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Franois Lhomme 22.02.2005 Franois Lhomme 22.02.

2005
MiCOM P441, P442 & P444
Distance Protection
Complet technical Overview = 180 Slides opened
rom a total o !4" slides
Lattes, February 2005
#ran$ois %&OMM'
Mar(etin) Prod*cts
Franois Lhomme 22.02.2005 Franois Lhomme 22.02.2005
Presentation
Complet technical Overview = 180 Slies opene
!rom a total o! "#5 slies $ in the mile o! the bottom o! each slie %
Franois Lhomme 22.02.2005 Franois Lhomme 22.02.2005
PROGRAM - J1 :
Date 1"+!
,-'., ',/ Presentation 00100
MiCOM range: family, functions 10.15
MiCOM P!0: organisation "# $ features 10.%0
Algorit&ms, 'istance calculation 11.00
Coffee (rea) 11.%0
Algorit&ms, 'istance calculation ,*&ase sel,+irect 11.!5
,unc& 1-.!5
Algorit&ms, 'istance calculation ,*&ase sel,+irect 1!.00
Coffee (rea) 15.%0
Algorit&ms, 'istance calculation ,*&ase sel,+irect 15.!5
Conclusion 1..15
&rainin' course
(istance )*CO) +###
PROGRAM - J- :
Date 12+!

Algorit&ms, 'istance calculation ,*&ase sel,+irect /.%0
Coffee (rea) 11.%0
Algorit&ms, 'istance calculation ,*&ase sel,+irect 11.!5
,unc& 1-.!5
0uestions1Ans2ers 1!.00
Coffee (rea) 15.%0
3oft2are 4ersions 'escri*tion 15.!5
MiCOM 31 - 2or)s&o* 15.%0
Conclusion 1..%0
&rainin' course
(istance )*CO) +###
PROGRAM - J% :
Date 13+!

MiCOM 31 - A**lication customer $ 6ac)-u* fonctions /.%0
Coffee (rea) 11.%0
MiCOM 31 - A**lication customer $ 6ac)-u* fonctions 11.!5
,unc& 1-.!5
MiCOM 31 - A**lication customer $ 6ac)-u* fonctions 1!.00
Coffee (rea) 15.%0
MiCOM 31 - 15.!5
Conclusion 1..%0
&rainin' course
(istance )*CO) +###
PROGRAM - J! :
Date 18+!

+iscussion: 0uestions1Ans2ers /.%0
Coffee (rea) 11.%0
Conclusion 11.!5
,unc& 1-.!5
+iscussion: 0uestions1Ans2ers 1!.00
8n' of session 1..00
&rainin' course
(istance )*CO) +###
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 8 8
4*siness
Overview
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 9 9
Presentation Overview
Our Solution
Our )ission
Our )ar,ets
Our O!!er
Our -rans
Our +resence
Our (i!!erentiators
Our +artnerships
Our +osition
Our .e!erences
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 10 10
O*r Sol*tion to 5o*r 6eeds
/our Concern
The efficient !eratin f yur ener"y infra#tructure an$
%ar&et# in a re'iab'e an$ #ecure envirn%ent
/ou 0ee
( bu#ine## !artner with !rven techn'"y, an inte"rate$
aut%atin fferin" an$ a 'ca' !re#ence
1e O!!er
(n innvative an$ c%!'ete ran"e f !r$uct#, #y#te%# an$
#u!!rt that i# 'ea$in" the %ar&et in a fa#t-ev'vin"
envirn%ent
Leader in Real-Time Energy Infrastructure Leader in Real-Time Energy Infrastructure
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 11 11
O*r Mission
T be the 'ea$in" wr'$wi$e !rvi$er f )ner"y
Mana"e%ent *'utin# thru"h aut%atin an$ infr%atin
#y#te%#, in$u#try-'ea$in" #ftware, %i##in-critica'
e+ui!%ent an$ #ervice# fr the efficient, re'iab'e an$ #ecure
!eratin f ener"y infra#tructure an$ %ar&et#
Reliable Solutions for A Secure Infrastructure Reliable Solutions for A Secure Infrastructure
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 12 12
O*r Mar(et
Expertise in Your Business Expertise in Your Business
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 1, 1,
O*r Complete Oer
Reliable Technology Reliable Technology
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 14 14
O*r 4rands
e2terra
C%!'ete #uite# f ener"y an$ %ar&et %ana"e%ent #ftware
+3CiS
C%!rehen#ive ran"e f nu%erica', $i"ita' an$ cnventina'
#ub#tatin aut%atin #y#te%#
)iCO)
*uite f hi"h an$ %e$iu% v'ta"e !rtectin re'ay#
-i&.O0*CS
Fu'' ran"e f e'ectrica' %ea#ure%ent $evice#
omplementary !roduct "amilies omplementary !roduct "amilies
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 15 15
O*r 7orldwide Presence
Seattle 8 )ner"y - Mar&et Mana"e%ent *y#te%#

San 9ose 8 )ner"y Mar&et Partici!ant#
4ethlehem 8 Mea#ure%ent - Meterin"
#arnham 8 )ner"y .etai' *ett'e%ent#
%attes 8 *ub#tatin Cntr' *y#te%#
Mass5 8 Te'ec%%unicatin#

Staord 8 Prtectin - Cntr' /012M13



Centers o ':cellence
9 Manufacturin" Center#
20 )n"ineerin" Center#

44 *ervice Center# - .e%te Office#



%ocal Deliver5 Points
Ease of #oing Business Ease of #oing Business
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 14 14
0
10
20
"0
#0
3.453 64 3-- Siemens &elvent OS* 3CS
-est maintenance 71) customers
-est technical approach 71) customers
-est implementation scheule 71) customers
-est value !or money 71) customers
-est overall per!ormance 71) customers
-est maintenance *O8s
-est technical approach *O8s
-est implementation scheule *O8s
)ost value !or money *O8s
-est overall per!ormance *O8s
O*r Dierentiators
3ource: 9e2ton-84ans Researc& 101-00%
The !artner $ho #eli%ers &n Your 'eeds The !artner $ho #eli%ers &n Your 'eeds
;*alit5,
-elia<ilit5
& S*pport
'ase o Doin)
4*siness + ':pertise
=echnolo)5
-eactivit5 to
6ew 6eeds
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 15 15
59:
9#:
;5:
0: 20: #0: 90: 80: 100:
Support
Systems
+roucts
Three (nnua' 6#er# 7ru!# n three cntinent#
8rth (%erica
)ur!e
(u#tra'a#ia
Cu#t%er# a''cate a !rtin f .-9 0ur#
*trn" in#ta''e$ cu#t%er ba#e
7'ba' Cu#t%er ("ree%ent#
C*stomer Partnerships
$orld lass ustomer Relationships $orld lass ustomer Relationships
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 18 18
=echnolo)5 Partnerships
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 19 19
1:
!%
/5
550
1/.! 1/:! 1//! -00!
8: 1 in )ner"y Mar&et *y#te%#
8: 2 in Prtectin .e'ay#
5000 C'ient#
,0 Mi''in )ur (nnua' .-9 ;nve#t%ent
12< (nnua' 7rwth #ince 1954
%eadership Positionin)
The Reliability of a $orld(ide Industry Leader The Reliability of a $orld(ide Industry Leader
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 20 20
>=he ,*tomation 4*siness ?nit is 5o*r dedicated partner in <rin)in) 5o* the
power o /= technolo)5 or the eicient and sec*re operations o 5o*r
inrastr*ct*re@
,aurent +emortier,
;$+ Automation 8ecuti4e <ice Presi'ent
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 21 21
MiCOM Distance8 &istor5 & People

> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 22 22
=he P441+P442+P444 Distance
=he AProtection =eamCD
=ran>ois ,&omme ?Mar)tg@
+amien ;&olomier
?Mar)eting +irector@
,aurence 6ar(e ?Mar)g@
;&ierry 6ar'ou ?R$+ manager@
Patricia Mor4an ?R$+@
+enis =roment ?R$+@
=a(rice Gilles ?R$+@
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 2, 2,
':pertise in the Distance Protection ield111
+<L0
4+3C "000
4+3C "800
LF=+
Le'acy
+<L+ $1;80%
>uaramho
Optimho
)iCO) +##? $Since 2001%
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 24 24
=echnolo)5 evol*tion
4lectro2
mechanical
)ono2!unction
.elays
1;#021;@0
3nalo'ue
)ono2!unction
.elays
1;@021;;0
(i'ital
*nte'rate
*4(
1;;022000
(i'ital
*nte'rate
Communicatin'
*4(
200022010
A
8
.
*
8=.*
8=<5B.1
&otal 2001272005 = )ore than 9000 relaysC
=he P441+442+444 MiCOM in the 7orld
Franois Lhomme 22.02.2005 Franois Lhomme 22.02.2005
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 24 24
MiCOM ran)e Presentation

