You are on page 1of 46

Ms.

Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 1



Junior High VW Words

7
th
Grade
abnormal
abound
abrupt
accelerate
adequate
adjacent
affliction
agitation
ajar
akin
alight
alliance
amiss
analogy
anecdote
animated
anonymous
antonym
assistant
authoritative
available
bankrupt
barren
bellow
beneficiary
bewilder
blurt
botch
braggart
brawl
brood
browse
buffoon
bystander
cache
canvass
capsize
casual
catastrophe
cater
chronological
circumscribe
clamor
clarification
clutter
coincide
connotation
connote
consistency
consolidate
controversial
corrupt
cosmopolitan
countenance
counterfeit
culminate
customary
cynical
decrease
denotation
denote
dependent
desist
despondent
despot
detest
dialogue
dilapidated
diminish
dishearten
dismantle dispensary
dispense
disputatious
disrupt
disruptive
dissuade
docile
domestic
dominate
downright
downtrodden
drone
dynamic
dynasty
eject
elongate
embezzle
emblem
enchant
entice
entreat
entrepreneur
eradicate
erode
erupt
exist
expendable
expenditure
fallible
farce
feud
fickle
figurative
firebrand
flagrant
flaw
fledgling
flounder
flourish
fluctuate
fluster
foremost
foretaste
foster
fruitless
frustrate
fugitive
futile
gala
gaudy
germinate
gigantic
goad
graphic
gratitude
grim
grimy
grovel
grueling
gruesome
haggle
handicraft
hardy
harmonious
havoc
hazard
hearth
heartrending
heed
hilarious
hoard
hoax
homicide
homograph
homonym
hospitable
hostile
humdrum
hurtle
ignite
impartial
implore
imposter
incentive
inconsistent
incorruptible
indescribable
indifference
indignant
indispensable
indisposed
indulge
infamous
inflammable
inflate
inflict
ingredient
inimitable
innumerable
inscription
insinuate
insistent
insubordinate
interminable
interrogate
interrupt
iota
irruption
lair
lavish
lax
legacy
legitimate
leisurely
lethargic
literal
literate
loom
lubricate
luster
magnitude
makeshift
malady
malignant
mar
marginal
massive
maternal
maul
meager
meditate
melancholy
mellow
mirth
miscellaneous
misdemeanor
momentum
morbid
mortify
mull
mutual
narrative
nomadic
notable
notary
notation
notation
notoriety
notorious
nub
nurture
nutritious
officiate
onslaught
oppress
oration
ordain


Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 2

ordeal
orthodox
outstrip
overture
pact
pall
pamper
paradox
parasite
parch
partial
patronize
pedestrian
peevish
pelt
pending
pension
perjury
perpendicular
persist
piecemeal
plague
poised
postscript
potential
prefix
prescribe
presume
preview
prior
procure
proficient
prominent
prudent
puny
quaint
quench
quest
quibble
radiant
random
rant
ratify
recompense
regal regime
reinforce
reluctant
remnant
renovate
reputable
resist
rsum
retard
revere
rite
rupture
rural
saga
sagacious
salvo
scrimp
scurry
seclusion
seethe
shirk
simultaneous
singe
snare
sodden
spirited
stalemate
status
stifle
stodgy
subscribe
subsistence
substantial
sullen
surplus
suspense
swerve
synonym
tactful
tamper
timidity
transcribe
transmit
transparent
trickle
trivial
truce
turmoil
ultimate
uncertainty
unique
unscathed
upright
utmost
vanquish
vengeance
verify
veto
vicious
vigilant
vindictive
virtual
vital
void
wan
wayward
wilt
wince
wrath
yearn

8
th
Grade abashed
abdicate
abut
abyss
accord
acme
adages
adapt
aghast
allot
aloof
amass
ample
amplify
anguish
annul
antics
apparition
appease
apt
armistice
arrogant
articulate
assert
attest
attire
attribute
audacious
avail
avowed
awry
banter
barter
bask
befall
belated
belittled
bestow
bland
blas
bludgeon
bolster
bonanza
bountiful
calamitous
capacious
capitulate
caustic
chafe
churlish
citadel
cite
collaborate
comply
congested
conventional
convey
cower
crony
crucial
crusade
cryptic
curt
decoy
decree
deface
defect
defile
delve
deplore
detriment
devised
devoid
dexterous
dire
disarming
disclaim
discordant
disdain
disgruntled
divergent
doctrine
dovetail
dregs
durable
elite
embargo
embody
encroached
endow
engross
enmity
enormity
ensue
entail
enterprising
epitaph
epoch
estranged
ethical
evolve
exasperate
excerpt
excise
exotic
facetious
fallacy
falter
fend
ferret
fervent
fiasco
finesse


Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 3

flaunt
foreboding
forlorn
forthright
frivolous
frugal
gallantry
garnish
gaunt
genial
gingerly
glut
grapple
gratify
grope
habituate
haggard
haughty
heritage
hover
impart
impediment
impending
imperative
impunity
inaudible
incapacitate
incognito
indiscriminate
inert
infiltrate
infinite
instigate
instill
intrigue
invalidate
irascible
jaunty
jostle
judicious
juncture
jurisdiction
kindred
laggard
legendary
levity
loiter
longevity
maim
malinger
mediate
mendicant
menial
mercenary
mien
milieu
minimize
muster
myriad
nave
nauseate
negate
negligent
niche
nonentity
nullify
oblique
obliterate
oblivion
obsess
opus
ornate
ostracize
oust
outlandish
overbearing
pallid
parable
parry
penal
perceptible
personable
perspective
pert
pertinent
perturb
peruse
pithy
pivotal
plaudits
plausible
plebian
plummet
plunder
porous
preclude
predatory
predominant
premonition
proclaim
prodigal
prodigious
prodigy
promontory
prone
proximity
proxy
pseudonym
pulverized
purge
qualm
quirk
ramshackle
rankle
ransack
rational
ravage
recipient
reciprocal
recluse
recourse
regale
rehabilitated
relevant
renown
repercussion
residue
resolute
retentive
revert
rote
rubble
rue
ruse
scapegoat
scavenger
scoff
sequel
servile
shiftless
simper
skittish
solicitous
solvent
staid
stance
steadfast
stint
stoical
stricture
sustain
taint
tawdry
tedious
teem
tenet
tether
tractable
transition
trepidation
turncoat
unassuming
unflagging
ungainly
unison
upbraid
vaunted
veer
vendor
veneer
venerate
veritable
vexes
vie
vigil
vilify
vitality
volatile
voracious
waif
wallow
wanton
waver
whimsical
willful
wrangle
wry



Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 4

9
th
grade

abase
abridge
abscond
abstention
access
accomplice
actuate
adept
adherent
adieu
ad infinitum
adjourn
admonish
advent
adversity
alien
altercation
analogy
anarchy
annex
annihilate
apex
apportion
appreciable
arbitrary
arduous
aspect
aspire
assimilate
assurance
asylum
atone
auspicious
autocratic
auxiliary
aversion
avert
biased
blanch
blasphemy
bleak
bogus
bona fide
bondage
boorish
brawny
brazen
breach
brevity
brigand
brunt
buoyant
candid
catalyst
cherubic
chide
circumspect
cleave
clique
combatant
comely
commandeer
compensate
component
comport
composite
compulsion
concede
concerted
concise
condone
congenial
connotation
conspicuous
console
containerize
contend
conversely
conversion
cordial
cornerstone
credible
cubicle
cumbersome
daunt
deadlock
debacle
debris
defray
demure
depose
depreciation
despicable
detainee
detention
deteriorate
devitalize
diffuse
dilate
dilemma
diligent
diminutive
disentangle
dispel
disposition
dissent
dissolute
diverse
divert
divulge
doleful
dormant
dross
drudgery
dubious
dwindle
efface
emancipate
embroil
eminent
enlightened
envoy
erratic
erroneous
escalate
exodus
exonerate
exorbitant
exorcise
expedient
expel
exploit
expulsion
extemporaneous
fabricate
facilitate
fated
feign
feint
flair
flippant
fodder
forestall
fortify
garble
ghastly
glib
grievous
hamper
haphazard
harangue
harry
heterogeneous
hew
hoodwink
horde
humane
illegible
illustrious
immunity
impair
impel
impenitent
impose
impoverished
improvise
impulsive
inanimate
incessant
incinerate
incite
incorrigible
incredulous
influx
inscribe
institute
interim
interpose
intolerable
intrepid
intricate
introspection
inundate
invert
invincible
irate
irreverent
jeer
juxtapose
knave
laborious
languid
larceny
latent
legion
liability
liberality
lithe
lofty
lucid
lucrative
malign
maltreat
marauder
meander
mediocre
metropolis
migration
militant
mire
momentous
monologue
morose
muddle
obesity
obstreperous
obtrusive
opaque
opinionated
pallor
paramount
pauper
pedigree
pensive
perceive
perennial


Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 5

perilous
perspicacious
pertain
pertinacity
perverse
pilfer
plaintiff
pliant
pompous
ponder
posthumous
prattle
preamble
precipice
precipitous
predispose
prelude
preposterous
prim
probe
profuse
prognosis
proliferate
proponent
propulsion
prospective
prospectus
protract
pugnacious
pulsate
quarry
quaver
rabid
rancid
rasping
realm
rebut
recoil
reconcile
recoup
rectify
reek
rejuvenate
relentless
relinquish
remunerate
render
repellent
repository
reprieve
reprimand
repugnant
repulse
respective
retinue
retrospect
reversion
revile
rift
rivulet
rugged
rustic
salvage
sardonic
scuttle
semblance
servitude
sever
shackle
shoddy
skeptical
slapdash
slipshod
sordid
sparse
spasmodic
specter
speculate
sprightly
spurious spurn
squander
staccato
stagnant
statute
sterling
subjugate
subterfuge
subversive
succumb
sully
superfluous
superimpose
supplant
surly
surmount
sustenance
synthetic
tantalize
taunt
temperate
tenacious
tenor
tenure
terminate
terse
threadbare
tirade
transpose
trite
unbridled
unflinching
untenable
usurp
vagrant
venomous
venture
versatile
version
vertigo
vindicate
wane
warp
wily

