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SESSION 2013-14

A
PROJECT REPORT ON
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF SUBMITTD BY
VED PRAKASH SHUKLA
B.COM VI SEM.
ROLL NO. 1432211
CANDIDATE DECLARATION
I, VED PRAKASH SHUKLA Student of B.COM VI SEM. here by
dec!re th!t the Pro"ect Re#ort ent$ted INFORMATION SYSTEM %h$ch $&
be$n' &ub($tted to . $& (y !uthent$c %or) record.
VED PRAKASH SHUKLA
B.COM VITH SEM.
ROLL NO. 1432211
GUIDE CERTIFICATE
*h$& $& cert$f$ed th!t the !bo+e &t!te(ent (!de by the c!nd$d!te $& true to the be&t of
(y )no%ed'e.
GUIDANCE
INSTITUTION CERTIFICATE
*h$& $& to cert$fy th!t VED PRAKASH SHUKLA h!& +$&$ted our In&t$tut$on for h$&
#ro"ect %or). Dur$n' the #ro"ect %or) h$& %or) !nd beh!+$or !re %!& &!t$&f!ctory.
D!te S$'n!ture..........................................
P!ce ,!(e................................................
De&$'n!t$on......................................
In&t$tut$on........................................
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It -$+e& $((en&e #e!&ure to e.#re&& (y he!rty 'r!t$tude to (y #ro"ect 'u$de
/////////.. -IMS, SA-AR for #ro+$d$n' $n+!u!be 'u$d!nce !nd content
encour!'e(ent throu'h out the #er$od of th$& %or).
It& #r$+$e'e to h!+e %or)ed under h$& e&tee(ed 'u$d!nce %$thout h$& ! round
&u##ort $t %oud be not #o&&$be to co(#ete %or) %$th$n &#ec$f$ed t$(e. H$& $n&$'ht fune&&
$nto the &ub"ect !nd cr$t$c! &u''e&t$on& !%!y& '!+e (e &$(#er %!y& to de!$n' %$th
#robe(&.
I !( !&o th!n)fu //////////////.. #ro+$d$n' ! f!c$$t$e& dur$n'
the cour&e of th$& #ro"ect.
VED PRAKASH SHUKLA
What is Media?
In general, "media" refers to various
means of communication. For
example, television, radio, and the
newspaper are different types of
media. The term can also be used as
a collective noun for the press or news
reporting agencies. In the computer
world, "media" is also used as a
collective noun, but refers to different
types of data storage options.
Computer media can be hard drives, removable drives (such as ip dis!s", C#$
%&' or C#$% discs, #(#s, flash memory, )*+ drives, and yes, floppy dis!s. For
example, if you want to bring your pictures from your digital camera into a photo
processing store, they might as! you what !ind of media your pictures are stored on.
,re they on the flash memory card inside your camera or are they on a C# or )*+
drive- For this and many other reasons, it is helpful to have a basic understanding
of what the different types of media are.
Media available:
.. /ewspapers
0. 'aga1ines
2. 3ellow pages
4. %adio
5. Television
Explanation of the different types of media with the advantages and
disadvantages:
Internet, newspapers face declining
readership and mar!et penetration. ,
growing number of readers now s!ip the
print version of the newspaper (and
hence the print ads" and instead read the
online version of the publication.
Magazines:
'aga1ines are a more focused, albeit more expensive, alternative to newspaper
advertising. This medium allows you to reach highly targeted audiences.
Advantages Disadvantages
6 ,llows for better targeting of audience, as you can
choose maga1ine publications that cater to your
specific audience or whose editorial content
speciali1es in topics of interest to your audience.
6 7igh reader involvement means that more attention
will be paid to your advertisement
6 +etter 8uality paper permits better color
reproduction and full$color ads
6 The smaller page (generally 9 : by .. inches"
permits even small ads to stand out
6 ;ong lead times mean that
you have to ma!e plans
wee!s or months in advance
6 The slower lead time
heightens the ris! of your ad
getting overta!en by events
6 There is limited flexibility in
terms of ad placement and
format.
6 *pace and ad layout costs
are higher
Yellow Pages:
There are several forms of 3ellow <ages that you can use to promote and advertise
your business. ,side from the traditional 3ellow <ages supplied by phone
companies, you can also chec! out speciali1ed directories targeted to specific
mar!ets (e.g. 7ispanic 3ellow <ages, +lac!s, etc."= interactive or consumer search
databases= ,udiotex or tal!ing yellow pages= Internet directories containing national,
local and regional listings= and other services classified as 3ellow <ages.
Advantages Disadvantages
6 >ide availability, as mostly everyone uses the
3ellow <ages
6 /on$intrusive
6 ,ction$oriented, as the audience is actually loo!ing
for the ads
6 ,ds are reasonably inexpensive
6 %esponses are easily trac!ed and measured
6 Fre8uency
6 <ages can loo! cluttered,
and your ad can easily get
lost in the clutter
6 3our ad is placed together
with all your competitors
6 ;imited creativity in the ads,
given the need to follow a pre$
determined format
6 ,ds slow to reflect mar!et
changes
adio:
&ffers a wide range of publicity possibilities. It is a mobile medium suited to a mobile
people. It reaches the bedroom and brea!fast table in the morning and rides to and
from wor! in the car, lulls us to sleep at night and goes along to the beach, to the
woods and on fishing trips, a flexibility no other medium can match.
Advantages Disadvantages
6 %adio is a universal medium en?oyed
by people at one time or another during
the day, at home, at wor!, and even in
the car.
6 The vast array of radio program
formats offers to efficiently target your
advertising dollars to narrowly defined
segments of consumers most li!ely to
respond to your offer.
6 @ives your business personality
through the creation of campaigns
using sounds and voices
6 Free creative help is often available
6 %ates can generally be negotiated
6 #uring the past ten years, radio rates
have seen less inflation than those for
other media
6 +ecause radio listeners are spread over
many stations, you may have to advertise