LF=+1#1
)enerat
or
!rotecti
on
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 25 25
MiCOM -ela5s
)iCO) +roucts
3 complete ran'e o! protective relays, rac,s an cubicles !or
all applications, inte'rate into a i'ital control system or
stan2aloneD
)iCO) + Series E +rotection .elays
)iCO) ) Series E )easurement proucts !or accurate
meterin'
)iCO) C Series E Substation mana'ement proucts
)iCO) S Series E +C support So!tware an substation
control +ac,a'es
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 28 28
MiCOM -ela5s
&ardware & Sotware Platorm
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20 Series
"0 Series
#0 Series
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 29 29
MiCOM Protection Portolio
+;00 +;00 FreFuency +rotection .elays FreFuency +rotection .elays
+800 +800 3utoreclose, -rea,er Fail DDD 3utoreclose, -rea,er Fail DDD
+100 +100 Feeer )ana'ement .elays Feeer )ana'ement .elays
+@00 +@00 -usbar +rotection Schemes -usbar +rotection Schemes
+900 +900 &rans!ormer +rotection .elays &rans!ormer +rotection .elays
+500 Line (i!!erential an 8nit Schemes +500 Line (i!!erential an 8nit Schemes
+#00 +#00 (istance +rotection .elays (istance +rotection .elays
+"00 +"00 6enerator +rotection .elays 6enerator +rotection .elays
+200 +200 8niversal )otor +rotection .elay 8niversal )otor +rotection .elay
!*xx + distance
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,0 ,0
MiCOM -ela5s
&ardware & Sotware Platorm
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"0 Series
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> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,1 ,1
MiCOM -ela5s
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> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,2 ,2
)iCO) protections cover all areas o! the power system
MiCOM -ela5s
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> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,, ,,
MiCOM Prod*ct Selection
or Solidl5+eectivel5E)ro*nded
S5stems
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,4 ,4
Desi)n Pedi)ree8
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> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,5 ,5
,ppro:imate F*idance8
Speed
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> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,4 ,4
,ppro:imate F*idance8
Characteristics
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> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,5 ,5
MiCOM Distance Protection
Characteristics ,vaila<le
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> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,8 ,8
P441+P442+P444 S*mmar5
8niversal istance protection 2 with a proven installe base
5ersatile istance relay !or all H5 4H5 applications
4?tremely secure 2 (elta techniFues, !or !ault etection,
irectionality an phase selection
+atente al'orithms use in " 'enerations o! numerical relays
Overhea line an Gor cable applications $I01GIO2GIO"%
4!!icient use o! panel space 2 siJe #0&4 $+##1% or 90&4 $+##2%
or 80&4 $+###% G (i!!erent *GO capacity
)enu2riven so!tware !or settin' an analysis
*ntuitive settin'
Common +?#0 trainin' moules
Comprehensive bac, up protection
+##1G##2G###
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,9 ,9
P4!3 S*mmar5
(istance protection !or application up to an incluin' the hi'hest
system volta'es
(esi'n e?perience 2 "r 'eneration o! numerical istance protection
!rom the same esi'n team
+roven 5K, *77 an shape =K startin' !or hi'h sensitivity
=K starter acts as a loa bliner, to ensure stability when no trippin' is
wante
)aintains an mana'es the stability o! the 'ri
Out o! step trippin' to control system separation
3n ieal complement to +##? !amily relays in Lual2mainM istance
protection applications
3Nustable to any system 'rounin' conition
*nte'rate -ay Control available
1all mountin' case available
3vance protection an control in a )oular plat!orm
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> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 40 40
E% ?re4erse offset@
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-re%erse.
P44! MiCOMho S*mmar5
)ho an Fuarilateral elements available within one evice 2
lineGcable type an len'th not neee at time o! orerin'
Loa bliner avois spurious or cascae trippin', without
esensitisin' the protection
Selectable mho characteristic polarisin' permits control over
e?pansion 2 allowin' support !or compensate an non2
compensate applications
&he relay sel!2sets Jone reaches !rom protecte line ata 2
Lsimple settin' moeM
Superimpose $*% !ault an power swin' etection reFuires no
starters to be set
4asy to set an apply
S8- C/CL4 .elay K 1 cycleC
Hi'h Spee (istance +rotection (esi'ne !or 4ase o! 3pplication
+##"
+##"
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 41 41
=5pical &.+'&. Prod*ct Selection
C&oose P!! family or P!%. to gi4e full-sc&eme relay *erformance.
C&oose P!!11P!!- for a multifunction 'istance relay for general
a**lications. Offers Fua'rilateral c&aracteristics, 2it& a *ro4en
installe' (ase of *ro'ucts .+e'icate' test tool ?Egra*&@ -
commissioning mo'e
Choose +#"0CG+#""G+#"5G+#"; !or applications in
solilyGe!!ectively 'roune an isolateG+eterson coil
compensate systems $istribution networ,%D
C&oose P!%-1P!%/ as one-(o solutions 2&ere integrate' (ay control
is reFuire'.
C&oose P!%. for &ig& s*ee' tri**ing on "<18"< systems, 2&ere
Fua'rilateral1*olygon c&aracteristics are *referre'.
C&oose P!!% 2&ere guarantee' su(-cycle tri**ing is reFuire' ?m&o or
Fua'rilateral@, an' in any m&o c&aracteristic a**lications.
)i? an match in ual main protection applicationsC
+##2 +##"
+#"@
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 42 42
Ge5 Sellin) PointsC
+SL = 6raphical easy solution aapte to client application
4asy to set an apply $)iCO) S12 +SL 2 ='raph 2 )onitor bitO%
)oular Capacity o! *GO 2 )a?i = +### o!!ers 2# *nputs G #9 Outputs
S8- C/CL4 .elay K 1 cycleC
Frienly toolsE 4vent G (ist .ec2Fault report 2 )aintenance coe
8niversal Optos !iltere or not $optionnal%
Fast &rip or static output contact $optionnal%
Stability urin' +swin' 2 Out O! step $+revent blac, outC%
)ulti port o! communication
*4C 91850 comin' soon
0C*& options $available in +##1G2G# !or site trial%
Hot Ieys in !ront panel
See +##"
Hi'h Spee (istance +rotection (esi'ne !or 4ase o! 3pplication
+##2 +##"
+#"@
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 4, 4,
MiCOM P44: Series E Prod*ct Selector
&ype o! Characteristic
Mho ;*ad MhoH;*ad DonIt Care
&ypical Operatin' &ime
#ast8
013 to 1 c5cle
Jprice premi*mK
Feneral P*rpose8
018 to 112" c5cle
-inary *GO .eFuirements
8in+14o*t 12in+21o*t 24in+!2o*t 24in+42o*t
Harware P &rip Options
*s *.*62-, ethernet, 2n rear comms,
or sin'le pole trippin' reFuireA
-inary *GO
12in+24o*t 24in+!2o*t
Les 6o
+##2
+###DDQ +###DDI
+##"D3D +##"D-D
+##1
MiCOM P441, P442 & P444
Distance Protection
C21:
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 45 45
P441+P442+P444 S*mmar5
8niversal istance protection 2 with a proven installe base
5ersatile istance relay !or all H5 4H5 applications
4?tremely secure 2 (elta techniFues, !or !ault etection, irectionality
an phase selection
+atente al'orithms use in " 'enerations o! numerical relays$LF(C, +<L0,
4+3C%
(esi'ne !or overhea line an Gor cable applications $I01GIO2GIO"%
4!!icient use o! panel space 2 siJe #0&4 $+##1% or 90&4 $+##2% or 80&4
$+###% G (i!!erent *GO capacity
)enu2riven so!tware !or settin' an analysis
*ntuitive settin'
Common +?#0 trainin' moules
Comprehensive bac, up protection
+##1G##2G###
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 44 44
Overview o Protection #eat*res
(irectional 0e'ative +hase SeFuence $#9%
-ro,en Conuctor $#9-C%
Channel 3ie &rip Lo'ic $(istance an
(irectional 4arth Fault $85221G8529@0%
8ner P Over 5olta'e $5;, 2@%
(irectional P 0on (irectional +hase an
4arth Fault Overcurrent $50G51G9@+0%
-rea,er Failure $50-F%
(istance +rotection $21%
+ower Swin' -loc,in'G&rippin' $98%
1ea, *n!ee $2@1*%
&O.GSO&F $50HS%
&hermal Overloa $ #;%
Stub bus protection $502Stub%
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 45 45
Overview o Operatin) #*nctions J1K
Settin' 6roups
5& G C& G C5& Supervision
Fault Locator
3uto .eclose P Chec, Synchronism
C- Control P )aintenance
+ro'rammable Scheme Lo'ic
)oreO
&rip Circuit Supervision $@#&C% via +SL
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 48 48
*nstrumentation
+ost Fault 3nalysis
Communications
H)* *nter!ace
+reviousO
Sel! (ia'nostics P Commissionin'
Harware Construction
Overview o Operatin) #*nctions J2K
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 49 49
&ardware Presentation
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 50 50
FromO to
#irst ,-'., Shipments in Octo<er 2004
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 51 51
MiCOM Protection
+;00 FreFuency .elay
+800 3uto2reclose .elay, Fail C-
+100 )& Start +rotection
+@00 -usbar (i!!erential +rotection
+900 (i!!erential +rotection o! &rans!ormer
+500 Line or cable (i!!erential +rotection
+#00 (istance +rotection
+"00 6enerator +rotection
+200 )otor +rotection
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 52 52
Presentation
Protection #*nctions
(istance +rotection
# Settin' 'roups
*nverse irectional )a? * G 0on (irectional
(irectional )a? * G 0on (irectional
C- Fail
3uto2.eclosure P 5olta'e supervision
&eleaction (istance Schemes
(4F G +1 G *07
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 5, 5,
Presentation
,dditional #*nctions
&C G &+ G &C& Supervision
Faults Locator
Control P Supervision
$+SL% Lo'ic Scheme +ro'rammable
Conuctor brea, pic, up
)a? 8 P )in 8
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 54 54
Presentation
,dditional #*nctions
*nstrumentations
Fault analysis s,ills
Communications
)aterial
*nter!ace )anG)achine
(ia'nostic ai
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 55 55
&ardware Presentation
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 54 54
,vaila<le Models
P441 E &o*sin) 8@ J40='K
&hree2phase trip an auto2reclosure
8 opto2insulate inputs
1# output contacts
9 0GO
8 CGO
OptionE
Chec, Sync
Conventional *nstrument &rans!ormer or 0C*& $*4C91850 2 ; 2 2%
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 55 55
,vaila<le Models
P442 E &o*sin) 12@ J20='K
&hree2phase an sin'le phase trip an auto2reclosure
19 opto2insulate inputs
21 output contacts
; 0GO
12 CGO
OptionsE 5olta'e control 2 *.*62- synchroniJation
5olta'e control !or Chec, Sync
*.*62- synchroniJation
*4C908@0 2 5 G 10" Optical Fibre Converter
Conventional *nstrument &rans!ormer or 0C*& $*4C91850 2 ; 2 2%
Secon rear communication portG*nter)*CO)G8C32
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 58 58
,vaila<le Models
P444 E &o*sin) 12@ J80='K
&hree2phase an sin'le phase trip an auto2reclosure
2# opto2insulate inputs
"2 $up to #9ma?2moel H% output contacts
2# 0GO
8 CGO
OptionsE
5olta'e control !or Chec, Sync
*.*62- synchroniJation
*4C908@0 2 5 G 10" Optical Fibre Converter
Conventional *nstrument &rans!ormer or 0C*& $*4C91850 2 ; 2 2%
Secon rear communication portG*nter)iCO)G8C32
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 59 59
-ated .al*es o
/np*ts+O*tp*ts
3nalo'ue 5olta'e trans!ormersE
5olta'e: 80 2 1#05ca ph2ph
3nalo'ue Current tran!ormersE
(ual C& inputs 13G53
Or (i'ital 3cFuisition !or 0on Conventional *nstrument &rans!ormers
$Optical Fibre *nput 2 *4C 91850 2; 2 2 protocol%
3u?iliary 5olta'eE
1; 2 95 5cc
"@ 2 1505cc or 2# 2 1105ca
8@ 2 "005cc or 80 2 2955ca
Fiel volta'e $!or e?ternal use% E #85 (C
$current limitE 112 m3%
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 40 40
8,19 or 2# opto universal inputs $2# 2 2505cc%
90GO, 8CGO Outputs or ;0GO, 12CGO or 2#0GO, 8CGO
Contact characteristicsE

