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PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM: Conventional AS

Screening
Grit
removal
Biological Process: Activated
Sludge
Schematic diagram of activated sludge plant
Activated Sludge - Microbiology
Mixed community of microorganisms
Metabolize and transform organic and inorganic substances
into environmentally acceptable forms.
Typical microbiology: Approx. 95% bacteria and 5% higher
organisms
(protozoa, rotifers, and higher forms of invertebrates)
Bacteria: Heterotrophic
Nitrifying (Ammonia Nitrogen to Nitrate Nitrogen)
Aerobic, Anaerobic, FACULTATIVE
Protozoans: Amoeba, Flagellates,
CILIATED sp.-Crucial in removing Escherichia coli
AS Bacteria
Heterotrophic bacteria
carbonaceous organic matter Co2+ water
+energy+new cells.
Important genera: Achromobacter,
Alcaligenes, Arthrobacter, Citromonas,
Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas, and
Zoogloea. (Jenkins, et al., 1993)
Nitrifying Bacteria
Slower reproduction rate; lesser % than H
Require long MCRT, high oxygen & power
requirement
optimum pH for the growth: 8-9, inhibition < 7
NITRIFICATION
2 NH4+ + 3O2 2NO2- + 4H+ + 2H2O +
energy
Nitrosomonas
2NO2 + O2 2NO3- + energy
Nitrobacter
Protozoa
Biological indicator of the AS condition
Strict aerobes-excellent indicators of an aerobic
environment
High sensitivity to toxicity-indicators of a toxic
environment (A clue: absence of or a lack of
mobility)
Stable activated-sludge system: Large numbers of
highly evolved protozoa in the biological mass
Feed on bacteria and particulate matter
Ciliated protozoa, flagellated protozoa,
amoeba
CARCHESIUM SP.
OPERCULARIA SP.
VORTICELLA
CONVALLARIA
Rotifers
Multicellular aquatic microorganisms
Consume microbes and particulate matter
Indicators of aerobic and toxic conditions
LECANE SP.
Viruses
Human enteric viruses
Inactivation by biological antagonists in the
sludge, adsorption, and reduction through
entrapment in suspended solids/colloidal material
HUMAN
ADENOVIRUS 2
POLIOVIRUS
HEPATITUS A
VIRUS
Succession
Aerobic (rod and sphere) eubacteria, as well as cyanobacteria
Amoebae graze on biofilm
motile rod and spiral bacteria, flagellates appear
Floc formation, Ciliates appear and diversify, feed on bacteria and flagellates
Rotifers appear and diversify; feed on ciliates
Slime production & biofilm pro.
Mature floc with a diverse community of bacteria, protozoa and micro-
invertebrates
Adverse factors
sudden changes in physical or chemical
characteristics of the inflow section like:
Temperature fluctuations
Marked changes in pH beyond the
tolerable levers for the microbes
Insufficient food supply
Chemical poisons, heavy metals and
inorganic substances.
Solid Separation: Role of Flocs
Solid Separation: Role of Flocs
Floc: > 1mm
Effective trapping of inorganic particles and
organic fibers
Reduction in effluent turbidity and BOD
Better withstanding of shearing action by bacterial
cells
Good settling of the sludge
Tale of the neglected groups: The
Non-flocculating
sludge bacteria
How conventional Microbiology
Fails!!
Sewage Treatment
SF
Kawada WWTP isolates
Non-
flocculating
Flocculating
Semi-
flocculating
0
10
20
30
40
50
0-10 11-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 51-60 61-70 71-80 81-90 91-100
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
f

i
s
o
l
a
t
e
s
Flocculation (%)
0-
10
31-
40
91-
100
Are NFs a Nuisance??
NF
Coaggregation
Provide a natural stable assemblage/consortium with better degradation
efficiency as compared to pure cultures
Greater physical proximity of two or more members in the coaggregate shall
ensure proper routing of the metabolites (no loss by misrouting of the
metabolites)
Toxicity effects minimized
Easy and quick cell (coaggregate) separation after the treatment without an
input of external energy
Why Coaggregating strains??
NOVEL Bacterial Coaggregation
Sewage Sludge Bacteria: 100 Pairs Tested
S23 33
S53
S51
35
Appl. Env.
Microbiol.
69 (10) 2003
6056-6063
0
20
40
60
80
100
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
Time (min)
A
g
g
r
e
g
a
t
i
o
n

i
n
d
e
x

(
%
)
Oligotropha Carboxidovorans S23
S23+S35
S23+S33
Time Course: Partner + A. johnsonii S35/A. junii S33
FEMS
Microbiol
Lett
224 (2003)
23 28
Complex Flocs
Biological Component: Floc-forming
bacteria; Achromobacter, Alcaligenes,
Arthrobacter, Citromonas,
Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas, Zoogloea
Nonbiological component: Organic and
inorganic particles and extracellular
microbial polymers (polysaccharide,
glycoprotein fibres)
Structure of floc: Microstructure
Microbial aggregation, adhesionBioflocculation-
mediated by extracellular microbial polymers
a) pin floc; b) small, weak flocs; c) flocs contining
filamentous organisms;
d) filamentous organism network" or backbone."
Filamentous organisms
form the network
within a floc onto which
floc-forming bacteria
cling.
Backbone of flocs, gives
stability against shear
Macrostructure
MICROBIOLOGY PROBLEMS AND
THEIR CAUSES
Dispersed (non-settleable) growth, pin floc
problems,
Zoogloeal bulking and foaming
Polysaccharide ("slime") bulking and
foaming
Nitrification and denitrification problems
Toxicity and filamentous bulking and
foaming.
Poor Floc Formation, Pin Floc and
Dispersed Growth Problems
Production of EPS ("slime") layer---Cements
bacteria in flocsfavored at lower growth rates
and at lower nutrient levels, (stationary growth
conditions)
Industrial waste treatment-high organic loading-
(high food to microorganism ratio (F/M)
conditions)---Dispersed growth--??
Reduction in the F/M of the system-Raising the
MLSS concentration.
toxicity or hydraulic washout event
Pin floc
consist only of floc-forming bacteria
without a filament backbone, <50um
Starvation conditions -- a very low F/M and
long sludge age.
Chronic toxicity
Filamentous bulking
Toxicity
More frequent in small communities WWTP
Dumping of oil/toxic waste, overload with septage
(high amount of organic acids and sulfides).
sulfide toxicity-pH<7.0, add lime
OUR versus sludge feeding rate-Monitoring
Microscopic diagnosis
1. an initial flagellate "bloom";
2. subsequent complete die-off of protozoa and other
higher life forms;
3. biomass deflocculation, foaming;
4. loss of BOD removal;
5. filamentous bulking upon process recovery.