simultaneously on several stations to reach
your target audience
6 ;isteners cannot go bac! to your ads to go
over important points
6 ,ds are an interruption in the
entertainment. +ecause of this, a radio ad
may re8uire multiple exposure to brea!
through the listenerAs "tune$out" factor and
ensure message retention
6 %adio is a bac!ground medium. 'ost
listeners are doing something else while
listening, which means that your ad has to
wor! hard to get their attention.
!elevision:
, medium that permits the use of the printed world, spo!en word, pictures in motion,
color, music, animation and sound effects all blend into one message, possesses
immeasurable potency. Television has become a dominant force, the primary source
of news and entertainment and a powerful soapbox from which citi1ens protests can
be communicated to the nation and the world. This medium has greatly altered
national election campaigns and has diminished the role of the political parties.
Bvents made large by T( shape public opinion worldwide.
Advantages Disadvantages
6 Television permits you to reach large
numbers of people on a national or
regional level in a short period of time
6 Independent stations and cable offer
new opportunities to pinpoint local
audiences
6 Television being an image$building
and visual medium, it offers the ability
to convey your message with sight,
sound and motion
6 'essage is temporary, and may re8uire
multiple exposure for the ad to rise above
the clutter
6 ,ds on networ! affiliates are concentrated
in local news broadcasts and station brea!s
6 <referred ad times are often sold out far in
advance
6 ;imited length of exposure, as most ads
are only thirty seconds long or less, which
limits the amount of information you can
communicate
6 %elatively expensive in terms of creative,
production and airtime costs
"#!$D%&!"$# $' !E(E)"*"$# :
!elevision (!)" is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving
moving images that can be monochrome (blac!$and$white" or colored, with
accompanying sound. "Television" may also refer specifically to a television
set, television programming, television transmission.
The etymology of the word has a mixed ;atin and @ree! origin, meaning "far sight"C
@ree! tele(D EF ", far, and ;atin visio, sight (from video, vis- to see, or to view in the
first person".
Commercially available since the late .G0Hs, the television set has become
commonplace in homes, businesses and institutions, particularly as a vehicle
for advertising, a source of entertainment, and news. *ince the .GIHs the availability
of video cassettes, laserdiscs, #(#sand now +lu$ray #iscs, have resulted in the
television set fre8uently being used for viewing recorded as well as broadcast
material. In recent years Internet television has seen the rise of television available
via the Internet, e.g. i<layer and 7ulu.
,lthough other forms such as closed$circuit television (CCT(" are in use, the most
common usage of the medium is for broadcast television, which was modeled on
the existing radio broadcastingsystems developed in the .G0Hs, and uses high$
powered radio$fre8uency transmitters to broadcast the television signal to individual
T( receivers.
The broadcast television system is typically disseminated via radio transmissions on
designated channels in the 54J9GH '71 fre8uency band.
K.L
*ignals are now often
transmitted with stereo andMor surround sound in many countries. )ntil the 0HHHs
broadcast T( programs were generally transmitted as an analog television signal,
but in 0HH9 the )*, went almost exclusively digital.
, standard television set comprises multiple internal electronic circuits, including
those for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. , visualdisplay device which
lac!s a tuner is properly called a video monitor, rather than a television. , television
system may use different technical standards such as digital television (#T("
and high$definition television (7#T(". Television systems are also used for
surveillance, industrial process control, and guiding of weapons, in places where
direct observation is difficult or dangerous.
,mateur television (ham TV or ATV" is also used for non$
commercial experimentation, pleasure and public service events by amateur
radiooperators. 7am T( stations were on the air in many cities before commercial
T( stations came on the air.
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+istory
In its early stages of development, television employed a combination of optical,
mechanical and electronic technologies to capture, transmit and display a visual
image. +y the late .G0Hs, however, those employing only optical and electronic
technologies were being explored. ,ll modern television systems rely on the latter,
although the !nowledge gained from the wor! on electromechanical systems was
crucial in the development of fully electronic television.
The first images transmitted electrically were sent by early
mechanical fax machines, including the pantelegraph, developed in the late
nineteenth century. The concept of electrically powered transmission of television
images in motion was first s!etched in .9I9 as the telephonoscope, shortly after the
invention of the telephone. ,t the time, it was imagined by early science fiction
authors, that someday that light could be transmitted over copper wires, as sounds
were.
The idea of using scanning to transmit images was put to actual practical use in
.99. in the pantelegraph, through the use of a pendulum$based scanning
mechanism. From this period forward, scanning in one form or another has been
used in nearly every image transmission technology to date, including television.
This is the concept of "rasteri1ation", the process of converting a visual image into a
