INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
BETWEEN THE STATE OF SANGALA (APPLICANT) AND THE STATE OF JOSHEN
(RESPONDENT) TO SUBMIT TO THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE THE
DISPUTE BETWEEN THE PARTIES CONCERNING SANGALA-JOSHEN PACT 1999
AND RELATED ISSUES
Jointly notified to the Court on 7
VIPS IMC – 2014
JOINT NOTIFICATION ADDRESSED TO THE REGISTRAR OF THE COURT:
The Hague, 7 November 2014
On behalf of the State of Sangala (“the Applicant”) and the State of Joshen (“the
Respondent”), in accordance with Article 40(1) of the State of the International Court of
Justice, we have the honour to present before you the original Special Agreement for
submission to the International Court of Justice of the dispute between the Applicant and the
Respondent concerning Sangala-Joshen Pact 1999 and related issues, signed in The Hague,
The Netherlands, on the 7 November in the year two thousand fourteen.
Ambassador of the State of Sangala to the Ambassador of the State of Joshen to
the Kingdom of The Netherlands to the Kingdom of The Netherlands
SUBMITTED TO THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
BY THE STATE OF SANGALA AND THE STATE OF JOSHEN ON THE DISPUTE
CONCERNING SANGALA- JOSHEN PACT 1999 AND RELATED ISSUES
The State of Sangala and the State of Joshen,
Considering that differences have arisen between them, concerning state responsibility to
implement Sangala -Joshen Pact 1999 and related issues;
Recognizing that the Parties concerned have been unable to settle the dispute by negotiation;
Desiring further to define the issues to be submitted to the International Court of Justice
(hereinafter “the Court”) for settling this dispute;
In furtherance thereof the Parties have concluded the following Special Agreement:
The Parties submit the questions contained in the Special Agreement (together with
Corrections and Clarifications to follow) to the Court pursuant to Article 40(1) of the Court’s
It is agreed by the Parties that State of Sangala shall act as Applicant and the State of Joshen
as Respondent, but such agreement is without prejudice to any question of the burden of
(a) The Court is requested to decide the Case on the basis of the rules and principles of
international law, including any applicable treaties.
(b) The Court is also requested to determine the legal consequences, including the rights and
obligations of the Parties, arising from its Judgment on the questions presented in the Case.
(a) Procedures shall be regulated in accordance with the applicable provisions of the Official
Rules of the Second VIPS International Moot Court Competition.
(b) The Parties request the Court to order that the written proceedings should consist of
Memorials presented by each of the Parties not later than the date set forth in the Official
Schedule of the Second VIPS International Moot Court Competition.
(a) The Parties shall accept the Judgment of the Court as final and binding and shall execute
it in its entirety and in good faith.
(b) Immediately after the transmission of any Judgment, the Parties shall enter into
negotiations on the modalities for its execution.
In witness whereof, the undersigned, being duly authorized, have signed the present
Compromis and have affixed thereto their respective seals of office.
Done in The Hague, The Netherlands, this 7th day of November in the year two thousand
fourteen, in triplicate in the English language.
Ambassador of the State of Sangala to the Kingdom of The Netherlands
Ambassador of the State of Joshen to the Kingdom of The Netherlands
The Second VIPS International Moot Court Competition, 2014
The State of SANGALA ………………………………………………………(Applicant)
The State of JOSHEN …………………………………………………….…(Respondent)
1. Sangala and Joshen, both member states of United Nations, are sovereign nations.
Both states respect International Law and its obligations. Both states, Sangala and
Joshen, have signed and ratified Vienna Convention on Law of Treaties and
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966 in the year 1983. Sangala
and Joshen are also the party to Geneva Conventions, 1949.
2. Sangala, is a developing state having the Presidential form of government. It has a
high population density due to small geographical area. Sixty five percent of the
population is in between the age of 20 to 50 years. Sangala has capitalist economy
and is an industrialized nation. In the year 1998, the people of Sangala elected Ms.
