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Old Worlds, New Worlds

Chapter 2
1. The Rival Imperial Models of Spain, France, and Holland
a. New Spain: Colonization and Conversion
i. Spanish exploration and conquest focused around the 3 Gs:
1. God, gold, and glory.
ii. 1540s Francisco Vasques de Coronado searched for the fabled seven cities of Cibola, but instead
discovered the Grand Canyon, the pueblo Indians, and the grasslands of Kansas.
iii. By the 1560s the Spanish had given up the quest for gold and were focusing on defending their
1. “Sea dogs” were plundering Spanish treasure ships.
a. 1565 fort at St. Augustine was established as the first permanent European settlement
in what would be the United States.
2. French Protestants were settling in Spanish-claimed Florida.
a. King Phillip II ordered the casting out of French Protestants that ended in a 300 person
massacre by St. John River.
3. Native tribes of the Calusas, Timucuas, and Aloquins were attacking Jesuit missions and
Spanish military outposts.
a. led to the policy urged by Franciscan friars to conquer the Indians by Christianizing
b. The Comprehensive Orders for New Discoveries (1573) placed responsibility for
pacification primarily in the hands of missionaries, not conquistadors.
i. Friars whipped Indians who continued to practice polygamy, smashed Indian
religious idols, and punished anyone who worshipped traditional gods.
i. 1598 relations between Indians and Spaniards in New Mexico exploded in open warfare.
1. an expedition of 500 soldiers raided Indian villages.
a. Indians of the Acoma pueblo retaliated by killing 11 Spaniards.
b. Spanish troops retaliated and killed 800 men, women, and children.
2. As a result of the hostility, most Spanish settlers left the region.
3. 1610 the Spanish returned to found the town of Santa Fe and reestablish the encomienda
4. Over the next two generations European diseases, forced tribute, and raids by nomadic
plains Indians reduced the population of the Pueblo people by over 30%.
ii. 1680 Pope’s rebellion
1. Led by an Indian shaman, Pope.
2. More than 400 Spanish were killed and forced another 1500 to flee the region.
3. Spanish crop seeds were destroyed and only maize and beans were planted—“the crops of
their ancestors”
4. They desecrated churches and rebuilt sacred kivas.
5. A decade later, Spain reinstated control.
iii. 1700s English raids from Carolina destroyed most of the Spanish missions and killed or enslaved
most Catholic converts.
1. This and prior setbacks persuaded Spanish official to halt the settlement of California.
a. New France: Furs and Warfare
i. 1530s Jacques Cartier had claimed the lands bordering the Gulf of St. Lawrence for France.
ii. 1608 Samuel de Champlain founded the first permanent settlement of Quebec.
1. the settlement struggled until indentured servitude was established.
a. terms of thirty-six months, received annual salaries, and could eventually lease a farm.
2. Anti-Protestantism and strong peasant rights in France dissuaded migration to New France.
iii. New France became a vast enterprise for acquiring furs.
1. pelts were sold by the Huron Indians in exchange for kettles, hatchets, swords, knives, bread,
and guns.
iv. 1681 Robert de La Salle traveled down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico and named the region
Louisiana after Louis XIV.
v. French impact on the region was enormous
1. European diseases killed from 25 to 90 percent of many Indian peoples.
2. bartering with guns led to a series of deadly wars.
vi. Rise of the Iroquois
1. In 1600 the Iroquois numbered about 30,000.
2. Organized into the confederation of Five Nations—Senecas, Cayugas, Onodagas, Oneidas, and
3. starting in 1633 as a result of a small pox epidemic they launched a series of wars against
other Iroquoian-speaking peoples.
a. they took thousands of women and children as captives and killed most of the men,
cooking and eating their flesh to gain access to their spiritual powers.
b. The Hurons were so decimated, they ceased to exist as a distinct people.
a. New Netherland: Commerce and Conquest
i. By 1600 Holland emerged as the financial and commercial hub of Northern Europe.
1. Dutch entrepreneurs dominated banking, insurance, and textile industries.
ii. 1609 Henry Hudson was dispatched by the Dutch to locate a western route to the riches of the East
Indies, known as the Northwest Passage.
1. established Fort Orange (Albany) in 1614 as a fur trade post.
iii. 1621 West Indian Company was chartered and given monopoly over the trade in American furs and
West African slaves.
1. founded the town of New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island.
a. the town did not survive due to extremely low population.
b. Governor Peter Stuyvesant rejected English Puritan demands for representation and
alienated the diverse population of New Netherland.
i. this led to little resistance when England invaded the colony in 1664.
iv. Crippling Indian wars led the West India Company to largely ignore New Netherland and focus on
the trade of African slaves and Brazilian sugar.
