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Chemistry Revision Notes

:
The Acidic Environment
2.1 – Indicators were indentified with the observation that the colour of some
flowers depends on soil composition.
Acids and Bases
 Acids:
o Produce H
+
or H
3
O
+
ions in solution
o pH < 7
o Sour taste
o Corrodes metals.
 Bases:
o Produce OH
-
ions in solution
o pH > 7
o Bitter taste
Acid/Base ndicators
 !sed to detect t"e pH o# acids or $ases t"rou%" a c"an%e in colour.
 &itmus
o <' ( )ed
o >* ( Blue
 P"enolp"t"alein
o <*.3 ( Colourless
o >+, ( )ed
 -et".l Oran%e
o <3.+ ( )ed
o >/./ ( 0ello1
 Bromot".mol Blue
o <'.2 ( 0ello1
o >7.' ( Blue
2.2 – While we usually think of the air around us as neutral, the atmosphere
naturally contains acidic oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur. he
concentrations of these acidic oxides have been increasing since the Industrial
!evolution.
O3ides o# 4on--etals
 -ost non-metal o3ides are acidic.
 5"e. react 1it" 1ater to create an acid6
o CO
2
+ H
2
O  H
2
CO
3
7car$onic acid8
&e C"atelier9s Principle
 # a c"an%e occurs in a s.stem at e:uili$rium; t"en t"e s.stem 1ill s"i#t to #i3 t"is
c"an%e.
 A s.stem at e:uili$rium "as:
o A closed en<ironment
o 4o c"an%es in macroscopic properties 7colour; pressure; temperature8
o -icroscopic c"an%es 7s"i#ts to le#t and ri%"t8
o )eactants and products 7al1a.s8
=a<id Camp$ell 0r +2
Chemistry Revision Notes:
The Acidic Environment
>actors t"at A##ect ?:uili$rium
 ncreasin% concentration o# reactants/products 1ill s"i#t t"e e:uili$rium to t"e
opposite side.
 C"an%e in temperature 7some reactions are endot"ermic ( it 1ill s"i#t to product
side i# temp rises8
 C"an%es in pressure 7i# %ases are in<ol<ed8
 Catal.sts alter t"e time to reac" e:uili$rium; $ut 4O5 t"e e:uili$rium itsel#.
2." – #cids occur in many foods, drinks and even within our stomachs
Acids as Proton =onors
 An acid is a su$stance 1"en; in solution; produces H
+
ions.
 n 1ater; t"ese ions com$ine 1it" t"e 1ater molecule to produce H3O
+
ions.
Common Acids:
 H.droc"loric Acid (
o
HCl
o
Appears in our stomac"s to aid in di%estion
o
!sed in industr.
 Sulp"uric Acid (
o
H
2
SO
/
o
!sed in e3plosi<es; #ertilisers; car $atteries
 Citric Acid (
o
C
'
H
*
O
/
o
Car$o3.lic acid
o
Appears in plant and animal tissue 7especiall. citrus #ruit@1onder
1".8
o
!sed #or #oods ( Aams; pre<ents $acterial %ro1t" on meats
 Acetic/?t"anoic Acid (
o
CH
3
COOH
o
!sed in <ine%ar 7dilute solution8
Acids ( Stron%; BeaC; Concentrated and =ilute
 A stron% acid/$ase completel.; or almost; ionises in solution 7e%; HCl; 4aOH8
 Concentrated solutions "a<e lar%er amounts o# solute dissol<ed in a certain
<olume.
 =ilute solutions "a<e smaller amounts o# solute dissol<ed in a certain <olume.
=a<id Camp$ell 0r +2
Chemistry Revision Notes:
The Acidic Environment
!sin% t"e pH Scale
 5"e pH tells us:
o Concentration o# solution
o 4um$er o# ".dro%en ions in solution
 pH > 7 ( Basic
 pH < 7 ( Acidic
 pH D 7 - 4eutral
2.$ – %ecause of the prevalence and importance of acids, they have been used and
studied for hundreds of years. &ver time, the definitions of acid and base have
been refined.
Historical =e<elopment o# deas a$out Acids:
 &a<oisier 7-id +*
t"
C8(
o Belie<ed t"at all acids "ad o3.%en.
o EuicCl. dispro<ed ( man. acids didn9t "a<e o3.%en and man. $ases
did.
 =a<. 7&ate +*
t"
( ?arl. +F
t"
C8(
o Belie<ed t"at acids contained ".dro%en.
o 4oticed "o1 metals replaced t"e ".dro%en in acids.
 Arr"enius 7&ate +F
t"
C8(
o Belie<ed t"at acids produced a ".dro%en ion and a ne%ati<e ion and
t"at $ases ionise to produce ".dro3ide ions in solution.
o Also $elie<ed in t"e <arious stren%t"s o# acids and $ases.
o 4ice t"eor.; $ut limited in dept".
BrGnsted-&o1r. 5"eor. - +F23
 Acids are proton donors
 Bases are proton acceptors
 # a su$stance 7A8 tends to donate electrons more readil.; t"en it is an acid.
o
HA
7a:8
+ H
2
O
7l8
 H
3
O
+
7a:8
+ A
-
7a:8
 # a su$stance 7B8 tends to accept electrons more readil.; t"en it is a $ase.
o
B
7a:8
+ H
2
O
7l8
 HB
+
7a:8
+ OH
-
7a:8
 Amp"oteric su$stances "a<e t"e c"aracteristics o# $ot" acids and $ases accordin%
to t"is t"eor..
ConHu%ate Acids and Bases
 ?<er. acid "as a conHu%ate $ase and <ice <ersa.
 Acid + H
2
O I H
3
O
+
+ Base
o
5"e acid and $ase are a conHu%ate pair.
o
5"e 1ater and ".dronium ion are a conHu%ate pair.
 Stron% acids "a<e 1eaC conHu%ate $ases.
 BeaC acids "a<e stron% conHu%ate $ases.
Acidic; 4eutral and Basic Salts

