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K u v e m p u U n i v e r s i t y

Assignments for B.Sc.(IT) & M.Sc.(IT) Courses
Subject A!v"nce Computer #et$or%
Subject Co!e BSIT & '(
Assignment TA (Compu)sory)
1. What is DNS? Why is DNS required? What is the basis to choose the domain to an organization?
A#S DNS, the Domain Name System is a distributed hierarchical naming system for computers, services, or
any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. It associates various information’s with domain
names assigned to each of the participants.
This is reuired because domain names are alphabetic, as they!re easier to remember. The Internet however,
is really based on I" addresses. #very time we use a domain name, therefore, a DNS service must translate
the name into the corresponding I" address. $or e%ample, the domain name www.example.com might
translate to 198.105.232.4.
The basics of choosing domain to an organi&ation by attaching random names to I" address and managing
them is too nontrivial. So, a structured approach is needed.
• Best way is to employ the postal addressing system.
o Country
o State
o District
o Taluk
o City
o Street
• Internet is divided into 200 Domains at Top level
• Each toplevel domain is !urther divided into su" domain.
• Each su" domain is !urther divided into one or more levels o! su" domains.
• Top level domain can "e split into two ma#or classes.
o $eneric generic domain names include
 %m& int& mil& gov& org& net& edu......
 "i'& in!o& name (recent addition 2000 )ov*
 aero& coop& museums (new ones*
• Country each country has one entry& in& ae& us& #p etc
• Top level domain should "e unam"iguous and noncontentious.
1. What are the diferent components of Internet cloud? How does WWW is
connected with Internet cloud? Explain.
A#S ' cloud client consists of computer hardware and(or computer software that relies on cloud computing
for application delivery, or that is specifically designed for delivery of cloud services and that, in either case, is
essentially useless without it. #%amples include some computers, phones and other devices, operating systems
and browsers
)loud application services or *Software as a Service +SaaS,* deliver software as a service over the Internet,
eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer!s own computers and simplifying
maintenance and support. -ey characteristics include
 Network.based access to, and management of, commercially available +i.e., not custom, software
 'ctivities that are managed from central locations rather than at each customer!s site, enabling customers
to access applications remotely via the /eb
 'pplication delivery that typically is closer to a one.to.many model +single instance, multi.tenant
architecture, than to a one.to.one model, including architecture, pricing, partnering, and management
characteristics
 )entrali&ed feature updating, which obviates the need for downloadable patches and upgrades.

Cloud platform services or *"latform as a Service +"aaS,* deliver a
computing platform and(or solution stack as a service, often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining
cloud applications. It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and comple%ity of buying and
managing the underlying hardware and software layers. )loud infrastructure services or *Infrastructure as a
Service +IaaS,* delivers computer infrastructure, typically a platform virtuali&ation environment as a service.
0ather than purchasing servers, software, data center space or network euipment, clients instead buy those
resources as a fully outsourced service. The service is typically billed on a utility computing basis and amount
of resources consumed +and therefore the cost, will typically reflect the level of activity. It is an evolution of
virtual private server offerings. The servers layer consists of computer hardware and(or computer software
products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services, including multi.core processors, cloud.
specific operating systems and combined offerings.
The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks
that use the standard Internet "rotocol Suite +T)"(I", to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of
networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to
global scope that are linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies. The Internet
carries a vast array of information resources and services, most notably the inter.linked hyperte%t documents of
the /orld /ide /eb +///, and the infrastructure to support electronic mail. 1ost traditional
communications media, such as telephone and television services, are reshaped or redefined using the
technologies of the Internet, giving rise to services such as 2oice over Internet "rotocol +2oI", and I"T2.
Newspaper publishing has been reshaped into /eb sites, blogging, and web feeds. The Internet has enabled or
accelerated the creation of new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and
social networking sites.
2. What are the advantages of good routing protocol? Explain one of the
routing protocols in detail.