10
th
Grade

adulterate
abhor
abjure
abrasive
accede
acclimate
acquiesce
acrid
adroit
adversary
affiliated
alacrity
alienate
alleviate
allocate
allude
allure
altruistic
ambidextrous
amend
amicable
animosity
antipathy
antithesis
apathy
appall
applicable
apprehensive
ardent
artifice
ascertain
askew
assent
asset
assiduous
attainment
augment
august
averse
bellicose
belligerent
benefactor
benevolent
bequeath
bereft
beset
blithe
brandish
brash
buffet
callous
capricious
chagrin
chaos
chastise


Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 6

chivalrous
clairvoyant
clandestine
clemency
coerce
cogent
commend
commodious
compassion
compatible
complacent
comprise
compunction
conclusive
concur
condolence
conflagration
consecrate
contentious
converge
copious
corrosive
covet
craven
crestfallen
culinary
cursory
dearth
decorum
decrepit
defamation
deft
delete
demise
deploy
deride
destitute
deviate
diffident
discern
discrepancy
disheveled
disparage
disperse
disreputable
dissonant
dour
droll
duplicity
duress
edict
elated
elucidate
emaciated
embark
endemic
esteem
exemplary
exhilarate
explicate
explicit
exponent
expunge
extant
extirpate
extol
exuberant
exult
facile
facsimile
fallow
fathom
feasible
finite
fortitude
fracas
gape
garrulous
gibe
gnarled
grimace
grotesque
guile
guise
harass
holocaust
imbibe
impervious
impetus
implacable
implicate
inclement
indelible
indemnity
indomitable
indulgent
infallible
infinitesimal
ingenuous
inkling
innocuous
inopportune
insidious
insuperable
integrity
inter
intimation
inveterate
invulnerable
ironic
irrelevant
itinerary
jeopardy
lamentable
laud
limpid
loll
loquacious
magnanimous
malevolent
mandatory
martinet
meticulous
militate
misconstrue
misnomer
multifarious
muse
musty
negligible
nocturnal
nonchalant
nondescript
nostalgia
obnoxious
obsolete
obviate
officious
ominous
omnipotent
omniscient
omnivorous
opulent
palatable
panacea
pandemonium
parsimonious
patent
perpetuate
phlegmatic
pinnacle
placate
placid
plagiarism
platitude
pliable
plod
poignant
potent
precedence
premeditated
pretext
profess
protrude
prowess
pungent
punitive
quandary
quell
quiescent
quintessence
rampant
rancor
raucous
recalcitrant
receptive
redress
reiterate
remiss
renegade
renounce
repose
reprehensible
repress
reprisal
rescind
respite
reticent
retribution
retrogress
revel
ruminate
savory
scrupulous
scrutinize
sedate
sinuous
skulk
sojourn
solace
somber
somnolent
sonorous
sophomoric
spontaneous
squalid
stark
stately
stentorian
stipulate
stolid
stultify
suave
supercilious
superficial
supple
suppress
tacit
tangible
temerity
tentative
tepid
trenchant
truculent
turbulent
ultimatum
uncanny
unfeigned


Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 7

unkempt
urbane
vanguard
vehement
venal
venial
verbatim
virulent
vivacious
vociferous
voluble
voluminous
waive
warily
wastrel
whet
zealous

11
th
Grade
abate
abduction
abet
abominate
absolve
abstemious
academy
accede
accentuate
accessory
accrue
acculturation
Achilles heel
acrimonious
adamant
addendum
adulation
adventitious
affable
aggrandize
aggressive
akimbo
alma mater
alter ego
ameliorate
amenable
amnesty
amorphous
analogy
anathema
annotation
anomalous
antediluvian
aplomb
approbation
aqueduct
arbiter
archetype
as rich as croesus
ascribe
aspersion
assay
assuage
astute
atlas
aura
austere
autonomy
avarice
avatar
aver
axiomatic
bedlam
belie
beneficent
berate
bizarre
blatant
blazon
bombastic
bookworm
bovine
brickbat
broach
brouhaha
brusque
bulwark
bumptious
bunkum
buttress
cachet
cadaverous
cadge
cajole
callow
caricature
carnage
carousal
castigate
casus belli
cavalier
caveat
censurable
cessation
checkmate
choleric
circuitous
clangor
cloys
coalition
collate
colloquial
cologne
commiserate
concession
concoct
conducive
conduit
congress
connoisseur
consternation
contiguous
continent
contraband
contrive
corpulent
corroborate
covert
crass
credulous
criterion
culpable
cupidity
curtail
debase
debonair
decadence
decease
deduce
deferential
definitive
deleterious
demagogue
demeanor
denizen
deplete
desecrate
desist
digress
dilatory
disabuse
disavow
disconcert
disconsolate
discursive
dismal
dispassionate
disquisition
disseminate
dissention
dissipate
dither
donnybrook
dowdy
drivel
ductile
dun
efficacious
egalitarian
egregious
egress
lan
elicit
elliptical
encumber
enhance
enigmatic
enjoin
ennui
enthrall
epitome
equable
equanimity
equate
equidistant
equilibrium
equipoise
equitable
equivocate
evanescent
exhort
ex officio
expatiate
expedite
expiate
expostulate
expurgate
extenuate
extraneous
extrapolate
extricate
extrude
exude
ferment
fetter
figurative
figurehead
filch
florid
flout
foist
foment
forbearance
fortuitous
fractious
frog in ones throat
gallivant
galvanize
gauche
gauntlet
get ones goat
gist
go to the dogs
gossamer
gradient
gradualism
grandiose
gratuitous
grisly


Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 8

hackneyed
hector
heinous
herculean
heresy
heuristic
hiatus
homograph
hortatory
humbug
hyperbole
hypothetical
ignoble
immemorial
immutable
impassive
imperious
implicit
impound
impromptu
impugn
inadvertent
inauspicious
inception
incisive
inconsequential
incontrovertible
inculcate
induction
inequality
infer
infirmity
infraction
infringe
ingratitude
inimical
iniquitous
innuendo
inquest
inquisitive
inquisition
inquisitive
inroad
inscrutable
insular
insurgent
intemperate
intercede
interloper
intrinsic
invective
inveigh
irresolute
irrevocable
jaded
jejune
lassitude
leave no stone unturned
legerdemain
limerick
literal
lurid
magniloquent
marathon
mausoleum
mawkish
mecca
megalomania
mentor
meritorious
metaphor
metaphysics
millennium
mitigate
modicum
modus operandi
mogul
mollify
motley
munificent
nebulous
nomenclature
nominal
noncommittal
nonplussed
novice
obdurate
occult
odium
odyssey
oligarchy
onus
opportune
orotund
osprey
ossify
ostensible
ostentatious
palpable
paragon
paraphrase
parlay
peculate
pedestal
penury
perceptive
perfidy
permeate
pernicious
persona non grata
personification
petulant
pillage
politic
potpourri
prate
precedence
precept
precipitate
precocious
predecessor
predilection
preeminent
preen
prerequisite
prerogative
presentiment
pretentious
prima facie
pro tempore
proclivity
procrastinate
profligate
prognosticate
prolific
propagate
propensity
proprietary
prosaic
protagonist
providential
provincial
provocative
pun
punctilious
quail
querulous
query
raffish
recapitulate
recession
recondite
red herring
redoubtable
redundant
regress
reinstate
rejoinder
relegate
remit
remonstrate
reprobate
reprove
repudiate
requisite
requisition
resilient
restitution
resurgence
resuscitate
retrench
retrograde
reverberate
rhetoric
sacred cow
sadistic
salient
salutary
sanctimonious
sangfroid
sartorial
satiate
scathing
scintillating
scourge
scurrilous
sear
sedentary
seditious
sedulous
sententious
sepulchral
shanks mare
simile
simulate
sinecure
skew
skullduggery
slang
sleazy
slovenly
soporific
Spartan
specious
spate
spawn
squeamish
stalwart
stanch
status quo
stipend
straitlaced
stringent
subservient
succinct
supplicate
supposition
surfeit
surmise
surreptitious
susceptible
sybaritic
symbiotic
tenuous
thwart
torpid
tortuous
traduce


Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 9

transcend
transgress
transient
transpire
turgid
ulterior
umbrage
unctuous
untoward
unwieldy
upshot
vantage
vapid
varnish
verbose
viaduct
vicarious
vitriolic
vouchsafe
vulnerable
wheedle
white elephant
winsome










Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 10

A
WORD LI ST

aberration (noun) Deviation from what is correct or right.
abeyance (noun) Suspension of an activity; postponement.
abstemious (adjective) Sparing in use of food or drink; moderate.
abstruse (adjective) Concealed; difficult to comprehend; obscure
accolade (noun) Embrace; award; commendation.
acerbic (adjective) Bitter; harsh; caustic.
acrimonious (adjective) Sarcastic; caustic; angry; mordant. Noun: acrimony
acuity (noun) Sharpness; acuteness; keenness
acute (adjective) 1. Perceptive 2. Excruciating.
adept (adjective) Proficient; masterful; expert.
adherent (noun) Believer; supporter; devotee.
adjunct (noun) 1. Attachment; appendage 2. Subordinate or auxiliary capacity.
admonish (verb) Caution; reprove mildly; reprimand
adroit (adjective) Dexterous; proficient; skillful
adulation (noun) Excessive flattery; adoration; idolization.
adulterate (verb) Make impure or inferior by adding improper ingredients; contaminate; pollute.
advocate (verb) 1. Argue for a cause; defend 2. Support; uphold.
aesthete (noun) Person who cultivates beauty or art; connoisseur.
aggrandize (verb) Make more powerful; amplify; increase.
alacrity (noun) Eagerness; zeal; speed
altruistic (adjective) Concerned about the general welfare of others; charitable; generous
ambivalence (noun) Uncertainty; doubt; indecisiveness.
ambulatory (adjective) Able to walk; not stationary.
ameliorate (verb) Make better; improve
amiable (adjective) Cordial; of pleasant disposition; friendly.
amorphous (adjective) Without structure; shapeless; nebulous.
animate (verb) Energize; enliven.
anomaly (noun) Abnormality; deviation from the general rule; irregularity.
antediluvian (adjective) Ancient; antiquated; obsolete.
antipathy (noun) Feeling of opposition or repugnance; a version; dislike.
apathy (noun) Lack of concern, emotion or interest; indifference.
aperture (noun) Gap; opening; orifice.
apocryphal (adjective) False; unauthenticated; disputed.


Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 11

apotheosis (noun) 1. Essence; epitome. 2. Canonization.
appease (verb) Satisfy; make peace; placate.
approbatory (adjective) Expressing approval.
arable (adjective) Suitable for cultivation or plowing.
arrogant (adjective) Feeling superior to other people; egotistical.
ascetic (adjective) Strict; austere.
assuage (verb) Ease; make less burdensome; mitigate.
atrophy (verb) Waste away from lack of use; degenerate.
audacity (noun) Boldness or adventurousness; gall.
authoritarian (noun) 1. Person who acts like a dictator; tyrant. 2. Disciplinarian.
avarice (noun) Extreme desire for wealth; greed; acquisitiveness.
aviary (noun) Large enclosure confining birds.
avouch (verb) Guarantee; take responsibility for; affirm.
avow (verb) Affirm; assert; declare; acknowledge.

baleful (adjective) Sorrowful; sinister; evil.
balm (noun) Soothing ointment for pain or healing; salve.
banal (adjective) Trite; insipid; ordinary.
bane (noun) Deadly affliction; curse; plague.
barbarity (noun) Cruel action; inhuman act; harsh conduct.
barren (adjective) 1. Infertile; impotent. 2. Arid; unproductive.
befuddle (verb) Stupefy or confuse; misconstrue.
belated (adjective) Tardy; overdue.
beleaguer (verb) Besiege; surround.
belittle (verb) Humiliate; tease; diminish in importance.
bemoan (verb) 1. Experience pain or distress. 2. Express pity for; mourn.
bemused (adjective) Preoccupied by thought; bewilder; perplexed.
bilk (verb) Defraud; deceive; hoodwink.
blandishment (noun) Cajolery; enticement.
bliss (noun) Gaiety; happiness; enjoyment.
blithe (adjective) Happy; pleased; delightful.
boisterous (adjective) Noisy; loud; violent; rowdy.
boorish (adjective) Ill-mannered; rude; gauche.
brevity (noun) Briefness; succinctness; terseness.
broach (verb) Introduce; bring up; mention.
B


Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 12

browbeat (verb) Intimidate; harass; dominate.
bungle (verb) Botch; mismanage; spoil.
buttress (noun) Truss; foundation; support.


cacophonous (adjective) Discordant; dissident; harsh.
callow (adjective) Inexperienced; immature; nave.
candid (adjective) Frank; blunt; open.
carouse (verb) Drink to excess; live it up.
cease (verb) Stop; end; halt.
celerity (noun) Swift motion; speed; alacrity.
censorious (adjective) Critical; attacking; denouncing.
charlatan (noun) Fraud; person claiming knowledge he/she does not have; humbug; fake; hustler.
chary (adjective) Careful; cautious.
chasten (verb) Castigate; punish; reprove.
cherubic (adjective) Sweet; kind; innocent.
chimerical (adjective) Fanciful; whimsical; playful. Noun: chimera
chronic (adjective) Compulsive; typical; habitual; inveterate.
churlish (adjective) Selfish; rancorous; surly.
circuitous (adjective) Indirect; roundabout; rambling.
clamor (noun) Loud noise or complaint; commotion; din.
clandestine (adjective) Furtive; surreptitious, secret.
clemency (noun) Lenience; mercy compassion.
cloister (noun) Convent; monastery; religious place.
coagulate (verb) Congeal; curdle; clot.
coalesce (verb) Combine; incorporate; merge.
coddle (verb) Pamper; overindulge; baby; spoil.
coercion (noun) Intimidation; duress; force; compulsion.
cognate (adjective) Related by blood; having the same origin.
commensurate (adjective) Equal in measure; of the same duration or size.
compile (verb) Collect data; accumulate; amass.
concomitant (adjective) Concurrent; attendant; occurring with something else.
concordance (noun) Agreement; treaty; accord.
confluence (noun) Nexus; union; meeting; conflux.
confound (verb) Perplex; baffle; confuse.
C


Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 13

conglomerate (noun) Corporation; partnership; firm.
conjugal (adjective) Matrimonial; nuptial; marital.
constrict (verb) Squeeze; pinch; obstruct; block.
contentious (adjective) Argumentative; pugnacious; quarrelsome.
contrite (adjective) Penitent; apologetic; remorseful. Adj: contrite
conundrum (noun) Mystery; puzzle.
convoke (verb) Convene; assemble. Noun: convocation
copious (adjective) Plentiful; ample; profuse.
corpulence (noun) Stoutness; obesity.
coterie (noun) Small group of people who share interests and meet frequently.
crass (adjective) Vulgar, grossly ignorant; indelicate.
credulous (adjective) Gullible; unsuspecting; nave.
cryptic (adjective) Enigmatic; obscure; secret; puzzling.
ctenoid (adjective) Comb-like; having narrow segments.
cuboid (adjective) Having the shape of a cube.
cucullate (adjective) Hood-shaped.
curmudgeon (noun) Cantankerous person.

daub (verb) Blur; smear; spread.
dawdle (verb) Procrastinate; loiter; idle; dally.
dearth (noun) Paucity; shortage; deficiency.
debased (adjective) Lowered in status or character; degenerate.
decipher (verb) Solve or figure out a puzzle; translate; untangle.
declivity (noun) Downward slope.
decorum (noun) Appropriate conduct; polite or proper behavior, protocol.
delectable (adjective) Delicious; delightful; savory.
deleterious (adjective) Destructive; poisonous; unhealthy.
delineate (verb) Describe; outline; depict.
delusion (noun) Untrue belief; hallucination; fallacy; misconception.
demagogue (noun) Incendiary; agitator; opportunist.
denounce (verb) Reprove; accuse; condemn.
depravity (noun) Perverted disposition; wickedness; vileness; corruption.
deprecatory (adjective) Disapproving; belittling.
desecrate (verb) Contaminate; profane, defile.
desist (verb) Discontinue or stop; cease; renounce.
D


Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 14

desolate (adjective) Alone; without hope or comfort; forsaken.
despoil (verb) Ravage; rob; loot.
despot (noun) Dictator; tyrant; totalitarian.
diatribe (noun) Extreme; bitter; and abusive speech; vituperation; tirade.
didactic (adjective) Pedantic; academic; for teaching.
diffidence (noun) Self-doubt; timidity; shyness.
dilatory (adjective) Lackadaisical; lazy; remiss.
diligent (adjective) Assiduous; studious; hard-working.
diminution (noun) Decrease; reduction.
disaffected (adjective) Disillusioned; dissatisfied; discontented.
disapprobation (noun) Dislike; reservation; denunciation.
disband (verb) Disperse; dissipate; scatter; dispel.
discontent (adjective) Unhappy; displeased; miserable.
discursive (adjective) Circuitous; digressive, rambling.
dissemble (verb) Disguise; conceal; mask; camouflage.
dishearten (verb) Dismay; daunt; depress.
disinterment (noun) Exhumation; removal of a body from a grave.
disoblige (verb) Slight or offend.
disparage (verb) Deprecate; belittle or abuse.
dispassionate (adjective) Imperturbable; unemotional; calm; composed.
disputatious (adjective) Quarrelsome; contentious, argumentative.
dissension (noun) Conflict; disagreement; strife.
dissonant (adjective) Cacophonous; inharmonious, discordant; strident.
dissuade (verb) Obstruct; hinder; deter.
distend (verb) Bloat; bulge; swell; stretch.
dither (noun) Commotion; turmoil.
divination (noun) Prediction; prophecy; forecast.
dolt (noun) Cretin; fool; dimwit; idiot.
dotard (noun) Senile person.
dubious (adjective) Irresolute; uncertain; moot.
duplicity (noun) Cunning; fraud; trickery; deception.

edify (verb) Instruct; enlighten; educate.
efface (verb) Cancel; delete; obliterate.
effervescent (adjective) Lively; volatile.
E


Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 15

effigy (noun) Mannequin; likeness; image.
effrontery (noun) Impudence; nerve; gall.
egregious (adjective) Flagrant; glaring; outrageous.
elegiac (adjective) Mournful; sorrowful; sad.
elucidate (verb) Interpret; define; clarify; explain.
emanate (verb) Radiate; flow from; emit.
emasculate (verb) Deprive of strength.
embroil (verb) Implicate; enmesh; involve.
emcee (noun) Master of ceremonies.
empathize (verb) Identify with; understand.
emulate (verb) Model; pattern.
enervate (verb) Exhaust or weaken; debilitate.
engender (verb) Generate; produce; cause.
enigmatic (adjective) Cryptic; baffling; mysterious. Noun: enigma
enmesh (verb) Tangle or involve.
ennui (noun) Dullness; boredom; monotony.
enthrall (verb) Mesmerize; captivate; thrill.
entrench (verb) Fortify; reinforce; secure.
ephemeral (adjective) Transitory; fleeting; passing; temporary.
epicure (noun) Person devoted to luxurious living; person with refined tastes.
epithet (noun) Word used to describe or characterize a person or thing.
equilibrium (noun) Balance; stability; poise.
equivocate (verb) Prevaricate; dodge; evade; hedge.
erudition (noun) Learning; knowledge; enlightenment. Adj: erudite
escapade (noun) Adventurous conduct; unusual behavior.
esoteric (adjective) Confidential; personal; private; privileged.
espouse (verb) Embrace; defend; support.
ethereal (adjective) Incorporeal; intangible; airy.
eulogy (noun) Commendation; speech giving great tribute.
euphonic (adjective) Pertaining or agreeable to the ear.
evanescent (adjective) Ephemeral; fading; brief.
exigent (adjective) Pressing; insistent; urgent.
exonerate (verb) Acquit; vindicate; free from responsibility.
exorcise (verb) Cast out evil spirits; expel demons.
expatriate (verb) Send into exile; renounce ones own country.


Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 16

expedite (verb) Speed up matters; accelerate; quicken.
expunge (verb) Obliterate; remove; erase; exterminate.
expurgate (verb) Remove erroneous or objectionable material; delete; edit.
extemporaneous (adjective) Spontaneous; impromptu.
extol (verb) Praise; laud; hail; glorify.
extradite (verb) Transfer a person to another jurisdiction for possible prosecution for an alleged offense.
extricate (verb) Remove; loosen; untie.

fallible (adjective) Faulty; imperfect.
fallow (adjective) Idle; dormant.
fastidious (adjective) Meticulous; exacting.
fathom (verb) Measure; discover; perceive.
fatuous (adjective) Ludicrous; inane; idiotic; silly.
fecund (adjective) Prolific; productive; fruitful.
felicity (noun) Great happiness; bliss.
fetter (verb) Restrain; restrict; curb.
fetid (adjective) Possessing an offensive smell; malodorous; foul; gamey.
fickle (adjective) Capricious; erratic; spasmodic.
fledgling (noun) Young or inexperienced person; young bird.
flippant (adjective) Nonchalant; frivolous, superficial; light.
florid (adjective) Ornate, flushed with rosy color; ruddy.
flout (verb) Ridicule; scoff; mock; scorn.
foible (noun) Frailty; imperfection; weakness.
forswear (verb) Repudiate; forsake; eschew.
fulsome (adjective) Loathsome; excessive.
fume (noun) Gas; vapor; harmful or irritating smoke.
furtive (adjective) Clandestine; secretive; surreptitious; covert.

gambol (verb) Play; frolic; romp.
garble (verb) Confuse; scramble; distort.
garish (adjective) Gaudy; ostentatious; excessive.
garner (verb) Collect; receive; attain; acquire.
giddy (adjective) Scatterbrained; silly; frivolous.
goad (verb) Incite; pressure; irk; arouse; awaken.
grandiloquence (noun) Pompous or bombastic speech; lofty, swelling language.
F
G


Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 17

grisly (adjective) Frightening; ghastly; gory; hideous.
grovel (verb) Act in a servile way; cringe; kneel.
guile (noun) Wiliness; deceit; cunning.
guzzle (verb) Gulp; swill; consume to excess.

hackneyed (adjective) Trite; common; overdone; banal.
haggle (verb) Dicker; barter; make a deal.
hallow (verb) Make holy; consecrate; sanctify.
hamper (verb) Hinder; frustrate; impede.
harbor (verb) Preserve; conceal; secure; shelter.
hardy (adjective) Stalwart; robust; sturdy.
haughty (adjective) Arrogant; disdainful; blatantly proud; contemptuous.
hearten (verb) Encourage; give strength.
hedge (verb) Enclose; surround; fence.
hedonism (noun) Intemperance; self-indulgence; excess.
herald (verb) Announce; broadcast; report.
heretic (noun) Nihilist; infidel; radical; dissenter.
hiatus (noun) Interruption; pause; gap
hilarity (noun) Boisterous merriment; enjoyment.
histrionic (adjective) Pertaining to actors; melodramatic.
hoary (adjective) Frosted; grey; grizzled.
hyperbole (noun) Exaggeration; fanciful statement; enhancement.

iconoclasm (noun) Attack on religious values or symbols. Adj: iconoclastic
ignoramus (noun) Moron; fool; dimwit.
immutable (adjective) Incorruptible; enduring; unchanging.
impecunious (adjective) Poor; destitute; penniless.
imperturbable (adjective) Even-tempered; level-headed; calm.
impervious (adjective) Airtight; sealed; impenetrable.
impetuous (adjective) Hasty; rash; impulsive.
impregnable (adjective) Invincible; invulnerable; unable to capture or enter.
impromptu (adjective) Makeshift; spontaneous.
improvident (adjective) Reckless; rash.
impugn (verb) Denounce; censor; attack.
inauspicious (adjective) Unfavorable.
H
I


Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 18

inaudible (adjective) Faint; soft; hard to hear.
incipient (adjective) Embryonic; developing; in the beginning stages.
incisive (adjective) Perceptive: astute.
inclusive (adjective) All-encompassing; broad in scope; comprehensive.
incoherent (adjective) Illogical; inconsistent.
incongruous (adjective) Inconsistent; unsuitable; contradictory.
incorrigible (adjective) Unruly; delinquent; incapable of reform.
indecorous (adjective) Inappropriate; indelicate; unseemly.
indefatigable (adjective) Diligent; persistent; inexhaustible.
indenture (noun) Contract binding a person to work for another.
indolence (noun) Lethargy; idleness; sloth.
inebriation (noun) Drunkenness; intoxication.
ingenuous (adjective) Genuine; open; candid; frank.
inimical (adjective) Antagonistic; hurtful; harmful; adverse.
innocuous (adjective) Dull; harmless; innocent.
inscrutable (adjective) Mysterious; perplexing.
insipid (adjective) Dull; banal; tasteless.
insolvent (adjective) Bankrupt; unable to pay debts.
intercede (adjective) Intervene; negotiate.
intonate (verb) Speak or utter with a particular tone.
intractable (adjective) Unruly; disobedient.
intrinsic (adjective) Inherent; natural; innate.
inveigh (verb) Abuse; criticize; rebuke.
inveterate (adjective) Habitual; chronic.
irascible (adjective) Testy; touchy; irritable.
issue (verb) Discharge; emerge; emanate.

jettison (verb) Eliminate; discharge.
jollity (noun) Gaiety; merriment.
judicious (adjective) Logical; reasonable; clever.
juncture (noun) Joint; seam; intersection; joining.
juxtapose (verb) Place side by side.

knotty (adjective) Snarled; tangled.

J
K
L


Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 19

labyrinth (noun) Maze; network; puzzle.
lachrymose (adjective) Weepy; tearful.
laconic (adjective) Concise; terse; curt.
lamentation (noun) Complaint; moan.
lampoon (verb) Mock; ridicule.
languish (verb) Decline; diminish; weaken.
largess (noun) Charity; philanthropy; gift.
lassitude (noun) Fatigue; weariness; debility.
laudable (adjective) Commendable; admirable; exemplary.
laxity (noun) Carelessness; indifference. Adj: lax
lethargy (noun) Idleness; listlessness; passivity.
levity (noun) Lightness; frivolity.
linger (verb) Loiter; remain; hesitate.
lithe (adjective) Flexible; agile; mobile; bendable.
loutish (adjective) Clumsy; idiotic; buffoon like.
ludicrous (adjective) Outlandish; silly; ridiculous.
lurid (adjective) Shockingly vivid; horrifying; sensational.
maladroit (adjective) Clumsy; unskilled.


malapropism (noun) Inappropriate or ludicrous use of a word.
malevolent (adjective) Venomous; spiteful; malignant.
malinger (verb) Feign illness to escape work; shirk.
marred (adjective) Having blemishes; damaged; defaced.
maudlin (adjective) Overemotional; mushy.
meander (verb) Twist; bend; zigzag.
mendicant (noun) Almsman; beggar; leech; parasite.
meticulous (adjective) Precise; scrupulous; particular.
mettle (noun) Stamina; bravery; courage.
mince (verb) Chop; mitigate.
mire (noun) Mud; slime; muck.
moribund (adjective) Failing; waning; ailing.
motley (adjective) Multicolored; spotted; mixed.
multifarious (adjective) Diverse; many-sided; multiple.
mundane (adjective) Boring; ordinary; typical; tedious.
M


Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 20

munificent (adjective) Generous; extravagant; philanthropic.

nascent (adjective) Beginning; embryonic; incipient.
nefarious (adjective) Evil; vile; sinister; wicked.
neologism (noun) Newly coined phrase or expression.
noxious (adjective) Nocuous; harmful; malignant.

obdurate (adjective) Stubborn; intractable.
obsequious (adjective) Servile; groveling.
obviate (verb) Make unnecessary.
odious (adjective) Detestable; loathsome; revolting; sickening.
officious (adjective) Meddlesome.
opaque (adjective) Impenetrable by light; dull; dark; obscure.
optimum (noun) Peak or prime; ideal.
opulent (adjective) Affluent; well-to-do; plentiful.
ostentatious (adjective) Conspicuous; showy.
ostracize (verb) Exclude; isolate; bar; shun.

