In this section, two well-known non-adaptive
steganograophy method including K-LSB [4] and Chang et al.
[7] method are described. Our non-adaptive steganography
method presented in this paper is based on Chang et al.
method.

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In this section, two well-known non-adaptive
steganograophy method including K-LSB [4] and Chang et al.
[7] method are described. Our non-adaptive steganography
method presented in this paper is based on Chang et al.
method.

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Combined Functions

Seyed Rahman Soleimani, Masood Niazi Torshiz

Department of Computer Science, Islamic Azad University-Mashad Branch, Iran

rhm.soleimani@gmail.com

masood.niazi@gmail.com

Abstract In this paper, a new non-adaptive steganographic

method for embedding the secret data in images, has been

proposed. In this method, cover image is divided into non-

overlapping two-pixel blocks using module and combined

functions, the fixed number of secret bits will be hidden in each

block. More ever, in this method we have tried to increase the

quality of the stego image by reducing the distortion of stego

pixels. The results, also confirms that the quality of stego image

has been increased in our proposed method compared the other

non-adaptive steganographic methods.

Keywords steganography, non-adaptive, module, combined,

stego image.

I. INTRODUCTION

Nowadays, by increasing development of information

technology and communication, the world moves toward

digital communication and digital data. In this field, the role

of internet as a low cost and public communicative channel is

being more reinforced in the communication world. Given to

public and common structure of this communication channel,

establishing security and providing confidential

communications via internet is of special importance [1].

Generally there are two main ways in providing security [2];

Cryptography and Steganography. In cryptography, secret

data are converted into unreadable and obscure data by one or

more cryptographic keys and its main goal is to hide contents

of a secret message and not necessarily communication itself.

Incomprehensibility of such data might attract hostile peoples

attention and evoke their curiosity and sabotage feeling. To

address this problem, steganography can be used in addition to

cryptography the goal of which is to hide secret

communication by putting confidential data in a cover media

so that the least appreciable changes for human perception can

be manifested in that media and existence of the message

hidden in it cant be detected even probably.

Digital images are of high popularity in the internet and

include more visual redundancy than other digital media like

text, audio and video, and much data can be embedded in

image pixels without any sensible changes for human eyes. In

Image steganography methods, after embedding secret bits in

pixels, cover image is called stego image.

Different methods of image steganography can be divided

into two general groups; Adaptive and non-adaptive,

depending on whether the number of bits being able to be

embedded in each pixel as fixed or variable [3]. In non-

adaptive methods, the number of bits being able to be

embedded is constant in all image pixels; However in adaptive

methods the number of bits being able to be embedded in

different areas of cover image is different and can be

determined by pixel placement.

The first and the most famous non-adaptive steganography

method is K-LSB

1

[4] in which k number of secret message

bits are replaced by k least significant bits of cover image

pixels. According to [5], one modulus function was used to

adapt all secret bits in total value of pixels rather than only

replacement of LSB bits of pixel with secret message bits. In

[6] another procedure of bit adjustment was applied for

substitution of secret bits which increased visual quality of

image. These methods embedded all bits in total value of

pixels rather than only replacement of LSB bits. Using module

and combined functions, Chang et al. [7] method hidden

secret bits in two-pixel blocks of cover image.

In the present paper, a new non-adaptive steganography

method is suggested based on method proposed in [7]. In the

following, first in section II, methods related to ones we

proposed are introduced. Then in section III, the method

suggesting in this paper is described. In Section IV, the

implementation results of the method suggested as well as

comparison of them with those of other methods are explained

and finally conclusion will be submitted in section V.

1

K-Least Significant Bit method

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II. RELATED METHODS

In this section, two well-known non-adaptive

steganograophy method including K-LSB [4] and Chang et al.

[7] method are described. Our non-adaptive steganography

method presented in this paper is based on Chang et al.

method.

A. K-LSB Method

The most common and the simplest method in

steganography is LSB in which secret bits are embedded in

the least significant bits of each pixel of cover image. In this

method, each pixel of an image contains one bit of secret data.

Although LSB is the simplest method in steganography, many

steganography methods have been suggested based on this

method so far [8]-[16].

In LSB method, one bit of secret message is embedded in

LSB of pixel. Similarly, in K-LSB method, K bit of secret

message is embedded in K LSB bits of each pixel. For

example, consider secret bit string 6='110' and the value of

pixel 225='11100001'. Stego pixel 230='11100110' will be

obtained by 3-LSB method. By extracting 3 LSB bits of each

pixel in destination, we can reach secret message. So bit string

'110' is extracted from stego pixel 11100110 as a part of secret

data. In this method, after embedding secret data maximum

pixel value distortion in each pixel is 2

k

-1.

