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BASED ON LECTURES BY

Dr. Sc. Boana Kneevi


MARITIME ENGLISH 1 copyright 2004 2005 Vedran Vukoti



CONTENT

CONTENT...................................................................................................................................................................1
THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE.............................................................................................................................2
THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE (CONTINUOUS) ...............................................................................................4
PRESENT PERFECT.................................................................................................................................................6
SIMPLE PAST.............................................................................................................................................................6
PAST CONTINUOUS (PAST PROGRESSIVE)......................................................................................................8
PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE....................................................................................................................9
PAST PERFECT.......................................................................................................................................................10
THE FUTURE...........................................................................................................................................................11
WILL IN TIME CLAUSES AND IF SENTENCES...............................................................................................12
CONDITIONALS......................................................................................................................................................13
FALSE CONDITIONALS......................................................................................................................................13
ALTERNATIVES TO IF CONDITIONALS..........................................................................................................13
REAL CONDITION (LIKELY CONDITIONALS)........................................................................................................14
UNLIKELY CONDITION (IMPROBABLE CONDITIONS) .........................................................................................15
PAST CONDITIONAL (IMPOSSIBLE CONDITIONS) ................................................................................................15
MIXED CONDITIONALS.....................................................................................................................................15
I WISH....................................................................................................................................................................16
PASSIVE....................................................................................................................................................................18
MODAL VERBS........................................................................................................................................................21
MEANINGS OF MODAL VERBS ........................................................................................................................22
MAIN USES OF MODALS....................................................................................................................................26
Necessity / Duty / Advice....................................................................................................................................26
OTHER VERBS FOR EXPRESSING NECESSITY AND ADVICE ....................................................................27
NOT NECESSARY..............................................................................................................................................27
True / Untrue & Possible ...................................................................................................................................28
Ability, Possibility & Permission .......................................................................................................................29
Offers & Requests ..............................................................................................................................................29
Frequency & Habit ............................................................................................................................................30
Predicting...........................................................................................................................................................30
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THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE




Affirmative Interrogative Negative
I work.
He/She/It works.
Do I work?
Does he/she/it work?
I do not work.
He/She/it does not work.





Spelling of third person singular form:


Most verbs add s to infinitive.
Verbs ending in consonants + y: change y
into i and add es.
work works

cry cries

Verbs ending in s, -sh, -ch, -x, -o, -z
Add es to infinitive

miss misses
wash washes
watch watches
mix mixes
go goes
buzz buzzes

Exception: have has

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USE:


1. General time
We often use the present simple to talk about permanent situations, facts, or about thing
that happen regularly, repeatedly or all the time.
He works for an insurance company.
She lives in Dublin.

2. Present time
In demonstrations, instructions or commentaries.
Taylor passes to Murray, Murray to Jackson

3. Promises and so on
Sometimes we do things by saying special word like promising, swearing,
We usually use the simple present in these cases.
I agree. (NOT I am agreeing.)
I promise I will never lie again. (NOT Im promising.)

4. Formal correspondence
Some fixed phrases that are used in letter-writing can be expressed either in the present
simple (more formal) or in the present continuous (less formal).
We write to inform you(less formal: We are writing to let you know)
I look forward to hearing from you. (less formal: Im looking forward to hearing from
you.)

5. Stories
The simple present tense is common in informal narrative and in summaries of play,
stories and so on.
In Act 1, Hamlet meets the ghost of his father

6. Temporary situations
Non progressive (state) verbs
I believe you. (NOT Im believing you)

7. Talking about future
a) For the events which are timetabled.
Exam takes place in January. My train leaves at midnight.

b) Instead of will in subordinate clauses that refer to the future.
Ill phone you when I get home. (NOT when I will get home.)

8. Time words
every day, week,, always, usually, sometimes, often, rarely, seldom, generally, ever,
never,
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THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE (CONTINUOUS)




Affirmative Interrogative Negative
I am working. Am I working? I am not working.