palpable (adjective) Noticeable; obvious; apparent.
paltry (adjective) Minor; petty; insignificant.
panegyric (noun) Elaborate praise, public compliment.
paragon (noun) Model or standard of excellence.
pariah (noun) Outcast; misfit; refugee.
parochial (adjective) Religious; restricted.
parsimony (noun) Miserliness; unusually excessive frugality.
partisan (noun) Fan or supporter; enthusiast supporting a particular cause or issue.
pastiche (noun) Hodgepodge; literary or musical piece imitating other works.
paucity (noun) Scarcity; shortage; dearth.
peccadillo (noun) Small sin or fault.
pedantic (adjective) Stuffy or dogmatic; meticulous; academic.
peevish (adjective) Irritable; grouchy; ill-tempered.
pejorative (adjective) Degrading; derogatory; negative.
percipient (adjective) Able to perceive or see things as they actually are.
perfidy (noun) Deliberate breach of faith or trust; treachery.
peripheral (adjective) Marginal; outer; surrounding.
N
O
P


Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 21

perspicacious (adjective) Astute; keen; perceptive.
philistine (noun) Barbarian; person lacing artistic judgment.
pique (verb) Irritate; miff; offend.
pithy (adjective) 1. Substantial; profound 2. Brief; concise.
placid (adjective) Sincere; tranquil; composed; sedate.
plaintive (adjective) Sad; mournful; pathetic.
platitude (noun) 1. Triteness 2. Clich; trivial remark.
plaudit (noun) Enthusiastic expression.
pliable (adjective) Limber; malleable; flexible.
poignant (adjective) Intense; powerful; biting; piercing.
polemical (adjective) Controversial; argumentative; debatable.
polyphony (noun) Music with two or more melodies blended together.
porous (adjective) Permeable; absorbent; having holes.
posthumous (adjective) Arising or continuing after someones death.
potable (adjective) Drinkable.
prattle (verb) Gab; babble.
precocious (adjective) Showing premature development.
precursor (noun) Forerunner.
prescient (adjective) Showing foresight; predicting events before they occur.
primeval (adjective) Belonging to a primitive age.
primordial (adjective) Belonging to a primitive age; first in time.
proclivity (noun) Tendency; inclination; propensity.
-11-
procrastinate (verb) Postpone; stall; defer.
prodigious (adjective) Exceptional; impressive; of huge quantity; immense.
proficient (adjective) Skillful; masterful; expert.
progeny (noun) Heir; descendant; offspring.
prolific (adjective) Fruitful; abundant; fertile.
prosaic (adjective) Common; routine; ordinary.
protean (adjective) Taking many forms; changeable; variable.
protract (verb) Elongate; lengthen; prolong.
prudent (adjective) Careful; cautious; judicious.
puerile (adjective) Juvenile; immature; childish.
pugilism (noun) Boxing.
pugnacity (noun) Eagerness to fight; belligerence.


Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 22

pulchritude (noun) Beauty; physical appeal.
pulverize (verb) Grind; crush; smash.

quagmire (noun) Marsh; quicksand; swamp.
quandary (noun) Dilemma; fire; entanglement.
querulous (adjective) Difficult; testy; disagreeable.
quibble (verb) Argue or bicker.
quixotic (adjective) Romantic; whimsical; unrealistic.

rabid (adjective) Berserk; diseased; sick.
ramble (verb) Meander; roam
rancorous (adjective) Antagonistic; hostile; spiteful.
rarefy (verb) Make thin; purify; make less dense.
raucous (adjective) Harsh; annoying; piercing; shrill.
raze (verb) Demolish; level; topple.
reactionary (adjective) Opposing progress; characterized by reaction.
recalcitrant (adjective) Headstrong; disobedient; stubborn.
recant (verb) Rescind; retract; take back.
reconciliation (noun) Settlement or resolution.
redundant (adjective) Excessive; repetitious; unnecessary.
refractory (adjective) Unmanageable; obstinate; not responsive to treatment.
refurbish (verb) Overhaul; remodel.
regimen (noun) Administration; government; system.
remedial (adjective) Restorative; corrective; healing.
remuneration (noun) Compensation; wages.
rend (verb) Rip; tear; splinter.
reprobate (noun) Degenerate; person without morals.
repudiate (verb) Recant; disclaim; reject; disavow.
rescind (verb) Cancel; repeal; veto.
resilient (adjective) Elastic; stretchy; rebounding.
resonant (adjective) Reverberant; ringing.
resplendent (adjective) Dazzling; glorious; intense.
restive (adjective) Nervous; restless; uneasy.
retrospection (noun) Contemplation of past things.
reverent (adjective) Devout; solemn; worshipful.
Q
R


Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 23

ribald (adjective) Lewd; obscene; irreverent.
rudiment (noun) Beginning; foundation or source.
ruffian (noun) Brutal person; cruel and sadistic person.
ruminate (verb) Contemplate; think about.

saccharine (adjective) sugary; syrupy.
savant (noun) Intellectual; scholar; philosopher.
scanty (adjective) Meager; scarce.
scoff (verb) Mock; ridicule.
sequester (verb) Separate; isolate; segregate.
soporific (adjective) Hypnotic; lethargic; causing sleep.
spurious (adjective) Bogus; false.
spurn (verb) Defy; reject.
squalor (noun) 1. Severe poverty. 2. Filthiness.
stratagem (noun) Plot; tactic; deception.
strident (adjective) Discordant; harsh; piercing.
strife (noun) Conflict; turmoil; struggle.
stultify (verb) Inhibit; make ineffective; cripple.
supercilious (adjective) Egotistic; proud; arrogant.
surfeit (noun) Overabundance; excess; surplus.
surly (adjective) Choleric; rude; sullen.
surreptitious (adjective) Covert; furtive; acquired by stealthy means.
svelte (adjective) Graceful; slim.
sybarite (noun) Someone devoted to luxury; pleasure-seeker.
sycophant (noun) Flatterer.


taciturn (adjective) Reserved; shy; uncommunicative.
tantamount (adjective) Indistinguishable; equivalent.
taper (verb) Diminish; tin; narrow.
tawdry (adjective) Gaudy; showy; loud.
temerity (noun) Rashness; audacity; recklessness.
tensile (adjective) Pertaining to tension; stretchable; ductile.
tenuous (adjective) Attenuated; flimsy; thin.
tirade (noun) Diatribe; angry speech.
S
T


Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 24

torpor (noun) Lethargy; apathy; dormancy.
trepidation (noun) Anxiety; alarm; apprehension.
truant (adjective) Indolent; absent; idle.
turgid (adjective) Swollen; bombastic; distended.
turpitude (noun) Depravity; baseness; shamefulness.


undulate (verb) Move in a wavy manner.
unfathomable (adjective) Baffling; puzzling; incomprehensible.
unkempt (adjective) Uncombed; messy; untidy.
unscathed (adjective) Unhurt; uninjured.
unwieldy (adjective) Clumsy; awkward; unmanageable.
upbraid (verb) Rebuke; scold; criticize.
upshot (noun) Final result; conclusion; end.

vacillate (verb) Hedge; waver; fluctuate.
variegated (adjective) Multicolored; polychromatic; varied.
vehement (adjective) Fierce; emphatic; intense.
venerate (verb) Admire; show respect.
veracity (noun) Truth; sincerity; honesty; candor.
verbose (adjective) Wordy; talkative; profuse.
verdant (adjective) Lush; thick with vegetation; leafy.
viable (adjective) Living; alive; feasible.
vigilance (noun) Attentiveness; prudence; care.
vilify (verb) Defame; denigrate.
virulent (adjective) Fatal; lethal; toxic.
vitriolic (adjective) Scathing; caustic.
vociferous (adjective) Clamorous; outspoken; noisy; vocal.
voluble (adjective) Verbose; wordy; garrulous.
voluminous (adjective) Huge; immense; bulky.
voracious (adjective) 1. Enthusiastic; overly eager. 2. Starving.
vouchsafe (verb) Confer; grant; permit.


wan (adjective) Anemic; colorless; pale.
U
V
W


Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 25

waver (verb) Totter; fluctuate.
whet (verb) Stimulate; sharpen; intensify.
wistful (adjective) Yearning; pensive; sad.
woe (noun) Anguish; grief; affliction.
writhe (verb) Squirm; twist.

zealot (noun) Fanatic; radical; enthusiast.
zenith (noun) Apex; summit; peak.
Z


Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 26

Classic Reading List

Alcott, Louisa May. Little Women (1300); Little Men (1260); Jos Boys (1210)
Austen, Jane. Emma (1080); Northanger Abbey ; Mansfield Park (1180); Persuasion (1120); Pride and Prejudice; Sense
and Sensibility (1180)
Bagnold, Enid. National Velvet
The Bible
Blackmore, Richard D. Lorna Doone
Boulle, Pierre. The Bridge on the River Kwai
Bradbury, Ray. Dandelion Wine; The Illustrated Man; The Martian Chronicles; Fahrenheit 451
Buchan, John. The Thirty-Nine Steps
Buck, Peal. The Good Earth
Bunyan, John. The Pilgrims Progress
Carroll, Lewis. Alices Adventures in Wonderland; Through the Looking Glass
Cather, Willa. My Antonia; O Pioneers!
Christie, Agatha. Mysteries
Clark, Walter. The Ox-Bow Incident
Cooper, James Fenimore. The Deerslayer; The Last of the Mohicans
Curie, Eve. Marie Curie: A Biography
Dana, Richard Henry. Two Years Before the Mast
Day, Clarence. Life With Father
Defoe, Daniel. Robinson Crusoe (1220); Moll Flanders (1390); Journal of the Plague Year (1420)
Dickens, Charles. A Christmas Carol; A Tale of Two Cities; David Copperfield; Oliver Twist
Douglas, Lloyd C. The Robe
Doyle, Arthur Conan. The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes
Dumas, Alexander. The Count of Monte Cristo; The Man in the Iron Mask; The Three Musketeers
Du Maurier, Daphne. Rebecca; My Cousin Rachel
Edmunds, Walter D. Drums Along the Mohawk
Eliot, George. Silas Marner
Ferber, Edna. Cimarron
Fitzgerald, F. Scott. This Side of Paradise; short stories
Forbes, Esther. Johnny Tremain
Forester, C.S. The African Queen; The Horatio Hornblower series
Frank, Anne. Diary of a Young Girl
Gallico, Paul. The Snow Goose
Gunther, John. Death Be Not Proud
Gutherie, A.B. The Big Sky
Haggard, H. Rider. King Solomons Mines
Hamilton, Edith. Mythology
Hammet, Dashiell. The Maltese Falcon
Hansberry, Lorraine. A Raisin in the Sun
Hemingway, Ernest. The Old Man and the Sea; A Farewell to Arms; For Whom the Bell Tolls
Herriot, James. All Creatures Great and Small; All Things Bright and Beautiful; All Things Wise and Wonderful; The
Lord God Made Them All; Every Living Thing
Hersey, John. A Bell for Adano; Hiroshima; The Wall
Heyerdahl, Thor. Kon-Tiki
Hilton, James. Goodbye, Mr. Chips; Lost Horizon
Homer. The Iliad; The Odyssey
Hudson, W.H. Green Mansions
Hughes, Richard. A High Wind in Jamaica
Hugo, Victor. The Hunchback of Notre Dam; Les Miserables
Keller, Helen. The Story of My Life


Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 27

Kennedy, John F. Profiles in Courage
Kipling, Rudyard. Kim
Knowles, John. A Separate Peace
Le Guin, Ursula K. Very Far Away from Anywhere Else
Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird
London, Jack. The Sea-Wolf; Call of the Wild
Lord, Walter. A Night to Remember
Malory, Sir Thomas. Le Morte dArthur
Maxwell, Gavin. Ring of Bright Water
McCullers, Carson. Member of the Wedding
Michener, James. The Bridges at Toko-Ri
Mitchell, Margaret. Gone With the Wind
Montgomery, L.M. The Anne of Green Gables series
Nordhoff Charles and J.N. Hall. Mutiny on the Bounty
ODell, Scott. Island of the Blue Dolphin
Orczy, Baroness Emma. The Scarlet Pimpernel
Paton, Alan. Cry, The Beloved County
Pyle, Howard. Men of Iron
Rand, Ayn. The Fountainhead; We the Living; Anthem; Atlas Shrugged
Rawlings, Marjorie Kinnan. The Yearling
Rowling, J.K. the Harry Potter series
Renault, Mary. The King Must Die
Roberts, Kenneth. Northwest Passage
Schafer, Jack. Shane
Scott, Sir Walter. Ivanhoe
Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein
Smith, Mary. A Tree Grows in Brooklyn
Speare, Elizabeth. The Witch of Blackbird Pond
Spyri, Johanna. Heidi
Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of Wrath, The Pearl; East of Eden
Stevenson, Robert Lewis. The Black Arrow; Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde; Kidnapped; Treasure Island
Stoker, Bran. Dracula
Tolkien, J.R.R. The Hobbit; The Lord of the Rings
Twain, Mark. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn; The Adventure of Tom Sawyer; A Connecticut Yankee in King
Arthurs Court; Innocents Abroad; Life on the Mississippi
Verne, Jules. Around the World in Eighty Days; Journey to the Center of the Earth; Mysterious Island; 20,000 Leagues
Under the Sea
Wallace, Lewis. Ben-Hur
Washington, Booker T. Up from Slavery
Wells, H.G. The Time Machine; War of the Worlds
Wharton, Edith. Ethan Frome; The House of Mirth
White, T. H. The Once and Future King; The Sword in the Stone
Wilder, Thornton. The Bridge of San Luis Rey
Wister, Owen. The Virginian
Wyss, Johann. The Swiss Family Robinson
Yates, Elizabeth. Amos Fortune, Free Man
See also:
http://www.petersons.com/education_planner/preparing_article.asp?sponsor=2859&articleName=College_Bound_Readin
g_List
http://www.collegeboard.com/student/plan/boost-your-skills/23628.html

http://www.sms.org/books_co.htm


Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 28

Spelling Challenges

acceptable
accidentally
accommodate
acquire
acquit
a lot
amateur
apparent
argument
atheist
believe
bellwether
calendar
category
cemetery
changeable
collectible
column
committed
conscience
conscientious
conscious
consensus
daiquiri
definite(ly)
discipline
drunkenness
dumbbell
embarrass(ment)
equipment
exhilarate
exceed
existence
experience
fiery
foreign
gauge
grateful
guarantee
harass
height
hierarchy
humorous
ignorance
immediate
independent
indispensable
inoculate
intelligence
its/it's
jewelry
judgement
kernel (colonel)
leisure
liaison
library
license
lightning
maintenance
maneuver
medieval
memento
millennium
miniature
minuscule
mischievous
misspell
neighbor
noticeable
occasionally
occurrence
pastime
perseverance
personnel
playwright
possession
precede
principal/principle
privilege
pronunciation
publicly
questionnaire
receive/receipt
recommend
referred
reference
relevant
restaurant
rhyme
rhythm
schedule
separate
sergeant
supersede
their/they're/there
threshold
twelfth
tyranny
until
vacuum
weather
weird




Ms. Bs SAT Prep for Critical Reading/Writing 29

Notes for Better SAT Essays

Focus

Keep to your topic. Even if a detail is funny or interesting, if its off the topic, its out of focus! You should
have only ONE topic or main idea in a paragraph.

Its easier for the reader to see your structure if you have clear paragraphs.

1. Use the question to develop your thesis statement, which is the LAST sentence of your intro.

2. Aim for 2-3 body paragraphs and INDENT. The length isnt important as long as youre thorough. Use logical
transitions.

3. DONT use In conclusion to begin your conclusion. Any bonehead can see that its your final
paragraph. ONLY use that phrase when you give an oral presentation. Refer to your thesis,


Choose a logical order

1. Chronological
a. Plot summaries
b. Series of events, a process or how to, directions
c. History

Transition examples: first, next, last, to start, later, finally, at the beginning, during, at the end.

2. Spatial
a. Use for description
b. Use to guide reader

Transition examples: left, right, top, bottom, north, south, east, west, in the middle, below, above

3. Order of importance (least to most)
a. Use to build an argument
b. Support opinions with examples and reasons

Transition examples: one example, another example, the most important example, a good (or bad)
reason, a better (or worse) reason, the best (or worst) reason

4. Order of importance (most to least)
In journalism: present major facts (who, what, when, where, why, how), followed by other details.

Use SPECIFIC examples to illustrate your points. They may be from your personal experience, literature, history,
the news, sports, or entertainment (movies, TV, songs, etc.)

You cannot use YOU except in a quotation. In formal essays you cannot use I, either. Its okay to use I in
personal essays, BUT be careful to be consistent.


30

Dont state the obvious:

As I stated before, my grandfather has led a very interesting life and I intend to prove it to you

Should be:

My grandfather has led a very interesting life. (You cant use you, remember?)


Dont be wimpy or vague. Avoid would be, might be, etc. and use is or are.

Dont begin a sentence with a coordinating conjunction (FANBOY). Be careful if you begin with a
subordinating conjunction that it is part of a complex sentence, not just a fragment.

Only use a semicolon/comma with an adverbial conjunctive IF youre joining two clauses.

I want I better SAT score; therefore, Im taking the prep class (compound sentence)

The solution, therefore, is to sacrifice nine mornings of summer. (simple transition)

Dont EVER say, The reason is because Use, The reason is that

Dont begin a sentence with, There are It isnt wrong; its just poor style.

Check your punctuation carefully:

1. Use apostrophes ONLY to show possession or contraction, NEVER PLURALS!

Bobbys pen Were going (= we are going) NEVER 3 pencils

2. In quotations, end punctuation (commas, periods, question marks, exclamation points) goes INSIDE the
end quotes:

I know, I said. I said, Please come here.

Nominative or Objective Case Pronouns, or whats the difference between I and me?

1. Use I when it is the subject (doing the action) or predicate nominative (after linking verbs)

My friends and I went to the movies NOT My friends and I went to the movies
It was I who called (was is a liking verb) NOT It was me who called.

2. Use me when it is the direct and indirect object (after action verbs and prepositions).

She would exclude my friends and me NOT exclude my friends and I.
A girl like me NOT A girl like I

3. Also, I and me ALWAYS come last in the series:


31

My friends and me OR and I NOT Me OR I and my friends

Pronouns and Antecedents

1. Pronouns are substitutes. ALWAYS use the real noun first. This is the antecedent.

Tim is really funny, but he can be serious, too.

2. Pronouns and antecedents both have to be singular OR both plural. This is called agreement.
Everyone had to try his or her best NOT Everyone had to try their best.

3. Be sure that your pronoun has a clear antecedent or else it will be ambiguous:

Sue and Jo called Jos mom NOT Sue and Jo called her mom (whose, Sues or Jos?)

Reflexive Pronouns (the ones that end with self and selves)

1. Attach the sending; a reflexive is ALWAYS one word:

myself NOT my self

2. self is singular; -selves is plural:

myself, yourself, ourselves, yourselves (a group)
itself, himself, herself themselves

3. Dont use the reflexive as a substitute for the objective:

He gave it to me NOT He gave it to myself

Avoid fragments, comma splices, and run-ons.

Be sure to use the correct word for what you mean:


Accept (taking) Except (excluding)
Than (compAring) Then (nExt)
Loose (what some boys britches are) Lose (cant find something)
Clothes (what you wear) Cloths (what clothes are made of)
Their (pronoun) There (opposite of HERE)
Lie (to recline) Lay (to place)

Work on the words you know you tend to misspell.