stream of electrical pulses.
In .994 <aul @ottlieb /ip!ow, a 02$year$old university student in @ermany, patented
the first electromechanical television system which employed a scanning dis!, a
spinning dis! with a series of holes spiraling toward the center, for rasteri1ation. The
holes were spaced at e8ualangular intervals such that in a single rotation the dis!
would allow light to pass through each hole and onto a light$
sensitive selenium sensor which produced the electrical pulses. ,s an image was
focused on the rotating dis!, each hole captured a hori1ontal "slice" of the whole
image/ip!owAs design would not be practical until advances
in amplifier tube technology became available. The device was only useful for
transmitting still "halftone" imagesNrepresented by e8ually spaced dots of varying
si1eNovertelegraph or telephone lines ;ater designs would use a rotating mirror$
drum scanner to capture the image and a cathode ray tube (C%T" as a display
device, but moving images were still not possible, due to the poor sensitivity of
the selenium sensors. In .GHI %ussian scientist +oris %osing became the first
inventor to use a C%T in the receiver of an experimental television system. 7e used
mirror$drum scanning to transmit simple geometric shapes to the C%T.
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)sing a /ip!ow dis!, *cottish inventor Oohn ;ogie +aird succeeded in
demonstrating the transmission of moving silhouette images in ;ondonin .G05,
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and of moving, monochromatic images in .G0P. +airdAs scanning dis! produced
an image of 2H lines resolution, ?ust enough to discern a human face, from a double
spiral of lenses.
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This demonstration by +aird is generally agreed to be the worldAs
first true demonstration of television, albeit a mechanical form of television no longer
in use. %emar!ably, in .G0I +aird also invented the worldAs firstvideo
recording system, "<honovision"C by modulating the output signal of his T(
camera down to the audio range, he was able to capture the signal on a .H$inch
wax audio disc using conventional audio recording technology. , handful of +airdAs
A<honovisionA recordings survive and these were finally decoded and rendered into
viewable images in the .GGHs using modern digital signal$processing technology.
KPL
In .G0P, 7ungarian engineer QRlmRn Tihanyi designed a television system utili1ing
fully electronic scanning and display elements, and employing the principle of
"charge storage" within the scanning (or "camera"" tube.
KILK9LKGLK.HL
+y .G0I, %ussian inventor ;Son Theremin developed a mirror$drum$based
television system which used interlacing to achieve an image resolution of .HH lines.
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,lso in .G0I, 7erbert B. Ives of +ell ;abs transmitted moving images from a 5H$
aperture dis! producing .P frames per minute over a cable from >ashington, #C to
/ew 3or! City, and via radio from >hippany, /ew Oersey.
Kcitation neededL
Ives used
viewing screens as large as 04 by 2H inches (PH by I5 cm". 7is sub?ects
included *ecretary of Commerce 7erbert 7oover.
In .G0I, <hilo Farnsworth made the worldAs first wor!ing television system with
electronic scanning of both the pic!up and display devices, which he first
demonstrated to the press on . *eptember .G09.
>%@+ claims to be the worldAs oldest television station, tracing its roots to an
experimental station founded on Oanuary .2, .G09, broadcasting from the @eneral
Blectric factory in *chenectady, /3, under the call letters >0T+. It was popularly
!nown as ">@3 Television" after its sister radio station. ;ater in .G09, @eneral
Blectric started a second facility, this one in /ew 3or! City, which had the call
letters >0T+*, and which today is !nown as >/+C. The two stations were
experimental in nature and had no regular programming, as receivers were
operated by engineers within the company. The image of a Felix the Cat doll,
rotating on a turntable, was broadcast for 0 hours every day for several years, as
new technology was being tested by the engineers.
In .G2P the &lympic @ames in +erlin were carried by cable to television stations in
+erlin and ;eip1ig where the public could view the games live.
In .G25 the @erman firm of Fernseh ,.@. and the )nited *tates firm Farnsworth
Television owned by <hilo Farnsworth signed an agreement to exchange their
television patents and technology to speed development of television transmitters
and stations in their respective countries.
&n 0 /ovember .G2P the ++C began transmitting the worldAs first public regular
high$definition service from the (ictorian ,lexandra <alace in north ;ondon. It
therefore claims to be the birthplace of television broadcasting as we !now it today.
In .G2P, QRlmRn Tihanyi described the principle of plasma display, the first flat panel
display system.
'exican inventor @uillermo @on1Rle1 Camarena also played an important role in
early television. 7is experiments with television (!nown as telectroescopUa at first"
began in .G2. and led to a patent for the "trichromatic field se8uential system" color
television in .G4H, as well as the remote control.
,lthough television became more familiar in the )nited *tates with the general
public at the .G2G >orldAs Fair, the outbrea! of >orld >ar IIprevented it from being
manufactured on a large scale until after the end of the war. True regular
commercial television networ! programming did not begin in the ).*. until .G49.
#uring that year, legendary conductor ,rturo Toscanini made his first of ten T(
appearances conducting the /+C *ymphony &rchestra, and Texaco *tar Theater,
starring comedian 'ilton +erle, became televisionAs first gigantic hit show.