 The English Arrive: The Chesapeake Experience
 Settling the Tobacco Colonies
 The first English settlements in North America were organized privately.
 this meant that the English settlements enjoyed considerable autonomy and developed in
very different ways.
 Those established by nobles were failures.
 Sir Humphrey Gilbert established Newfoundland in 1580s.
 failed due to lack of financing.
 Sir Walter Raleigh’s three expeditions to North Carolina failed.
 117 settlers disappeared on Roanoke Island leading to it to be known as the
“lost colony.”
 1606 the Virginia Company of London was granted all the lands from present day North
Carolina to southern New York by King James I.
 1607 Jamestown was established.
 the expedition was limited to male traders who were employees/servants of the
 only 38 of 120 men were alive nine months later.
 1611 1,200 settlers were sent to Jamestown, but fewer than half survived.
 to increase the flow of immigrants, 100 acres were granted to every freeman and
more to those who imported servants.
 “greate Charter” was established to create a system of representative government.
 by 1622 land ownership, self-government, and a judicial system attracted 4,500 new
 James I revoked the Virginia Company charter in 1624 and made it a royal colony as a result
of Indian uprisings.
 he retained the House of Burgesses by stipulated that his Privy Council must ratify all
 established the Church of England in colony which required residents pay taxes to
support clergy.
 Maryland is established by King Charles I as a land grant to Cecilius Calvert (Lord Baltimore).
 Lord Baltimore wanted the region to become a refuge for Catholics.
 1634 St. Mary’s city is established over looking the Potomac River.
 the colony grew rapidly because of the importation of artisans and generous land
 European demand for tobacco set off a forty-year economic boom in the Chesapeake.
 exports rose from 3 million pounds in 1640 to ten million pounds in 1660.
 1650s noble men established large plantation in which they set up a hierarchical system of
indentured servitude.
 Masters, Servants, and Slaves
 by 1700 more than 100,000 English migrants had come to Virginia and Maryland at the prospect
of land.
 ¾ were men displaced by the Enclosure Acts.
 indentured servants were valuable labor.
 terms of service were 4-7 years
 contracts could be sold.
 half the men died before completing the term of their contract.
 only ¼ received land grants.
 African slaves
 1619 introduced to Jamestown.
 1649 400 Africans lived in the Chesapeake colonies (2% of the population).
 1670 only 5% of the population was black.
 chattel slavery was not acknowledged under English common law so they were treated as
 1660 social mobility ended for Africans with the fall of the tobacco boom in order to
make tobacco as cheap as possible to produce.
 1671 Virginia law forbade Africans to own guns or join the militia.
 Bacon’s Rebellion
 Causes
 tobacco prices plummeted
 farmers continued to plant tobacco because there was no other cash crop.
 Acts of Trade and Navigation (1651, 1660, 1663)
 allowed only English or colonial ships to enter American ports.
 this excluded Dutch merchants who paid the most for tobacco.
 required the colonists to ship tobacco, sugar, and other items only to England.
 Virginia aristocracy developed.
 the elite accumulated nearly half of the land in Virginia by securing grants from
 They exempted their large plots from taxes and elected their friends to the House of
 population increase of Europeans and decrease of Native Americans.
 Poor freeholders and landless former servants demanded that the natives be expelled
or exterminated.
 opposition to the demand was fueled by wealthy planters who wanted ready
source of laborers and those who traded with the Indians for fur.
 Fighting broke out in 1675 when a band of Virginia militiamen murdered thirty Indians.
 1,000 militia men surrounded a fortified Susquehannock village and killed five Indian chiefs
that came out to negotiate.
 300 whites were killed in retribution.
 To avoid war Berkeley proposed a series of forts to deter Indian intrusion.
 Nathaniel Bacon was the leader of the rebels.
 he was refused permission from the governor to attack nearby Indians.
 he mobilized neighbors to attack the peaceful Doeg Indians.
 Bacon was arrested by Berkeley.
 Results
 reforms were enacted to curb the power of the elite
 restored voting rights to the landless freemen
 Increased African importation in order to supply labor to the large plantations.
 Puritan New England
 The Puritan Migration
 1620 William Bradford led a group of separatists.
 established Plymouth Colony
 They established a new civil body of politics under the Mayflower Compact.
 this is known as the first American constitution.
