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Exploring Power Supplies with Multisim

Lab 3
P. C. Womble
Hooray! This is a Multisim only Lab!
AC Power:
Typial line !oltages in the "S are between ##$ % to #&$ % with a 're(ueny o' )$ H*.
Howe!er+ ,igital ,e!ies re(uire -C power an, thus the power supplies an be reate,.
.rom Physis &)$+ the ratio o' the input !oltage on a trans'ormer to its output !oltage
'ollows the relation o'
output
s
input p
V
N
V N
=
E(uation #
where /p is the number o' turns on the oil on the primary si,e 0input1 an, /s is the
number o' turns on the seon,ary 0output1 si,e o' the trans'ormer.
2n Multisim+ un,er the 34asi5 'amily+ a !irtual trans'orm an be 'oun,. 6mong its
properties is the primary to seon,ary turns ratio. Examining E(uation # losely+ a
primary to seon,ary turns ratio o' #$$+ will atually re,ue the input !oltage by a 'ator
o' #$$. This is alle, a 3step ,own5 trans'ormer. 2' the primary to seon,ary ratio is
less than # 0but greater than *ero1+ then the trans'ormer is a 3step up5 trans'ormer.
Activity 1:
#. Plae onnet a )$ H* #&$ % 6C soure on the
Multisim sreen. Connet this omponent to the
!irtual trans'ormer ,esribe, abo!e 0shown to the
right1. The 6C soure an be onnete, either to
the two wires on the le't o' the trans'ormer. The
trans'ormer will then 'ollow the relationships
,esribe, abo!e.
&. Connet the multimeter between the topmost an,
bottom most wires on the right si,e o' the
trans'ormer. Connet a groun, to the 373 o' the
multimeter. Set the multimeter 'or 6C !oltage
measurement. Simulate the iruit.
3. .ill in the wor8sheet 'or this setion.
Diodes:
-io,es e''eti!ely on,ut urrent in one ,iretion. 2n the early ,ays o' eletronis+
,io,es were tubes with two elements9 a heating element an, a atho,e. The heater
was alle, the 3ano,e5 an, when urrent ran through the heating element+ it woul,
emit eletrons. These eletrons were attrate, to the 3atho,e5 0the 3:5 si,e1 an,
thus urrent woul, 'low. ;e!ersing the urrent woul, be impossible beause the
atho,e was ma,e o' a ,i''erent material.
To,ay semion,utor materials are use, to onstrut these ,e!ies. Some materials
an be 3,ope,5 or lightly ontaminate, with other elements. When this ours+ an
eletron an be easily remo!e, 'rom the ,ope, materials. These are alle, 3n7type5
materials. 3P7type5 materials ha!e been ,ope, with elements in whih there are
3holes5 0absene o' eletrons1. The n7type material is ombine, with the p7type
material. 2magine that you ha!e two types o' hoolate bars an, you smash then en,s
together to 'orm a long hoolate bar. <ne en,+ 'or instane+ may be a Mil8y Way
TM

bar an, other a Heath
TM
. How the bar tastes+ then+ ,epen,s on whih si,e o' the bar
you eat.
2t is a similar in a p7n =untion. 2' you attah a battery with the 3:5 to the n7type si,e
an, the 373 to the p7type si,e+ no urrent 'lows. Why> The nearly 'ree eletron in
the n7type material imme,iately 'lows there an, the eletrons 'rom the 373 battery
'low into the holes. There is no urrent 'low aross the =untion.
Howe!er+ i' the : si,e is onnete, to the p7type si,e an, the 373 si,e is onnete, to
the n7type si,e+ urrent will 'low aross the ,io,e.
We will use a 3Wheatstone bri,ge5 arrangement o' ,io,es to hange or 3reti'y5 the
!oltages 'rom the trans'ormer.
Activity 2:
#1 Simulate Ciruit & using Multisim.
&1 .ill out the setion o' the wor8sheet 'or 6ti!ity &.
Circuit 2Half wave rectifier
Activity 3:
#1 Set up Ciruit 3 an, simulate the output o' the osillosope.
&1 .ill out the setion o' the wor8sheet 'or 6ti!ity 3.
Circuit 3: Full Wave Rectifier
Activity 4:
The pre!ious exerises ha!e assume, that you ha!e a enter7tappe, trans'ormer.
What i' none is a!ailable> The next iruit+ the reti'ier bri,ge+ ,oes not use the
enter tap.
#1 Set up Ciruit ? an, simulate the osillosope rea,ings.
&1 .ill out the appropriate setion o' the wor8sheet.
Circuit 4: Bride Rectifier! "ote: Due to a #ri$ti$ error% t&e to# co$tact of '1 is co$$ected to
t&e co$$ectio$ (etwee$ D1 a$d D2!
Activity ):
6 apaitor 'ilter is use, to ma8e the wa!e'orms more -C. The ;C time onstant is
hange, to ma8e a smoother wa!e'orm as shown below.
/ote9 @ou may ha!e to hange the time step o' the Multisim to a!oi, errors in the
alulation. This an be ,one un,er the 3Simulation Parameters5.
#1 Set up Ciruit A in Multisim.
&1 Change the !alue o' the apaitor to reate a wa!e'orm as smooth or smoother
than the one shown in the abo!e piture.
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Circuit )! Bride Rectifier wit& filter ca#acitor!
Activity *:
#1 Set up an, simulate Ciruit ). The LMBC#A an, LMBD#A an be 'oun, by
searhing the omponents.
&1 .ill out the appropriate setion o' the wor8sheet.
Circuit *: Dual Power +u##ly