%*E "# E(E&!$#"& MED"A "# $% ("'E
This policy applies to Blectronic 'edia, and all documents, recordings, and other data
contained in or recoverable from such media, used within the City.

,. Blectronic 'edia. Blectronic 'edia includes all types of electronic e8uipment,
such as telephones, computers, computer peripherals, photocopy machines, fax
machines, computer software, laptops, voice mail, electronic mail (e$mail", Internet
access, >orld >ide >eb access, online information service, and any other electronic
type of e8uipment that the City deems as Blectronic 'edia.

+. Information. Information consists of messages, communications, e$mails,
files, records, recordings images, graphics, transmissions, signals, programs,
software, and any other data used in any way with Blectronic 'edia.

C. )se. )se is the operation or application of Blectronic 'edia to affect
information in any way. Bxamples include using Blectronic 'edia to search, produce,
calculate, forward, print, publish, receive, recover, send, transmit, apply, run, control,
download, upload, record, copy, rename, access, alter, delete, erase or store any
information

#. City and <ersonal B8uipment. This policy applies to all Blectronic 'edia
provided by the City, as well as Blectronic 'edia used on City property for City
business purposes.
The City of ;odi supports the use of technology to improve customer service,
promote public participation in local government, increase staff productivity, reduce
operating costs and facilitate collaborate government$related wor!.

)niversal service and access to technology for all residents are a priority for the
City of ;odi. The City encourages employee use of Blectronic 'edia when it
enhances service, wor! productivity, research capabilities and other benefits to the
City.

Blectronic 'edia are provided for the use of City employees for City business$
related purposes. ,s with all City resources, Blectronic 'edia are provided for City
business only, and should not be used for any extraneous commercial, political, or
religious purposes unless otherwise specifically authori1ed by the City 'anager.
,. <rivacy. Bmployees have the right to !now that information they use is
not confidential or private. ,ll of the CityVs Blectronic 'edia and information relating to
these Blectronic 'edia are City property. ,lthough employees have passwords that
restrict access to their computers, the City reserves the right to access this
information. >hile Blectronic 'edia files and information will not be monitored as a
routine matter, the City reserves the right to do so without prior notification. +y way of
example, the City may electronically scan mail messages for the presence of specific
content such as viruses or passwords and to maintain system integrity. The City will
also respond to legal processes and fulfill any obligations to third parties.

&nly #epartment 7eads or higher can authori1e the reading of electronic media
information for employees under their supervision. )nauthori1ed monitoring or
reading of the CityVs systems or their contents violates this City policy.

It should be noted that even though information or files may have been deleted
from Blectronic 'edia, it does not mean they have been permanently erased from the
system.

In addition to the foregoing provisions, employee should be aware that certain
!inds of Blectronic 'edia Information may be sub?ect to record retention re8uirements
or disclosure, either as Wpublic recordsX or pursuant to discovery in litigation.