Present simple of the verb
to be + present participle
of the main verb.


Present simple to be + main verb + ing




Spelling:
1. One-syllable verbs ending in one consonant
The consonant is doubled before the ending ing.
to stop Im stopping.
BUT: to help Im helping. (NOT Im helpping)

2. Two-syllable verbs ending in one consonant and with the stress falling on the second
syllabus:
to begin it is beginning
to admit
to permit

3. Verbs ending in e, -e is dropped out.
to leave They are leaving tomorrow.

4. In British English verbs ending in l
Double l before the ending ing.
to travel She is travelling on her own.


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USE:
1. around now
We use the present progressive to talk about temporary situations and actions that are
going on right now.
Why are you crying?

2. changes
To talk about developing and changing situations, even if these are very long-acting.
The climate is getting warmer.

3. talking about the future
For fixed future arrangements (diary!). Adverb of time is needed.
We are having lunch together tomorrow afternoon.

4. verbs that refer to physical feelings (eg. feel, hurt, ache)
They can often be used in simple or progressive tenses without much difference in
meaning.
How do you feel? or How are you feeling?

5. verbs not used in progressive forms
Some verbs are never or hardly used in progressive forms. Still some are with certain
meanings.
I like music. (NOT Im liking music)

NOTE:
I think hes great. (think = opinion)
Im thinking about taking a leave. (think = reflection)

Common state (non progressive) verbs:
- mental and emotional states
believe, doubt, feel (=have an opinion), imagine know, like, dislike, love, hate, prefer,
realize, recognize, remember, see (=understand), suppose, think (= have an opinion),
understand, want
1
and wish.

- uses of senses
appear, hear, look (=seem), see, seem, smell, sound, taste.

- communicating and causing reactions
agree, astonish, deny, disagree, impress, mean
1
, please, promise, satisfy, surprise.

- other
be
2
, belong, concern, consist, contain, depend, deserve, fit, include, involve, lack, matter,
measure (= have length), need, owe, own, passes, weight (=have weight).

have - possession

NOTE:
The rose smells great.
Im smelling the rose.
The children are being quiet.

1
want & mean can be in present perfect continuous.
2
if in passive or it means something completely unusual it can be in continuous.
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PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE PAST
Preset simple of the verb
to have + past participle
of the main verb.
Past participle: a) regular verb + ed
b) irregular verb 3
rd
column
of irregular verbs
a) regular verbs + ed
b) irregular verbs 2
nd
column of
irregular verbs



USE:

1. To say that a finished action or event is
connected with the present some way. There
are present results.

I cant go on holiday because Ive broken my
leg.
1. To talk about many kinds of past events:
Short, quickly finished actions and happenings,
longer situations and repeated events.

Peter broke a leg last night.



HOWEVER:
When a focus is on the past cause, not the present
result.

This is a nice picture. Did you paint it yourself?

2. To express the idea of completion or
achievement.

At least! Ive finished!
2. with references to finished periods and moments
of time.

I saw John yesterday morning. He told me

3. When we talk about past experience.

Weve been to the States many times.
3. in story telling and when were telling people
about past events.

4. To say that something has happened several
times up to the present.
Ive written several letters since lunch.
BUT:

I wrote five letters since lunch.


There an accident! 's been

(present perfect)
(simple past)
Present perfect is commonly used to
give the frame, to give the impact,
while when talking about details
simple past is used.



Simple past is used when we give exactly the time, if not present perfect is used.

I live in Rijeka. but: I have lived (have been living) in Rijeka since 1985.
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NEWS
To announce a piece of news with the present
perfect.


The firm has lost $20 million this year.
Recently, some English newspapers have started
regularly using the simple past for smaller news
announcements.

Driving wind and rain forced 600 out of 2,500
teenagers to abandon the annual Ten Tor track
Dartmoor.

BUT:
In American English, the simple past is often used
to give news.