)a,e an CarryE "03 urin' "s

Carry continuous E 53

-rea,in' CapacityE 92D51 with LG.=#0ms


1atcho' Contact 10GO, 10GC
-rea,in' Capacity E 151 with LG.=#0ms
-ated .al*es o
/np*ts+O*tp*ts
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 41 41
&ardware ,rchitect*re
JP441 & P442K
*.*62- +C-
$+##2%
-0C .?1 &?1
&rans!ormer
+C-
# 5&, # &C
8 opto inputs P
isolate P
3nalo'ue +C-
19 bits 3(C
.elay +C-
8 Outputs
$+##2%
8 .elay
+C-
isolate
inputs
$+##2%
+ower
Supply
.elay
+C-
8
Outputs
9#2way ribbon cable $-8S%
)ain processor P 8ser inter!ace
$(S+ &)S "20C"" 150 )HJ%
-attery SI2 SI1
Co2processor +C-
$(S+ &)S "20C"" 150 )HJ%
Secon ComD port
$+##2%
-0C SI# SI5
Or
.elay
+C-
8
Outputs
-ac,up +rotection
(isturbance .ecorer
Fi?e Scheme Lo'ic
+ro'rammable Scheme Lo'ic
CommD an H)* )ana'ement
Samples acFuisition
4lectronic Filterin'
&hreshol calculation
(istance 3l'orithms
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 42 42
&ardware ,rchitect*re
JP444K
&rans!ormer
+C-
# 5&, # C&
8 opto inputs P
3nalo'ue +C-
19 -its 3(C
+ower
Supply
+C-
.elay +C-
8 Output
contacts
9#2way ribbon cable $-8S%
Co2processor +C-
$(S+ &)S "20C"" 150 )HJ%
Opto
input
+C-
8 *nputs
.elay
+C- 8
opto
inputs
.elay +C-
@ Output
contacts
.elay +C-
@ Output
contacts
.elay +C-
8 Output
contacts
.elay +C-
8 Output
Contacts
.elay
+C-
8 Ouput
contacts
)ain processor an user
inter!ace +C-
$(S+ &)S "20C"" 150 )HJ%
-attery SI2 SI1
-ac,up +rotection
(isturbance .ecorer
Fi?e Scheme Lo'ic
+ro'rammable Scheme Lo'ic
CommD an H)* )ana'ement
Samples acFuisition
4lectronic Filterin'
&hreshol calculation
(istance 3l'orithms
*.*62- +C-
$+##2%
-0C .?1 &?1
Secon ComD port
$+##2%
-0C SI# SI5
Or
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 4, 4,
MiCOM P444
&ardware Description
Mi1OM P222 ! Fron3 O4ened Mi1OM P222 ! Fron3 O4ened
56
52 *ay ri--on 7a-le
Fron3 4anel in7luded
Main Pro7essor 8
'ser #n3er)a7e 9oard
:Mi1OM P;20 series s3andard< :Mi1OM P;20 series s3andard<
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 44 44
MiCOM P444
&ardware Description
Mi1OM P222 ! Posi3ion o) 3he -oards inside 3he 7ase Mi1OM P222 ! Posi3ion o) 3he -oards inside 3he 7ase
52
Po*er su44ly module
in7luded
one ou34u3s -oard
O43ional #R#,!9 9oard
1o!4ro7essor 9oard
(rans)ormer Module
6 O43o 'ni=ersal 9oards
> in4u3s 4er -oard
22 in4u3s 4er P222 22 in4u3s 4er P222
2 Ou34u3 9oards
> OMRO0 relays 4er -oard
/0 /0 ou34u3s 4er P222 :22 n?o 8 > 7?o< ou34u3s 4er P222 :22 n?o 8 > 7?o<
@2 P19 .relays A @2 P19 .relays A*1 *1 ou34u3s in & =ersion ou34u3s in & =ersion
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 45 45
MiCOM P441E442E444
&ardware Description
Mi1OM P222 ! Rear =ie* Mi1OM P222 ! Rear =ie*
55
Po*er su44ly
7onne73ion
/ /Ter%ina' b'c& Ter%ina' b'c& 83 83
Bs3 Rear 1ommuni7a3ion
4or3 R$2>5
O!tina' O!tina'
Fi-re o43i7 7onne73ion
#E150>.0!5!B06
:0o3 )or P22B<
B" ? 5" 7urren3 8 =ol3age
in4u3 3erminals
/ /Ter%ina' b'c& Ter%ina' b'c& C3 C3
O43ionCProgramma-le digi3al
ou34u3s :2;.relays< 7onne73ion
/ /Ter%ina' b'c& Ter%ina' b'c& 7 - 03 7 - 03
Programma-le digi3al
ou34u3s :62 relays< 7onne73ion
/ /Ter%ina' b'c& Ter%ina' b'c& =, >, ? - M3 =, >, ? - M3
Programma-le
22 digi3al in4u3s 7onne73ion
/ /Ter%ina' b'c& Ter%ina' b'c& 9, ) - F3 9, ) - F3
O!tina' O!tina'
#R#,!9 9oard
:0o3 )or P22B<
Other# !tin#@ Other# !tin#@
- ethernet - ethernet
-2n$ rear -2n$ rear
-;nterMic% -;nterMic%
:0o3 )or P22B<
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 44 44
P44: ':istin) -an)e E
.ersion Compati<ilit5
32D9
32D11
Har re!
3
+SL re! 512 cells
3"D0
3"D"
3 -
C1D0
C1D1
6 2 H 2 Q
3#D0
3#D8
-1D0
-1D#
C
C2D?
+SL re! 102# cells
0#3
093
09-
0@3
0@-
0;C
0206
020H
0"06
0"0H
0"0Q
3reva
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 45 45
3ition o! the Fault Location Cell in *4C908@025G10" protocol
Optional 2n rear communication port $Courier protocol only%E
Lan'ua'eE
Courier always
+hysical lin,sE
.S 2"2
or
.S #85 $polarity sensitive%
or
I2-us $non polarity sensitive%
Secon rear port
Courier +ort since 3#D0
$.S2"2G.S#85%
*nter)iCO) $.S2"2%
available since C1D0
*.*62-
SI5
SI#
+##?AA@AAAAAAAAA E 2n rear port only
+##?AA8AAAAAAAAA E 2n rear port an *.*6-
P44: Phase 2 Development
%ast .ersion ,418 & more E Since ,*)*st 2004

> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 48 48
#R#,!9 9oard
1or3e7 sele73ionCP22DDD;
:0o o43ions )or P22B<
MiCOM P442E444
&ardware Description
JOptionsK
Rear =ie* ! 1ommuni7a3ions o43ions Rear =ie* ! 1ommuni7a3ions o43ions
5>
Fi-re o43i7 7onne73ion
#E150>.0!5!B06
2n rear port
Courier
$.S2"2G.S#85%
*nter2)iCom
+ort $.S2"2%
o43i7al 4or3
1o44er 4or3
E3herne3
B0?B00M&E
Bs3 Rear 4or3
1or3e7 sele73ionCP22DDDDD;
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 49 49
*nte'ration o! the new C+8 boar at 150 )HJ
Optional !ast static outputs
Optional #9 outputs in +###2moel 20HG "0H
3ition o! a settable time elay to prevent maloperation ue to Jone evolution
!rom Jone
n
to Jone
n21
by C- operation
3ition o! a tilt characteristic !or Jone 1 $inepenent settin' !or phase2to2
'roun an phase2to2phase%D Settable between #5S
3ition o! a tilt characteristic !or Jone 2 an Jone + $common settin' !or
phase2to2'roun an phase2to2phaseG=2 an =p%D Settable between #5S
3itional ((- si'nal 2 (istance 4arth Fault
*nte'ration o! special .&4 wea, in!ee lo'ic $+3+%
*nte'ration o! uncompresse isturbance recorer with resolution o! 2#
samples
3ition o! Control input -uttons $LHot,eysM%
5ersion C1D0 2 available !rom 3pril 200#
5ersion C2D2 2 available !rom Sept 200#
P44: Phase 2 Development
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 50 50
*nte'ration o! *nter)iCO) $serial communication !rom relay to relay%
3ition o! an inepenent &p &ransmission &ime (elay !or
3ie &rip Lo'ic !or (4F
)oi!ication o! (4F &ime (elay step !rom 100 ms to 2ms
S-4F with # sta'es $*071 to *07#%
4?traction o! the internal &.3C4 $winows tool not yet available%
P44: Phase 2 Development
5ersion C1D0 2 available !rom 3pril 200#
5ersion C2D2 2 available !rom Sept 200#
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 51 51
+ower Swin' Lo'ic moi!ieE
(etection is now realise by usin' phase2to2phase loops to ensure a
better phase2to2'roun resistance covera'eD
3itional (elta Fault (etector use urin' +ower Swin' conition to
unbloc, istance element by " phase !ault inepenently o! the !aulty
current valueD
3itional (elta Fault Selector use to eterminate the !aulty phase i! a
!ault occurs urin' power !ault $previous !irmware !orce a " phase !ault
selection%D
.elay is able to i!!erentiate an out2o!2step conition !rom a stable power
swin' $si'n o! .%D Out2o!2step trippin' can be realise by +SLD
3 trip can be issue usin' +SL when a certain number o! Out2o!2step
orGan stable power swin' conitions has been reache
=one (ecision is !iltere by +ower Swin' Lo'ic urin' &O. conition to
avoi an instantaneous trip i! reclosin' on power swin' conition an i!
any o! 9 loops within the istance characteristicD
P44: Phase 2 Development
5ersion C1D0 2 available !rom 3pril 200#
5ersion C2D2 2 available !rom Sept 200#
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 52 52
.ecent .&(S testin' have been conucte to veri!y the C&
reFuirements with the new version C1D0E
C& Inee +oint 5olta'e !or +hase Fault (istance +rotection
5, I
.+3
? *
F =1
? $1B <G.% D $.
C&
B .
L
%
1hereE
5, = .eFuire C& ,nee point volta'e $volts%,
I
.+3
= Fi?e imensionin' !actor = always 0D9
*
F =1
= )a?D seconary phase !ault current at =one 1
reach point $3%,
<G. = +rimary system reactance G resistance ratio,
.
C&
= C& seconary winin' resistance $%,
.
L
= Sin'le lea resistance !rom C& to relay $%D
C= -eM*irements
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 5, 5,
.ecent .&(S testin' have been conucte to veri!y the
C& reFuirements with the new version C1D0E
C& Inee +oint 5olta'e !or 4arth Fault (istance +rotection
5, I
.+3
? *
Fe =1
? $1B <eG.e% D $.
C&
B 2.
L
%
1hereE
I
.+3
= Fi?e imensionin' !actor = always 0D9
*
Fe =1
= )a?D seconary earth !ault current at =one 1 reach point
$3%,
<eG.e = +rimary system reactance G resistance ratio !or earth loopD
C= -eM*irements
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 54 54
)oel "0HG"06G"0Q $Cortec moi!ie%
&hermal overloa !unction $as +5#0% 2 ual time constant
)easurement "E
&hermal status
3larm E 50: 2 100:
Lo' curves
(ual alarm between copper P oil
8C32 2 (0+"GIbusG)o-usG10"O 918502821 soon
*nput synchro inclue in the ((-
Opto con!i'uration 2 withGwithout !ilterin' 2 inclue or not in the events
(4F settin'sE *0 .ev Factor $0,9 2 1%
"0QE (ual Optos !or chinaTs mar,et
5ersion C1D0 2 available !rom 3pril 200#
5ersion C2D2 2 available !rom Sept 200#
P44: Phase 2 Development
.ersion C21:
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 55 55
,nalo)*e to
Di)ital Conversion and #ilterin)
3nalo'ue to
i'ital
conversion
2# samples
per cycle
Lowpass
!ilter
1 Sample
elay
F*.
current
erivative
i
u
u
i
iGt
2# Samples per cycle $7-1D?%
*
8
3nti
aliasin'
1 Sample
elay
Lowpass
!ilter
3nti aliasin'
#8 Samples per cycle $7-1D?%
F samplin' !or (istD.ecD is 2# samplesGcycle
since version -1D<
2# Samples per cycle $3<%
12 Samples per cycle $3<%
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 54 54
,nalo) to Di)ital Conversion and #ilterin)
J/(A3 24 samples E />B1CD3 48 Samples K
3nalo'ue P 0umerical Filters
CD3D0
3nalo' Filters
3nti2aliasin'
3nalo'
Channels
(i'ital Filters
Fc KK "00HJ
1 sample G 2
&DFD(
Harmonic 1 an 2 $50 an 100HJ%
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 55 55
,nalo) to Di)ital Conversion and #ilterin)
,o2 Pass =ilter: freFuency cut out
150 "G, -50 "G, %50 "G, 500 "G $ 500 "G
0 1 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 4 0 0 5 0 0 6 0 0
0
0 . 2
0 . 4
0 . 6
0 . 8
1
1 . 2
1 . 4
F r q u e n c e
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
F i l t r e p a s s e - b a s
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 58 58
,nalo) to Di)ital Conversion and #ilterin)
J/(A3 12 samples E />B1CD3 24 Samples K
(elay
Low +ass
(erivative Filter
Hi'h +ass Filter
+ositP0e'at seFD Filter
0umerical Filters
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 59 59
,nalo) to Di)ital Conversion and #ilterin)
"ig& Pass =ilter: freFuency cut out
0 "G, %00 "G $ !5- "G.
0 1 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 4 0 0 5 0 0 6 0 0
0
0 . 5
1
1 . 5
2
2 . 5
F r q u e n c e
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
F i l t r e p a s s e - h a u t
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 80 80
,nalo) to Di)ital Conversion and #ilterin)
+eri4ate' =ilter: freFuency cut out
0 "G, %00 "G $ !5- "G.
0 1 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 4 0 0 5 0 0 6 0 0
0
2 0 0
4 0 0
6 0 0
8 0 0
1 0 0 0
1 2 0 0
F r q u e n c e
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
F i t r e d r i v a t e u r
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 81 81
&ardware Overview
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 82 82
MiCOM &ardware E ':ample o #ront &o*sin)
.iew 80=' J1K
LC( 2 " lines
+ro'rammable
L4(s
Fi?e
L4(s
-ottom Flap )as,in' .S2"2 CO) port an -attery
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 8, 8,
3vailable *n!ormations o! Front Housin'
MiCOM &ardware E ':ample o #ront &o*sin)
.iew 80=' J2K
Serial 0S an
CO.&4C Coe
ienti!yin' the
prouct
0avi'ation
3rrow
-atteryE
(isturbance 4vent
)aintenance )essa'e
SI1E (- ; points
2 Settin's G +SL
2 4?traction $evtG+ert%
2 .eset Les
SI2E (- 25 points
2 &e?t eitor
2 Flash 5ersion
Consultation18ffacement
Com*te Ren'us
- "ot Heys
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 84 84
MiCOM &ardware
=eminal 4loc(s -ear .iew
.ear 5iew o! the Housin' #0290280&4
3nalo'ical
)oule
*nputsGOutputs
)oule
4thernet
)oule
)oule
*.*6-
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 85 85
Protection #eat*res
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 84 84
P440
Distance & Other Protection #*nctions
&hermal
Overloa
8ner G Over
5olta'e
Switch on to
Fault P &rip
on .eclose
+ower Swin'
-loc,in'
-ro,en
Conuctor
(etection
0e'ative
(irectional SeFuence
Overcurrent
(istance
+rotection
(irectional G
non (irectional
Overcurrent
Channel 3ie
(istance G (4F
(irectional G
non (irectional
4arth Fault
-rea,er
Failure
Out O! Step
Lo'ic
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 85 85
Distance Protection
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 88 88
P440
Distance Protection
+arallel Line
(istance
+rotection
3l'orithms
&rip on .eclose
Switch on to !ault
=one 1 4?tension
Loss o! Loa
Channel
3ie &rip
1ea, *n!ee
an 4cho )oe
+3+
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 89 89
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Proper #a*lt Clearance
Fault (etection
Secure +hase Selection
4volvin' Faults
+ower Swin's
(irectional Security
Fle?ible (istance =ones
Fast Fault Clearance
0on2+ilot P +ilot Lo'ic $(istance 3ie Schemes%
"y'ro0ue(ec-Cana'a
;96-Malaisie
8PRA-C&ine
O98-Maroc
;erna-Atalie
8nel-Atalie
Po2erGri'-An'es
88;C-8gy*te
,a*em-MeiFue
-6rIGil
J 0ualifie' in many utilities
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 90 90
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
#*ll Scheme Distance Protection
Five >uarilateral =ones
$&ilt in option%
=#
.
<
(irectional Line
!i?e atE 2 "0S
$(eltas P Classical%
="
=1
=2
3itional FwD G
.evD+ro'rammable
=one p
=p
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 91 91
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Distance Scheme
(istance operation settable $21+, 216 or both%
=one operation settable $=1<, =2, =p, =" P =#%
=p (irection pro'rammable
=one overlappin' or Jone selection
Sin'le or three pole trippin' $+##2 P +###%
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 92 92
/mpedance Meas*rement ,l)orithms
- and N Meas*rement
Compute . an < !or 9 impeance loops
$=
30
, =
-0
, =
C0
, =
3-
, =
-C
, =
C3
%
Line characteristicsE
. = line resistance $G,m%
< = line reactance $G,m%
Fault characteristicsE
( = calculate position o! the !ault $,m%
* = !ault current on the !aulty phase$s% as
measure by the relay $3%
.F= apparent !ault resistance $%
5 = $. B N<% ? * = linear volta'e rop on
the line $5G,m%
8 = volta'e measure by the relay $5%
Q = !ault current throu'h the !ault
resistance$3%