A#S The main ob3ectives of the network layer are to deliver the packets to the destination. The delivery of
packets is often accomplished using either a connection.oriented or a connectionless network service. In a
connection.oriented approach, the network layer protocol first makes a connection with the network layer
protocol at the remote site before sending a packet. /hen the connection is established, a seuence of packets
from the same source to the same destination can be sent one after another. In this case, there is a relationship
between packets. They are sent on the same path where they follow each other. ' packet is logically connected
to the packet traveling before it and to packet traveling after it. /hen all packets of a message have been
delivered, the connection is terminated. In a connection oriented approach, the decision about the route of a
seuence of packets with the same source and destination addresses can be made only once, when the
connection is established. The network device will not compute the route again and again for each arriving
packet. In a connectionless situation, the network protocol treats each packet independently, with each packet
having no relationship to any other packet. The packets in a message may not travel the same path to their
destination. The internet protocol +I", is a connectionless protocol. It handles each packet transfer in a separate
way. This means each packet travel through different networks before settling to their destination network. Thus
the packets move through heterogeneous networks using connection less I" protocol.
 DIE!" #$D I$DIE!" %&"I$'
There e%its two approaches for the final delivery of the I" packets. In the Direct delivery, the final destination of
the packet is a host connected to the same physical network as the deliverer +$igure 4,. Direct delivery occurs
when the source and destination of the packet are located on the same physical network or if the delivery is
between the last router and the destination host.
The sender can easily determine if the delivery is direct. It can e%tract the network address of the destination
packet +1ask all the bits of the 5ost address, and compare this address with the addresses of the networks to
which it is connected. If a match is found, then the delivery is direct. In direct delivery, the sender uses the
destination I" address to find the destination physical address. The I" software then delivers the destination I"
address with the destination physical address to the data link layer for actual delivery. In practical sense a
protocol called address resolution protocol +'0", dynamically maps an I" address to the corresponding
physical address. It is to be noted that the I" address is a $670 byte code where as the "hysical address is a
SI8 byte code. The "hysical address is also called as 1') address, #thernet address and hardware address.
/hen the network part of the I" address does not match with the network address to which the host is
connected, the packet is delivered indirectly. In an indirect delivery, the packet goes from router to router until it
reaches the one connected to the same physical network as its final destination. Note that a delivery always
involves one direct delivery but &ero or more indirect deliveries. Note also that the last delivery is always a
direct delivery. In an indirect delivery, the sender uses the destination I" address and a routing table to find the
I" address of the ne%t router to which the packet should be delivered. The sender then uses the '0" protocol to
find the physical address of the ne%t router. Note that in direct delivery, the address mapping is between the I"
address of the final destination and the physical address of the final destination. In an indirect delivery, the
address mapping is between the I" address of the ne%t router and the physical address of the ne%t router.
0outing tables are used in the routers. The routing table contains the list of I" addresses of neighboring routers.
/hen a router has received a packet to be forwarded, it looks at this table to find the route to the final
destination. 5owever, this simple solution is impossible today in an Internetwork such as the Internet because
the number of entries in the routing table make table lookups inefficient. Several techniues can make the si&e
of the routing table manageable and handle such issues as security.
(. What is streaming? 'ive some examples of streaming. What are the
challenges in designing multimedia networ)ing?
A#S Streaming. In a streaming stored audio(video application, a client begins playout of the audio(video of
few seconds after it begins receiving the file from the server. This means that the client will be playing out
audio(video from one location in the file while it is receiving later parts of the file from the server. This
techniue, known as streaming, avoids having to download the entire file +and incurring a potentially long
delay, before beginning playout. There are many streaming multimedia products, such as 0eal"layer,
9uickTime and 1edia "layer.
Exampes are
Streaming stored audio(video,
Streaming live audio(video
0eal.time interactive audio(video.
 *ac)et +oss
)onsider one of the 7D" segments generated by our Internet phone application. The 7D" segment is
encapsulated in an I" datagram. 's the datagram wanders through the network, it passes through buffers +that
is, ueues, in the routers in order to access outbound links. It is possible that one or more of the buffers in the
route from sender to receiver is full and cannot admit the I" datagram. In this case, the I" datagram is
discarded, never to arrive at the receiving application.