TIME WORDS
ANY TIME UP TO NOW:
ever, never, recently, lately, already, just, since,
for,
FINISHED TIME:
yesterday; last week, month,;ago; then; when;
in (2000)

BUT:
In American English, it is possible to use the
simple past tense with indefinite past time adverbs
like already, yet, ever and before.
this/it/that is the first/second/only/best/worst
etc.

This is the first time that Ive heard her sing.


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PAST CONTINUOUS (PAST PROGRESSIVE)

past tense of the verb
to be + present participle
of the main verb

I was walking.


USE:
PAST COUNTINUOUS SIMPLE PAST
1.to say that something was in progress (going
on) around a particular past time.

What were you doing at 8 o clock yesterday
evening?
(NOT: What did you do?)

1. finished periods and moments of time.
2.to refer to a longer, background action or
situation.
2. to refer to a shorter action or event that
happened in the middle of the longer action,
or that interrupted it.

As I was walking down the road,

I saw Bill.
3.temporary actions and situations

It happened while I was living in London last
year.
3. Longer, more permanent situations.

I lived in London for 10 years while I was a
child.

4.to talk about something that is background,
not the main news, we make it seem less
important.


I was talking to John,

and he said
5.with always, continually and similar words to
talk about things that happened repeatedly, or
that was unplanned or irritating.

I didnt like him. He was continually
borrowing money.



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PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

present tense of the verb
to be + present participle
of the main verb

Ive been walking.



USE
PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
continuation

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE
completion

1.to talk about recent actions and situations
that have present results.
Focus on continuous activity.

Ive been reading your book.

1.to talk abut recent actions and situations that
have present results.
Focus on result.

Ive read your book.

2.to talk about more temporary actions and
situations.

I havent been working very well recently.

2.to talk about longer, lasting or permanent
situations.

He hasnt worked for years.

3.generally, both progressive (continuous) and
simple tenses are possible in cases like these,
with a slight difference of emphasis:

Its been raining steadily since last Saturday.




Its rained steadily since last Saturday.

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PAST PERFECT

past perfect simple tense of the verb
to be + past participle
of the main verb




Affirmative Negative Interrogative
I had worked
I had been
I hadnt worked
I hadnt been
Had I worked?
Had I been?




USE:
1. when we are talking about a period of
time in the past.
Essentials to understanding the
sequence are: already, as soon as, after
or until.

2. Past Perfect can be used with a definite
time reference:


3. Before
when used, the verb in past tense can
refer to something that takes place
before the verb in past perfect. The
verb in Past Tense may prevent the
second one from happening.


4. Unfulfilled plans
Past Perfect with report verbs and with
hope, intend, expect etc.
To talk about plans that have not yet
been fulfilled.
I got to work after Simon had arrived.
When I arrived, theyd already started.

BUT:
When I arrived, they started.

I arrived at nine oclock, but he had got there
at eight.



I was blamed for it before Id even had a
chance to defend myself.
The waiter took my plate away before Id
finished eating.




I had hoped to talk to him but he was too busy
to listen.
I had thought of phoning him but decided
against it.

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THE FUTURE


Ways of referring to the future:

Form

Example

Meaning
will Ill just go and get my coat. = an immediate decision about
what you are going to do

will Ill be sick if I eat more
chocolate.

= general prediction
be going to Im going to stop in a minute. = personal prediction

be going to Look out! Were going to hit
the car in front.

= a prediction after looking at
what is happening now.
Present Continuous Were going to the caf.
Wont you join us?

= fixed plans / arrangements
Present Simple The coach leaves in 10
minutes.
= timetable, programmed, an
unalterable arrangement or
fact.

will + Continuous Dont phone too early because
Ill be putting the baby to bed.
= an action that will be in
progress some time in the
future.

will + Continuous Well be working on this until
the end of the year.
= an activity that will be
happening during a period in
the future

will + Continuous Ill give your letter to him. Ill
be seeing him later.
= an action that will happen
because it is regular or
decided

will + Perfect Well have driven over 500
miles by the time we get there.
= an event that will be finished
before a specified time in the
future

will + Perfect Continuous Well have been living here
for ten years next May.
= a state of affairs in progress
for a period up to a specified
time in the future

be + to infinitive He is to be given an award.
Youre to stay here until
youve apologized.
= an official arrangement or
order.