*r = resiual current
8 =( ? 5 B .
Fault
? Q
=( ? $. B N<% ? * B .
Fault
? Q
=
Source
=
Line
(
8
*
Q
.
Fault
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 9, 9,
Settin) ,pplied or Fro*nd
#a*lt Detection
=ault
A
A
E
3
<
A
<
3
R
1 Gn'
E
1 Gn'
,ine Groun' Reac&
Groun' ,oo* Mo'el
Ra
Ka
E1
R1gn'1
1L)E9
E1 gn'
320 =one 1 shownE
A
A
,ine Resi'ual Reac&
)En E
1 Gn'
A
9
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 94 94
/mpedance Meas*rement ,l)orithms
- and N Meas*rement
+hase2to2'roun loop impeanceE
5
0
= =
L
? ( ? $*

B ,
O
? "*
0
% B .
Fault
? Q
with = $3, - or C%
3n Q = "*
0
urin' the !irst 2 cycles an then Q = *

5
1
5
2
5
"
=
s
=
s
i
"
i
1
=
L
=
s
i
2
=
L
=
L
5
"0
5
20
5
10
,
S
=
S
,
L
=
L
.
Fault
Location o! .elay
=
Fault
=
L
.
Fault
G$1 B I
0
%

=
0
2 =

" ? =

,
0
=
< Gphase
. Gphase
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 95 95
/mpedance Meas*rement ,l)orithms
- and N Meas*rement
For phase2to2earth loop impeanceE
5
30
= =
L
? ( ? $*
3
B ,
O
? "*
0
% B .
Fault
? Q
5
-0
= =
L
? ( ? $*
-
B ,
O
? "*
0
% B .
Fault
? Q
5
C0
= =
L
? ( ? $*
C
B ,
O
? "*
0
% B .
Fault
? Q
? # ,
O
resiual compensation !actors = 12 loops
&he erive !aulte phase current is use !or measurement
a!ter the !irst 2 cycles !or !ault in Jone 2, ", + an # because
the Jero seFuence current "*
0
can be erroneous ue to a sin'le2
phase C- openin' in the networ,D
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 94 94
/mpedance Meas*rement ,l)orithms
- and N Meas*rement
For phase2to2earth loop impeanceE For phase2to2earth loop impeanceE
1D1D1D C3.3C&4.*S&*>84 )O0O 354C =O04 + 353L
,one*
,one2
,one/
,one!
,one0
E*
E%
E-
E1
H0%
H0*
H0-
H01
R%G
R*G
R-G
R1G
3
R
E1, E-, E%, E*, E! : limites 'es Gones 1, -, %, *, !
R1G, R-G, R%G, R*G : *ortIe en rIsistance 'es Gones 1, -, %, *, ! *our les
'Ifauts mono*&asIs.
H01, H0-, H0%, H0* : coefficient 'e com*ensation rIsi'uelle 'es Gones 1,
-, %, *
,es Gones 1, -, % et P *eu4ent a4oir 'es *ortIes en rIsistances et 'es coefficients 'e com*ensation
rIsi'uelle 'iffIrents. Les Jones " et # ont les mUmes portVes en rVsistances et coe!!icients e
compensation rVsiuelle. ,es coefficients 'e com*ensation rIsi'uelle 'I*en'ent 'e la
caractIristiFue 'e la ligne sur c&aFue Gone.
angle 'e ligne :

pg
Arg
Z Zx
=
+

2
3
1 0
*
oM E
0
est lNim*I'ance &omo*olaire *our la Gone et
E
1
est lNim*I'ance 'irecte.
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 95 95
Settin) ,pplied or Phase
#a*lt Detection
=ault
A
A -
A
6
E
3
<
A6
<
3
R
1 P&
1 -
E
1 P&
,ine P&ase Reac&
Positi4e 3eFuence Mo'el
Ra(
Ka(
E1
R1*&1-
E1 *&
32- =one 1 shownE
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 98 98
/mpedance Meas*rement ,l)orithms
- and N Meas*rement
+hase2to2phase loop impeanceE
5

= =
L
? ( ? *

B .
Fault
G2 ? Q
with = $3-, -C or C3% an with Q = *

R
=ault
5
1
5
2
5
"
=
s
=
s
=
s
i
"
i
2
i
1
=
L
=
L
=
L
5
"0
5
20
5
10
Location o! .elay
=
Fault
=
L
.
Fault
G2 < Gphase
. Gphase
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 99 99
/mpedance Meas*rement ,l)orithms
- and N Meas*rement
For phase2to2phase loop impeanceE
5
3-
= =
L
? ( ? *
3-
B .
Fault
G2 ? Q
5
-C
= =
L
? ( ? *
-C
B .
Fault
G2 ? Q
5
C3
= =
L
? ( ? *
C3
B .
Fault
G2 ? Q
= " loops
&he protection has 15 measurement loopsD
&he measurements are true reactance measurements,
iDeD insensitive to e!!ects o! loa current an !ault
resistanceD
3ll 15 loops will be compute every 0,9; ms at 90 HJD
$2# samples per cycle%
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 100 100
/mpedance Meas*rement ,l)orithms
- and N Meas*rement
For phase to phase loop impeanceE For phase to phase loop impeanceE
1D1D1D C3.3C&4.*S&*>84 -*+H3S44 354C =O04 + 353L
E%
E*
E-
E1
R%P&
R*P&
R-P&
R1P&
,one*
,one/
,one0
,one!
,one2
R
3
E1, E-, E%, E*, E! : limites 'es Gones 1, -, %, *, !
R1P&, R-P&, R%P&, R*P& : *ortIe en rIsistance 'es Gones 1, -, %, * *our les
'Ifauts (i*&asIs.
+ans le cas 'Nune caractIristiFue (i*&asIe, toutes les Gones ont le mOme angle 'e ligne :
lNargument 'e E
1
?im*I'ance 'irecte@.
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 101 101
/mpedance Meas*rement ,l)orithms
- and N Meas*rement
6auss2Seiel
$Last mean sFuare iterative mathematics metho%