+. B$mail. The CityVs policy on privacy and Blectronic 'edia applies to e$
mail. B$mail is a fast and convenient way to communicate. Its use is encouraged
throughout the City. The ease with which e$mail facilitates communication can often
lead to problemsC the recipient of a message can forward it to any number of other
individuals and messages may accidentally be delivered to the wrong recipient. The
possibility of such events necessitates that employees exercise care when composing
and sending e$mail messages.

C. &nline Information *ervice )se. <eriods of access to online information
services such as the Internet and the >orld >ide >eb should be !ept to a reasonable
amount of time, as determined by the #epartment 7ead. ,s with all City resources,
online access is provided for City business only, and should not be used for any
extraneous commercial, political, or religious purposes unless otherwise specifically
authori1ed by a #epartment 7ead.

#. *oftware Installation. >ith a shared wide$area networ! (>,/", the
installation of software on one part of the >,/ has the potential to affect other users
on the >,/. Computer viruses are of particular concern. ,dditionally, the law
re8uires that all software residing on any City computer must be licensed. In order to
maintain networ! security, improve reliability, ensure that software is licensed, and
reduce the potential of introducing a computer virus, employees must receive approval
from their #epartment 7ead andMor Information *ystem #irector before adding
software programs to City computers.

B. Copyright <rotection. )nder most circumstances, it is illegal to
reproduce or distribute copyrighted information without permission from the copyright
owner. These copyright laws are applicable to much of the information available over
the internet. The City and its employees are re8uired to abide by the federal copyright
laws and to abide by all licensing agreements.

,ppropriate uses of Blectronic 'edia for City
business purposes include, but are not limited to, the followingC

to perform tas!s assigned by the supervisor or
#epartment 7ead=
to enhance performance of ?ob functions=
to facilitate communication of information within the
City of ;odi=
to coordinate meetings of individuals, locations and
resources of the City of ;odi=
to communicate with outside organi1ations as re8uired
in order to perform an employeeVs ?ob function=
to provide educational opportunities during non$
business hours and with prior approval from #epartment
7ead.