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WILL IN TIME CLAUSES AND IF SENTENCES



1. We omit will in time clauses after when, as
soon as, until, before etc.
Im not going to speak to her until shes
apologized.
Ill write when I get there.

2. With conditional clauses (after if-clauses,
providing etc.) we can use will BUT only:

a) When we want emphasis: will makes
an intention or promise stronger.

b) In polite requests: will means be
willing to



If you will insist on the best, then you must
expect to pay for it.

If you will hold these bags for me, I can open
the door.

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CONDITIONALS


Refer to: If-clause Main clause

Present, Future ZERO Present + Present

If you press this button, the engine stops.

If you can meet me at the car, thats easiest for me.

Present +

Imperative
If you go away,

write to me!
FIRST Present + Will future

If she rings this evening, Ill let you know.

SECOND Main clause If-clause

Would + Simple Past

What would you do, If you became president?

The Past THIRD If-clause Main Clause

Past Perfect + Would have + Past Participle

If I hadnt seen her, Shed have drowned.




FALSE CONDITIONALS

False the speakers knows that the condition
has already been fulfilled.


If you dont like the opera, why are you here?
ALTERNATIVES TO IF CONDITIONALS

So, as long as, provided / providing (that),
suppose / supposing, assuming, even if, if only,
as condition that, unless.
So / As long as you promise not to tell, you can
come too.

If only wed got there sooner, the accident
would have never happened.

Unless Peter changes his attitude, hes going
to find himself in trouble.

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REAL CONDITION (likely conditionals)


IN THE PRESENT,
FUTURE and

(present tenses or
modals)

If he comes into the room, dont mention the party this evening.
(also going to future) Even if we are not going to go swimming, wed still better take a towel.

Assuming you can leave work early, well be able to make the 6:30
performance.


PAST
(Present Perfect) If hes read that report hell know what all the fuss is about.

(Present Perfect
Continuous)

If youve been telling the truth, we need to act quickly.
(Simple Past / Past
Continuous)
Provided that she caught her flight, shell be landing any moment now.



WATCH OUT
WILL/WONT in the If-Clause has the meaning:


Refusal If he wont go there is nothing you can do about it.

Polite request If youll hold this end, Ill take the other one.

Strong disapproval at
someone insistence on
doing something
If you will drive so fast, you must expect to have accidents.

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UNLIKELY CONDITION (improbable conditions)


IN THE PRESENT


(past subjunctive, were
in all persons, or
simple)
If I didnt knew you so well, Id say you were lying.
(but I know you well)

If he werent so stubborn, hed never believe you.
(but he is stubborn)


IN THE FUTURE


(we are talking
hypothetically
Simple Past)
If you told him, hed never believe you.
(I dont think you will tell him)

Suppose your car broke down, what will you do?


WOULD in If Clauses


Only for polite
requests and strong
wishes that someone
would do something.
If you would be so kind enough to lend me a hand, we could finish this
very quickly.


PAST CONDITIONAL (impossible conditions)

(we know what happened but we are
speculating about what would have
happened if the opposite side had been
true)
If shed known my number, she would have phoned.
(but she didnt know it)

omit if
Had I believed her for one moment, I wouldnt have
refused to help.

(something that is generally true,
although we wish it wasnt, can have
results in the past)
If I wasnt
3
such an idiot, I wouldnt have done that.


MIXED CONDITIONALS

If I had gone to the party last night,
(I am not tired now present)

I would be tired now.
BUT:
If I had gone to the party last night,
(I didnt meet lots of people)
I would have met lots of people.