Parshoo of Urban Population Party (UPP) as the President of the country and with her
able guidance and governance, Sangala made its own identity amongst the
international community. The main moto adopted by the President Ms Parshoo was
“earn and live”. Ms Parshoo was a great promoter of right to development for all.
According to her, right to development is an inalienable human right. She signed
Declaration on the Right to Development 1986 in the year 1999.
3. Recognising that the creation of conditions favourable to the development of citizens
is the primary responsibility of the state, Ms Parshoo emphasized that State should
enter into international trade relations with other states and also became the member
of World Trade Organisation (WTO) in the year 1998. Ms Parshoo gave special
attention to its industries. She allocated a huge budget for industrial development. Its
steel industry became a highly recognised industry all over the world. Apart from
steel, Sangala became efficient in manufacturing automobiles. A large part of its
population is engaged in industries. Sangala also started manufacturing warplanes
from the year 2000 and a large investment was done for the same. Sangala got iron
for its steel and automobile industry largely from Joshen. Eighty percent of iron was
imported from state Joshen. Sangala was also efficient in its Pharmaceutical industry.
In fact, it was known as World’s Pharmacy. Ms Parshoo was also keenly interested in
pharmaceutical industry and, also, adopted TRIPS domestically as well. Many
research laboratories were developed for pharmaceutical research. Many patents were
also registered. For this purpose, bio medicinal plants were imported from Joshen,
some with consent and others without consent.
4. State Joshen, least developed state, is located at the northeast of Sangala. Joshen is
rich in its natural resources. The citizens of Joshen were living average life and did
not oppose any policy laid down by their King, Mr Baruawa IV. For its population,
which is mainly tribal, ecology and environment are fundamental and non-negotiable.
They worship nature and thus preserve it as well. Joshen was one of the rare states
where one could see clear sky in the night in most part of the year. His Majesty,
Baruawa and his ancestors remained committed to protect ecology and environment.
In fact in 1974, the King Mr Barauwa III, father of Mr Barauwa IV participated in
Stockholm Conference held on Human Environment. His father, in his tenure also
signed Declaration on Permanent Sovereignty on Natural Resources, 1956, whereby
he assert sovereign powers on natural resources and thus kept it safe from the
possession or ownership of any kind of private bodies or individuals including its own
citizens. The same policy was adopted by the King Mr Barauwa IV. Considering the
sensitivity involved in the protection of environment and wise use of natural
resources, King Mr Baruawa IV retained exclusive ownership of natural resources
and also profited from earning from the businesses related to natural resources. To
make it possible, the King Mr Baruawa IV, took reservation to Article 1 of the
ICCPR. In its Instrument of Accession by Joshen to the International Covenant on
Civil and Political Rights 1983, it was stated that :
a. “With respect to Article 1 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,
the King and its government of Joshen reserves its rights to apply its law and policies
relating to ownership and possession of natural resources.”
5. Further, in the leadership of King Mr Baruawa IV, Joshen participated actively in
various conferences held for the cause of protection of environment and ratified
environment protection related treaties for which he gained the admiration of the
6. According to the King Baruawa IV, one of the keys to protect environment was less
population. His Majesty, Baruawa IV was strict on population control policy. His
principle was ‘Lesser the population, less pollution in the environment’ in
continuation of the principle believed and coming down from his ancestors.
Therefore, people were required to take permission from the king before getting
married and starting a family. To support this policy, the King had taken reservation
to Article 23, ICCPR as well. In its Instrument of Accession by Joshen to the
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1983, it was stated that :
a. “With reference to Article 23 of the International Covenant on Civil and
Political Rights, the King and its Government takes the position that the
provisions of the Article shall be so applied as to be in consonance with the
policies relating to marriage and family adopted by the King and its
Government. Further, under the Joshen Legal System there is no enforceable
right to men and women of marriageable age to marry and to found a family.”
b. In reason given for actuating above reservation, it was stated that Joshen has
obligation to protect ecology and environment created by ratifying
environment related international conventions, and, large population would
destroy the ecological balance of their state which would lead to violation of
7. Non-industrialisation was another key to protect environment as per the King Mr
Baruawa IV. On account of discouragement to the industrialisation agriculture and
tourism were the main sources of income available in Joshen although Joshen was
rich in its natural resources. The King and his family owned exclusively natural
resources including iron. The King exported iron to many countries mainly Sangala.