32

Ms. Bs Basic Grammar

(Or Things That Her Voice in Your Head Will Haunt You About For the Rest of Your Life)

The English language depends on words syntax, or order, for meaning. Everyone understands:
The quick fox jumped over the lazy dog
but the same words in a different order:
Dog the over fox jumped quick lazy the
make no sense.

The job a word does in a sentence is called its part of speech. One word can be several different parts of
speech depending on its position in a sentence and what it is doing.

The rose bloomed yesterday. Part of speech:___________________
The rose curtains look nice in the room. Part of speech:___________________
The cat rose and stretched. Part of speech:___________________

The four kinds of sentences are declarative, imperative, interrogative, and exclamatory.
A. Declarative sentences make a statement.
B. Imperative sentences give a command. Remember that the understood subject is you.
C. Interrogative sentences ask questions. The usual word order may be inverted.
D. Exclamatory sentences (guess what?) exclaim. Do NOT overuse these in your writing.

Every sentence in English MUST have a subject and a verb. The four sentence patterns youve studied are:
S-V S-V-O S-V-IO-O S-LV-C
Remember, subjects and objects are ALWAYS nouns or pronouns.
A phrase is a group of words working together, such as the verb and its auxiliaries, and prepositions,
infinitives, and gerunds and their objects
A clause is a group of words with a subject and a verb. It can be independent or dependent. An independent
clause makes sense by itself; a dependent clause MUST be connected to an independent clause to make sense.
Dependent clauses can function as adjectives, adverbs, or nouns.

The eight parts of speech are interjections, nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, and
conjunctions.

33

1. Interjections are just expressions of exclamation or feeling. They are not connected grammatically to the
rest of the sentence. They are followed by a comma or an exclamation point. Examples: Oh, rats! Sugar!

2. Nouns are people, places, things, or ideas. They are often preceded by the word the, a, or an, which are
called articles (a special kind of adjective; see below). Nouns can be concrete (something observable with
the senses) or abstract (something only thought of, such as an emotion or quality). Names of specific
people, places, and things are called proper nouns and are always capitalized.

Examples: teachers, school, desk, learning, Ms. Bailey-Orchard, Indiana Junior High, English

Nouns can function in the sentence as the subject (the thing DOING the action) or an object (something being
acted on). They are called predicate nominatives when they follow a linking verb because they are in the
predicate. Ask yourself, What is the action? Who or what is doing this action?

Example:

The dogs ran madly around the block. verb_____________ subject__________
My mother is planting new flowers. verb_____________ subject__________

Note: possessive nouns function as adjectives.

NEVER USE AN APOSTROPHE TO MAKE A NOUN PLURAL!!!

If you are referring to a letter, then AND ONLY THEN can you use an apostrophe in order to avoid confusion
with a word:
He had five As on his report card.

Note, though, you can simply add the s to a digit:
That phone number has four 5s in it.

34

Pronouns substitute for nouns in a sentence. They are either singular or plural, and the verb has to agree with
it. Pronouns refer to a noun (called the antecedent), and the pronoun has to agree with it, too. There are several
different kinds. The most common are the personal pronouns. There are three basic cases, or types, of personal
pronouns.

a. Nominative case (these are the forms when they are the subject of the sentence or when they follow
a linking verb)

Singular Plural
1
st
person I we
2
nd
person you you
3
rd
person he, she, it they

b. Objective case (these are the forms when they are an object in the sentence, clause, or phrase, such
as the object of a preposition).

Singular Plural
1
st
person me us
2
nd
person you you
3
rd
person him, her, it them

c. Possessive case (these are the forms when they show ownership).

Singular Plural
1
st
person my, mine our, ours
2
nd
person your, yours your, yours
3
rd
person his, his, her, hers, its*, its* their*, theirs

*be careful about the spelling of these! NEVER use an apostrophe!


35

d. Reflexive and intensive pronouns ATTACH self or selves. DO NOT use these in place of the
objective case.
Singular Plural
1
st
person myself ourselves
2
nd
person yourself yourselves
3
rd
person himself
herself
itself
themselves

Reflexive: I did the project myself.
Intensive: I myself did the project.

e. There are four demonstrative pronouns/adjectives: this, that, these, those.
f. There are five interrogative pronouns used to ask questions:
what which who (nominative) whom (objective) whose (possessive)

g. There are six relative pronouns whose job is to introduce dependent clauses (noun or adjective):
that which what who whom whose

NOTE: NEVER say, The reason is because; it should be, The reason is that

The verb that follows these pronouns agrees with the pronouns antecedent:

The book [that is on the table] will be for sale. Book, the antecedent of that, is singular.

The books [that are on the table] will be for sale. Books is plural.

It is I [who am responsible for the mistake].

NOTE: remember, if these words are modifying a noun, they are functioning as adjectives. They are only
pronouns if they are fulfilling the function of a noun, such as a subject or a kind of object.


36

h. There is a group of pronouns called indefinite pronouns.
The following are singular; they ALWAYS take the singular form of a verb or pronouns:
another
anybody
anyone
each
either
everybody
everyone
one
neither
nobody
no one
none*
nothing
somebody
someone
something
NOTE! DO NOT USE THEY AFTER THESE!!!!
WRONG: Everyone (singular) should study their (plural) notes.
CORRECT: Everyone (singular) should study his (singular) notes.
*some feel that his excludes females and that a person should use his or her.
ALSO CORRECT: All students (plural) should study their (plural) notes.

These are the plural indefinite pronouns:
both few many others several

Some are weird: sometimes singular, sometimes plural, depending on the noun to which they refer:
all more most some
All of the papers are waiting to be graded.
All of the test is graded.

VERY weird: whether they are singular or plural depends on the word to which they refer
any none

i. Reciprocal pronouns: each other (two) one another (more than two)


37


3. Verbs

The principle parts of a verb are its present tense, past tense, and past participle. Regular verbs follow this
pattern:
Ex: walk walked (have) walked

However, there are dozens of irregular verbs whose forms change.
Ex: go went (have) gone

Be sure to review any that are difficult for you.

Verbs are one of two kinds. The first kind is action (showing something that can be done). If it can be done,
its an action verb.

Example: walk, study, throw, sing, smile

The second kind of verb is linking (attaching description to the subject).

The most familiar linking verbs are forms of the verb to be: am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been

The verbs becomeand seemare existence verbs, and they are also ALWAYS linking verbs.

A tricky group of verbs is called the sense verbs. They can be EITHER action OR linking depending on what
theyre doing: appear, feel, grow, look, prove, remain, smell, sound, taste, and turn.

They are action verbs when someone or something is doing them.
Examples:
That rash appears when I eat strawberries.
She felt the rough sandpaper.
I want to be a movie star when I grow up.
The teacher looked at me.
Mr. McCue proved his theory.
I will remain here in case he comes back.
He smelled the flower.
The officer sounded the alarm.
I tasted the frosting.
The dancer turned and leaped across the floor.



38


They are linking verbs when they connect a description to the subject (the noun being described).
Examples:
She appears ill
[this describes how she looks; she is not materializing out of thin air.]

The sandpaper felt rough.
[this describes what kind of texture it has; it does not have tiny hands]

The hour grew late, and we had to leave
[this describes how much it was late; it didnt sprout leave.]

The teacher looked pleased.
[this describes what kind of expression she had; shes not peering at something.]

The directions proved difficult to understand.
[this describes what kind they are; theyre not wearing lab coats.]

Those spots remained dark even after the bleach.
[this described what kind they were; they werent hanging out at the corner.]

The roses smelled gorgeous.
[this describes what kind of smell they have; they do not have tiny noses.]

The alarm sounded shrill.
[this describes what kind of sound it made; it does not have tiny ears.]

The frosting tasted too sweet.
[this describes what kind of flavor it has; it does not have a tongue.]

The milk turned sour after a week.
[this described what kind of flavor it milk had; it wasnt wearing a tutu and pointe shoes.]


39


A verb can tell when the action takes place. This is called the verbs tense. The main verb is preceded by
auxiliary, or helping, verbs. When you identify the verb of the sentence, be sure to include ALL the auxiliary
verbs. The auxiliary and main verbs create the total verb phrase.
Examples:
I have taught here 13 years.
Main verb:____________ aux:___________

I am teaching 8
th
grade now.
Main verb:____________ aux:___________

I will be teaching for the next 30 years.
Main verb:____________ aux:___________

I might retire when I win the lottery.
Main verb:____________ aux:___________

Common auxiliary verbs (you may have memorized them in a song in 7
th
grade): am, is, are, was, were, be,
being, been, do, does, did, have, has, had, may, might, must, will,, can, could, shall, should, will, would

CAREFUL!! Forms of the to be are auxiliary or helping verbs when they are followed by a main verb.
Example:
I am being careful to explain the rules.
I was walking to school this morning.

BUT they are linking verbs when they are connecting descriptive words to the subject, even if they have
auxiliary verbs in front of them.

Example:
I am a teacher Subject:______________ description:________________
He will be happy you called. Subject:______________ description:________________

Tenses: the purpose of auxiliary verbs is to create tense. The main tenses are:
PRESENT (no aux): I walk PAST (no aux): I walked FUTURE (aux: will): I will walk

40


PROGRESSIVE (aux: to be; main verb: present participle, ALWAYS ends in -ing):
I am walking (present progressive), I was walking (past progressive)

PERFECT (aux: to have; main verb past participle, may end in -ed, -en, -t, or be irregular.):
I have walked (present perfect); I had walked (past perfect)

These auxiliaries can even be combined: For example:
At noon, I will have been walking for three hours. (future perfect progressive)
The other auxiliaries create the conditional and emphatic tenses.

VOICE: Verbs also have voice: active or passive
Verbs in the active voice have a subject performing the action:
I fed the dog.
Verbs in the passive voice have something being done to the subject by someone or something else:
The dog was fed by me.