 Only half of migrants survived the first winter.
 the cold winter held off malaria and an smallpox epidemic in 1618 killed off
most of the local Indians.
 to provide stability they issued a written legal code that provided for representative
self-government, broad political rights, property ownership, and religious freedom of
 Charles I repudiated Protestant doctrines.
 i.e. the role of grace in salvation
 1629 Charles dissolved parliament and claimed the authority to rule by “divine right”.
 Archbishop William Laud, appointed by Charles to lead the church, dismissed
thousands of Puritan ministers which led to the great migration.
 1630 John Winthrop led 900 Puritans.
 established Massachusetts Bay Colony
 Puritanism was established as the state supported religion.
 Roger Williams was banned from the colony in 1636 for opposing the state
supported congregationalism and praised the pilgrims for the separation of
church and state.
 founded the town of Providence on land purchased from the Narragansett
 Established the colony of Rhode Island.
 Puritanism and Witchcraft
 Puritans believed that the physical world was full of supernatural forces.
 between 1647 and 1662 civil authorities hanged fourteen people for witchcraft.
 Salem 1692 was the most dramatic episode of witch-hunting.
 The Eastern Indians’ New World
 Pequot War
 Puritans believed that God was pleased with them expanding their lands and the proof was
that God kept decreasing Indian numbers to make room for more Puritan growth.
 1636 Pequot Warriors attacked English Famers who had intruded onto their land in the
Connecticut River Valley.
 a Puritan militia retaliated by attacking a village and killing 500 men, women, and
 Metacom’s Rebellion
 Metacom (King Philip) was a leader of the Wampanoags who believe that Europeans had to
be ousted from Indian lands.
 He forged an alliance between the Wamanoags, Narragansetts, and Nipmucks to attack
white settlements.
 Ended in 1676 when Indian warriors ran short on gun powder and Massachusetts Bay
government hired Mohegan and Mohawk warriors, who ambushed and killed Metacom.
 Indians destroyed 20% of English towns in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and killed 5% of
the adult population.
 The Politics of Empire, 1660-1713
 Restoration Colonies
 Charles II (r. 1660-1685) paid off monetary and political debt after he ascended to throne in 1663
by gifting eight loyal noblemen with the gift of Carolina.
 Carolina was an area claimed by Spain and populated by thousands of Indians.
 his brother, James, Duke of York, was given New Jersey and New York (previously New
 1681, Charles II gave Pennsylvania to William Penn.
 Penn was a Quaker and developed it as a refuge for fellow Quakers.
 Quakers were viewed as “violators of order” because they rejected clergy,
refused to fight in the military or pay taxes to support the Church of England.
 These proprietorships could be governed as the proprietor wished as long as they conformed
broadly with the laws of England.
 Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina (1669) prescribed a manorial system, in which a mass
of serfs were governed by a few nobles.
 the first settlers in the Carolinas were poor families and runaway servants from
 they opted to raise small farms as yeoman.
 South Carolina developed a hierarchical society based on slave labor.
 both African and Indian.
 From Mercantilism to Imperial Dominion
 Mercantilism- Economic theory that stressed governments' promotion of limitation of imports
from other nations and internal economies in order to improve tax revenues. The prosperity of
the nation was dependent upon its supply of capital.
 the colonies would produce agricultural goods and raw materials, which English merchants
would carry to England.
 enforced by the Navigation Acts of 1651.
 Acts passed in 1660 and 1663 increased restrictions.
 colonists could import European good only through England and it required
colonists ship sugar and tobacco only to England.
 Revenue Act of 1673 imposed a tax on sugar and tobacco to pay for customs officials.
 Massachusetts Bay openly refused to follow the Navigation Acts.
 In 1686 James II revoked the charters of colonies and combined Connecticut, Rhode Island,
Massachusetts Bay, and Plymouth colonies into the “Dominion of New England”
 New York and New Jersey were later added to create a “super colony” that stretched
from Maine to Pennsylvania.
 Edmond Andros was appointed governor over the Dominion of New England.
 Andros abolished the existing legislative assemblies and banned town meetings.
 The Glorious Revolution in England and America (1688)
 James II was forced into exile and the Whig party invited James II’s daughter, Mary, and her Dutch
husband, William of Orange, to take the throne.
 Whig politicians forced the new King and Queen to accept the Declaration of Rights.
 it created a constitutional monarchy that enhanced the powers of the House of
 John Locke’s Two Treatises on Government (1690)provided justification for the coup.
 argued that the legitimacy of government rests on the consent of the governed.
 individuals have the inalienable natural rights to life, liberty, and property.
 Governor Andros was seized in Boston in April 1689 after word of the coup reached the colonies.
 he was accused of Catholic sympathies and shipped by to England.
 King William and Queen Mary listened to the American complaints and disbanded the
Dominion of New England.
 The Glorious Revolution began a new, non-authoritarian political era in both England and America.