real business situations. Finally, large volumes of 35
secondary data are available on these two companies. These data come from sources such as the media,
investment funds, the companies’ own press releases, and previous case studies and scholarly work. This large
volume of data allows a comprehensive picture and analysis of their actions to be obtained from both
qualitative and quantitative sources, without the need to generate or replicate previous work.
40
BEALE, F., FERNANDO, M. Short-termism and genuineness in environmental initiatives: a comparative
case study of two oil companies. European Management Journal, v. 27, n. 1, p. 26-35, fev. 2009.

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21. The authors chose ExxonMobil and Royal Dutch Shell for their study because

A) no previous studies had targeted these companies.
B) regulatory measures have affected their livelihood.
C) tests have shown they are responsible for climate change.
D) the oil industry is committed to environmental issues.
E) they are companies operating under external pressures.

22. According to the authors, the multiple case study approach was selected in order to

A) adopt a more real and contemporary methodology.
B) clarify Yin’s (1989) definition of empirical investigation.
C) collect more evidence of the companies’ genuineness.
D) obtain more solid data for comparison and contrast.
E) privilege quantitative over qualitative methods.

23. In the text Iraq is mentioned as an example of a country that

A) has been typically known for its wars.
B) is exploited by developed powers for its oil.
C) is responsible for global warming in the third world.
D) is undergoing political and ethical conflicts.
E) provoked very rapid rises in energy prices.

24. Unlike Shell, ExxonMobil is presented by the authors as a company

A) being under investigation for its transparency.
B) classified as extreme according to Pettigrew (1988).
C) dea1ing with pressure from environmentalists.
D) reluctant to consider social and environmental issues.
E) representing the interests of the oil industry.

25. According to the authors, Shell.

A) agreed to participate in their empirical case study.
B) can be said to have a carefully sculpted public persona.
C) has vehemently opposed Exxon Mobil’s efforts.
D) is more visibly observable than ExxonMobil
E) would have been, seriously affected by their findings.

26. All of the following reasons for using secondary data are given by the authors in the text EXCEPT
FOR:

A) Secondary data allowed for analyzing what the two companies actually did.
B) Secondary data did not demand the two companies’ consenting to be examined.
C) Secondary data saved efforts in producing data or replicating previous studies.
D) Secondary data was abundant on the two companies and considerably diversified.
E) Secondary data would not reveal adverse findings about the two companies. '

27. According to the authors, the aim of the study was
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A) to align with previous findings on management in real business situations.
B) to engage proactively in measures to stop emissions of greenhouse gases.
C) to investigate the genuineness of oil companies’ environmental initiatives.
D) to show that economic issues are more pressing than environmental issues.
E) to test how sensitive and transparent organizations’ public persona can be.

28. Where in the text do the authors mention potential shortcomings of the methodology they adopt?

A) Lines 5-7.
B) Lines 13-16.
C) Lines 16-18.
D) Lines 20-22.
E) Line 29.

INSTRUÇÕES: A questão 29 consiste em uma expressão, em inglês, seguida de cinco opções de
expressões, também em inglês, identificadas de A até E. Escolha a opção que apresenta o melhor
sinônimo da palavra na linha indicada do TEXT 1.

29. TO CURB (line 4)

A) To identify.
B) To measure.
C) To name.
D) To prohibit.
E) To reduce.

INSTRUÇÕES: As questões 30 e31 dizem respeito a aspectos formais do TEXT 1, mais
especificamente a relações de coesão; Escolha a opção que melhor substitui a palavra especificada
nestas questões tendo em vista a linha indicada no TEXT l.

30. THIS RESEARCH (line 29)

A) Beale and Fernando, 2009.
B) Levy, and Kolk, 2002.
C) Livesey and Kearins, 2002
D) Skjaerseth and Skodvin, 2001.
E) Skjaerseth et al., 2004.