3
were (subjunctive) is possible in conditional. Past simple was
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I WISH
(Wishing for the virtually impossible)


PRESENT meaning

(we regret something in the present) I wish I werent (wasnt) having the injection.
(but I am)

I wish I didnt have to work tomorrow, but
unfortunately I do.

Do you wish you lived by the sea?

Im sorry I have to go. I wish I could stay longer.
(but I cant)

(we complain about something) The phone has been ringing for five minutes. I wish
somebody would answer it.

PAST meaning

(we regret something in the past) I wish I had known that John was ill. I would have
gone to see him.

I feel sick. I wish I hadnt eaten so much.

I hear the party was great. I wish I could have gone.
(but I didnt)

REGRET:
WISH + Past Simple (verb) PRESENT
+ Past Perfect (verb) PAST

WISH + COULD (do something) Present Simple PRESENT
Present Perfect PAST


COMPLAIN:
WISH + WOULD (somebody do something) + verb in infinitive

For Actions
I wish you would answer the phone.
I wish you wouldnt answer the phone. (Youre always answering the phone)

For Changes
I wish Sarah would come. (She is not here)
BUT:
For Situations (wish + past simple)
I wish Sarah was here.

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Summary of tenses in conditional sentences



1. REAL CONDITON (likely conditionals)
IF-CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE
Referring to the present & future
Present Simple Present Simple
Present Simple Imperative
Present Simple Will Future
Referring to the past
Present perfect / present perfect progressive Present Simple / Future /
Simple Past / Past Continuous Future continuous

2. UNLIKELY CONDITIONALS (improbable condition)

IF-CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE
Referring to the present
Subjunctive / Simple Past Simple Past
Subjunctive / Simple Past Would + infinitive
Referring to the future
Simple Past Simple Past
Simple Past Would + infinitive

3. PAST CONDITIONALS (impossible condition)

IF-CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE
Referring to the past
Past Perfect Would have + past participle of the main verb

MIXED CONDITIONALS

IF-CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE
Referring to the present
Past Perfect Would + infinitive of the main verb

I WISH

IF-CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE
Referring to the present
I wish Subjunctive /Past tense
Referring to the past
I wish Past Perfect

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PASSIVE

to be + past participle of the main verb




Subject

Verb Object Adverbial word
Channel Islanders

speak French and English
Subject Verb
to be + past participle

(by agent) Adverbial word
French is spoken in France,
Switzerland, the
channel Islands,

This house

was built by Sir John Latton in 1486.
I was shocked by your attitude.



Verbs not used in the passive:

Intransitive verbs, e.g. to arrive, dont have object
Some transitive verbs
o Most of the stative verbs

Some prepositional verbs Everybody agreed with me.
NOT: I was agreed with by everybody.

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USE:


When the interest is in and action, not who
does / did it.

The pyramids were built around 400 AD.
Sentences often begin with something that is
already known or that we are already talking
about, news are left at the end.

Nice picture.
Yes, it was painted by Dali.
Longer and heavier expressions often go at the
end of a clause.
I was annoyed by Mary wanting to tell
everybody what to do.
More natural then:
Mary wanting to tell everybody what to do
annoyed me.



VERBS WITH TWO OBJECTS


Active
Verbs like give, send, show, lend can be followed by two objects: an indirect object (usually a
person) and a direct object (usually a thing)

1. verb + indirect object + direct object She gave her sister the car.
She gave me a book.

2. verb + direct object + preposition + indirect
object


She gave the car to her sister.
Passive
1. an indirect object becomes subject Her sister was given the car.
I was given a book

(explain & suggest cannot be used here)
A meeting place was suggested to us. NOT: We were suggested a meeting place.

2. Direct object becomes subject of the
passive verbs. Other verbs: promise, refuse,
tell, offer
The car was given (to) her sister.

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VERBS WITH TWO OBJECTS


1. Passive structures with following infinitive

Verb+ Object+ Infinitive

He asked me to send a stamped addressed envelope.

I was asked to send a stamped addressed envelope.