 End,to,End Dela-
#nd.to.end delay is the accumulation of transmission, processing, and ueuing delays in routers: propagation
delays in the links: and end.system processing delays. $or highly interactive audio applications, such as
Internet phone
.. What is the purpose of E,mail? What are the tools provided in the E,mail?
/ention diferent E,mail 0service providers and their special features.
A#S Eectronic mai is the most widely used tool in the present world for fast and reliable communication. It
is based on 0$) ;<<.
 E,mail s-stem supports 1ve 2asic functions.
+* Composition, -elps in creating message and answers& supports many
!unctions such as insertion o! address a!ter e.traction !rom the original
message during replying etc.
2* Trans!er, Causes movement o! message to the destination. Connection
esta"lishments and passage o! message is done here.
/* 0eporting, Do involve in reporting the origin o! email whether it is delivered&
lost or a"andoned.
1* Disposition, Do involve in invoking certain tools to ena"le reading email
message which come as attachment.
#%= 'bode to read a pdf file attachment.
2* Disposition, Involves& 0eading& discarding& savings& replying& !orwarding etc.
'dditional features of #.mail system
$orwarding= forward email to another email ID
1ail bo%= storing(retrieving email
1ailing list= Send copies to the entire email list.
6ther functions= ))= carbon copy
>))= >lind copy
5igh priority
!ahoo" #mai" $otmai" %&' etc
3. How does &4+ wor)? Explain the various steps of server side operation.
'ive an example.
A#S 345 is only the !oundation on which additional standards can "e de6ned to achieve
the goal o! true interopera"ility. The 7niversal Business 5anguage (7B5* initiative is the
ne.t step in achieving this goal.
The 7>? effort addresses this problem by building on the work of the
eb81? initiative. #b81? is a 3oint pro3ect of 7N()#$')T, the world body responsible for international
#lectronic Data Interchange +#DI,, and the 6rgani&ation for the 'dvancement of Structured Information
Standards +6'SIS,, a nonprofit consortium dedicated to the open development of 81? languages. 7>? is
organi&ed as an 6'SIS Technical )ommittee to guarantee a rigorous, open process for the standardi&ation of
the 81? business language. The development of 7>? within 6'SIS also helps ensure a fit with other
essential eb81? Specifications.
Ser(er Side &peration
7pon clicking a 70?, the server side offers the following operations.
 8ccepts a TC9 connection !rom a client.
 $et the name o! the 6le re:uested disk.
 $et the 6le !rom the disk.
 0eturn the 6le to the client.
 0elease the TC9 connection
• "roblems with this type is the disk access with every reuest
• S)SI disk have a disc access time of @ ms. so it permits <AA disks access per second
• It is still lower if the files are larger.
• To overcome this, the web server maintains a large cache space which holds Bn’ most recent files.
/henever a reuest comes, the server first look into caches and respond appropriately.
• To make the server faster, multithreading is adapted.
• There e%ists different concepts and design in one design. The server has a front end module and k
processing modules +threads,. The processing modules have access to the cache. The front end module
accepts input reuest and pass it to one of the module. The processing module verifies the cache and
responds if the file e%ists else it invokes disk search and caches the file and also send the file to the
client. 't any instant of timeBt’ out of k modules, -.8 modules may be few to take reuests, 8 modules
may be in the ueue waiting for disk access and cache search. If the number of disks is enhanced then it
is possible to enhance the speed.
+. Each 4odule does the !ollowing.
0esolve the name o! the ;e" page re:uested.
#.g.= http=(( www.cisco.com
2. There is no 6le name here. De!ault is inde. .html.
/. 9er!orm access control on the client check to see i! there are any restrictions.
1. 9er!orm access control on the we" page. 8ccess restrictions on the page itsel!.
2. Check the cache.
<. =etch the re:uested page.
