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Energy, Climate & Water in the 21

st
Century Dr. Paul Bommer
TXESS Revolution Summer nstitute De!t. o" Petroleum & #eosystems Engineering
Drilling Mud Density and Viscosity
Purpose: This la$ %ill allo% the stu&ent to !ra'ti'e using (
)1* The mu& $alan'e to &etermine the &ensity o" &rilling "lui&.
)2* The !lasti' vis'osity o" the mu&.
Exercise Supplies and Equipment:
)1* + ,amilton Bee'h -i.er
)2* + mu& $alan'e.
)/* + 0ann /1 Rheometer
-i. the 12.1 g o" $entonite 'lay in /13 m4 )g* o" ta! %ater "or ten minutes using the
,amilton Bee'h mi.er. 5se the ele'troni' s'ale to %eigh the 'orre't amount o" %ater an&
'lay. +&& the 'lay to the %ater using a !a!er "unnel.
6otes on mi.ing7 one $arrel o" "resh %ater %eighs /13 !oun&s an& /13 m4 o" "resh %ater
%eighs /13 grams. n the la$, /13 m4 o" "resh %ater is e8uivalent to 1 $arrel o" "resh
%ater. There"ore, the a&&ition o" one gram o" an a&&itive to /13 m4 o" "resh %ater is
Remarks on Density:
-u& %eight !rovi&es !ressure in the %ell that %ill $e larger than the !ressure in the
reservoirs. This 'reates a !ressure gra&ient "rom the %ell $ore into the reservoirs that
have $een &rille&. " the !ressure is larger in the %ell $ore than in the surroun&ing
reservoirs, "lo% 'annot o''ur "rom the reservoir into the %ell. This is the !rimary
me'hanism that !revents $lo% outs. The !ressure in the %ell 'an $e 'om!ute& using7
( )
"
2
m
2 2
m "
/ 2 2
3.312
l$
!ressure in the %ell $ore
in
l$
&rilling mu& &ensity
gal
&e!th "t
l$ l$ se' 92.: "t /2.2 "t
3.312 !ressure gra&ient to &ensity ratio "or "resh %ater ;
1:: /2.2 "t in se'
WB
WB
p D
p
D
ρ
ρ
=
 
=
 ÷
 
 
=
 ÷
 
=
=
m m
1 gal
l$ "t <.// l$
The &ensity 'an $e measure in the mu& $alan'e. Be sure to 'ali$rate your $alan'e using
"resh %ater "irst.
The &ensity 'an also $e 'al'ulate& using the amounts mi.e& an& the &ensity o" the
'om!onents. Water &ensity ; 1.3 g=m4 an& the 'lay &ensity ; 2.9 g=m4.
Drilling -u& Density an& 0iltration Rate 1
Energy, Climate & Water in the 21
st
Century Dr. Paul Bommer
TXESS Revolution Summer nstitute De!t. o" Petroleum & #eosystems Engineering
Density Exercise:
Drilling -u& Density7
0irst 'ali$rate the $alan'e $y measuring the &ensity o" ta! %ater as sho%n $elo%.
The &ensity shoul& $e <.// 4$m=gal. " there is any &i""eren'e $et%een the s'ale rea&ing
an& the true value, re'or& the &i""eren'e an& use this as a 'orre'tion "or the mu& &ensity
&etermine& using this $alan'e.
)1* ,ol& the mu& 'u! o" the mu& $alan'e over the sin> an& "ill it to over "lo%ing.
)2* Pla'e the 'a! on the to! an& s!in it to ma>e sure it is seate& an& the e.tra mu& has
$een e.!elle& out the to! o" the 'a!.
)/* Pla'e your "inger over the hole in the 'a! an& rinse o"" e.terior mu& in the sin>.
):* Care"ully &ry the outsi&e o" the 'u! an& !la'e on the $alan'e stan&.
)1* Sli&e the %eight on the $eam until the $u$$le is 'entere& in the sight glass on the
$eam.
)9* Rea& an& re'or& the mu& &ensity o"" o" the to! s'ale in l$=gal.
)2* Pla'e the mu& $a'> in the sam!le 'ontainer an& %ash the mu& 'u! an& 'a! in the sin>.
-easure& Water Density ; ???????? !!g
Balan'e 'orre'tion ; ????????? !!g
Re!eat this !ro'e&ure "or the mu& that you mi.e&.
Remarks on Viscosity:
@is'osity is generally 'onsi&ere& the resistan'e o" a "lui& to "lo%. The larger the vis'osity,
the higher the !um! !ressure %ill $e to !um! a given "lo% rate through a given
'ir'ulating system. @is'osity is re!orte& in 'enti!oises )'!* in 5.S. units an& !as'alA
se'on&s )PaAse'* in S.. units.
+"ter you have measure& an& re'or&e& the &ensity o" the mu& use the 0ann /1
rheomoeter to measure the vis'osity o" %ater an& o" the mu& you mi.e&.
Viscosity Exercise:
)1* 0ill the rheometer 'u! %ith mu& u! to the line insi&e the 'u!.
)2* Pla'e the 'u! on the rheometer ta$le an& raise the 'u! until the line on the
rheometer 'ylin&er mat'hes the mu& level in the 'u!.
)/* Turn on the rheometer an& re'or& the tor8ue rea&ing )&egrees* at 933 r!m an& at
/33 r!m.
):* Re'or& this on the &ata !age.
)1* The !lasti' vis'osity in 'enti!oises )'!* is the &i""eren'e $et%een the 933 an& /33
r!m rea&ing.
Do this "or %ater an& "or the mu& you mi.e&. Be sure to 'lean the rheometer a"ter the
mu&.
Drilling -u& Density an& 0iltration Rate 2
Energy, Climate & Water in the 21
st
Century Dr. Paul Bommer
TXESS Revolution Summer nstitute De!t. o" Petroleum & #eosystems Engineering
Data and Calculations:
" the %ell is 9,333 "t &ee!, %hat is the !ressure at the $ottom o" the %ell &ue to the
hy&rostati' !ressure o" the mu&B ????????? !si
" !um! !ressure in tur$ulent "lo% is !ro!ortional to vis'osity raise& to the 3.21 !o%er,
%hat is the multi!lier "or !um! !ressure %hen !um!ing the mu&B ???????
Drilling -u& Density an& 0iltration Rate /