You are on page 1of 11

GREAT BUILDINGS

JPT Review Center


EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE
(circa 1200 BC AD 1st
Century)
Temple of Luxor
or Southern Sanctuary at
Luor! "#y$t! 1%th &ynasty
'in#
&e&icate& to Amon-Re!
'in# o( the )o&s
*ui+t o( san&stone (or the
,uarries o( )e*e+ Si+si+a
Abu Simbel
&e&icate& chie(t+y to Re-
Hr!"ti! )o& o( the risin#
sun
*ui+t &urin# the rei#n o(
Ra-ses .. (1/00 12/1 BC)
P#rmi$ of %in& 'o(er
Architect: .-hote$
ear+iest $yra-i&a+ structure
o( the ancient wor+&! the
Step P#rmi$ (c223/0 BC)
o( 4in# 5oser at Sa,,ara!
"#y$t
consist o( si terraces o(
rece&in# si6es with a one
sta*a
T"e Gret P#rmi$
the Pyra-i& o( 4hu(u is the +ar#est
in the wor+&! -easurin# 2/0- (173 (t)
GREE% ARCHITECTURE
(circa /00 /0 BC)
Prt"enon
00180/%
Architect: .tchinus an& Ca++icrates with
Phi&ias
Location: Athens! )reece
Style: Ancient )ree' Doric
on the historic Acro$o+is2 Doric
ee-$+ar
Ere)"t"eum
021 007
Architect: 9nesic+es
Location: Athens! )reece
Style: Ancient )ree'! .onic
has Caryati& Porch with :#ura+ co+u-ns2
;n the Acro$o+is! uses #ra&e chan#e2
Epi$uru( T"eter
Architect: Po+y'+eitos
Location: "$i&auros! or
"$i&havros! )reece
Style: Ancient )ree'
an& the ,ua+ity o( its acoustics
-a'e the "$i&aurus theatre
one o( the #reat architectura+
achieve-ents o( the (ourth
century2
the +ar#est an& *est $reserve&
ancient theaters in )reece2
can acco--o&ate 10!000
s$ectators2
R*+AN ARCHITECTURE
(/00BC /37 AD)
T"e Pnt"eon
11% 8 123
Architect: Acri$$a
Location: Ro-e! .ta+y
Style: Ancient Ro-an
#reat &o-e& ha++ with ocu+us
o)ulu( a sin#+e circu+ar o$enin#
one o( the #reat s$iritua+
*ui+&in#s o( the wor+&
it was *ui+t as a Ro-an te-$+e
an& +ater consecrate& as a
Catho+ic Church
revive& the use o( *ric' an& concrete in te-$+e Architecture
Tr,n-( .orum
100 112
Architect: A$o++o&orus o( Da-ascus
Location: Ro-e! .ta+y
Style: Ro-an
co-$ose& o( an arc o( arche&
arca&e
-ost -a#ni:cent an& architectura++y -ost $+easin#
+ar#est 'nown (oru-s
Colo((eum
10 %2
Architect: <es$acian an& Do-itian
Location: Ro-e! .ta+y
Style: Ancient Ro-an
three8,uarter co+u-ns an&
enta*+atures! Doric in the :rst story!
.onic in the secon&! an&
Corinthian in the thir&! (ace the three
tiers o( arca&es
+ar#est Ro-an A-$hitheater
&esi#ne& to ho+& 70!000
s$ectators
ha& a$$roi-ate+y ei#hty entrances so crow&s cou+& arrive an& +eave
easi+y an& ,uic'+y
A+ERICAN ARCHITECTURE
/"ite Hou(e
Architect: Ja-es =o*an
Location: >ashin#ton! D2C2
Date: 11?/ to 1%01! *urne& 1%10! $orticos
1%20 to1%2?