C%C$E
$ront end
. . . . . . . - "rocesses
- . 1odule
Threads
In coming
0euest. 6ut going
0eply
>. Determine 4I4E type
?. Take care o! miscellaneous address ends.
+>uilding 7ser profile, Satisfaction.,
@. 0eturn the reply to the client.
+0. 4ake an entry in the server log.
If too many reuests come in each second, the )"7 will not be able to
handle the processing load, irrespective of no of disks in parallel. The solution is to add more machine with
replicated disks. This is called server form. ' front end still accepts the reuest and sprays them to all )"7s
rather than multiple threads to reduce the load on that machine. Individual machines are again 1ultithreaded
with 1ultiple disks.
It is to be seen that cache is local to each machine. T)" connection should
terminate at processing node and not at front end.
). What are the criteria consider to de(eop a routing protoco? Expain the &S*+ routing protoco in
detai?
A#S There e%its two approaches for the final delivery of the I" packets. In the Direct delivery, the final
destination of the packet is a host connected to the same physical network as the deliverer +$igure 4,. Direct
delivery occurs when the source and destination of the packet are located on the same physical network or if
the delivery is between the last router and the destination host.
The sender can easily determine if the delivery is direct. It can e%tract the
network address of the destination packet +1ask all the bits of the 5ost address, and compare this address
with the addresses of the networks to which it is connected. If a match is found, then the delivery is direct. In
direct delivery, the sender uses the destination I" address to find the destination physical address. The I"
software then delivers the destination I" address with the destination physical address to the data link layer
for actual delivery. In practical sense a protocol called address resolution protocol +'0", dynamically maps
an I" address to the corresponding physical address. It is to be noted that the I" address is a $670 byte code
where as the "hysical address is a SI8 byte code. The "hysical address is also called as 1') address,
#thernet address and hardware address. /hen the network part of the I" address does not match with the
network address to which the host is connected, the packet is delivered indirectly. In an indirect delivery, the
packet goes from router to router until it reaches the one connected to the same physical network as its final
destination.
• Note that a delivery always involves one direct delivery but &ero or more indirect deliveries.
• Note also that the last delivery is always a direct delivery. In an indirect delivery, the sender uses the
destination I" address and a routing table to find the I" address of the ne%t router to which the packet
should be delivered.
• The sender then uses the '0" protocol to find the physical address of the ne%t router. Note that in direct
delivery, the address mapping is between the I" address of the final destination and the physical address of
the final destination.
• In an indirect delivery, the address mapping is between the I" address of the ne%t router and the physical
address of the ne%t router.
0outing tables are used in the routers. The routing table contains the list of
I" addresses of neighboring routers. /hen a router has received a packet to be forwarded, it looks at this table
to find the route to the final destination. 5owever, this simple solution is impossible today in an Internetwork
such as the Internet because the number of entries in the routing table make table lookups inefficient. Several
techniues can make the si&e of the routing table manageable and handle such issues as security.
 %*E$ 5H%"E5" *#"H 6I5" (OSPF)
&pen Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a routing protocol developed
for Internet "rotocol +I", networks by the Interior Cateway "rotocol +IC", working group of the Internet
#ngineering Task $orce +I#T$,. The working group was formed in 4D;; to design an IC" based on the Shortest
"ath $irst +S"$, algorithm for use in the Internet. Similar to the Interior Cateway 0outing "rotocol +IC0",,
6S"$ was created because in the mid.4D;As, the 0outing Information "rotocol +0I", was increasingly
incapable of serving large, heterogeneous internetworks. This chapter e%amines the 6S"$ routing environment,
underlying routing algorithm, and general protocol components.
6S"$ was derived from several research efforts, including >olt,
>reakneck, and Newman’s +>>N’s, S"$ algorithm developed in 4DE; for the '0"'N#T +a landmark packet.
switching network developed in the early 4DEAs by >>N,, Dr. 0adia "erlman’s research on fault.tolerant
broadcasting of routing information +4D;;,, >>N’s work on area routing +4D;F,, and an early version of 6SI’s
Intermediate System.to. Intermediate System +IS.IS, routing protocol. 6S"$ has two primary characteristics.