Profit from the export went into King’s personal treasure as the King and his
ancestors claimed permanent ownership over natural resources. The King did not
share profit of the export of iron ore with its population as he considered its
population as subjects of the state.
8. The tribes in the State of Joshen were illiterate but they had deep knowledge in flora
and fauna. In fact, according to their understanding, their hospital was their nature and
therefore they believed in and practiced naturopathy. Many citizens from State
Sangala came to the State Joshen only to collect information regarding various plants’
usages and plants varieties.
9. In the year February, 2013, Ms Parshoo was re-elected as the President by the people
with a huge margin for her fourth term. Ms Parshoo, believing in her principle of
“earn and live”, reduced various domestic subsidies and encouraged competition in
the market, policies pertaining to the industries, and self-employment. For smooth
flow of natural resources mainly iron from Joshen, Ms Parshoo revised and extended
the agreement with Joshen, called as “Sangala-Joshen Pact 1999”. Sangala started
advance payment in the form of gold to Joshen for the supply of iron ore as per the
revised pact, the salient features of which are annexed in Appendix A.
10. As Sangala was encouraging industries, pollution was increasing in the state and its
neighbouring states. The environment in Joshen was also affected. The tourism
industry, which was the main source of income in Joshen, also got affected. His
Majesty, Mr. Baruawa put the issue of trans-boundary pollution and damage to
environment before the World Conference on Environment held in the State of
Thayri, in November 2013. Joshen shared to all participants present in the
Conference that trans-boundary environmental damage occurred in Joshen due to
industrialisation in state Sangala. It was also narrated that how Joshen’s tourism has
affected due to trans-boundary pollution. The participant states listened and showed
concern for the same. On this, a Declaration called as ‘Thayri Declaration’ was
adopted in the conference that trans-boundary environmental damage should be
considered as a serious violation of international obligation as protection of
environment was the shared and common responsibility of all states. Further it was
also recommended; “if the state is responsible for the failure to control environmental
damage or harm to the other states, then that state will be held liable to pay
appropriate remedy for the same.”
11. Unemployment increased in Joshen due to lack of industries, as also due to declining
tourism. Many citizens of Joshen favoured leaving country to settle outside, mainly in
Sangala. In fact, the young generation developed an attraction for Sangala due to the
employment opportunities available there.
12. The latest population survey of Joshen showed that 61 per cent of population was
above the age of 65 years and 15 per cent population below 18 years. Rest of the
population, which is between 18 to 55 years of age and is generally assumed as actual
work force for any state, was too less. Looking at this, the King realized that most of
the young generation may leave country, and mostly elderly people would remain in
the state and this would be a liability for the state. The King issued a new policy
called as ‘Me Young Joshen’ in an attempt to prevent this trend, in January 2014,
whereby citizens between the ages of 18 to 60 could not leave the country for any
reasons. The young generation got worried due to this policy. They came together and
formed a group called as “Development for All” (DFA). They told to the King
through various representations that if ‘freedom of movement and settlement’ is
denied then arrangements should be made for employment and thus development of
all. The DFA also demanded that King should share profit of iron mining and limit his
powers for the development and welfare of the people in Joshen. The King said that
he could not violate obligations of international law. Further, he also said that citizens
of Joshen are subjects of the state, thus he can restrict their ‘freedom of movement
and settlement’ for national integrity and unity. King Baruawa IV, further, introduced
more stringent policies to curb the movement of people.