B. Chang et al.s Method [7]

In this method first cover image is divided into non-

overlapped two-pixel blocks. How Blocks visited as raster

scan is shown in Fig. 1. In a block, left pixel is called l

i

and

right pixel is called r

i

. Method [7] is the only non-adaptive

steganographic method that embedded each secret bitstream in

two pixels of cover image. So this method is very flexible in

embedding secret data bits in cover images. For example, in

other methods 1, 2 or 3 bits can be hidden in each pixel while

in this method if 3 bits of secret data are hidden in each pair of

pixels, in average 1.5 bit of secret data are hidden in each

pixel.

In this method in order to embed n bits of secret data in a

two-pixel block of cover image, we embed a number of bits

with value of '1' in the bitstream in l

i

and the way these bits

are placed in bitstream, are embedded in r

i

using combined

function.

Embedding capacity of all blocks in cover image in this

method is fixed and equal to n bits. If we consider the

bitstream embedded in a block to be S

n

=b

n-1

b

n-2

b

1

b

0

and the

number of bits with value 1 in this bitstream is k, then

possible states of placing k bits of secret data with value of 1

into bitstream is

n

k

C . Using equation (1), placement of secret

bits in the bitstream can be determined by a combined

function.

=

=

1

1

) (

) (

n

i

i

i N i n

C b S f (1)

Fig. 1 How blocks in cover images are visited as raster scan.

In equation (1), b

i

is the value of i-th bit of S

n

. N(i) is also

the number of bits 1 available in S

n

from the first bit to i-th bit.

New values of pixels l

i

and r

i

(r'

i

, l'

I

) are changed in a way

that values of k and f(S

n

) obtained for S

n

satisfy in the

following equations.

) 1 mod( + ' = n l K

i

(2)

n

k i

C r f mod ) S (

n

' =

(3)

Considering equations (2) and (3), maximum distortion

created in pixels l

i

and r

i

after embedding step are

2 /

n

k

C and

2 / ) 1 ( + n respectively, when extracting secret data bits. Using

equations (2) and (3) and having the value of n, values of k

and f(S

n

) can be obtained easily for each block of cover image.

Then by applying function f

--1

according to equation (4), secret

bits embedded in that block can be extracted. In this equation

num is given initial value with value of f(S

n

) and also

, 1 > n

1

0

0

= C .

+

+

+

=

' 1 ' ) 1 , 1 , (

' 1 ' ) 1 , 1 , (

' 0 ' ) , 1 , (

) , , (

1

1 1

1

1

k n num f

k n C num f

k n num f

k n num f

n

k

k n if

k n C num if

C num if

n

k

n

k

<

> >

<

) 1 (

) 1 ( ,

1

1

(4)

III. THE PROPOSED METHOD

Non-adaptive method of Chang et al. [7] has better visual

quality for stego image in the same embedding capacity than

other non-adaptive methods. In the most of non-adaptive

ways, secret bits are replaced by the least significant bits of

each pixel in cover images; while in [7] secret bits are

embedded implicitly by a modulus function in image pixels.

In implicit methods, stego pixels are protected against

different steganalysis attacks [17]-[19]. Because of that we

proposed a new improved solution by making some changes

in Chang et al. method in order to increase the quality of stego

image obtained by this method and decrease the distortions of

hiding secret bits in pixels of cover image.

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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Signal Processing

ISSN(Online)2319-9784, Volume 1 ,Issue 2, January 2013

In a combined function such as

n

k

C , as K approaches to n/2,

the value of the combined function increased. Maximum value

for this function is obtained by equation below.

(

=

=

=

odd is K if n or n k

even is K if n k

C

n

k

2 / 2 /

2 /

) max(

(5)

For example if n=6, maximum value of the combined

function is C

3

6

=20 or if n=5, maximum value of the combined

function is C

2

5

=C

3

5

=10. For example, in Table I, values of K

and f(S

n

) are shown for n=5 which obtained by using equation

(1).

According to Table I, it can be concluded that if K value of

bitstream equals to n or 0, the value of module in equation (3)

equal to 1 and it is not necessary to calculate f(S

n

) and change

r

i

, because there will be only one possible state for placement

of these bits in cover image blocks.