2.Infinitive without to
hear, see, make and help

Active

Passive
hear, see, make and help + object+
infinitive without to

to-infinitive
I saw him come out of the house.

He was seen to come out of the house.



3. Perfect, progressive and passive infinitives

A passive verb can be followed by:

- a perfect

He is believed to have crossed the frontier last night.
- a progressive

I was told to be waiting outside the station at 6 oclock.
- a passive infinitive

To hostages are expected to be released today.
BUT: NOT:
want & like
Everybody wanted him to be the
manager.
He was wanted to be the manager.

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MODAL VERBS

CAN, MAY, WILL, SHOULD, COULD, MIGHT, OUGHT TO, SHALL, WOULD

DARE and NEED sometimes act like modals without to.

1. Modals come before the infinitive form of
a verb without to (except ought to)

I may meet her tomorrow.
2. Modals never change form Maria may join us
BUT: Maria likes walking.

3. Modals never use do when forming
question questions of negatives. They use
not after the modal and before the verb.

You cant do that!
4. Modals can be used with the continuous
form of the verb.

She should be arriving soon.
5. Modals can be used with the passive form
of a verb.

The interview can be arranged for another
day.
6. Modals are used in short answers and
question tags.

You will apply for the job, wont you?
Well, I might.
7. Modals usually refer to events in the
present or future.

I can come immediately, if you like. (=present)
8. Some modals refer to the past.

I could read before I went to school.
9. Other modals need the addition of have to
make a modal perfect.

I should have realized earlier.
10. Sometimes its necessary to choose another
verb.

I was able to finish before I went out.
We managed to find the right address.
11. Other verbs with similar meanings to
modals:
Can Be able to
Must Have to
May Be allowed to
Will we be allowed to bring out own
food?

Used to:
Are/is/was to
Be supposed to
Im supposed to have let them know my
decision by today.
Manage to

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MEANINGS OF MODAL VERBS

Modal

Meaning / use Example
Can Ability

Theoretical possibility

Permission

Request

Offers


Can you play the piano?

Anyone can make a mistake.

Can I leave early, please?

Can you give me a hand?

Can I help you out?
Cant / cannot Inability

Possibility


Prohibition

Deduction


I cant play the piano.

Cant you come any earlier?
(=isnt it possible?)

You cant leave until I say so.

This bill cant be right.
Cant have Deduction


Shes gone to the wrong door she cant have
seen the sign.


Could Past ability

Possibility


Request

Asking for permission

Permission in the past


Deduction


Idiomatic
The shop had nothing that I could afford.

There could be trouble if the government tries to
force this measure through.

Could you give me a hand?

Could I leave a bit early today?

When I was young, I could stay up to late at
weekends if I promised to be good.

This could be Johns car I can hear he said he
was coming.

You could at least tell me what they said.
(=I think you should)


Couldnt Past inability

Impossibility

Requests
I couldnt walk until I was nearly two.

I couldnt eat another thing!

Couldnt you try again?
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Prohibition in the past


Deduction

Idiomatic

My mum used to insist that we couldnt go out
until wed tided out bedroom.

I thought he was away on business.

Your actions could have had serious
consequences.


Could have Possibility in the past


Annoyance

Your actions could have had serious
consequences.

You could have told me!
(=I wish you had told me)


Couldnt have Impossibility in the past


Idiomatic

He couldnt have taken your car by mistake
because he didnt have the keys.

It couldnt have been better
(=it was perfect)


May Possibility

Expressing hopes

Permission

Offers

Concession

We may go to France next year.

May you both be very happy!

You may go when youve finished.

May I be of any assistance?

They may live next door but we hardly ever see
them.


May not Possibility

Prohibition
We may not go to France next year.

Your may not go until youve finished.

Concession I may not be very intelligent but I can work out the
answer to that question.


May have /
May not have
Possibility in the past They may not have left yet.

Concession He may have written books on the subject, but that
doesnt mean hes a world expert.


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Might As the past form of may
after Past tense verbs
He said he might come with us


Possibility This expedition might be quite dangerous.