)emem$er
o Acid + $ase  salt + 1ater

=ependin% on t"e stren%t" o# t"e acid and $ase; t"e pH o# t"e alt 1ill di##er.
=a<id Camp$ell 0r +2
Chemistry Revision Notes:
The Acidic Environment

Basic Salts:
o pH > 7
o Sodium Acetate

CH
3
OO
-
+ H
2
O I CH
3
OOH + OH
-

Acidic Salts:
o pH < 7
o Ammonium c"loride

4H
/
+
+ H
2
O I 4H
3
+ H
3
O
+

4eutral Salts:
o pH D 7
o Sodium c"loride

HCl + 4aOH  4aCl + H
2
O
o Ammonium acetate
Amp"iprotic Su$stances:

Su$stances t"at accept or donate electrons

Bater is a %ood e3ample ( it can act as an acid or a $ase in certain reactions

A common e3ample is t"e ".dro%en car$onate ion.
o n t"e presence o# a stron% acid it acts as a $ase6

HCO
3
-
+ H
3
O
+
 H
2
CO
3
+ H
2
O
o n t"e presence o# a stron% $ase it acts as an acid6

HCO
3
-
+ OH
-
 CO
3
2-
+ H
2
O
4eutralisation

# an acid and a $ase are mi3ed to%et"er and t"e. "a<e similar stren%t"s; t"e result
is a neutral solution.

)emem$er t"e sodium ".dro3ide and ".droc"loric acid e3ample.

Proton trans#er does occur.

4eutralisation is e3ot"ermic ( "eat is released ( a$out J7 CA mol
-+
5itrations
 n<ol<es a standard solution 7a solution 1it" a Cno1n concentration8 and an
unCno1n solution.
 B"en t"e reaction $et1een t"e Cno1n and unCno1n is done; t"at point is called
t"e e:ui<alence point.
2.' – (sterification is a naturally occurring process which can be performed in
the laboratory.
AlCanols

Homolo%ous series o# car$on compounds 1it" a ".dro3.l %roup 7-OH8

Keneral >ormula ( )-OH ( 1"ere ) is a car$on c"ain C
n
H
2n++

4amed accordin% to t"e len%t" o# t"e car$on c"ain under t"e standard !PAC.

5"e. are polar $ecause o# t"e (OH %roup.

ts meltin% and $oilin% points come #rom t"e ".dro%en $ondin% 1it" t"e (OH
%roups.

Solu$ilit. decreases 1it" car$on c"ain len%t".
=a<id Camp$ell 0r +2
Chemistry Revision Notes:
The Acidic Environment

5"e. react 1it" alCanoic acids to #orm esters.
=a<id Camp$ell 0r +2
Chemistry Revision Notes:
The Acidic Environment
AlCanoic Acids

Homolo%ous series o# car$on compounds 1it" a car$o3.lic %roup 7-COOH8

Keneral >ormula ( )-COOH ( 1"ere ) is a car$on c"ain C
n-+
H
2n-+

Polar due to t"e car$o3.lic %roup

BeaC acids as t"e. partiall. dissociate in 1ater
o )COOH
7a:8
I )COO
-
7a:8
+ H
+
7a:8


5"e. "a<e "i%"er meltin%/$oilin% points t"an alCanols.
?sters
 Keneral >ormula ( )COO) ( 1"ere $ot" )9s are car$on c"ains o# random
len%t"s.
 5"e #irst part o# t"e name is $ased on t"e alCanol. 7?t".l; met".l; prop.l etc.8
 5"e second part is $ased on t"e alCanoic acid; 1it" t"e su##i3 L-oateM replacin% t"e
L-oic acidM su##i3 7$utanoate; et"anoate etc.8
 B"en an alCanol and
an alCanoic acid are
mi3ed to%et"er; an
ester and 1ater are
#ormed.
 Sul#uric acid is used
as a catal.st to
remo<e t"e 1ater
#rom t"e reaction and
produce more ester
7&e C"ateleir9s
principle8
 )e#lu3 reactions assist
in t"e production o# esters $. coolin% t"e ester as it #orms; rat"er t"an lettin% it
e<aporate.
 ?sters can $e used in #oods 7#la<ours; essences8; soaps; medicines and ot"er
random t"in%s.
=a<id Camp$ell 0r +2