Fig. 2 indicates the number of possible states for replacing

the K bit of value 1 in a 5-bit and 6-bit bitstream. As we can

see in this figure, while K approaches n/2, the value of

combined function which is equal to system module increases.

Table I

VALUES OF K AND f(Sn) OBTAINED WITH CHANG ET AL. METHOD

S

5

K f(S

5

) S

5

K f(S

5

) S

5

K f(S

5

)

00000 0 0 01011 3 1 10110 3 6

00001 1 0 01100 2 5 10111 4 1

00010 1 1 01101 3 2 11000 2 9

00011 2 0 01110 3 3 11001 3 7

00100 1 2 01111 4 0 11010 3 8

00101 2 1 10000 1 4 11011 4 2

00110 2 2 10001 2 6 11100 3 9

00111 3 0 10010 2 7 11101 4 3

01000 1 3 10011 3 4 11110 4 4

01001 2 3 10100 2 8 11111 5 0

01010 2 4 10101 3 5

n=5 n=6

Fig. 2 Different value of f(Sn) in Chang et al. method that obtained from

different value of K (the horizontal axis is equal to value of k and the vertical

axis indicates the maximum value of the module in equation (3)).

When f(S

n

) is being maximized, variation range of function f

(S

n

) can be decreased significantly by changing the values of

K and f(S

n

) to new values K' and f'(S

n

) (K' is equal to 0 or n) as

well as changing the system modulus and decreasing system

modulus (Fig. 3). As maximum value of f(S

n

) decreases,

distortion of r

i

may also be decreased. The proposed Non-

adaptive method, include two steps: embedding the secret data

and extracting them.

Fig. 3 a) how the maximum value of f(Sn) being decreased by reducing the

module and mapping these maximum values to state which k=0 or k=n. 1)n=6

2)n=5. b) The maximum value of module after mapping in our proposed

method.

A. Embedding Secret Data Bits

For embedding secret data bits in our proposed non-

adaptive method, firstly considering the embedding capacity

of blocks are odd or even, then we examined the situation that

the value of f(S

n

) is maximum; If the condition is true , the

value of k and f(S

n

) are mapped to new values of k' and f'(S

n

)

according to equation (6) and (7) (equation (6) used for even

values of n and equation (7) used for odd values of n). As

shown in Fig. 3 (A-2), if the embedding capacity in the block

is odd, maximum values of f(S

n

) change when k= [n/2] or

k=[n/2]. Also if it is even (Fig. 3 (A-1)), then the maximum

values of f(S

n

) change when k=n/2 or k=n/2+1. If the values of

K and f (S

n

) arent satisfied in any available conditions in

equations (6) or (7), there is no need to change the values of

K' and f'(S

n

) (equation (8)).

=

> + =

+ + = ' = '

> =

+ = ' = '

> =

= ' = '

=

1 2 /

1

1 2 /

1 2 /

3

1 ) ( , 1 2 /

2 / 3 1 ) ( ) ( ,

1 ) ( , 1 2 /

1 ) ( ) ( ,

) ( , 2 /

) ( ) ( , 0

3 ) max(

n

even

n

n

n n

n

n n

n

n n

n n

k

module

V S f n k if

V S f S f n k

V S f n k if

V S f S f n k

V S f n k if

V S f S f k

C V

(6)

http://ijetsp.info/article/IJETSPV1I202.pdf

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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Signal Processing

ISSN(Online)2319-9784, Volume 1 ,Issue 2, January 2013

(

(

(

s =

+ =

> =

=

> =

= ' = '

> =

= ' = '

n

n

n

n

n

odd

n

n

n

n

n

n

k odd

n

n

n

n

n

n n

n

n

n

n

n

n n

C S f n or n k if

C module

C S f n or n k if

C C module

C S f n k if

C S f S f n k

C S f n k if

C S f S f k

1 2 /

1 2 /

2

1 2 /

1 2 /

1

1 2 /

1 2 /

1 2 /

1 2 /

) ( , 2 / 2 /

1

) ( , 2 / 2 /

) max(

) ( , 2 /

) ( ) ( ,

) ( , 2 /

) ( ) ( , 0

(7)

) ( ) ( ,

n n

S f S f k k = ' = ' (8)

After determining the values of K', f'(S

n

) and the module,

considering equations (9) and (10), using a modulus function

values of K' and f'(S

n

) are embedded in pixels l

i

and r

i

.