13. On 31 May 2014, a large DFA group gathered in the capital of Joshen. They
organized a huge rally in front of King’s palace. The citizens demanded development
for themselves and for Joshen. Mr Baruawa IV, ordered its army to fire in the air to
disburse the rally and also ordered jailing of the members of DFA group. General
Mathuk undertook this responsibility. The army first rounded the people, numbering
around five thousand, and then, started firing in the air. As there was no warning from
the army, the people in the rally started running but found themselves surrounded by
army. A huge stampede occurred, in which, as per the estimate of government, one
thousand and five hundred people died even though not a single individual was killed
in the firing by the Army. From that day, people of Joshen took to guerilla warfare
against the King and the army.
14. Out of one thousand and five hundred people who died in stampede, forty five
persons were the citizens of Sangala. These people were involved in the business of
medicinal plants. They were in the rally as spectators but were killed in the
15. Many citizens of Joshen started to flee to other countries, mainly to Sangala due to the
internal conflict. More than ten thousand people, mostly elderly citizens, took asylum
in Sangala. Sangala took the issue of asylum seekers to international organizations
including United Nations and World Trade Organisation. United Nations declared
Joshen as unsafe for travellers. Consequently, approximately 1000 more citizens of
Joshen took asylum in Sangala. These asylum seekers adopted the “earn and live”
policy of Ms Parshoo, President of Sangala and tried to make a living. Ms Parshoo,
realising the responsibility of protecting human rights of the citizens of Joshen, and to
stop influx of asylum seekers to their state, extended help of war planes and
ammunitions to the DFA group in July 2014.
16. His Majesty Baruawa stopped all supply of iron ore to Sangala after coming to know
of support of Sangala to DFA and alleged that Sangala violated Sangala- Joshen Pact
1999 and international law by doing intervention in Joshen. The King Mr Baruawa IV
ordered its army to attack the steel industries of Sangala. He imposed this
responsibility once again on General Mathuk. To perform this responsibility, General
Mathuk personally planned and supervised the armed attacks the steel industries. In
just one dark night, he led attack on two steel industries in Sangala. He was, however,
taken into custody the army of Sangala before the third steel industry could be
17. Ms Parshoo suffered a major setback due to non-supply of iron ore from Joshen and
attack on steel industries which was a backbone of Sangala’s economy. The economy
of Sangala took a huge hit. The Stock Exchange index went down by 1000 points in
two days. Domestic market got affected. Worries of unemployment came to fore in
the mind of the citizens of Sangala. Citizens of Sangala were further shocked by the
death of 45 citizens in Joshen. The citizens were also unhappy with the increasing
number of asylum seekers from Joshen to their state as these asylum seekers were
providing cheap labour. As a response, a non-governmental group called as “Justice
for Citizens Group (JCG)” was formed to get justice to the citizens. The JCG filed a
case in their country’s court praying that General Mathuk should be held liable for the
death of 45 citizens in stampede and for attacking steel industries which is the
violation of Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilians, 1949.
18. King Mr Baruawa condemned the arrest of General Mathuk and asked Sangala to
send back General Mathuk to Joshen.
19. On 21 September 2014, Ms Parshoo ordered sealing of its territorial border, called as
‘sajo border’, shared with Joshen, stating that the state was not ready to give asylum
to more citizens of Joshen due to economical and law and order problems. The
Government prohibited giving any work to the citizens of Joshen in Sangala. Citizens
of Joshen were excluded from all developmental policies in Sangala. They were
isolated in Sangala and forcefully repatriated to Joshen at the ‘sajo border’.
Thousands of citizens of Joshen were at the border – at one end- one state where they
belonged to but with no opportunities of development and at the other end there were
opportunities of development but they were not accepted by the state.
20. Sangala sought appropriate compensation from Joshen for the violation of Sangala-
Joshen Pact 1999 and said that the Pact should continue in future as Joshen agreed for
the same in the Pact. Joshen denied the same and requested to release General
Mathuk. With no agreements in sight, both states consented to submit the dispute to
the International Court of Justice with a special agreement signed on 7 November
21. Sangala requested the Court to adjudicate on the following points and declare:
[i] That, Joshen has violated Sangala- Joshen Pact 1999 by discontinuing the
supply of iron ore. Joshen should pay compensation for the same and should
continue the Pact till 2033.