31. THIS REQUIREMENT (line 33)

A) The requirement that findings do not reflect badly on a company’s persona.
B) The requirement that professed intentions bear relation with actual actions.
C) The requirement that Shell and ExxonMobil agree to participate in the research.
D) The requirement that the behavior of the companies should be the object of analysis.
E) The requirement that the study should align with Bird and Waters’ (1989) hypothesis:

INSTRUÇÕES: As questões de 32 a 37 dizem respeito ao conteúdo do TEXT 2. Leia-o atentamente
antes de responde-las. Escolha a melhor resposta para cada questão e marque-a em seu Cartão de
Respostas.
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TEXT 2
Why the banks all fell down

In Joseph Sargent’s 1970 film “Colossus: the Forbin project”, the U.S. President loses confidence in his
judgment about how to manage nuclear weapons and turns over control to computer named Colossus. Soon
after the change is announced, Colossus displays a message on it main console: THERE IS ANOTHER
SYSTEM. It turns out the Soviets have done the very same thing. Soon the two machines are communicating
with each other. After a struggle resulting in the detonation of two nuclear bombs, the computers gain 5
complete control over both governments.
“Colossus” may-have something to teach us about the current financial crisis. It is certainly more
instructive than the two most common explanations. The first is that banks recklessly gambled in uncertain and
unproven markets. The second is that regulators took a holiday while this party ragged on.
But the banks didn’t “gamble”. Instead, they locked themselves, Forbin-like, into computer-based 10
financial models that have an obvious systemic flaw. As Avinash Persaud, an economist and chairman of
Intelligence Capital, argued in an award-winning essay almost eight years ago, the dominant models for
market-sensitive risk management, whether they’re run on computers or not, are missing a critical piece:
herd behavior. When such incomplete models get wired into the investment houses of every major economy -
with servers sometimes co-located to avoid the millisecond lag that bicoastal or intercontinental 15
communication necessarily creates - this omission leads inevitably to the kind of terror we’ve seen the past
few months.
The models governing our financial system were developed in the 1950s. They were built, as Persaud
explains, upon the assumption that “each user is the only person using”. That assumption may have made
sense when only the Rand Corporation (which developed the models) had the data, to act upon them. 20
But as Persaud wrote in the Financial Times in March, in “today’s flat world, [where] market
participants from Argentina to New Zealand have the same data”, the assumption is nothing short of nuts. As
the market shifts, the models used by all the major investment banks “throw up the same portfolios to be
favored and those not to be!” This is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle for financial markets: by being
observed, the observed gets changed. The global; simultaneous and practically instantaneous “adjustments” 25
lead “the herd” (a.k.a. our financial system) right of the cliff.

Newsweek, 27 October, 2008. p. 29.

32. According to the text, in “Colossus: the Forbin project”

A) governments are managed by computers
B) machines and humans communicate.
C) nuclear bombs are detonated by the Soviets.
D) presidents struggle to regain confidence.
E) systems are controlled by human beings.

33. The text uses Sargent’s film in order to

A) argue against market regulators
B) be instructive about uncertain situations.
C) build an alternative explanation for the crisis.
D) prove that computers can be flawed.
E) teach about banks gambling behavior

34. According to Persaud’s explanation,

A) bicoastal or intercontinental communication is avoided.
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B) financial systems should not be run by computers.
C) investment houses were at risk almost eight years ago.
D) major economies are responsible for the financia1 crisis.
E) market-sensitive risk management models are incomplete.

35. In Persaud’s view, a critical element in management models is

A) banks’ gambling
B) group behavior.
C) regulators’ partying
D) servers’ communication.
E) users’ uncertainty.

36. In the text Argentina is cited as an example of

A) a case of investment uncertainty.
B) a country affected by the crisis.
C) a location for market participants.
D) a model developed in the 1950s.
E) a third world economy at risk.

37. The Rand Corporation

A) anticipated the present herd behavior.
B) considered the market a flat world.
C) developed a sensible model for the 1950s.
D) had limited data to prevent a crisis.
E) made wrong assumptions about users.

INSTRUÇÕES: A questão 38 consiste em uma palavras, em inglês, seguida de cinco opções de palavras
também em inglês, identificadas de A até E. Escolha a opção que apresenta, o melhor sinônimo da
palavra na linha indicada do TEXT 2.

38. RECKLESSLY (line.8).

A) Compulsively.
B) Forcibly.
C) Illegally.
D) Irresponsibly.
E) Timidly

INSTRUCÕES: As questões 39 e 40 dizem respeito a aspectos formais do TEXT 2, mais
especificamente a relação de coesão. Escolha a opção que melhor substitui da palavras especificada
nestas questões tendo em vista a linha indicada no TEXT 2.

39. THIS OMISSION (line 16)

A) Not avoiding communication lags.
B) Not being sensitive to risk.
C) Not considering herd behavior.
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D)Not getting wired into banks.
E) Not running on a computer.

40. THE ASSUMPTION (line 22)

A) Believing there are single users.
B) Communicating bicoastally.
C) Developing a system in the l950s.
D) Having co-located servers.
E) Modeling the financial system.

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