Style: )eor#ian @eoc+assica+
oAcia+ resi&ence o( the $resi&ent o( the
Bnite& States o( A-erica! (or the +ast 200
years
Cpitol of t"e Unite$ Stte(
Architects: Thornton8Latro*e8 Bu+:nch
Location: >ashin#ton! D2C2
Date: 11?/ to 1%/0
Style: @eoc+assica+
-eetin# $+ace o( the B2S2
Con#ress! the nationa+ asse-*+y o( the
Bnite& States o( A-erica!
consistin# o( the =ouse o(
Re$resentatives an& the Senate
Ntionl Gller# of Art
Architect: John Russe+ Po$e
houses one o( the :nest co++ections o( $aintin#! scu+$tures! an&
#ra$hic arts in the wor+&
/("in&ton +onument
Architect: Ro*ert 9i++s
Location: >ashin#ton! D2C2
Style: @eo8"#y$tian
the o*e+is' is the on+y re-nant o(
the ori#ina+ *+ue $rint that
re-ains
with )eor#e 9arsh! co-$etition
1%/32 stan&ar& "#y$tian
$ro$ortion o( 10C1 hei#ht to *ase
Uni0er(it# of 1ir&ini
1%23
Architect: Tho-as JeDerson
Location: Char+ottesvi++e! <ir#inia
Building Type: Bniversity ca-$us
Style: C+assica+! @eo8Pa++a&ian
i&eas o( sy--etry an& use o(
*ric'
arca&es connect *ui+&in#s aroun&
centra+ +awn
curvin# *ric' wa++s surroun&
ca-$us
+(()"u(ett( Stte Hou(e
Architect: Char+es Bu+:nch 8 :rst native8*orn $ro(essiona+
A-erican architect
c+assica+ e+e-ents are $i+asters! $orticos an& &o-es
Sint Ptri)!-( Ct"e$rl
Architect: Ja-es Renwic'
Location: @ew Eor'
sha$e& +i'e a Latin cross
the +ar#est Ro-an Catho+ic Cathe&ra+ in the Bnite& States
&esi#ne& in a )othic Reviva+ -ateria+s at "n#+ish an& French )othic Sty+e
Conne)ti)ut Stte Cpitol
Architect: Richar& B$Gohn
+onti)ello
113% to 11%2
Architect: Tho-as JeDerson
Location: Char+ottesvi++e! <ir#inia
Building Type: =ouse
Style: Co+onia+ )eor#ian
Re-o&e+e&11?3 to 1%0%
*eauti(u+ hi++to$ ho-e is a c+assica+
ea-$+e o( the +ate 1%th Century
A-erican architecture an& a nationa+
historic +an&-ar'
Ne2 Yor! Cit# Hll
Architect: Pierre LHen(ant
Style: French Renaissance 8 )eor#ian Sty+e
one o( the -ost historica+ architectura++y &istin#uishe& *ui+&in# in @ew
Eor'
.llin&2ter
1?/0! 1?/%! 1?0%
Architect: Fran' L+oy& >ri#ht
Location: ;hio$y+e! Pennsy+vania
Building Type: house
Style: "$ressionist 9o&ern
canti+evers &ra-atica++y over roc'
outcro$$in# an& rushin# strea-
sen&s out (ree8Ioatin# $+at(or-s
au&acious+y over a s-a++ water(a++
an& anchors the- in the natura+
roc'
Gu&&en"eim +u(eum
1?73 to 1?7?
Architect: Fran' L+oy& >ri#ht
Location: @ew Eor'! @ew Eor'
Building Type: art -useu-
Style: 9o&ern
a #i(t o( $ure architectureJor
rather o( scu+$ture
*ase& on or#anic (or-s that the
architect (oun& in seashe++s an&
snai+s
Coonle# Hou(e
1?0%
Architect: Fran' L+oy& >ri#ht
Location: Riversi&e2 .++inois
Style: Prairie sty+e
Building Type: house
Construction System: woo& (ra-e
with stucco
a +ar#e! so$histicate& $rairie
house
Enni( Hou(e
1?2/
Architect: Fran' L+oy& >ri#ht
Location: Los An#e+es! Ca+i(ornia
Building type: house
Style: Deco 9o&ern
Construction system: *earin#
-asonry! concrete *+oc's
the +ast o( the (our Los An#e+es
teti+e *+oc' house
3o"n(on /x Buil$in&
1?/3 to 1?/? an& 1?00
Architect: Fran' L+oy& >ri#ht
Location: Racine! >isconsin
Construction system: $recast concrete
an& *ric'
Style: -o&ern
uni,ue structura+ e$ression in o$en ha++!