The passive voice is formed with a form of the auxiliary verb to be plus the past participle of the main
verb. It is often (but not always) followed by a prepositional phrase beginning with by. Sometimes that
phrase is simply implied; it can be a way for the speaker to avoid responsibility! In writing, the active voice is
strongly preferred.

The hardest verbs in the English language to keep straight : lieand lay
Lie means to recline; lay, on the other hand, means to put or place something. Lay is a transitive verb, meaning
that there is always an object after it. (Lay the book on the shelf. Book is the object.) The principal parts of lie
and lay are listed below.
lie: lie, lying, lay, (have) lain [hint: lie, long i sound, means to recline]
lay: lay, laying, laid, (have) laid [hint: lay, long a sound, means to place]
The confusion generally seems to occur with the forms of lie. The following sentences illustrate the correct and
incorrect uses of lay and lie.

lie/lay
I lie [not lay] on the floor when I watch television. [hint: you dont lay eggs!]
I lay my keys on the table when I arrive home from work.

lying/laying
I am lying [not laying] on the floor watching television.
I am laying my briefcase on my desk to remind me that I have work to finish.

41



lay/laid
Yesterday I lay [not laid] in bed all day with a fever.
Yesterday I laid my briefcase on my desk and forgot about it when I left for work.

(have) lain/(have) laid
I have lain [not have laid] in bed all day with a fever. [hint: lain = in bed]
I have laid my briefcase on my desk to remind me that I have work to finish. [hint: laid
rhymes with egg, which a chicken has laid]

Although these are two extremely confusing verbs, with a little practice, you should have them down pat.


4. Adjectives modify or describe nouns or pronouns ONLY. They tell what kind, which one, and how many.
The way to remember the function of adjectives is to imagine that you have a rich Uncle Fester. When you
turn 16, he offers to buy you a car, and you want him to ask those questions.

What kind of car? Which one? How many cars?

The words the, a, and an are adjectives called articles. The is the definite article; a and an are
indefinite articles. This is one of the very few examples where the word used is based on euphony, or how it
sounds. Use a in front of a consonant SOUND and an in front of a vowel SOUND; the word the is often
pronounced thee in front of vowel sounds, too,

an unidentified flying object a UFO the cat the (thee) earth

Some things to keep in mind:
Use fewer for things that can be counted, less for things that can be measured:
We had fewer inches of rain last month. (you can count inches)
We had less rainfall than we did last year. (you can measure rainfall)

Use the comparative (adj + -er or more/ less + adj) for two things, the superlative (adj + -est or
most / least) for three or more things
She is smarter than her sister. She is the smartest one in her family.
He is less attractive than a warthog. He is the least attractive wildebeest Ive seen.
Special note: use from when using the adjective different in comparing two persons or things:
My book is different from (not than) yours.

42


5. Adverbs modify or describe verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. They often end in ly (but not always;
lovely is one exception). They tell where, when, how, to what extent, under what condition, and why.
The way to remember the function of adverbs is to imagine youve had a minor accident in the car Uncle
Fester gave you. Hes going to ask you
Where did it happen?
When did it happen?
How did it happen?
To what extent did it happen?
Under what condition did it happen?
Why did it happen?

When adverbs tell to what extent, they are called intensifiers. They act like a volume control on a stereo to turn
up or down the intensity of the word they are modifying. Intensifiers modify adjectives and adverbs.

Hint: the words here and there are often adverbs. So are never and not (when it modifies an verb,
adverb, or adjective).
Adverbial conjunctives (BOTH IN Indiana County): adverbs or adverb phrases that form compound
sentences by joining two independent clauses. ALWAYS put a semicolon in front and a comma after it.
Besides
Otherwise
Therefore
However
In fact
Nevertheless
In addition
Consequently

Prepositional phrases are made up of a preposition and a noun (or pronoun) that is called the object of the
preposition. The prepositional phrase ALSO contains all the modifiers of the object of the preposition.
This object answers the question whom or what. They function as adjectives or adverbs, and they can come
anywhere in the sentence. They do NOT contain the subject, verb, direct object or indirect object of the
sentence.

BEWARE: to + noun = preposition; to + verb =infinitive; for is a conjunction when it joins two sentences; it is
a preposition when it answers, how.

In imperative and declarative sentences, objects follow the preposition. The object answers the question, what? as in

The mouse ran down the clock Down what? Down the clock.


43


In interrogative and some exclamatory sentences, the object may come before the preposition:

What are you looking at?

Prepositional phrases show direction or relationship, and they function as adjectives (when they tell which one, what
kind, how many, or how much about a noun) or as adverbs (when they tell where, when, how, or to what extent about a
verb, adjective, or adverb). The nine most commonly used (92% of the time!) prepositions are

at, by, for, from, in, of, on, to, and with.

This list MUST be memorized. You can do this easily by singing it to the tune Yankee Doodle.

Aboard
About
Above
Across
After
Against
Along
Amid
Among
Around
Aside
At
Atop

Before
Behind
Below
Beneath
Beside/besides
Between
Beyond
But (except)
By

Concerning

Down
During

Except

For
From

In
Inside
Into

Like

Near

Of
Off
On
Onto
Out
Over

Past [not passed]

Since

Through
Throughout
To
Toward

Under
Underneath
Until
Up
Upon

With
Within
Without

According to
Because of
In spite of
Instead of
On account of
Out of


NOTE: Some of these words may be used by themselves. If they are, they are NOT prepositions; they are adverbs.

NEVER SAY, WHERE IS IT AT? The word at is a dangling preposition; it has no object. Just say, Where is it?

Grammar Underground: Verbals (AKA PIGs)

Verbals are formed from (guess what?) verbs, but THEY NEVER FUNCTION AS THE VERB OF THE
SENTENCE. There are three kinds:
A. Gerunds: end in ing and ALWAYS function as a noun in the sentence. The six possible functions of
the noun are: subject, appositive, complement, direct object, indirect objective, or object of the
preposition. A hint to remember these is SACDIP.
S: Walking is important exercise D: Dont delay walking to the store.
A: My favorite exercise, walking, is easy to do. I: You should give walking a try.
C: My favorite exercise is walking P: You can get there quicker by walking


44


NOTES:
Gerunds can have objects that answer the question what?: use a possessive noun or pronoun when the gerund
is the object of the sentence:
She took a picture of my jumping the fence. [this emphasizes that the jumping is the point]
Think carefully about the difference with this sentence:
She took a picture of me jumping the fence.
In this second example, me is the object of the preposition; jumping the fence is a participial phrase
describing me. The emphasis here is on me, not the activity.
Look at this example:
I was annoyed with Sam interrupting my lecture
SHOULD BE
I was annoyed with Sams interrupting my lecture.
It wasnt Sam himself that was annoying; it was his interrupting. Use the possessive case.

B. Participles: end in ing (present participles) or ed, -en, or become an irregular form (passive
participles). They are ALWAYS adjectives.
The falling water made a soothing sound. The fallen tree blocked the road.
They can be an entire phrase. When they are, the next noun MUST be the word they are modifying; otherwise,
youll have a dangling participle.

WRONG Turning the corner, the post office was on the right. (post offices cant move)
RIGHT: Turning the corner, I saw the post office on the right.

C. Infinitive: to + a verb. These are tricky because they can function nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.
Note: just like prepositions, gerunds and infinitive can have objects: nouns that follow them that answer the
question, what?
S: To walk a 1000 miles is a lofty goal. (miles is the object of the infinitive, to walk)
A: My goal, to walk 1000 miles, is difficult
C: My goal is to walk 1000 miles.
D: I want to walk 1000 miles.
Adjective: The class to take is English 9. (modifies the noun, class, telling which one)
Adverb: I went to visit my brother (modifies the verb went, telling where; brother is the object of the
infinitive)

45


NOTE: avoid splitting infinitives. Try not to put a modifier between the to and the verb
AVOID: To boldly go where no man has gone before
SHOULD BE: To go boldly where no man has gone before

Dependent Clauses

Adverb clauses: begin with an SC and modify verbs, adjective, and adverbs
Adjective clauses: begin with an RP and modify nouns or pronouns
Noun clauses: begin with 1) an RP;
2) the adverbs how, when, where, whether, why; and
3) words ending in ever
and function as the Subject, Appositive, Complement, Direct Object, Indirect Object, or Preposition (object of)

Remember when a clause is necessary to the meaning of the sentence, it is RESTRICTED. Do NOT put
commas around it. When the clause is adding additional information, it is UNRESTRICTED and set off with
commas.

The teacher whom I will always remember is Ms. B [RESTRICTED clause; no commas]
Ms. B, who is a fanatic grammarian, will haunt me forever. [UNRESTRICTED; put commas around it]

Conjunctions:
Coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS): use to form compound sentences by joining two independent
clauses. ALWAYS put a comma in front of the conjunction
For And Nor But Or Yet So

Subordinating conjunctions: use to form complex sentences by beginning an adverb clause. When a sentence
begins with an SC, you MUST put a comma at the end of the clause.
after
although
as
as if
as long as
as soon as
as though
because
before
if
since
so that
than*
though
unless
until
when
whenever
where
wherever
whether
while
why
in order that

*when using than, remember that the verb is sometimes implied:

She is a better writer than I (am) NOT She is a better writer than me.


46


Correlative conjunctions:

These four ALWAYS work in pairs and must join words that are the SAME parts of speech

Bothand eitheror neithernor not onlybut also

If one of the words joined is singular and the other plural, the verb agrees with the word nearest it:

Either the president or the officers are officiating at the ceremony.

Either the officers or the president is officiating at the ceremony.








PS. Yall is NOT incorrect, ungrammatical, or nonstandard. It is a contraction of you all, which
emphasizes the plural.

Related Interests