("M"!* $' !E(E)"*"$#
Pla,e limits on television
*tudies have shown that students who watch too much television are more li!ely to
receive poor grades. Time in front of the television can be better spent studying for a
test, reading a boo! or even wor!ing on a pu11le with family members. Try to set
limits li!e theseC
&ne hour of T( each school night is a good limit to consider. ,nother approach is to
reduce your childAs T( viewing from three hours to two$$then later try reducing it to
?ust one hour. *upervise your childrenAs T( viewing and guide their decisions on
which programs are appropriate to watch. (For more information on parental
guidelines and the T( rating system, visit www.tvguidelines.orgM". Barly in the
evening, chec! the T( listings and identify programs that may have violent or
otherwise inappropriate themes. If you receive cable television, The #iscovery
Channel and its related channels, The ;earning Channel and ,nimal <lanet, have
programs that are both entertaining and educational.
W+A! "* #EW*
The /ews 'anual has definitions of what news is (see the lower lin!s on the right",
but here we share with you some other peopleAs opinions on the sub?ect. *ome of
them are clear and reasonable while others are deeply cynical. *ome are given as
practical advice after years of professional experience while others are ?ust witty. +ut
all are worth thin!ing about.
&ne brief disclaimerC >ith many 8uotes there are ongoing disputes about the
precise wording, translation or attribution. &ne of the oldest 8uotes here is (oltaireAs
famous defence of freedom of speech, yet arguments continue about it to this day.
>hile we have tried to give the most accurate version of each 8uote and its
attribution, we always stand to be corrected through the Contact )s page. Bn?oy.
P$&E** $' !E(E&A*! $' #EW* "# !E(E)"*"$#
The T(4 and ++C 7# satellite uplin! truc!s at the I,,F >orld ,thletics
Championships in 7elsin!i, Finland
'icrowave truc!s seen transmitting. 'odern news employs these truc!s extensively.
E#- is a broadcasting (usually television" industry acronym which stands
for ele,troni, news gathering. It can mean anything from a lonebroadcast
?ournalist reporter ta!ing a single professional video camera out to shoot a story, to
an entire television crew ta!ing a production truc! orsatellite truc! on location to do
a live television news report for a remote broadcast newscast.
&EA!"$# $' E#-
The term B/@ was created as television news departments moved from film based
news gathering to electronic field production (BF<" generated images on video tape.
,ll film, of course, re8uired a trip through a chemical bath (processing" before it
could be viewed and edited. This generally added at least an hour from the time the
film arrived bac! at the television station until it was ready to be seen by the viewing
public (as in the cliche "Film at ..Y"". Film was also difficult to handle, sub?ect to
easy scratching and other damage. Film editing was done by hand on what was
!nown as "color reversal" film, meaning there was no negative film. Bdits could not
be changed without cutting segments out of the film itself. It was not that rare for the
splices used for film edits to brea! on the air when the film was being sent through a
T( stationAs film chain for inclusion innewscasts. >hile a wonderful medium for the
creation of motion pictures and documentaries,filmma!ing presented many
difficulties for use in local television news. The use of film in news gathering virtually
disappeared by the end of the .G9Hs.
It meant that the news gathering and the reporting process became one continuous
cycle, with little pause between arriving at a news site and putting the story on the
air. Coupled with live microwave andMor satellite truc!s, reporters were able to show
live what was happening, bringing the audience into dramatic news events. This
also led to reporters being live at news scenes long after news events had occurred,
such as a reporter standing on an empty, dar!ened street five hours after a fire had
been extinguished. %eporters now find themselves standing in front of empty office
buildings to add "drama" and authority to a scene that occurred many hours
previously.
It can be argued that /ews organi1ations li!e C// and others could not have
existed successfully during the era of film technology. ,s it happened, C// began
its news transmissions in .G9H, ?ust as B/@ was starting to come into its own. The
technology had not yet been fully perfected and integrated with satellites and
microwave, which accounted for some of the clumsiness of early C//
transmissions. 7owever, B/@ proved to be a crucial development for all television
news. >ith news recorded on )$matic 2M4" videocassette recorders ((C%" was far
easier to video edit, duplicate and distribute and, over time, control of the technical
processes passed from highly trained broadcast engineersto television
producers and television writers. This made the process less complicated, 8uic!er
and easier. In the film era, news stories were often transferred to bul!y two inch
video tape for distribution and playbac!, which made the content cumbersome to
access, something that an all news channels re8uires repeatedly.
>hile it brought many advantages to television news gathering and reporting, at first
B/@ involved considerable compromise. Contrary to popular belief, B/@ cameras
and recorders were heavier and bul!ier than most film e8uipment. ,n B/@ camera
re8uired a heavy 2M4 inch cassette tape recorder to be carried along side it. It was