tower with roun&e& corners
the tower is tota++y enc+ose& an& &oes
not a++ow (or hori6onta+ e$ansion
o( wor' s$ace
articu+ate& *y &en&ri(or- co+u-ns ca$a*+e o( su$$ortin# si ti-es the
wei#ht i-$ose& u$on the-! a (act >ri#ht ha& to &e-onstrate in or&er to
o*tain a *ui+&in# $er-it
Lr!in Buil$in&
1?00! &e-o+ishe& 1?70
Architect: Fran' L+oy& >ri#ht
Location: BuDa+o! @ew Eor'
Building Type: co--ercia+ oAces
Construction system: *ric' -asonry
Style: "ar+y -o&ern
+ar#e (our8storey centra+ atriu-
the :rst entire+y air8con&itione& -o&ern
oAce *ui+&in# on recor&
/in&(pre$
1?/1
Architect: Fran' L+oy& >ri#ht
Location: >in& Point! >isconsin
Building type: +ar#e house
Style: neo8<ernacu+ar
+ivin# roo-! &inin# roo-! 'itchen!
(a-i+y s+ee$in# roo-s! #uest roo-s!
were se$arate unites #rou$e& to#ether
an& connecte& *y corri&ors
Gol$en Gte Bri$&e
1?// to 1?/1
Architect: Jose$h Strauss
Location: San Francisco! Ca+i(ornia
Building type: sus$ension *ri&#e
Construction system: stee+ (ra-e! stee+ ca*+es
Styles: Structura+ 9o&ern with so-e Art Deco &etai+s
one o( the +on#est *ri&#e in the wor+&
a $ower(u+ an& e+e#ant hu-an structure in an e,ua++y
*eauti(u+ natura+ +ocation
overa++ *ri&#e +en#th o( ?233 (eet! or 2%20 -eters
*ri&#e -ain s$an +en#th o( 0200 (eet! or 12%0 -eters
.RENCH ARCHITECTURE
T"e Lou0re
1703 to 1%1%
Architect: Pierre Lescot
Location: Paris! France
Building type: $a+ace! art -useu-
Construction system: cut stone
*earin# -asonry
Style: French Renaissance
a+so &esi#ne& *y Catherine &e
9e&ici! J2A2 &u Cerceau ..! C+au&e
Perrau+t! etc2
I4+4 PeiC &esi#n the #+ass
$yra-i&! which serves as the -ain $u*+ic entrance
Tuilerie(
the Tui+eries )ar&en o(
Paris is $art o( the
Triu-$ha+ way! which
*e#ins at the Louvre
an& continues to the
CityHs >estern e&#e
Pli( Ro#l
co--issione& *y
Car&ina+ Riche+iev
ori#ina+ na-e is Pa+ais
Car&ina+
11th century
Dniel BurenC stri$$e& co+u-ns
S)re-)oeur
+ocate& at the hi++ o( 9ont-artre which is the hi#hest $oint in the city o(
$aris
1%10C Pau+ A*a&ie
1?10C co-$+ete& *y Lucien 9a#ne
Hotel $e 1ille
+ar#est renaissance *ui+&in#
13th an& 11th century
.ta+ian &esi#ner Do-enico &e Cortona
1%11C *urne&! renovate& in 2 years
Ar) $e Triomp"e
@a$o+eon! the French e-$eror
&eci&e& to *ui+& a very *i# arch o(
triu-$h! which stan&s at the to$ o( the
Cha-$s "+ysees
Pompi$ou Centre
1?12 to 1?13
Architect: Richar& Ro#ers an& Ren6o Piano
Location: Paris! France
Building Type: -o&ern art -useu-
Construction system: hi#h8tech stee+ an& #+ass
Style: =i#h8tech -o&ern
a cost o( K100!000!000! with an avera#e atten&ance o(
a$$roi-ate+y seven -i++ion $eo$+e a year
-assive structura+ e$ressionist cast eos'e+eton! LeteriorL
esca+ators enc+ose& in trans$arent tu*e
Notre Dme $e Pri(
113/ to 1270
Architect: 9aurice &e Su++y
Location: Paris! France
Building Type: church! cathe&ra+
Construction system: *earin#
-asonry! cut stone
Style: "ar+y )othic
one o( the -ost ce+e*rate&
)othic cathe&ra+s in France
twin towers -ar'in# the entrance
$ro*a*+y the -ost (a-ous i-a#e
in French )othic art
Pri( *per Hou(e
1%71 to 1%10
Architect: Char+es )arnier
Location: Paris! France
Building type: theater! o$era house
Construction system: -asonry! cut
stone
Style: @eo8Baro,ue
$o+ychro-e (aMa&e! o$u+ent
staircase
co--ission *y co-$etition
-aster$iece o( 1?th century architecture
one o( the +ar#est an& -ost o$u+ent theaters in the wor+&
(a+se cei+in# $ainte& *y +r) C"&ll
El#(ee Pl)e
111%
Architect: C+au&e 9o++et
oAcia+ resi&ence o( the $resi&ent o( France
Hotel $e In0li$e(
@a$o+eons to-* is within the structure
(oun&e& *y Louis N.< (or &isa*+e& so+&iers
+ate 11th century
L +$eleine
Architect: @a$o+eon .