8 ? Q 2 (
021
? 5 ? Q
$Q%W
.
(V!aut 0
=
Fault resistance .
Fault
E

8 ? 5 2 .
!ault 021
? 5 ? Q
$5%W
(
0 =
Fault istance (

E
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 102 102
/mpedance Meas*rement ,l)orithms - and N
Meas*rement E
7au##-*ei$e'
7au##-*ei$e'
V 1 = ZL . D . I 1 + RF. IF1 + 1
V i = ZL . D . I i + RF. IFi + i
V n = ZL . D . I n + RF. IFn + n
( i)
2
= (V i - ZL . D . I i - RF. IFi)
2
(Last mean square method)
( i)
2
/ (ZL.D) = 0 et ( i)
2
/ RF = 0
( i)
2
/ (ZL.D) = (V i-ZL.D.I i-RF. IFi)
2
/ (ZL.D) - Deriate !a"!u"ation -
= #2.(V i-ZL.D.I i-RF. IFi).(-I i)=0$
( i)
2
/ RF = (V i-ZL.D.I i-RF. IFi)
2
/ RF
= #2.(V i-ZL.D.I i-RF. IFi).(-IFi) =0$
(V i . I i) = ZL.D. (I i)
2
+ RF. (I i . IFi)
(V i . IFi) = ZL.D. (I i . IFi) + RF. (IFi)
2
ZL.D
n
= [ (V i . I i) RF
n-1
. (I i . IFi)] / (I i)
2
RF
n
=[

(V i . IFi) - ZL.D
n-1
. (I i . IFi) ] / (IFi)
2
;&e a(o4e system is sol4e' (y iterati4e met&o':
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 10, 10,
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
(ual istance protection al'orithms
&he operation o! )iCO) +##0 is base on the combine
use o! two types o! al'orithms !or a !ault etectionE
3l'orithm 1E Fault etection usin' superimpose
FuantitiesE (elta al'orithm $StartupE A or < %
3l'orithm 2E Fault etection usin' resistanceGreactanceE
Conventional al'orithm $StartupE min= %
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 104 104
(elta al'orithms
&he patente al'orithm has been proven with 15 years o!
service at all volta'e levelsD
&he +##0 relay has ultimate reliability o! phase selection
an irectional ecision !ar superior to stanar istance
techniFuesD
&he elta al'orithms are base on transient componentsD
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Delta ,l)orithms
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 105 105
(elta al'orithm usin' superimpose values
Fault con!irmation
Forwar !ault etection
+hase selection
Conver'ence o! calculate . an < within Fuarilateral Jone
&rip time with new coprocessor boarE
Fastest &rip &ime 0D85 cycle
&ypical 1D1 cycle
& = 1G2 cycle
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Delta ,l)orithms+Principle
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 104 104
#a*lted Phase Selection
Compares pre2!aulte system
3cts as a !ault etector an !aulte phase etector
Can Fuic,ly reco'niJe evolvin' !aults an power swin's
+rovies secure phase selection !or comple? !ault
conitions
Sensitive to any !ault type
3ll +##? 8se Superimpose Current
1or,s 3utomatically 2 with no settin's neee
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 105 105
/
$t%
= /
$t%
2 /p
$t%
# #
#
/
$t%
currents or volta'es
Sample wave!orm LyM
+reicte an Superimpose 5alues
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Delta ,l)orithms+Principle
/
$t22&%
= Sample two cycles prior to t
/
$t2&%
= Sample one cycle prior to t
/p
$t%
= +reicte value o! / at time t
= 2D/
$t2&%
2 /
$t22&%

> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 108 108


*
3p!
8n!aulte line $preicte%
5
3p!
F
5
Fp!
*
3
Faulte line
5
3
F
.
!ault
5
3
=5
3
25
3p!
*
3
=*
3
2*
3p!
Superimpose (elta
valuesE
5
3
*
3
25
Fp!
.
!ault
Calculation o! Superimpose 5alues
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Delta ,l)orithms+Principle
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 109 109
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Delta ,l)orithms
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 110 110
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Delta ,l)orithms
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 111 111
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Delta ,l)orithms
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 112 112
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Delta ,l)orithms
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 11, 11,
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Delta ,l)orithms
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 114 114
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Delta ,l)orithms
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 115 115
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Delta ,l)orithms
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 114 114
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Delta ,l)orithms
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 115 115

3 transition is etecte i!E


* 7 20: *n O. 5 710: 5n
&hen three tas,s are startin' in parallelE
Fault con!irmationE * 30( 5
Faulty phase selection
Fault irection etermination
$classical irectionnal compute in parallel%
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Delta ,l)orithms+Principle
$" consecutive samples%
$# consecutive samples%
$5 consecutive samples%
Con!irmation
+hase selection
(irection
Start
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 118 118
+hase Selection
Current erivative values are use to eliminate the e!!ect o!
c transients
(erivative currents are sFuare prior to ma'nitue
comparison S? = $ *X?%W
!or the si? loops
+hase2to2phase values are sorte into ascenin' orer an
compare

4?ample S
3-
K S
-C
K S
C3
-
*! S
3-
KK S
-C
, the !ault has ha minimal e!!ect on the loop 3-D &he
!ault is sin'le2phase $C%D
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Delta ,l)orithms+Phase Selection
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 119 119
+hase selection
*! no sin'le phase !ault is etecte, phase values are
sorte into ascenin' orer an compare

4?ample S
3
K

S
-
K S
C
- Fault a!!ects at least the rin' main $-,C%
-
*! S
3
KK S
-
, the !ault is phase2to2phase $-,C%
-
*! S
3-
S
-C
S
-C
an S
3
S
-
S
C
the !ault is three2phase $3,-,C%
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Delta ,l)orithms+Phase Selection
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 120 120
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Delta ,l)orithms+#a*lt Direction
Fault irection is etermine accorin' to the si'n o! transient ener'y
characterisin' the !aultD &ransition ener'y is the ener'y create by the !ault
an is 'iven byE
&he si'n o! the ener'y is use !or etection o! !ault irection as !ollowsE
2 S = 8 ? * ? t
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 121 121
For !orwar !aults * is in reverse irection to the relayTs C& orientation
&he power supplie throu'h the relay isE

+ = 2 *WD =s

&he ener'y isE

S = 2 *WD =sD t, which is always ne'ative


Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Delta ,l)orithms+#a*lt Direction
Forwar !ault
5 *
=one 1
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 122 122
For a reverse !ault 5 = *D =s is positive while * is in same irection as the
relayTs C& orientation, henceE
&he power supplie throu'h the relay isE

+ = 2 *WD =s
&he ener'y isE

$S = B * WD =sD t,% always positive !or a reverse !aultD


Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Delta ,l)orithms+#a*lt Direction
.everse !ault
5
*
=one 1
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 12, 12,
Delta Directional Comparison8
#orward #a*lt Decision
Forwar !ault
5 *
Forwar irection
5
2 5
*
2=s
(elta * la's inverte (elta 5
(elta * la's 25 accorin' to the
characteristic an'le o! the source
impeance behin the relay

90S e'rees !or lines $by e!ault%,

0 e'rees use !or series compensate line


applications $Series CmpD Line = L4nableM in
+##2%D
+##2 +##"
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 124 124
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Delta ,l)orithms+#a*lt Direction
&he !ault irection is etermine by the si'n o! the transient
ener'y S calculate by phaseE
S
3
= 8
3
? *
3 ,
S
-
= 8
-
? *
- ,
S
C
= 8
C
? *
C

*! !ault in 30 then S = S
3

*! !ault in -0 then S = S
-

*! !ault in C0 then S = S
C

*! !ault in 3- an i! S
3
or S
-
K0

*! !ault in -C an i! S
-
or S
C
K0

*! !ault in C3 an i! S
C
or S
3
K0

*! !ault in 3-C an i! S
3
or S
-
or S
C
K 0
then
Forwar Fault
otherwise
.everse Fault
*! SK0 then Forwar Fault
*! S70 then .everse Fault
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 125 125
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Delta ,l)orithms
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 124 124
5aliity conitionsE
+ower system !reFuency is bein' measure an trac,e
Line is not open
3ll volta'es are between @0: an 1"0: o! the nominal value
&he resiual current is less than 10: o! the nominal value B
"D": o! the ma?imum current !lowin' on the line
&here is no power swin'
2 cycles o! healthy pre2!ault ata are store
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Delta ,l)orithms
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 125 125
Conventional al'orithms use the 15 measurin' loops o!
impeance $30, -0,C0, 3-, -C, C3%
8ner impeance =K startin'
Start when at least 1 o! the 15 measurin' loops conver'es
within the start2up characteristic
$=" an =#%
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Conventional ,l)orithms
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 128 128
+hase selection
Current phase selection

3mplitues *T
3
, *T
-
an *T
C
erive !rom the three phase currents *
3
, *
-
an
*
C
are measure an compare to each other an to the two threshols
S1 $= " ? *
0
% an S2 $= 5 ? *
0
%

4?ample *T
3
K *T
-
K *T
C
-
*! *T
C
7 S2, *T
-
7 S1 an *T
3
7 S1, the !ault is three2phase
-
*! *T
C
7 S2, *T
-
7 S1 an *T
3
K S1, the !ault is two2phase $-C%
-
*! *T
C
7 S2, *T
-
K S1, the !ault is sin'le2phase $C0%
-
*! *T
C
K S2, the current phase selection cannot be useD
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Conventional ,l)orithms
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 129 129
*mpeance phase selection
*mpeance phase selection is obtaine by chec,in' the
conver'ence o! the various measurin' loops within the
start2up characteristic

& = presence o! Jero2seFuence volta'e or current

=
30
= Conver'ence within the characteristic o! the loop 30

=
-0
= Conver'ence within the characteristic o! the loop -0

=
C0
= Conver'ence within the characteristic o! the loop C0

=
3-
= Conver'ence within the characteristic o! the loop 3-

=
-C
= Conver'ence within the characteristic o! the loop -C

=
C3
= Conver'ence within the characteristic o! the loop C3
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Conventional ,l)orithms
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 1,0 1,0
*mpeance phase selection
*n aition, the !ollowin' are also e!ineE

.
30
= =
30
D G=
-C
with G=
-C
= no conver'ence within the
characteristic o! the loop -C

.
-0
= =
-0
D G=
C3
with G=
C3
= no conver'ence within the
characteristic o! the loop C3

.
C0
= =
C0
D G=
3-
with G=
3-
= no conver'ence within the
characteristic o! the loop 3-

.
3-
= =
3-
D G=
C
with G=
C
= no conver'ence within the
characteristic o! the loop C0

.
-C
= =
-C
D G=
3
with G=
3
= no conver'ence within the
characteristic o! the loop 30

.
C3
= =
C3
D G=
-
with G=
-
= no conver'ence within the
characteristic o! the loop -0
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Conventional ,l)orithms
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 1,1 1,1
*mpeance phase selection
&he i!!erent phase selection areE