virtually impossible for a camera operator to run carrying such e8uipment, whether
away from danger or toward a news event. Bditing was done on expensive, dual
video tape arrangements with an edit controller in the middle. Bach scene recorded
on tape had to be searched out on the master recording, which meant that news
stories were often slapped together with whatever could be managed by air time.
!e,hnology developments
The development of +etacam and other compact half inch cassette formats allowed
the integration of the field recorder into a single, shoulder mounted arrangement
which was a ma?or advancement in news gathering, while producing lifelong bac!
in?uries to many who carried the cameras on a daily basis
Kcitation neededL
. >ith these
professional "camcorders", there was no longer a need for an umbilical cord
between the camera and recorder. ,s a result, television crews could more safely
venture into dangerous situations, li!e war 1ones and hurricanes. The development
of cameras and recorders that could record in digital formats in the .GGHs and early
0HHHs meant that various new forms of recording devices could be used,
including hard disc drives, solid state media and much smaller video tape formats,
such as #(C<ro.
It seems li!ely the B/@ will fade as a terminology for news gathering, since virtually
all news is gathered and processed electronically. ,t the start, producers and
assignment editors would say, "IAm sending the B/@ crew", to distinguish from those
still using film. The term was also used so that those discussing electronic methods
would clearly understand that they were not discussing film.
D"''EE#! &+A##E(* "# "#D"A
"ntrod.,tion
In this article, we are going to have a loo! at the different television channels that
exist in the country of India that are pertaining to the Bnglish language, 7indi
language, news channels, regional networ!s as well as the international channels
that are broadcasted in India.
&olors !)
This is a 7indi language entertainment channel that is
based in 'umbai which showcases the movie in
+ollywood, television serials in 7indi etc. It is a part of the
(iacom .9 family. *ome of the most popular television
serials in 7indi are broadcasted on this most popular
television channel in India.
DD #ational
The history of this channel ##. dates bac! to a long s
tretch of history since the year .G5G when there was
transformation of ,ll India %adio to this channel on T(.
This is a public sector television broadcaster in India.
In the year .G9Hs, this television channel gained huge
popularity on a nationwide scale in Indian masses.
This caused the increased commerciali1ation as well
as the increased revenue in the form of the
advertisements showcased on this channel.
*ony Entertainment &hannel
This channel is owned by the 'ulti *cree n 'edia <vt. ;td. and by far is the most
watched and successful 7indi channel for entertainment amongst the Indian people.
This entertainment channel company has many sub channels by the name of *,+
T(, *BT India 'ax, ,T/, ,nimax, *BT <IT, etc. This channel was launched in the
month of &ctober in .GG5.
*tar Pl.s
This is a
general entertainment T(
channel in 7indi. They
mainly cater the
entertainment of the
Indian masses in the form
of the family dramas as well as the telefilms. This was amongst the very first of the
Indian entertainment channels that was launched since the decentrali1ation of the
Indian economy. This channel, formerly !nown as *tar T( is broadcasted not only in
India, but also the various countries on the regions of *outh Bast ,sia as well as
,ustralia and /ew ealand.
/ee !)
This is an Indian satellite based television channel
that is owned as well as operated by the ee
/etwor!. This caters the language re8uirements in
7indi as well as has many of the sub channels which
are operated in the various regional languages in the
different states of India. The channel is part of the
Bssel @roup. The 7# channel format of the ee T( was launched in the year 0H.H.
M!) "ndia
This is an Indian version of the 'usic T( and
hence it is a channel speciali1ing in the various
aspects of music that is concerned with Indian trends as well as the international
ones. This channel is a ?oint venture of the (iacom Inc. and the /etwor! T( .9 on a
5HM5H profit sharing ratio. This is supposed to be one of the oldest music channels
that exist in ,sia. This channel has viewership not only in India, but in the various
parts of the Indian subcontinent li!e *ri ;an!a and +angladesh.
Aa0 !a1
This is a 04 hour 7indi news channel that is
run by the T( Today /etwor! ;imited in India.
This channel en?oys the viewership of
approximately 45 million people in India. This
is one of the largest news channels that are
privately owned. This was free to air news
channel till the year 0HHP in India. >hen it comes to the broadcasting in the )*,, it
is a pay channel that is available on the Bcho*tarVs #I*7 networ!.
#D!) "ndia
This is the premier news channel that is
broadcasted in the 7indi language
in India. This T( channel is owned
by the /ew #elhi Television ;td. and
also the I+C Corporation. There are
many of the noted personalities in the area of the Indian ?ournalism that
are associated with this news channel in India. This news channel was established
by noted Indian ?ournalist <rannoy %oy and his wife %adhi!a %oy. This news
channel is broadcasted in India as well as abroad.
"2# 3
It is a 7indi based news channel that is run by the
television group called as the /etwor! .9 based
in 'umbai. This news channel was formerly
ac8uired from Oagran T(. In the year 0HHP, this