Suggestions You might try phoning directory enquires.

Requests Might I borrow some money?

Annoyance You might at least say youre sorry

Concession He might seem rude, but hes not really.


Might not Possibility You might not like it.

Concession He might not wear glasses, but his eyesight is not
perfect either.


Might have Possibility in the past They might have been trying to contact us.

Annoyance You might have told me!
(= I wish youd told me)

Concession She might have worked hard, but you wouldnt
know it from the results.

Might not
have
Possibility in the past They might not have noticed the sign.

Concession She might not have done all the works, but she
certainly got good results.


Must Deduction Whats that noise? It must be raining!

Obligation (strong) You must take your shoes in here.

Necessity The wires must touch or it wont work.


Mustnt Prohibition You mustnt worry youll be fine.


Must have Deduction in the past I must have let my wallet in the car.

Necessity in the past In order to qualify for the job, you must have had
several years experience.
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Mustnt have Necessity in the past You mustnt have had any driving convictions or
you wont get the job.


Shall Offers (I and we) Shall I give you a hand?

Official orders All the candidates shall remain in their seats until
the end of the examination.


Shant Prediction What shall we do now?

Intention I shant let him do that again.


Shall / Shant
have
Prediction We shall have finished by this evening. (= Future
Perfect)

We shant have another opportunity if we dont
win today.

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MAIN USES OF MODALS
Necessity / Duty / Advice

NECCESSITY:

Must
Must & mustnt are used when we decide for ourselves.


Strong obligation

I really must be going. Its getting late.
Impersonal obligation The lead must be connected properly or it
doesnt work.

Advice You must see the film its very good.

Suggestion We must get together sometime and talk this
over.

Have to
Someone else decides whats necessary.
It has a past form, -ing form etc.
The notice says we have to report to the
managers office.

Ive got to go or my boss will wonder where I
am.



DUTY & ADVICE:

Ought to / Should
Out opinion about whats right or wrong.




You should take this responsibility very
seriously. (Its your duty.)

Should have / Ought to have
To suggest that what happened in the past was
wrong or unfortunate.


The government ought to have listened. (they
didnt)
You should have worked hard. (you didnt)
You shouldnt have worked so hard. (you did)
Shall / Should / Ought
For advice.

What shall I do?
Do you think I should tell her?

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OTHER VERBS FOR EXPRESSING NECESSITY AND ADVICE

Necessity Hats are to be worn in this site.
All guests will vacate their room before eleven
oclock.

Advice I wouldnt do that if I were you.

Had better
Advice in a particular situation.

Youd better phone home they have news of
your sister.

Ought to / Should
More general





NOT NECESSARY

Neednt
When the authority comes from the speaker.

You neednt come this evening if you dont
want to.

Dont need to / Dont have to
When the authority doesnt come from the
speaker.

You dont need to / dont have to carry an
identity card.

To talk about the past:
Neednt have
Means you did but it was not necessary



You neednt have cooked so much food.

Didnt need to / Didnt have to
Only the context tells us whether it actually
happened.

I didnt need to go shopping but I did, just for
fun.
I didnt need to do any extra shopping, so I
didnt.

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True / Untrue & Possible

TRUE / UNTRUE
May, might, could, will
Present


You may / might / could very well be right.
(=its likely now)

You may / might / could possible have a point
here. (=its not impossible)

Thatll be my mother on the phone. (=Im quite
sure)

Surely he wont be there already. (=I dont
believe he is)


Past
Could have, will have, may have and might
have
We speculate about the possibility of
something happening in the past.




To Speculate about something that didnt
happen but we feel there was potential for it to
happen.

To speculate about what happened without
knowing exactly what did happen.



They may have finished already, for all I know.

The doctor wont have had the chance to look
at your x-ray yet.


This wasnt a good idea you might have hurt
him.


You may / might / could have done just enough
to scrape through.