B. Extracting Secret Data Bits

Like embedding step, stego image is divided into distinct

two-pixel blocks. To extract secret bits, according to equations

(9) and (10) and because the capacity of the block is odd or

even (value of the parameter n and the value of two pixels in

stego block) we calculate the value of K' and f'(S

n

) in each

block. Then according to these values, by equations (11) and

(12) we examined the conditions that the values of K and f(S

n

)

are mapped into new values.

(

=

= '

=

= '

=

= ' = '

=

= '

=

= ' = '

=

= '

other

C module

even is n and n k if

module module

even is n and n k if

module module

even is n and n k or k f

module module

odd is n and n or n k if

module module

odd is n and n k or k if

module module

module r S f

n

k

even

even

even

odd

odd

i n

) 1 2 / (

) 2 / (

) 0 (

) 2 / 2 / (

) 0 (

mod ) (

1

2

1

2

1

(9)

) 1 mod( + = ' n l K

i

(10)

If the conditions are satisfied, the original values of f(S

n

)

and K obtained for the respective block (equation (11) for odd

values of n and equation (12) for even values of n).

Finally, using equation (4) bitstream embedded in any two-

pixel blocks of stego image is extracted. Putting all these

extracted bitstream together the secret message is obtained

from stego image.

(

= ' + ' = =

= ' + ' = =

n k if C S f S f n k

k if C S f S f n k

n

n

n n

n

n

n n

1 2 /

1 2 /

) ( ) ( , 2 /

0 ) ( ) ( , 2 /

(11)

+ ' = + =

< ' = '

+ ' = =

= '

+ ' = =

2 / 3 ) ( ,

2 / 3 1 ) ( ) ( , 1 2 /

2 / 3 ) ( ,

1 ) ( ) ( , 1 2 /

0

) ( ) ( , 2 /

1 2 /

1 2 /

1 2 /

n

n

n

n n

n

n

n n

n n

S f n k if

V S f S f n k

S f n k if

V S f S f n k

k if

V S f S f n k

(12)

Example) Assuming that we want to hide the bitstream

S

5

=10100 in the following block using proposed non-adaptive

steganography method.

In the bit stream S

5

, K=2. Also according to equation (1),

f(S

5

)=8. Since these values are applied in equation (7), new

values of K'=0 and f(S

5

) =3 are obtained for this bitstream

when embedding. According to equations (9) and (10) and

considering the module obtained by equation (7), different

values are marked as the value of resulted stego pixels. After

embedding the secret bits, to reduce the distortion, the best

value is selected from marked answers as a final value of

stego pixel for each block. By reducing the distortion in each

block, the quality of resulted stego image is increased.

Eq (1) 8 1 0 1 0 ) (

4

2

3

1

2

1

1

0 5

= + + + = C C C C S f

Eq (7)

= =

= '

= = '

= > =

5 5 10

0

3 5 8 ) 10100 (

5 8 ) 10100 (

5

5

1

module

k

f

C f

Eq (9) 18 ,... 28 , 23 , 18 , 13 .., 5 mod 3 = ' = ' ' =

i i i

r r r

Eq (10) 18 ,... 24 , 18 , 12 ..., 6 mod 0 = ' = ' ' =

i i i

l l l

To extract the bitstream embedded in stego block in this

example, considering the pixels values and embedding

capacity in stego blocks. We do as follows:

Eq (10) 0 6 mod 18 = = ' k

Eq (9) 3 5 mod 18 ) ( 5

5 1

= = ' = S f module

odd

Eq (11) 8 ) ( , 2

5

= = S f k

Eq (4) ) 1 , 3 , 2 ( ' 0 ' 1 ' ) 1 , 4 , 2 ( ' 1 ' ) 2 , 5 , 8 (

1 1 1

+ + + = f f f

' 10100 ' ) 0 , 0 , 0 ( ' 0 '

1010 ' ) 0 , 1 , 0 ( ' 0 ' ' 101 ' ) 0 , 2 , 0 ( ' 1 ' ' 10 '

1

1 1

+ +

+ + + +

f

f f

http://ijetsp.info/article/IJETSPV1I202.pdf

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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Signal Processing

ISSN(Online)2319-9784, Volume 1 ,Issue 2, January 2013

As it was said earlier, when we embed secret bits in pixels

of cover image by module function, maximum changes

created in the respective pixel in worst case is equal to the half

of system module. According to aforementioned conditions in

equation (5), and considering equations (6) and (7), in worst

case, the maximum changes created in pixel r

i

is

2 / ) 1 (

1 2 /

+

n

n

C

if n is odd and if n is even it is equal to

2 / ) 1 3 ) (max(

1 2 /

+

n n

k

C

.

