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Latin for "partition of the lands of the Roman [Byzantine] Empire", it was a treaty signed
after the sack of the Byzantine capital, Constantinople, by the Fourth Crusade in 1204. It
established the Latin Empire and arranged the partition of the Byzantine territory among the
participants of the Crusade, with the Republic of Venice being the greatest beneficiary. The
signatories were the Latin Empire and Republic of Venice.
The Confoederatio cum principibus ecclesiasticis (or Treaty with the Princes of the
Church) of 26 April 1220 is a source of law of the Holy Roman Empire on German territory.
In this law Frederick II relinquished a number of important Royal rights (Regalia) to the spiritual
princes. Frederick II decreed this law in 1220 as a concession to the German bishops in return
for their co-operation in the election of his son Henry as King.
The Golden Bull of 1222 was a golden bull, or edict, issued by King Andrew II of
Hungary which forced his nobles to accept the Golden Bull (Aranybulla), which was one of first
examples of constitutional limits being placed on the powers of a European monarch. The law
established the rights of the Hungarian nobility, including the right to disobey the King when he
acted contrary to law (jus resistendi). The nobles and the church were freed from all taxes and
could not be forced to go to war outside of Hungary and were not obligated to finance it. This
was also a historically important document because it set down the principles of equality for all
of the nation's nobility.
The Golden Bull is often compared to Magna Carta and was the first constitutional
document of the nation of Hungary, while Magna Carta was the first constitutional charter of the
nation of England.
The Treaty of Ceprano was signed in Ceprano on August of 1230 between Pope
Gregory IX and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. Under the treaty, Frederick agreed not to
violate any territories held by the Papacy. In return for Frederick's concessions in Sicily, the
Pope removed his sentence of excommunication. The treaty secured the cooperation of the
Papacy in Fredericks effort to reassert imperial rights in northern Italy. It also helped to
establish lines of reconciliation between the Holy Roman Empire and the Roman Catholic
5. TREATY OF YORK (1237)
The Treaty of York was signed by Henry III of England and Alexander II of Scotland on
the 25th of September, 1237. This treaty established the boundaries of Scotland and addressed
other issues between the two Kings who had a bit of a history of making agreements with each
other. It also marked the end of Scotland's attempts to extend its frontier southward, though it
did not address any issues of the future determination of the Anglo-Scottish border.
The Treaty of Christburg was signed on February 2, 1249 between the pagan Prussian
clans, represented by a papal legate, and theTeutonic Knights. It is often cited as the end of
the First Prussian Uprising, but it was not adhered to or enforced, especially after the Battle of
Krckenin November of 1249. It is one of the few documents from the period that survive in full
to this day. It provides a useful insight into the life and religious tensions in pagan Prussia.
The Treaty of Paris (also known as the Treaty of Albeville) was a treaty between Louis
IX of France and Henry III of England. Under the Treaty, Henry acknowledged loss of the
Dukedom of Normandy, a former province of Northwestern France. The Treaty of Paris was one
of the indirect causes of the Hundred Years War.
The Treaty of Perth was a peace treaty signed on 2 July 1266 that ended the military
conflict between Norway, under King Magnus VI, and Scotland, under King Alexander III, over
the sovereignty of the Hebrides and the Isle of Man. The treaty is one of the most important
documents dealing with Scottish-Norwegian relations in the High Middle Ages. In the treaty,
Norway recognized Scottish sovereignty over the disputed territories (the Hebrides and the Isle
of Man) in return for a lump sum of 4,000 marks and an annuity of 100 marks. To return the
favor, Scotland also confirmed Norwegian sovereignty over Shetland and Orkney.
Issued 31 October 1266, it was a set of terms offered by King Henry III of England to the
supporters of Simon de Montfort (Earl of Leicester), to end their rebellion. It extended a pardon
to the rebels and restored land to their previous owners, contingent on payment of certain
penalties that were proportional to the level of involvement in the rebellion. The primary point of
the Dictum issued on October of 1266 was the re-establishment of royal authority in England.
The Dictum of Kenilworth was later incorporated into the Statue of Marlborough which became a
basis for royal government, and the relationship between the king and his subjects, and as such
the Dictum lived on in English constitutional history.
10. AULD ALLIANCE (1295)
The alliance dates from the treaty signed by John Balliol and Philip IV of France in 1295
against Edward I of England which lasted until the 1560 Treaty of Edinburgh. It is an agreement
between Scotland and France wherein they agreed to support each other against the threat of
attack from England. Although principally a military and diplomatic agreement, the alliance also
extended into the exchange of cultures between the Scottish and the French people. The
alliance played an important role in conflicts between both countries and England, such as the
Wars of Scottish Independence, the Hundred Years War, the War of the League of Cambrai
and the Rough Wooing.

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Kleinhenz, Christopher. (n.d.). Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia. Retrieved on January 8, 2013
Lustig, Richard I. (1979). The Treaty of Perth: A Re-Examination. Retrieved on January 8, 2013
Melisende. (2007). Dictum of Kenilworth. Retrieved on January 8, 2013 from
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