church o( Ste2 9arie 9a&e+eine
constructe& as a church in 1%02
surroun&e& *y 72 Corinthian co+u-ns
Sorbonne
-ost (a-ous *ui+&in# at the Bniversity o( Paris
C"rtre( Ct"e$rl
11?0 to 1230
Location: Chartres! France
Building type: cathe&ra+
Construction system: *earin# -asonry
Style: )othic ee-$+ar
the e+evation was in three tiers as it ha&
no #a++ery an& the vau+tin# was
,ua&ri$artite! which e+i-inate& the nee&
(or a+ternatin# su$$orts
su$re-e -onu-ent o( =i#h )othic
art an& architecture
Amien-( Ct"e$rl
1220
107 -eters +on#
+ar#est French )othic Cathe&ra+ ever *ui+t
intricate (aMa&e co-$+ete& &urin# the
17th century
R"eim( Ct"e$rl
one o( the #reatest -onu-ent o(
)othic art an& architecture
construction co--erce& *y Jean
&H;r*ais an& was co-$+ete& *y
Ro*ert &e Coucy
a wor' o( re-ar'a*+e unity an&
har-ony
Ei5el To2er
1%%1 to 1%%?
Architect: )ustave "iDe+
Location: Paris! France
Building Type: e$osition
o*servation tower
Construction system: e$ose& iron
Style: <ictorian Structura+
"$ressionist
&o-inates the s'y +ine o( Paris
one o( the -ost (a-ous
+an&-ar's in the wor+&
*ui+t (or the Paris "$osition o(
1%%?
Notre $me $u Hut
1?77
Architect: Le Cor*usier
Location: Roncha-$! France
Building type: church
Construction system: rein(orce&
concrete
Style: "$ressionist 9o&ern
so(t8(or- co-$osition! &ee$ win&ows with co+ore& #+ass (wa++ thic'ness 0O
to 12O)
Le Cor*usierHs &ra-atic $i+#ri- church
1ill S0o#e
1?2% to 1?2?
Architect: Le Cor*usier
Location: Poissy! France
Building type: house
Construction system: concrete an&
$+astere& unit -asonry
Style: -o&ern
an ear+y an& c+assic ee-$+ar o( the
L.nternationa+ Sty+eL! which hovers
a*ove a #rass $+ane on thin concrete
$i+otti! with stri$ win&ows! an& a Iat roo(
with a &ec' area! ra-$! an& a (ew
containe& touches o( curvaceous wa++s
GER+AN ARCHITECTURE
Bur&t"eter
1%10 to 1%%%
Architect: )ott(rie& Se-$er with
4ar+ von =asenaver
Berlin *per Hou(e
(STAATS;P"R)
Architect: )eor# >en6es+aus von
4no*e+s&or(
/ur6bur& Re(i$en6
Architect: Ba+tha6ar @eu-ann
one o( the *est structure o( the
Baro,ue8Rococo $erio&
Ein(tein To2er
1?1? to 1?21
Architect: "rich 9en&e+sohn
Location: Pots&a-! )er-any
Building type: +a*oratory!
o*servatory
Construction system: *earin#
-asonry! concrete over *ric'
Style: "$ressionist "ar+y 9o&ern
curvaceous! strea-+ine& (or-
&esi#ne& to ho+& "insteinOs own
astrono-ica+ +a*oratory
this Osarco$ha#us o(
architectura+ "$ressionis-O is
one o( the -ost *ri++iant+y
ori#ina+ *ui+&in#s o( the
twentieth century
ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE
Briti(" +u(eum
1%2/ to 1%01
Architect: Sir Ro*ert S-ir'e
Location: Lon&on! "n#+an&
Building type: art an&
historica+ -useu-! +i*rary
Construction system:
-asonry! cut stone
Style: <ictorian .onic (aMa&e!