[ii] That, the reservation to Article 1, ICCPR is impairing the human rights of all
people to enjoy and utilise fully and freely their natural wealth and resources,
thus it should be declared as null and void.
[iii] That, the reservation to Article 23, ICCPR is violating basic human right to
marriage and form a family, thus, it should be declared as null and void.
[iv] That, Joshen also violated International human rights law by denying right to
development of its citizens which resulted in problem of migrants.
[v] That, Joshen has violated Fourth Geneva Convention Relative to the
Protection of Civilians, 1949 by attacking steel industries.
[vi] That, Joshen should pay appropriate compensation for attack on steel
industries, violation of Sangala Joshen Pact 1999 and also for burdening
Sangala economically by producing refugees and migrants.
[vii] That, Sangala had jurisdiction to try and punish General Mathuk and there was
no obligation to return him to Joshen.
22. Joshen requests the Court to adjudicate and declare that:
[i] That, Sangala has violated Sangala-Joshen Pact 1999 and international law by
doing “intervention” in Joshen. The Sangala Joshen Pact 1999 should not be
[ii] That, Sangala caused trans-boundary environmental damage thus violated
international environmental law. Sangala should pay compensation for causing
pollution in and thus affecting economy of Joshen.
[iii] That, reservation to Article 1 and 23 to ICCPR are domestic in nature and are
valid. Right to development is a non-binding human right.
[iv] That, attack on steel industries was a consequence of intervention by Sangala.
Thus, Sangala cannot ask for compensation.
[v] That, arrival of migrants and refugees into Sangala is not a violation of
international law. Thus, Sangala cannot ask for compensation.
[vi] Arrest of General Mathuk was illegal and he must be returned to Joshen
23. Given the facts mentioned above the following issues came before the Court:
[i] International law on the question of violation of Sangala- Joshen Pact 1999 and
who was responsible for paying the appropriate compensation for its violation.
International law on the status of treaty after its violation.
[ii] International law on reservation to any provision of international convention.
[iii] International law on right to development and protection of environment.
[iv] International law on permanent sovereignty on natural resources and their
ownership and sharing their benefits with population.
[v] International law on ‘responsibility to protect the human rights of citizens of
other states’ and ‘intervention’.
[vi] International law on jurisdiction to arrest persons of other state
[vii] International law on the human rights of asylum seekers and protection to them
and obligation to pay compensation for the same
Excerpts of ‘Sangala- Joshen Pact 1999’ as Revised in 2013
Article 5: Scope of the Agreement
5.1. The contracting party Joshen will export iron ore to contracting party Sangala for period
of 20 years starting May 2013 that is during May 2013- May 2033. The supply of iron ore
shall not be stopped until May 2033.
5.2. The contracting party Sangala shall pay Joshen at prevailing market price that shall be
agreed mutually by both parties from time to time. The payment shall be in form of gold and
shall be paid in advance at the beginning of each financial year. The amount shall be
calculated on projected demand for the financial year and shall be based on actual
consumption in three preceding years and the projected requirement of the industries and
shall be subject to availability of iron ore in reserves of Joshen.
Article 6: Promotion of the Agreement
6.1 The both contracting parties Sangala and Joshen shall respect the each Party’s unique
interests, including, but not limited to, in the case of contracting party Sangala the protection
of industries which is the icon of Sangala and in case of contracting party Joshen the
protection of ecology and environment which is the icon of Joshen.
Article 7: Compensation for Violation
7.1 In case of violation of Article 5, the contracting party that has violated Article 5 shall be
liable to pay compensation to the other contracting party. The award of compensation shall
be mutually agreed by the parties. Article 8 shall automatically get invoked in case both the
parties are unable to reach an agreement on compensation.
Article 8. Settlement of Dispute
8.1. Any dispute concerning implementation of Articles 5 and 7 occurring between
contracting parties Sangala and Joshen, shall, if possible, be settled amicably between the
two parties concerned.
8.2. If the dispute is not amicably settled within a period of one month from the date of
dispute occurred, then it may be submitted to the International Court of Justice, The Hague.