The first is that the protocol is open, which means that it is in the public domain. The 6S"$ specification is
published as 0euest for )omments +0$), 4<GE. The second principal characteristic is that 6S"$ is based on
the S"$ algorithm, which sometimes is referred to as the Di3kstra algorithm, named for the person credited with
its creation. 6S"$ is a link.state routing protocol that calls for the sending of link.state advertisements +?S's,
to all other routers within the same hierarchical area. Information on attached interfaces, metrics used, and other
variables is included in 6S"$ ?S's. 's 6S"$ routers accumulate link.state information, they use the S"$
algorithm to calculate the shortest path to each node. 's a link.state routing protocol, 6S"$ contrasts with 0I"
and IC0", which are distance.vector routing protocols. 0outers running the distance.vector algorithm send all
or a portion of their routing tables in routing.update messages to their neighbors.
7. Wh- is 4'* needed? Explain com 14'* used in place of the 1'*?
A#S The Border $ateway 9rotocol (B$9* is the protocol "acking the core routing
decisions on the Internet. It maintains a ta"le o! I9 networks or Apre6.esA which designate
network reach a"ility among autonomous systems (8S*. It is descri"ed as a path vector
protocol. B$9 does not use traditional Interior $ateway 9rotocol (I$9* metrics& "ut makes
routing decisions "ased on path& network policies andBor rule sets. =or this reason& it is
more appropriately termed a reach a"ility protocol rather than routing protocol.B$9 was
created to replace the E.terior $ateway 9rotocol (E$9* routing protocol to allow !ully
decentrali'ed routing in order to allow the removal o! the )S=)et Internet "ack"one
network. This allowed the Internet to "ecome a truly decentrali'ed system. Since +@@1&
version !our o! the B$9 has "een in use on the Internet. 8ll previous versions are now
o"solete. The ma#or enhancement in version 1 was support o! Classless InterDomain
0outing and use o! route aggregation to decrease the si'e o! routing ta"les. Since
Canuary 200<& version 1 is codi6ed in 0=C 12>+& which went through more than 20 dra!ts
"ased on the earlier 0=C +>>+ version 1. 0=C 12>+ version corrected a num"er o! errors&
clari6ed am"iguities and "rought the 0=C much closer to industry practices. 4ost
Internet users do not use B$9 directly. Since most Internet service providers must use
B$9 to esta"lish routing "etween one another (especially i! they are multihued*& it is one
o! the most important protocols o! the Internet. Compare this with Signaling System >
(SS>*& which is the interprovider core call setup protocol on the 9ST). Dery large private
I9 networks use B$9 internally. 8n e.ample would "e the #oining o! a num"er o! large
%pen Shortest 9ath =irst (%S9=* networks where %S9= "y itsel! would not scale to si'e.
8nother reason to use B$9 is multihoming a network !or "etter redundancy either to
multiple access points o! a single IS9 (0=C +@@?* or to multiple IS9s.
B$9 neigh"ors& or peers& are esta"lished "y manual
con6guration "etween routers to create a TC9 session on port +>@. 8 B$9 speaker will
periodically send +@"yte keepalive messages to maintain the connection (every <0
seconds "y de!ault*. 8mong routing protocols& B$9 is uni:ue in using TC9 as its transport
protocol. ;hen B$9 is running inside an autonomous system (8S*& it is re!erred to as
Internal B$9 (IB$9 or Interior Border $ateway 9rotocol*. ;hen it runs "etween
autonomous systems& it is called E.ternal B$9 (EB$9 or E.terior Border $ateway
9rotocol*. 0outers on the "oundary o! one 8S e.changing in!ormation with another 8S
are called "order or edge routers. In the Cisco operating system& IB$9 routes have an
administrative distance o! 200& which is less pre!erred than either e.ternal B$9 or any
interior routing protocol. %ther router implementations also pre!er EB$9 to I$9s& and
I$9s to IB$9.