DEDUCTION
Must & cant as opposites when we have a
good reason for thinking something is true or
untrue.


He goes to Scotland every year for his
holidays. He must like it. (=Im sure he does.)

John cant possibly be seventy! He doesnt
look a day over fifty. (=Im sure it isnt true)

Must have & cant have
When we have reasons for making logical
assumptions about the past.

You look very relaxed it must have been a
good holiday.

Wheres Dominic? He cant have left already,
can he?

Couldnt & couldnt have They couldnt be asking for me no one knows
I live here. (=disbelief)
He couldnt have taken it by mistake, could he?
(=doubt)
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Ability, Possibility & Permission

Ability in the present & future
Can

I can give you a lift this evening if you like.

Can or be able to I cant / am not able to give you an answer at
the moment.
One day people will be able to go for a holiday
on the moon.
I might be able to help you.

Can
know how to & with verbs related to the
senses: see, hear etc.

Can you read music?


Theoretical possibility
Can

Speaking in public can be quite traumatic for
many people.

Ability in the past
Could

Could have or was / were able to
Could have
We were able to do something but in fact we
didnt.

I could hear a noise and went outside.



He could have helped me if hed tried.
(=but he didnt)

General ability in the past:
Could (more common)

Was / were able to
Was / were able to / managed to &
succeeded in
Fir a specific event showing success after
trying.

I could / was able to swim when I was five
years old.



I was able to / managed to solve her problems
for her.

Permission
Can, could, may

Can I go now?

Offers & Requests
Will, would, can, could, shall Can I help you?
Shall I carry that for you?
Would you like a hand with that?
Would you mind giving me a hand with that?
Can you give me a hand?

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Frequency & Habit

Will
Habit in the present
Theyll spend hours on the phone to each other
every night. (=they often do)

Would
Habit, typical behavior in the past.
Every morning I would get up at the crack of
dawn and take the dogs for a walk.


Predicting

Shall & will
To talk about what will happen.


Exports will continue to rise over the next few
months.

May, might, could
To say it is possible something will happen.

It may / might / could rain tomorrow.

Will
In all questions

Will it rain tomorrow, do you think?

Would
To talk about something very unlikely to
happen.

A sunny holiday in Wales? Now, that would be
a miracle.

Should, ought to and will
To make subjective predictions
= in my opinion

I suppose she might come, but I doubt it.
It should be fine tomorrow.
The weather will be horrible tomorrow.

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ARTICLES

Golden rules:

1. do not use the (with plural and
uncountable nouns) to talk about things
in general.

Life is hard.
NOT
The life is hard.
2. do not use singular countable nouns
without articles


3. use a/an to say what peoples professions
or jobs are.
She is a bank manager.
NOT
Shes bank manager.



Indefinite article
a/an



a/an means one used with singular countable
nouns.

Ive got an idea.
We live in a small house.
Things can be particular (not general) bout
indefinite

Ken a buy you a drink (any one of several
kinds of drink)
There is a letter for you.
a/an meaning that a person or a thing is
member of particular class or group.

You are a very beautiful girl.
A sailor is a man who works in ships.
Numbers

A hundred, a thousand, a million,
Watch out:
Singular countable nouns must always have an
article (or another determiner like possessives,
determinatives, some, any)


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Definite article
the



The has a definite meaning. Shut the door. (it obvious which one)
How did you like the film?

Seasons Spring or the spring.

Ships The Queen Mary.

Country, sea, seaside and mountains Im going to the country.

Place-names, seas, mountain groups, island
groups, areas, rivers, deserts, hotels, cinemas,
theaters
The Adriatic, the Himalayas, the West Indies,
the Middle East, the Thames, the Sahara, the
Excelsior, the Odeon, the Old Vic

To refer to the whole nation The Dutch, the British

Musical instruments
1
To play the violin (classical music)

BUT
Miles Davies on trumpet. (jazz/pop)

Radio / TV Listen to the radio.

BUT
Watch TV


1
Enumeration of instruments are often without the article
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