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5 Thermochemistry

Fundamentals of Chemistry

Catalyst

• Answer the following questions in your science

notebook.

1. What is the phase change called when a gas changes

into a liquid?

2. What is the phase change called when a gas changes

directly into a solid?

3. What is the density of a liquid that has a mass of

63.5g and a total volume 194 mL?

• Topic of the Day: 1.5 Thermochemistry

• Vocabulary: Endothermic and Exothermic

• Date: 8/29

SCIENCE JOKE OF THE DAY

Objectives

• I can define endothermic and exothermic.

• I can explain what phase changes are

endothermic and exothermic using kinetic

energy.

• I can use the specific heat formula.

• I can explain what a constant is in a formula.

• I can use a constant in a formula.

• Topic of the day: 1.5 Thermochemistry

• Date: 8/29

Pre-Investigation: Part I

• The steps for today’s lab are written on the

cards in front of you.

• With your partner put the cards in the order

you think you’ll complete today’s lab.

• You may not do the lab until you have the

cards in the correct order.

Investigation 1.5 (20 mins.)

• Copy down the table below to record your results.

• Lab Notes:

– Use only the materials at your station

– Be careful not to break the thermometers- they will tip

over if you leave them leaning in the cup and don’t

hold on to them.

– Clean up after yourselves!

Compound

Initial Water

Temperature (°C)

Final Water

Temperature (°C)

Observations

CaCl

2

NH

4

NO

3

KNO

3

Topic of the Day:

1.5 Thermochemistry

Essential Question: How is heat

transfer described and calculated?

Review: What is energy?

• Energy: the ability to do work

• Types of energy:

– Kinetic energy: movement

– Potential energy: position

– THERMAL ENERGY: HEAT

A. How can we describe heat (thermal energy)

transfer?

1. Heat always flows from a warmer object to a

colder object

– Cold is the absence of heat. Cold DOES NOT transfer!

2. Endothermic: Heat energy is absorbed from the

surroundings

– Heat goes INTO an object

– Usually associated with an increase in temperature

3. Exothermic: Heat energy is released to the

surroundings

– Heat goes OUT of an object

– Usually associated with a decrease in temperature

A. How can we describe heat (thermal energy)

transfer?

B. What are the units for energy?

1. Joules: SI unit of energy

– Raises the temperature of 1g of water 0.2390°C

2. Calories: Used in the US commonly as a

measure of energy in food

– Raises the temperature of 1g of water 1°C

C. What is specific heat capacity?

1. Specific Heat Capacity: C

p

2. A measure of how good or bad a substance is

at heating up or cooling down.

– Metals have a very LOW specific heat capacity ->

they get hot/cold quickly

– Water has a very HIGH specific heat capacity ->

takes a lot more energy to raise/lower the

temperature

Where do I find the formula for

specific heat capacity?

Note: Change in Enthalpy is the total change in heat.

Where do I find the specific heat (C

p

)?

• Note: The specific heat capacity of water is a

constant.

• This number does not change for water!

• Every material has its own specific heat capacity

that must be given to you to plug into a formula.

SCIENCE JOKE OF THE DAY

This

specific

heat for

steel won’t

change!!

Example #1: Q = m(ΔT)c

What is the amount of heat required, in joules,

to raise 92 g of water for a total temperature

change of 50°C?

Example #2: Q = m(ΔT)c

What is the amount of heat required, in calories,

to raise 92 g of water for a total temperature

change of 50°C?

D. How do I calculate the heat of

vaporization and heat of fusion?

1. Q = amount of energy (J or cal)

2. m = mass (grams)

3. ΔH

fus

or ΔH

vap

= depends on the substance and

must be given to you (kJ/kg)

Example #3: Q = m ΔH

vap

How much energy will it take to vaporize a

300kg sample of chloroform if the heat of

vaporization is 247 kj/kg?

Independent Practice

• Complete the problems on your worksheet ON

YOUR OWN for the first 10 minutes!

• For the second 10 minutes you may talk to your

partners to help you through your work!

• If you have a question…

1. Look at your beautiful notes

2. Ask a peer for a clarification or explanation (you

won’t learn if you just copy answers!)

3. Raise your hand and I’ll come by! (But only if you’ve

done 1 and 2 first! )

• When you finish your practice packet, complete

the vocabulary words for today!

Summary

• Copy and use the following sentence stems to

summarize the main points from today.

• Today we learned ____________.

• Both endothermic and exothermic process

_______.

• The main difference between endothermic

and exothermic process is ___________.

• The specific heat formula is similar to the

density formula because _______.

Exit Ticket

Once your exit slip is graded, write your mastery score on

your exit slip.

-> 1/5 = 20%

-> 2/5 = 40%

-> 3/5 = 60%

-> 4/5 = 80%

-> 5/5 = 100%

• Take out your schedule/mastery tracker and fill in the

exit ticket for 1.5!!

• REMEMBER, NEXT CLASS YOUR VOCABULARY PACKET

IS DUE AND YOU HAVE YOUR VOCABULARY QUIZ!!

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