C+assica+ Reviva+
.nc+u&es one o( the wor+&Os #reat
+i*rary roo-s2 )+a6e& roo( over
restore& courtyar& *y @or-an
Foster
Sli(bur# Ct"e$rl
1220 to 127%
Location: Sa+is*ury! "n#+an&
Building type: Cathe&ra+ (church! te-$+e)
Construction system: *earin# -asonry! cut stone
Style: "n#+ish )othic
Cathe&ra+ o( Saint 9ary
an outstan&in# ea-$+e o( the "ar+y "n#+ish architectura+ sty+e
ta++est in "n#+an& 000(t (12/-)
use o( Pur*ec' -ar*+e to create a stron#+y co+oure& sche-e
7ueen-( Hou(e
1313 to 13/7
Architect: .ni#o Jones the #reatest o(
"n#+ish C+assica+ architect
Location: )reenwich! "n#+an&
Building type: +ar#e house
Construction system: *earin# -asonry
Style: Pa++a&ian! Late "n#+ish
Renaissance
was *ui+t *y Jones (or Anne o(
Den-ar'! wi(e o( Ja-es .
Somer(et Hou(e
1113 to 11%3
Architect: >i++ia- Cha-*ers
Location: Lon&on! "n#+an&
Building type: #overn-ent oAces an& art
schoo+
Construction system: cut stone -asonry
Style: @eoc+assica+
=o-e o( Roya+ Aca&e-y o( the Arts2
Corinthian or&ers a*ove arche&
courtyar& a$ertures! rusticate& *ase
Sint Pul-( Ct"e$rl
1317 to 1110
Architect: Sir Christo$her >ren
Location: Lon&on! "n#+an&
Building type: church
Construction system: -asonry! *ric'!
ti-*er an& cut stone
Style: Late renaissance to Baro,ue
the &o-e $ea's at /33 (eet a*ove $ave-ent
a -aster$iece o( Baro,ue architecture
+ar#est cathe&ra+ in "n#+an&
C"i(2i)! Hou(e
112?
Architect: Lor& Bur+in#ton
Location: Chiswic'! "n#+an&
Building type: +ar#e house
Construction system: *earin#
-asonry
Style: Pa++a&ian
a+so 'nown as PBurlin&ton
Hou(eQ
/e(tmin(ter Pl)e
1%/3 to 1%3%
Architect: Sir Char+es Barry
Location: Lon&on
Building type: seat o( #overn-ent!
#overn-ent center
Construction system: cut stone
*earin# -asonry
Style: "n#+ish )othic Reviva+
Bi& BenC the c+oc' tower *est
'nown is a #reat sy-*o+ o(
Lon&on
ori#ina++y seat o( 'in#s as a roya+
resi&ence
Gl(&o2 S)"ool of Art
1%?1 to 1?0?
Architect: Char+es Rennie
9ac'intosh
Location: )+as#ow! "n#+an&
Building type: co++e#e
Construction system: *earin# -asonry
Style: art an& cra(ts! art nouveau
i-a#inative synthesis o( e+e-ents o( Art @ouveau an& Scottish
Architecture
Dur"m Ct"e$rl
10?/ to 12%0
Location: Durha-! "n#+an&
Building type: church! cathe&ra+
Construction system: *earin# -asonry!
cut stone
Style: Ro-anes,ue
one o( the -ost i-$ressive @or-an
Ro-anes,ue sty+e in "uro$e
ha& a reci$roca+ inIuence on the
architecture o( @or-a&y
the ri* vau+t coverin# o( Durha- Cathe&ra+
is the o+&est ea-$+e that has survive&
Bu)!in&"m Pl)e
Architect: sir )eor#e )orin#
*ui+t &urin# the rei#n o( 'in# Ja-es
.