S
30
= & D .
3
D G.
-
D G.
C
sin'le phase 3 to 'roun !ault

S
-0
= & D .
-
D G.
3
D G.
C
sin'le phase - to 'roun !ault

S
C0
= & D .
C
D G.
3
D G.
-
sin'le phase C to 'roun !ault

S
30
= & D .
3
D G.
-
D G.
C
sin'le phase 3 to 'roun !ault

S
3-
= & D .
3-
D =
3
D =
-
phase2to2phase 3- to 'roun !ault

S
-C
= & D .
-C
D =
-
D =
C
phase2to2phase -C to 'roun !ault

S
C3
= & D .
C3
D =
C
D =
3
phase2to2phase C3 to 'roun !ault

S
3-
= G& D .
3-
D G.
-C
D G.
C3
phase2to2phase 3- !ault

S
-C
= G& D .
-C
D G.
C3
D G.
3-
phase2to2phase -C !ault

S
C3
= G& D .
C3
D G.
3-
D G.
-C
phase2to2phase C3 !ault

S
3-C
= =
3
D =
-
D =
C
D =
3-
D =
-C
D =
C3
" phase !ault
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Conventional ,l)orithms
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 1,2 1,2
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Conventional ,l)orithms
(irectional ecision
+hase shi!t between the pre2!ault volta'e an the !ault
current
For sin'le2phase loopsE

+hase shi!t between the store volta'e an the current


erivative *T

B ,
O
? "*T
0
with = $3, - or C%
For two2phase loopsE

+hase shi!t between the store volta'e an the


erivative o! the current *T

with = $3-, -C or C3%


(irectional an'le is !i?e between 2"0S an B150S
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 1,, 1,,
=heoretical Distance -ela5 Operatin)
-eM*irements
<
Fault B arc impeance
re'ion
=
Line
1% &rip !or internal !ault
2% Stable !or all loain'
.
= loa
Loa impeance
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 1,4 1,4
'ects o /need and O*teed8
,pparent ,rc -esistance Chan)e
<
.
= loa
3rc impeance with
.emote en in!ee
=
Line
Loa impeance
re'ion
loa e?port
loa import
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 1,5 1,5
=" ="
=1 =1
=2 =2
=# =#
.
<
(irectional Line
=p =p
?sin) P442 amil5 rela5s
Settin) o -i)htE&and resistive reach
Five >uarilateral =ones
&his line serves
as the loa
bliner, an the
resistive
covera'e, in one
settin'
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 1,4 1,4
Surveillance es " boucles 3-, -0,30
+osition es boucles ans i!!Vrentes Jones $30==1G3-==2G-0 en
ehors%
Solution appliFuVeE 3!in TVviter une sVlDe phase mono =1, la
caratVristiFue est Vtenue $<"Vtenue=2."%
Protection de Distance
,l)orithmes ClassiM*es E SOlection de phase P
minQ s*r dOa*t 4iE=erre Je:emple8,46K
30
3-
.
(V!aut
5
3
5
-
5
C
=
s
=
s
=
s
i
C
i
-
i
3
=

5
-
0
5
3
0
-0
-0
-0
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 1,5 1,5
;*adrilateral Characteristic ,dvanta)es
=one reach settin' $=% an .esistive reach $.% settin' are
inepenent
3llows resistive reach to be set e?actly accorin' to the
!ault arc covera'e reFuire
0o nee to rely on characteristic e?pansion 2 you 'et what
you setC
.esistive reach settin' acts as the loa bliner
)a,es characteristic applicable to lines o! all len'ths,
without ris,in' loa encroachment trips
Characteristic simplicity 2 easy to test an commission
.esistive reach is constant throu'hout the len'th o! the
Jone
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 1,8 1,8
.
0
1 2
"
#DD
3ll Jone timers starte at the instant o! !ault etection
.n21 K .i an .n K .i an Y.n21 2 .nY K 10: ? .i
<n21 K <i an <n K <i an Y<n21 2 <nY K ,: ? <i
1ith ,= 5: !or Jone 1 an 10: !or other Jones
1ith i=1,1<,2,p," an #
&rip (ecision on <G. Conver'ence in =one
(irectional Line
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Delta+Conventional ,l)orithms
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 1,9 1,9
.
0
1 2
"
#DD
K10: chan'e in between . P <
iterations 'ives conver'ence n=nB1
K5: chan'e in between . P
< iterations 'ives conver'ence
n=nB2
n= 9 Jone ecision
!or =1, =1<, =2 an =p
n= 2 Jone ecision
!or =" an =#
&rip (ecision on <G. Conver'ence in =one
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Delta+Conventional ,l)orithms
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 140 140
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Delta ,l)orithms
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 141 141
(elta 3l'orithmsE
Start 5 or *
(elta 3l'orithmsE
3C +hase
Selection
(elta 3l'orithmsE Senin'
(irection
=one (ecisionE
=one 1
Classic 3l'orithmsE
=
3C
Conver'ence
&rip
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Delta ,l)orithms J':ample in .ersion ,41:K
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 142 142
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
,l)orithms Chainin)
Switch2on2to2!ault
3cFuisition an
!ilterin' o! samples
Line open
*mpeance measurements
on all 15 loops
0etwor,
healthy
(etection o!
transition
Conver'ence
in characteristic
o! all 9 loops
+hase selection
(irection
Fault
con!irmation
+hase selection (irection
&rippin' lo'ic
(ecision to trip usin' elta al'orithms urin' #0 ms
(ecision to trip usin' classic al'orithms
/
0
0
0
/
/
/
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 14, 14,
)oi!ication o! the istance al'orithm chainin'
(istance StartE
$8 O. *% with 8 7 10: 5n an * 20: 7 *n
O.
=K $classical%
(irectional (ecisionE
&he si'n o! transient ener'y $ 8 ? *% is use i! $5 30( *% is
veri!ie,
4LS4
(irection ecision o! the classical al'orithms is use $an'le between
pre2!ault volta'e an !aulty current%
+hase SelectionE
* phase selector is use i! * veri!ie $S = T*%
O.
Classical Current +hase Selector is use
4LS4
Classical *mpeance +hase Selector is use
P44: Phase 2 Development
.ersion 4112 E availa<le rom 9*ne 200!

> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 144 144
Distance Protection E ,l)orithms Chainin) detailed
+AR8C;AO9A,
+A3;A9C8P"A38
38,8C;AO9
$
AMP8+A9C8
MO9A;ORA9G
GAB33-3A+8,
15 ,oo*s
PR8+AC;A<83<A,B83
A9+ +8,;A
G*?t@ D -G?t-;@-G?t--;@
=ault
+etection
AMP8+A9C8
CA,CB,A;AO9
=OR
M8A3BR8M89;3
3tart All
;imers
+istance Con4ergency
EO98
CO9<8RG89CC
CRA;8RAA
C,A33. A,GORA;".
=A3; A,GORA;"M
1- mono loo*s using
H0PAr
% (i*&ase Fuantities
loo*s
C,A33. A,GORA;"M
15 loo*s using
*&ase1 (i*&ase Fuantities
;1?++6-51@
;- ?++6-5-@
;% ?++6-5%@
;EP?++6-55@
;! ?++6-5!@
;* ?;ransmission time@
+A3;=#+ 9O =A,; ?++6%!%@
+A3; R8< 9O =A,; ?++6%!!@
E19O;=A,;8R8+ ?++%!/@
E1K
E-
EP
E%
E!
+A3; 3;AR; AP ?++6-!/@
+A3; 3;AR; 6P ?++6-50@
+A3; 3;AR;CP ?++6-51@
+A3; 3;AR;9 ?++6%5!@
+A3;R8<GBAR+ ?++6-.0@
<A
<6
<C
AA
A6
AC
I V ,
+elta 'etecte'
M8MORC
<O,;AG8
R X ,
=A3; A,GORA;"M
+A3; CO9<8RG89CC ?++6%!5@
$
$
+A3; =#+
+A3; R8<
P As to (e com(inate' res*ecti4ely 2it& #ea) Anfee' start A, 6, C

C,A33. A,GORA;"M
A P&ase selection
P&ase selection
=A3; A,GORA;"M
Pulse
;re4G
... ) (
2

= Iad SA
...) * ( + = Ia Va S
P&ase?<memory, AL H0Ar@
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 145 145
3ll Jones have iniviually aNustable $=, .+h, .6, ,=
0

.esiual Compensation amplitue an an'le%
&his is an avanta'e !or hybri lines $overhea to
cable% an trans!ormer protection as +##0 more
accurately moels the line
>uarilateral istance Jones set to 'ive 'oo !ault arc
resistive covera'e whilst avoiin' loa
Four alternative settin' 'roups available to suit
switche !eein' arran'ements
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
,dapta<le Distance Qones
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 144 144
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
,dapta<le Distance Qones
Hybri LineE Cable G Overhea line
=
13
= 1,2 =
C
6as *solate
Substation
Overhea
Substation
=
1-
= 1,2 =
L
=
0C
K
C
=
0L
K
L
4?act aaptation o! =1
settin' to =0 an'le o! the
protecte section