For example, if n=5 and n=6, maximum changes are 3 and

6 respectively while in Chang et al. method, maximum

changes created in r

i

when n=5 and n=6 equal to 5 and 10

respectively. It shows that our method has outperformed in

reducing the distortion of cover image pixels and has the

better vision quality.

IV. IMPLEMENTATION RESULT

In this section, we shall present our experimental results to

demonstrate the proposed method can perform better than

Chang et al. and K-LSB methods. These results were obtained

using MATLAB 7.1 on Windows XP. Hardware used in this

implementation includes CPU AMD 3000 with 2GB RAM.

Four well-known grayscale cover images, Pepper,

Baboon, Lena, Barbara, shown in Fig. 4, were used as

test image in our experiments. The size of all cover images was

512512. We use a series of pseudorandom number as the

secret data to be embedded into the cover image.

The peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) was utilized to

evaluate the stego image quality [10]. The PSNR is defined by

equation (14). In equation (13), MSE is the mean squares of

difference between value of pixels in cover image and stego

image.

(13)

=

1

0

1

0

2

, ,

) ( )

1

(

M

i

N

j

j i j i

S C

N M

MSE

dB

MSE

) (

PSNR

b 2

10

1 2

log 10

=

(14)

Here, C

ij

is the pixel of cover image where the coordinate is

(i,j), and S

i,j

is the pixel of stego image where the coordinate is

(i,j). M and N in equations (13) represent the size of the image.

b is the bit depth of cover image. Here we use cover image

with 8 bit depth. When in grayscale images, PSNR is higher

than 30dB, the difference between cover image and stego

image is invisible to the human eyes [10]. A large PSNR value

indicates that pixel values of stego image are very close to

those of cover image.

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

Fig. 4 covers images with size 512512. a)Lena, b)Baboon, c)Pepper, d)

Barbara.

In our experimental results, the embedding capacity of cover

image has been selected in a way that all blocks of cover image

is used for embedding secret bits.

In Fig. 5, maximum system module in Chang et al. method

is compared with our proposed method. As we can see in this

figure, as the capacity of each block increase, the maximum

module in our method decreases more than Chang et al.s

method. Decreasing the module in our method indicates that

the distortion of stego pixels will decrease too.

In Table II, the results of implementing Chang et al. and K-

LSB method are being compared with our proposed method. In

K-LSB method, considering that in each step, K bit of secret

data is being replaced by K least significant bit of each pixel,

maximum changes creating in each stego pixel is 2

K

-1. So it

can be concluded from Table II that the maximum distortion in

our non-adaptive method is less than two other non-adaptive

methods and the PSNR obtained in our method is higher than

others.

http://ijetsp.info/article/IJETSPV1I202.pdf

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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Signal Processing

ISSN(Online)2319-9784, Volume 1 ,Issue 2, January 2013

Fig. 5 comparison of the maximum module on pixel ri in our proposed method

with Chang et al. method (horizontal axis is equal to the value of k and

vertical axis is equal to maximum module).

Table II

COMPARISON OF THE PSNR VALUE IN CHANG ET AL. METHOD

FOR 4 COVER IMAGES WITH THE PSNR VALUE IN OUR PROPOSED

NON-ADAPTIVE METHOD

PSNR (dB) Method capacity

(bit)

n

Cover Image with Size 512512

Barbara Pepper Baboon Lena

54.14 54.16 54.14 54.13 Chang 131072 1

54.14 54.16 54.14 54.13 Our

51.53 51.52 51.52 51.52 Chang 262144 2

51.53 51.52 51.52 51.52 Our

48.12 48.12 48.14 48.14 Chang 33216 3

48.12 48.12 48.14 48.14 Our

45.18 45.19 45.17 45.18 Chang 524288 4

46.55 46.55 46.55 46.56 Our

41.53 41.54 41.55 41.55 Chang 655360 5

43.63 43.66 43.66 46.64 Our

37.35 37.38 37.35 37.37 Chang 786432 6

40.28 40.27 40.27 40.27 Our

32.42 32.52 32.46 32.45 Chang 917504 7

35.61 35.50 35.64 35.62 Our

For example, assuming that the number of bits able to be

embedded in each pixel of cover image is 3 bits (total capacity

in cover image is 524288 bits), then the maximum pixel

changes creating in each block is:

Since in equation (14), square difference between

corresponding pixels in cover image and stego image is being

considered for calculating PSNR value, according to above

example and Table III, the PSNR value in our non-adaptive

method is higher than two other methods.