CHINA8 TUR%EY8 ITALY8 INDIA
AND SPAIN ARCHITECTURE
Temple of He0en
Location: China
100 acre enc+osure *ui+t *y the 9in#
Dynasty e-$eror Eon#+e (Eun#8.o)
-eans PPerpetul HelpQ
H&i So9
7/2 to 7/1
Architect: .si&oros an&
Anthe-ios
Location: .stan*u+! Tur'ey
Building type: church
Construction system:
*earin# -asonry
Style: By6antine
a tre-en&ous &o-e&
s$ace
*ui+t as the new
Cathe&ra+ o( Constantino$+e *y the "-$eror Justinian
a -aster$iece o( By6antine architecture
a&&itiona+ -inarets when the church *eca-e a -os,ue
Ct"e$rl of Sien
Location: Southern .ta+y
incor$orate& )othic
e+e-ents in a stron#+y
9e&iterranean &esi#n
Pi( Ct"e$rl
10/ to 1/70
Location: Pisa! .ta+y
Building type: church co-$+e
Construction system: *earin#
-asonry! cut stone! white -ar*+e
Style: Ro-anes,ue
LPisa Cathe&ra+ with Ba$tistery! Ca-$ani+e an& Ca-$o Santo! to#ether
(or- one o( the -ost (a-ous *ui+&in# #rou$s in the wor+&
the cathe&ra+ co-$+e inc+u&es the (a-ous Leanin# Tower! La Torre
Pen&ente
white -ar*+e with co+onna&e& (aca&es
.loren)e Ct"e$rl
12?3 to 1032
Architect: Arno+(o &i Ca-*io
Location: F+orence! .ta+y
Building type: &o-e& church!
cathe&ra+
Construction system: *earin# -asonry
Style: .ta+ian Ro-anes,ue
12?3C Cathe&ra+ *e#un on &esi#n *y
Arnolfo $i Cmbio
1/71C ProGect continue& on a -o&i:e&
$+an *y .rn)e()o Tlenti
1/3381C Ta+entiOs &e:nitive &esi#n e-er#e&
ca++in# (or an enor-ous
octa#ona+ &o-e
101%C co-$etition (or construction o( &o-e2
1020C technica+ so+ution (or vau+tin# $ro$ose& *y Brunelle()"i a$$rove&
an& construction *e#un
T"e Duomo &o-e a&&e& *y Brune++eschi
10/3J church consecrate&
%r! $e( C"e0lier(
1170 to 1270
Location: Syria
Building type: (ort
Style: 9e&ieva+
crusa&er cast+e
the *est $reserve& an& -ost
who++y a&-ira*+e cast+e in the
wor+&
Al"mbr
1//% to 1/?0
Location: )rana&a! S$ain
Building type: $a+ace
Construction system: *earin#
-asonry
Style: 9oorish (.s+a-ic)
$a+ace o( @asri& Dynasty
the -ost *eauti(u+ re-ainin#
ea-$+e o( >estern .s+a-ic
Architecture
*ui+t as a cathe&ra+ in the -i&8
1200Hs
Pha++ o( GusticeQC note& (ro- its e+a*orate sta+actite
(m:rns) &ecoration
C( Btllo
1?07 to 1?01
Architect: Antonio )au&i
Location: Barce+ona! S$ain
Building type: a$art-ent *ui+&in#
Construction system: concrete
Style: "$ressionist or Art @ouveau
uses ani-a+ sty+es a+ throu#h8out
the structure
C( +il
1?07 to 1?10
Architect: Antonio )au&i
Location: Barce+ona! S$ain
Building type: -u+ti(a-i+y housin#
Construction system: -asonry an&
concrete
Style: Art @ouveau
e$ressionistic! (antastic! or#anic (or-s in un&u+atin# (aca&e an& roo( +ine
+i#ht court
it cou+& *e co-$are& with the stee$ c+iD wa++s in which A(rican tri*es *ui+&
their cave8+i'e &we++in#s
S&r$ .mili
1%%2 to 1?23
Architect: Antonio )au&i
Location: Barce+ona! S$ain
Building type: church
Construction system: -asonry
Style: "$ressionist
Church o( the =o+y Fa-i+y
unco-$+ete& &urin# )au&iHs +i(eti-e
crowne& *y (our s$ires
T, +"l
13/0 to 137/
Architect: "-$eror Shah Jahan
Location: A#ra! .n&ia
Building type: .s+a-ic to-*
Construction system: *earin#
-asonry! in+ai& -ar*+e
Style: .s+a-ic
onion8sha$e &o-es! Ian'in# towers!
*ui+t (or wi(e 9u-at6 9aha+
+ocate& on the Ju-na River
-useu- (or 9o#u+ e-$erorHs consort