C
H0 D ?E0 Q E'@1%E' D H0r L RH0
H0r D ?R'P?R0-R'@LK'P?K0-K'@@1?%P?R'SLK'S@@
H0 D ?R'P?K0-K'@-K'P?R0-R'@@1?%P?R'SLK'S@@
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 145 145
.Vsistance e couverture par Jone utilisVe ans le cas Tune
protection e li'ne courteE .G< = 10
Limites e caractVristiFue en .-i et .mono $possibilitV e
recouvrir la Jone e char'e
Protection de Distance
CaractOristiM*e en #orme de ParallOlo)ramme
<
.
=one e Char'e
=
"
.
)ono
.
bi
Limite )ise en .oute
es boucles monos
-oucles -i
Limite (Vtection
-ane e +ompa'e
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 148 148
Channel ,ided Distance
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 149 149
(irect *ntertrip $usin' +SL%
-loc,in' $-O+%
+ermissive 8nerreach
$+8+%
+ermissive Overreach $+O+%
+O+ with wea, in!ee lo'ic
On Channel FailE LOL or =1<
+O+ with wea, in!ee lo'ic, an
wea, in!ee trip
8nbloc,in' on Loss o! 6uar in
FSI +ower Line Carrier Schemes
8nbloc,in' on Loss o! Carrier in
0on2+LC Schemes
+##0 +ilot Lo'ic Schemes $21+, 216%
Channel ,ided Distance Schemes
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 150 150
Channel ,ided Distance Schemes
(istance +rotectionE -asic Scheme
&
"3
+
3
+
-
=
13
=0D8 =
L
=
23
=1D2 =
L
=
L
=
2-
=1D2 =
L
=
1-
=0D8 =
L =
L
&
13
&
23
&
1-
&
2-
&
"-
SeFuence 1
+
3
+
-
C- C- C- C-
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 151 151
(istance +rotectionE Fault in =1
=
L
&
13
&
23
&
"3
SeFuence 2
&
1-
&
2-
&
"-
C-
+
3
+
-
=
13
=0D8 =
L =
23
=1D2 =
L
=
2-
=1D2 =
L
=
1-
=0D8 =
L =
L
C- C- C-
&
1- &
13
Channel ,ided Distance Schemes
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 152 152
(istance +rotectionE *nternal !ault in =2
=
13
=0D8 =
L
=
23
=1D2 =
L
=
L
=
2-
=1D2 =
L
=
1-
=0D8 =
L =
L
&
13
&
23
&
"3
SeFuence "
&
1-
&
2-
&
"-
+
3
+
-
C- C- C- C-
&
1-
&
23
$elaye%
Channel ,ided Distance Schemes
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 15, 15,
(istance +rotectionE 4?ternal !ault in =2
$-eyon relay C%
&
13
&
23
&
"3
=
13
=0D8 =
L
=
23
=1D2 =
L
=
L
=
2-
=1D2 =
L
=
1-
=0D8 =
L =
L
SeFuence #
+
C
&
1C
&
2C
&
1-
&
2-
&
"-
+
3
+
-
C- C- C- C-
&
1C
Channel ,ided Distance Schemes
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 154 154
Channel 3ie +ermissive 8nerreach scheme $+8+%
&
13
&
23
&
"3
+
3
+
-
=
13
=0D8 =
L
=
23
=1D2 =
L
=
L
=
2-
=1D2 =
L
=
1-
=0D8 =
L =
L
Sen = =
1-
&
1-
&
2-
&
"-
+
3
+
-
C- C- C- C-
&
1-
7&
13
+
C
3ie trippin'
Channel ,ided Distance Schemes
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 155 155
Channel 3ie +ermissive Overreach =one1
$+O+ =1%
+
3
+
-
=
13
=1,2 =
L
=
L
=
1-
=1,2 =
L
=
L
&
13
&
23
&
1-
&
2-
Sen = =
13
Sen = =
1-
+
C
+
3
+
-
C- C- C- C-
&
13
&
1-
Channel ,ided Distance Schemes
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 154 154
Channel 3ie +ermissive Overreach =one 2
$+O+ =2%
=
23
=1D2 =
L
=
L
=
2-
=1D2 =
L
=
L
&
23
&
13
&
1-
&
2-
Sen = =
23
Sen = =
2-
+
3
+
-
C- C- C- C-
&
1-
&
13
Channel ,ided Distance Schemes
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 155 155
Channel 3ie -loc,in' Overreach =one 2
$-O+ =2%
SeFuence 1E 4?ternal Fault in =
23
=
13
=0D8 =
L =
23
=1D2 =
L
=
L
=
2-
=1D2 =
L
=
1-
=0D8 =
L =
L
&
13
&
23
&
"3
Sen =#-
$-loc,in' si'nal%
&
=#-
&
1-
&
2-
&
"-
&
1C
&
2C
+
3
+
-
C- C- C- C-
Forwar =
2 .everse -
&
1C
Channel ,ided Distance Schemes
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 158 158
Channel 3ie -loc,in' Overreach =one 2
$-O+ =2%
SeFuence 2E *nternal !ault in =
23
=
13
=0D8 =
L
=
23
=1D2 =
L
=
L
=
2-
=1D2 =
L
=
1-
=0D8 =
L =
L
&
13
&
23
&
"3
&
1-
&
2-
&
"-
+
3
+
-
C- C- C- C-
&p7&
13
-loc,in'
si'nal
Forwar =
2
&
1-
Channel ,ided Distance Schemes
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 159 159
7ea( /need Mode or P,P
J-=' applicationK
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 140 140
7ea( /need Mode
4
3
4
-
+
3
+
-
1ea, source
* Z 0
5
30
= =
L
? ( ? $*
3
B ,
O
? *
.
% B .
Fault
? $*T
.
B *
.
% with *T
.
7 *
.
, =
L
?
( an .
Fault
hi'h values
Sin'le or three pole trippin'
+hase selection usin' 8K
Chec, o! C- position or Line open conition
*
. *T
.
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 141 141
Protection o = line J-=' applicationK
*mplantation o! & line $passive antenna% in con!ormity with .&4 speci!ications
Sin'le an &hree2phase trip
+hase selection by voltmetric balances
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 142 142

Functional ecompositionE
)easurement an analysis !unctions
)easurement !unction $startin' !rom analo'ical siJes%
3nalysis !unction $supplyin' commissionin's%
3 treatment !unctionE
Channel2aie trip !unction
time elaye trip !unction
+resence o! resiual current !unction
Composition $1G2%
Protection o = line J-=' applicationK
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 14, 14,
*nputs siJesE
From the process $H&G&H& networ,%

&hree phase volta'es 53, 5b, 5c,

*r .esiual curent,

Channel2aie trip reception, interloc,sD


From the Con!i'urationE

Commissionin'Gout o! service !unction,

*r, &hreshols commissionin' volta'eD


Composition $2G2%
Protection o = line J-=' applicationK
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 144 144
=7 6ives a phase selection in!ormation
=7 Loc,out with a istance start
0oteE .esiual current pic,up is maintaine 900ms a!ter ropO!!D
)easurement Function
Start +rotD (istance
3nalysis
Function
)easurement an 3nalysis Function Scheme
3ingle
Multi*le
Protection o = line J-=' applicationK
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 145 145
=76ives a commissionin' in!ormation
$phase or resiual current%E
)r 3, )r -, )r C
Sin'le or three2phase selection,
*r pic,up,
Commissionin' by *r
0oteE Commissionin' resiual current is only active i! no
selection phase is valiate an measurement o! a resiual
currentD
3nalysis Function
Protection o = line J-=' applicationK
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 144 144
3nalysis Lo'ic
Start +rotD (istance
3ingle
Multi*le
Protection o = line J-=' applicationK
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 145 145
Channel2aie tripE
$*H) commissionin'Gout o! service%
6oalE
3llow a Fuic, elimination o! !aults !rom &3C reception
3ction on the processE
Sin'le or &hree2phase trip $accorin' to selection phase%
with lo'ic in!ormation receptionD
[Channel2aie trip\comin' !rom the other limitD
3uto2.ecloser launchin'
0ote E &3C reception is memorise 950 ms
&reatment $1G9%
Protection o = line J-=' applicationK
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 148 148
Lo'ic channel2aie tripE
&reatment $2G9%
;ele'ec O9
cm' ;ele'ec
;ele'ec A
;ele'ec 6
;ele'ec C
Poly
Mr C
Poly
Mr 6
Poly
Mr A
MrAr
AutorisTAr
;ele'ec Ar
C&annel-ai'e' tri*
Cm' C&annel-ai'e' tri*
Multi*le
Multi*le
Multi*le
,r Aut&oriGation
A C&annel-ai'e' tri*
6 C&annel-ai'e' tri*
C C&annel-ai'e' tri*
lr C&annel-ai'e' tri*
Protection o = line J-=' applicationK
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 149 149
&ime elaye tripE
$*H) commissionin'Gout o! service%
6oalE
3llow !aults elimination in a time elaye way when
channel2aie trip is not possible
3ction on the processE
&ime elaye trip $settable time elay%
3uto2.ecloser launchin'
&reatment $"G9%
Protection o = line J-=' applicationK
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 150 150
Speci!ic parametersE
&ime elaye trip $&m P &t%
Sin'le trip authoriJation $+1%
(4C possible con!irmation o! sin'le on lr presence $+2%
*nhibition o! three2phase trip $e?cept selection phase
in!ormations% $+"%
&ime elaye trip bloc,in' conitionsE
+3+ 4?ternal active time elaye interloc, $&S%
Lo'ic input [no brea,own transmission\ active $&S%
Fuse !ailure line pic,up $internal or e?ternal%, e?cept i! lr
presence
&reatment $#G9%
Protection o = line J-=' applicationK
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 151 151
Lo'ic !unction [&ime elaye trip\E
&reatment $5G9%
A ;ime 'elaye' tri*
6 ;ime 'elaye' tri*
C ;ime 'elaye' tri*
3ingle
Multi*le
;ime 'elaye' tri*
un'er-function
PAP time-'elay ;3 interloc)
;3Ns transmission (rea)'o2n a(scence
+etection line fusion fuse
891"3 ;ime 'elaye' tri*
Protection o = line J-=' applicationK
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 152 152
.esiual current presenceE
6oalE
Si'nal presence o! a resiual current beyon a 10 secons
!i?e urationD
3ction o! the processE
*nication $&C%
&reatment $9G9%
Protection o = line J-=' applicationK
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 15, 15,
0oteE &he auto2recloser start on a channel2aie trip or a time elaye tripD
;ele'ec C
+ec;em* C
+ec PAP C
;ele'ec 6
+ec;em* 6
+ec PAP 6
;ele'ec A
+ec;em* A
+ec PAP A
+iscor'ance
'e *Ule
<errouille AR3
0
50
+J fermV
+3+ an 3uto2recloser $1G#%
A C&annel-ai'e' tri*
A ;ime 'elaye' tri*
6 C&annel-ai'e' tri*
6 ;ime 'elaye' tri*
C ;ime 'elaye' tri*
C C&annel-ai'e' tri*
+R Close'
Out of
Pole
PAP A ;ri*
PAP 6 ;ri*
PAP C ;ri*
AR3 Anterloc)
Protection o = line J-=' applicationK
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 154 154
Speci!ic lo'ic inputs $5%E
Channel2aie trip reception $1%, =7 Channel2aie trip
4?ternal interloc, =7 Only interloc, time
elaye trip
0o !ault channel2aie trip lin, $2% =7 8sually always at 1
-rea,er close $"%
Out o! pole $"%
+3+ an 3uto2recloserE associate inputsGoutputs $2G#%
Protection o = line J-=' applicationK
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 155 155
0ote $1%E inepenant inputs or not the one o! main
protection $no con!irmation%
0ote $2% E comin' !rom the process or !rom the other limit
$no con!irmation%
0ote $"% E not use inputs in 514 version
+3+ an auto2recloserE associate inputsGoutputs $"G#%
&rip outputs $speci!ic%E
(4C +3+ 3, (4C +3+ -, (4C +3+ C
$(4C +? 3, -, C more in!ormations%
Protection o = line J-=' applicationK
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 154 154
Speci!ic output inicationsE
Selector operation $+3+ startin'%
Supply on resiual current $+3+%
&rip lr supply on resiual current
+3+ 3, -, C &rip
0on speci!ic output inicationsE
+hase selection 3, -, C, &hree or sin'le !ault
3uto2recloser interloc,,
Fault eFuipmentD
+3+ an 3uto2recloserE associate inputsGoutputs $#G#%
Protection o = line J-=' applicationK
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 155 155
+elaye' one *ole
;ri*
;ri* allo2e'
)icom S1 settin's = 1in4+3C +a'e $p1G"%
Protection o = line J-=' applicationK
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 158 158
+a'e +##? *H) )iCO) S12settin's $p2G"%
Protection o = line J-=' applicationK
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 159 159
+a'e +##? *H) )iCO) S12 +SL settin's $*nGout% 2 $p"G"%
Protection o = line J-=' applicationK
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 180 180
':tended Qone
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 181 181
(Q1
=one 1 4?tene
3
-
(Q2
3
-
(Q1 (Q2
=one 1
Qone 1 ':tended
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 182 182
,cceleration Phase
<5 Openin) Opposite limit
Operate !or three2 phase trip
Operate only !or sin'le, phase2to2phase or phase2to2phase2to2
'roun !aults
.eFuire a preliminary loa current
+rincipleE
&he !ault locate beyon 80: o! the line is instantaneously
trippin' by the remote en istance relay $!ault etecte in Jone 1%
3!ter " phase openin' o! the remote C-, there is no more any
loa current on the healthy phase$s%
+resence o! !aulty current B above conition= Loss o! loa
conition 2 Jone 2 trippin' accelarate
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 18, 18,
%oss o load %o)ic
&1
&2
=1
=2
C-
C-
C-
C-
C-
C-
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 184 184
%oss o load %o)ic
=2
*=0
*=0
*0
&1
C-
C-
C-
C-
C-
C-
(Q
3
(Q
-
=2 trippin'
accelarate
a!ter remote C-
openin'
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 185 185
Switch on to #a*lt & =rip on -eclose
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 184 184
<
<
<
Switch on to #a*lt JSO=#K J1K
Fast trippin' !or !aults on line ener'isation, even
where line 5&s provie no pre!ault volta'e memory
*n service !or 500ms !ollowin' C- Closure $*nput%
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 185 185
Fast trippin' usin'E
*7" overcurrent protection
or
Level etector
or
(istance protection $Jone operation settable =1, =2, =p,
=" or =K startin'% with supervision by *nrush Current
(etection
Fastest operatin' timeE