The sample stego image produced by Chang et al. method

and our proposed method are shown in Fig. 6. As we can see

in this figure, image quality in our method is higher than

Chang et al. method. Considering that there has been

suggested many steganalysis attack for LSB-based

steganography methods, these methods have low security. So

our proposed method is superior to K-LSB method in both the

quality and the security of stego image.

Table III

COMPARISON OF THE RESULTED PSNR VALUES IN OUR METHOD

WITH K-LSB AND CHANG ET AL. METHODS

PSNR (dB) Capacity Cover

Our

Proposed

Method

Chang et

al. [7]

Method

K-LSB

[4]

Method

(bit) Images

( 215 215 )

51.52 51.52 51.15 262144 Lena

46.56 45.18 44.15 524288

40.27 37.37 37.92 786432

51.52 51.52 51.14 262144 Baboon

46.55 45.17 44.15 524288

40.27 37.35 37.92 786432

51.52 51.52 51.13 262144 Pepper

46.55 45.19 44.15 524288

40.27 37.38 37.92 768432

(a)

(b) (c)

Fig. 6 a) Cover image of 'Lena'. b) Resulted stego image using Chang et al.

method with the capacity of 1048576 bit. c) Resulted stego image using our

proposed method with the capacity of 1048576 bit.

V. CONCLUSION

In this paper a new non-adaptive steganography method

was suggested for embedding the secret data in cover images.

In this paper we could decrease distortions resulting from

embedding secret bits in cover image pixels in Chang et al.

method and increasing the quality of stego image by reducing

the module of embedding and pixel changes. Implementation

result in section IV, confirms that using our proposed method,

the stego image quality is improved.

REFRENCES

[1] P. Bateman, "Image Steganography and Steganalysis. Hide and Seek",

IEEE Secur. Priv., 2008.

[2] A. Chedad, J. Condell, K. Curran, P.-M. Kevitt, "Digital Image

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14

International Journal of Emerging Trends in Signal Processing

ISSN(Online)2319-9784, Volume 1 ,Issue 2, January 2013

[3] Z. Liao, Y. Huang, C. Li, "Research on Data Hiding Capacity", Int. J.

Netw. Secur., vol. 5, pp. 140144, 2007.

[4] W. Bender, D. Gruel, N. Morimoto, A. Lu, "Techniques for Data

Hiding", IBM Syst. J., pp. 313316, 1996.

[5] C.C. Thien, J.C. Lin, "A Simple and High-hiding Capacity Method for

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[6] C.K. Chan, L.M. Cheng, "Hiding Data in Images by Simple LSB

Substitution", Pattern Recogn., pp. 469474, 2004.

[7] C.C. Chang, C.Y. Lin, Y.Z. Wang, "New image steganographic methods

using run-length approach", Inform. Sciences, pp. 3393-3408., 2006.

[8] N. Tiwari, M. Shandilya, "Evaluation of Various LSB based Methods of

Image Steganography on GIF File Format", Int J Comput Appl., vol. 2,

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[9] R. Chandramouli, M. Kharrazi, N. Memon, "Image Steganography and

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[10] N. Wu, M. S. Hwang, "Data Hiding: Current Status and Key Issues",

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[11] K.B. Shiva Kumar, K.B. Raja, R.K. Chhotaray, S. Pattanaik, "Bit

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[13] X. Li., B. Yang, D.F. Cheng, Y. Zeng, "A Generalization of LSB

Matching", IEEE Sig. Process. Let. , 2009, vol. 2, pp. 6972, 2009.

[14] R.Z. Wang, C.F. Lin, J.C. Lin, "Image hiding by optimal LSB

substitution and genetic algorithm", Pattern Recogn. vol. 34, pp. 671-

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[15] S.J. Wang, "Steganography of capacity required using modulo operator

for embedding secret image", Appl. Math. Comput. , vol. 164, pp. 99-

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[16] K. Curran, X. Li, R. Clarke, " An investigation into the use of the least

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[17] J. Fridrich, M. Goljan, R. Du, "Reliable detection of LSB steganography

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[18] A. Ker, "Steganalysis of LSB Matching in Grayscale Images", IEEE

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techniquies using image quality metrics", Proc. SPIE, pp. 523-531,

2001.

http://ijetsp.info/article/IJETSPV1I202.pdf

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ISSN(Online)2319-9784, Volume 1 ,Issue 2, January 2013

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