news channel was rebranded to its current name
as I+/ I. This team of news channel has a set of
well e8uipped and successful media ?ournalists and television reporters. This
channel was formerly !nown as Channel I.
!E# *ports
This is a shorted form of the Ta? Bntertainment /etwor! and is widely broadcasted in
,sia. The main forms of sports that are catered by this sports channel in India are
cric!et, football and wrestling. This channel was launched in the year 0HH0. This
news channel has subscription from 55 million homes in Indian subcontinent, 'iddle
Bast and also continents of Burope and ,sia.
456 !EM* A#D &$#D"!"$#*
A u&er& (u&t re!d the *er(& !nd Cond$t$on& before !cce&&$n' !nd u&$n' the
Med$! *ru&t 0eb&$te.
By !cce&&$n' !nd u&$n' th$& %eb&$te you !'ree to be e'!y bound by the *er(&
!nd Cond$t$on& &et out beo%. If you do not %$&h to be bound by the&e *er(&
!nd Cond$t$on& #e!&e do not !cce&& !nd or u&e (ed$!tru&t.or'.
Other *er(& !nd Cond$t$on&
2. Righ!
*he $nfor(!t$on cont!$ned on th$& %eb&$te $& o%ned by, $cen&ed or !uthor$&ed
to Med$! *ru&t. *he co#yr$'ht $n the te.t, !rt%or), 'r!#h$c& !nd $(!'e& on the
%eb&$te $& o%ned by Med$! *ru&t e.ce#t %here !ttr$buted to !n !tern!t$+e
&ource.
3. W"##"$i%!
*he u&er undert!)e&1
2!3 th!t he or &he %$ ony +$e% the $nfor(!t$on for h$& or her o%n #r$+!te
#ur#o&e !nd %$ not #ub$&h, re#roduce, &tore or retr!n&($t !ny of the
$nfor(!t$on cont!$ned on (ed$!tru&t.or'4
2b3 !c)no%ed'e& !nd under&t!nd& the e.cu&$on of $!b$$ty !nd d$&c!$(er
#ro+$&$on& cont!$ned $n C!u&e 54
2c3 not to u&e the $nfor(!t$on or the d$&co&ed $nfor(!t$on for !ny un!%fu or
un!uthor$&ed #ur#o&e4
2d3 th!t he or &he &h! not u&e or $nterfere %$th the %eb&$te, $nfor(!t$on or
d$&co&ed $nfor(!t$on other th!n $n !ccord!nce %$th th$& !'ree(ent !nd %$thout
$($t!t$on $n &uch ! %!y &o th!t ! or #!rt of the %eb&$te, $nfor(!t$on or
d$&co&ed $nfor(!t$on $& or coud be $nterru#ted, re#roduced, &tored,
retr!n&($tted, #ub$&hed, d!(!'ed, rendered e&& eff$c$ent, corru#ted or $n
!ny%!y $(#!$red4
2e3 not to u&e the %eb&$te, $nfor(!t$on or d$&co&ed $nfor(!t$on $n !ny (!nner
%h$ch con&t$tute& !n $nfr$n'e(ent of !ny th$rd #!rty r$'ht& 2$ncud$n' but not
$($ted to r$'ht& of co#yr$'ht tr!de (!r) or conf$dent$!$ty34
2f3 th!t he or &he &h! not u&e the %eb&$te to tr!n&($t !ny (!ter$! for the
#ur#o&e& of #ub$c$ty, #ro(ot$on !nd6or !d+ert$&$n' %$thout the #r$or %r$tten
con&ent of Med$! *ru&t4
2'3 th!t $n the e+ent $t h!& !ny r$'ht, c!$(, or !ct$on !'!$n&t !ny other u&er or
other th$rd #!rty !r$&$n' out of the u&e of the %eb&$te $t &h! #ur&ue &uch r$'ht,
c!$( or !ct$on $nde#endenty of !nd %$thout recour&e to Med$! *ru&t4
2h3 th!t ! $nteectu! #ro#erty r$'ht& 2$ncud$n' %$thout $($t!t$on co#yr$'ht,
tr!de (!r)& !nd ! other r$'ht&3 %h!t&oe+er $n the $nfor(!t$on !nd %eb&$te
&h! re(!$n +e&ted $n the Med$! *ru&t !t ! t$(e&4
2$3 !nd !c)no%ed'e& th!t Med$! *ru&t h!& no ob$'!t$on to #ro+$de !ny
$nfor(!t$on to en&ure the u&er $& !be to u&e #ro+$de !nd6or !cce&& the
$nfor(!t$on, the d$&co&ed $nfor(!t$on !nd the %eb&$te4
2"3 to $nde(n$fy !nd )ee# $nde(n$f$ed the Med$! *ru&t !'!$n&t ! c!$(&,
$!b$$t$e&, d!(!'e&, co&t& !nd e.#en&e& $ncud$n' e'! fee& 2on ! &o$c$tor !nd
o%n c$ent b!&$&3 !r$&$n' out of !ny bre!ch or ($&u&e of the $nfor(!t$on,
d$&co&ed $nfor(!t$on, %eb&$te or of the u&er7& ob$'!t$on& under th$& !'ree(ent.
&.2E!!%$i"' &("'i)i*"i+$,-
The #iploma in Creative and 'edia is an exciting new 8ualification for young
people in Bngland aged .4$.G, who want to learn about some of the )QAs most
dynamic industries.
The #iploma covers a rich range of disciplines including film, T( and fashion.
*tudents of the #iploma will gain !nowledge, experience and s!ills enabling them to
master processes common to all creative industries. There are also opportunities to
specialise.
)sing the lin!s belowC
(earners and parents can ma!e an informed choice about the #iploma,
Employers can see how they can benefit from being involved,
&onsortia can discover whatAs involved in delivering the #iploma,
Awarding $rganisations can find resources and documents around the
delivery of the #iploma.
&.3 HOW TO APPL.,-
If youre interested in joining the new social media effort with A&P please
take a look at our job openings and then contact me on the social network of
your choice for your best chance. Of course you could go the standard route of
submitting your resume via the corporate website but thats not e!hibiting
your social media chops now is it" #ou would get my attention much more
$uickly if you follow me% friend me on some social network dig around and
find my email address and send it directly to me. And then &weet me or
'acebook me and tell me to look for your resume. (ecause I may have
different criteria than the )* +epartment and perhaps your resume will have
a better chance in getting you the interview if you contact me directly. If you
submit to the corporate site Ill only see your resume if the )* +epartment
think its worth my while. And for a social media job Id much rather see you
e!hibit some e!pertise in the field. (elieve me Ill take you much more
seriously that way. And Id think that anyone hiring for any job in social
media would feel the same way.
As a matter of fact thats how I got this job in first place. A friend of mine said
A&P was looking and would I be interested" I took a look and decided that it
would be very interesting to work with this company so my resume was
networked into the right people. I never applied for the job on the corporate
website.
&.4 FACILIT. FOR ONLINE SUBMISSION OF FORM
&./ T.PE OF APPILICATION FORM 0ENCL FORMAT 1