10 ms $*7"%

20 ms $=K%
Switch on to #a*lt JSO=#K J2K
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 188 188
3s SO&FE
4?cept i!E

=one 1 e?tension,
or

Channel 3ie (istance $irectional comparison%


(i!!erentiation between " pole &O. an SO&F can mae usin' a
settable line open time elayD
=rip On -eclose J=O-K J!K
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 189 189
#a*lt on -eclose JSO=#+=O- lo)icK J4K
S1 Settin'sE
SO&F Settin'sE
&O. Settin'sE
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 190 190
&O.2SO&F Lo'ic Scheme $startin'%
#a*lt on -eclose JSO=#+=O- lo)icK J"K
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 191 191
&O.2SO&F Lo'ic scheme $&rip%
#a*lt on -eclose JSO=#+=O- lo)icK J2K
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 192 192
Parallel %ines
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 19, 19,
E! E-
E1 E-
E- E!
E-
Parallel %ines
C*rrent -eversal F*ard
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 194 194
Parallel %ine
Dierential ,l)o1+#a*lt location
(i!!erential 3l'orithms !or phase selectionE
4?tra C& input !or mutual compensation $only use !or !ault location%
30 !ault !orwar
-0 !ault reverse
=2 3-0 !ault
30
-0
=1 30 !ault
30 !ault !orwar
-0 !ault !orwar
=1 -0 !ault =2 3-0 !ault
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 195 195
-adial %ine
Dierential ,l)orithms
(i!!erential 3l'orithms !or phase selectionE
i! phase2to2phase !ault 3-
S3 = 53 ? *3 an S- = 5- ? *-
i! both irectional are !orwarE !orwar 3- !ault
i! both irectional are reverseE reverse 3- !ault
i! one o! both irectional is !orwarE 3 !orwar an - reverse =
!orwar 30 !ault on protecte line
=1 -0 !ault
3-0
-0
=1 3-0 !ault
&rip three phase
&rip sin'le
phase
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 194 194
Parallel %ine
Cross Co*ntr5 #a*lt+Directional Decision
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 195 195
Parallel %ine
Cross Co*ntr5 #a*lt+Directional Decision
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 198 198
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Delta ,l)orithms
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 199 199
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
Delta ,l)orithms
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 200 200
Power Swin) 4loc(in)
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 201 201
Power Swin) Detection8 Sta<le swin) + O*t o Step
*n the case o! a power swin', the apparent impeance !irst moves into
the power swin' bounary an later into the start2up characteristicD &he
spee o! entry into the start2up characteristic is slower that in the case o!
a three2phase !aultD
*n case o! out O! Step the loop cross the Fua !rom B. to 2. $opposite
si'n%D
< lim
2. lim
. lim
2< lim
.
.
<
<
=#
="
Stable swin'
Out O! Step
B.
B.
B.
2.
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 202 202
?n<loc(in) or #a*lts D*rin) a Power Swin)
(urin' a power swin' the a(sence of Gero seFuence
current $no earth !ault% an negati4e seFuence current $no
phase2to2phase% shoul be veri!ie $in the event o!
asymmetry, a F38L& inception is etecte with
unbalance conition%D
;&e *o2er s2ing current s&oul' (e smaller t&an a setta(le
o4ercurrent t&res&ol' $i! not, a three2phase F38L&
inception is etecte%D
3n unbloc,in' timer can be set to remove the power
swin' bloc, !or persistent unrecoverable swin'in'D
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 20, 20,
Power Swin) 4loc(in)
JPower Swin) and #a*ltK
Po2er
s2ing
=ault
A
P36 acti4e
P36 remo4e'
50ms
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 204 204
Power Swin) 4loc(in)
JPower Swin) and #a*ltK
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 205 205
?n<loc(in) or #a*lts D*rin) a Power Swin)
P!!11-1! tri*s for all faults occurring 'uring a *o2er
s2ing.
;&e *o2er s2ing (loc) is remo4e' instantly for an
un(alance' fault, on reselection (y t&e *&ase selectors.
An t&e unli)ely e4ent of a % *&ase fault, a ste* c&ange in A
resets t&e (loc).
Continuous A
+uring 32ing
=ault
Ance*tion
Minimal A
Present
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 204 204
Power Swin) Detection
. = 1," ? tan $ ? ! ? t% ? $.limW B =W%G=
1ithE

t = 5ms,

! = power swin' !reFuency $typical value #HJ%,

.lim = .
"#
resistance reach !or Jone " an #,

= = =" B =#D
&ypical value
. = 5 by *
0
= 13
. = 1 by *
0
= 53
Simpli!ie eFuationE . = 0D0"2 ? ! ? = min Loa
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 205 205
S1 Settin'sE
R1K ,imits
6loc) Gone
9um(er of s2ing cycles
S12+SL Settin'sE
+istance 8lement un(loc)ing
on current *resence
Power Swin) Detection
O*t Step Protection
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 208 208
Directional +6on Directional
Overc*rrent E MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 209 209
Four inepenent sta'esE
*()&G(& sta'es 1 an 2
(& on sta'es " an #
1 an 2 sta'esE
0on irectional
(irectional !orwar
(irectional reverse
*4C P *444 *()& curves
Directional+6on Directional
Phase Overc*rrent Protection
*4C Curves
Operatin' &ime $s%
Current $)ultiples o! *s%
1000
100
*4C S*
*4C 5*
*4C 4*
*4C L&S
0D1
1
10
100
1 10
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 210 210
Directional+6on Directional
Phase Overc*rrent Protection
Stanar phase OGC protectionE
0D08 ? *n 2 # ? *n sta'es 1 an 2
0D08 ? *n 2 "2 ? *n sta'es " an #
&)S ran'eE 0D025 to 1D2
&ime ialE 0D5 to 15
(e!inite timeE 0 to 100s
3Nustable reset time !or
sta'es 1 an 2
4mer'ency phase !ault OGC on !use !ailure
$sta'es 1 an 2%
*444 Curves
0D1
1
10
100
1 10 100
Current $)ultiples o! *s%
Operatin' &ime $s%
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 211 211
&ime
.everse Forwar
4ac(*p Phase Overc*rrent
Protection "0+"1+23
=1,t=1
=2,t=2
=p,t=p
=",t="
*71
=#, t=#
*72
&wo bac,up elements, *()& anGor (&
&ypical application shown above
(& elays can be reuce urin' 5&S pic,up, with overcurrent
elements mimic,in' istance Jone reaches
*7" use !or close2up !ault $an SO&FG&O.%
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 212 212
5C 53 5-
53- 5-C
4ac(*p Phase Overc*rrent
Protection "0+"1+23
7
(irect Calculation
3
*3
*()&
&hreshol
etection
7
*-
7
*C
(irect Calculation
-
(irect Calculation
C
(irect Calculation
3-
(irect Calculation
-C
(irect Calculation
5C3
C3
7
7
"+ trip
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 21, 21,
/R4 'lement8 St*< 4*s Protection
-usbar 1
-usbar 2
Open isolator
5 = 0
* 7 0
5&
Stub -us +rotectionE * 7#
+rotection bloc,in' usin' 5&s
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 214 214
6e)ative SeM*ence Directional
Overc*rrent E MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 215 215
0e'ative phase seFuence overcurrent
0ot epenent on volta'e ip
.esponsive to phase2phase or phase2earth !aults
(irectional capability
)ore comple? settin' calculation
4ac(E?p Protection
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 214 214
=hermal Overload Detection
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 215 215
Overcurrent protection esi'ne !or !ault conitions
&hermal replica provies better protection !or overloa
Current base
Fle?ible characteristics
Sin'le or ual time constant
.eset !acility
0on2volatile
Current
&ime
Mi1OM!P520!
2B.
Overload Protection Jas P"40K J1K
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 218 218
10000
1000
100
10
1 2 " # 5 9
&rip time $s%
Current $multiple o! thermal settin'%
Sin'le
characteristicE
= 120 mins
(ual characteristic
Sin'le
characteristicE
= 5 mins
Overload Protection Jas P"40K J2K8
D*al Characteristic or =ransormers
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 219 219
Overload Protection J!K
S1Settin'sE
+SL Cells 2 *nputE
+SL Cells 2 OutputE
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 220 220
4ro(en Cond*ctor Detection
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 221 221
)aNority o! system !aults are a result o! short circuits
4asily etectable
4ro(en Cond*ctor Protection
+ossibility o! open
circuit !aults e?ist
(i!!icult to etect with
conventional
protection
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 222 222
4?istin' etection methosE
Combination o! unerGovercurrent lo'ic
0e'ative phase seFuence overcurrent

Consier suitability !or all loa conitions


+##0 uses a ratio techniFueE
/
2
is hi'h !or open circuit !ault conition
/
1
Loa conitions have minimal e!!ect
4ro(en Cond*ctor Detection
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 22, 22,
E Directional Comparison JD'#K
E P7
E /6R J4 thresholdsK
'arth Protection8
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 224 224
Directional 'arth #a*lt Protection
JD'#K
Hi'h resistance 'roun !aults
*nstantaneous or time elaye
*4C an *444 curves
Sin'le or share si'nallin' channel
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 225 225
Directional 'arth #a*lt Protection
,ided Channel D'#
Hi'h resistance 'roun !aults
3*(4( (4FE *nstantaneous
+arallel main protection to istance
Sin'le or three pole trippin'
+olarisationE

=ero seFuence volta'e

0e'ative seFuence volta'e


> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 224 224
Directional 'arth #a*lt Protection
,ided Channel D'#
*nepenent 3ie Channels $1G2%
21
Share
si'nallin' channel
9@0
21
.
3- Fault
9@0
$21 ,eep priority on 9@0%
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 225 225
Directional 'arth #a*lt Protection
,ided Channel D'#
*nepenent 3ie Channels $2G2%
21
9@0
21
9@0
*nepenent
si'nallin' channel
.
30 Fault
$priority 21 = priority 9@0%
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 228 228
)iCO) S1 Settin'sE
Directional 'arth #a*lt Protection
JD'#K
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 229 229
&wo inepenent sta'esE
*()&G(& sta'e 1
(& on sta'e 2
1 an 2 sta'esE
0on irectional
(irectional !orwar
(irectional reverse
+olarisationE
=ero seFuence volta'e
0e'ative seFuence volta'e
*4C P *444 *()& curves
Directional+6on Directional
'arth #a*lt Protection
*4C Curves
Current $)ultiples o! *s%
1000
100
*4C S*
*4C 5*
*4C 4*
*4C L&S
0D1
1
10
100
1 10
Operatin' &ime $s%
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 2,0 2,0
Directional+6on Directional
'arth #a*lt Protection
Stanar earth !ault
0D08 ? *n 2 # ? *n sta'e 1
0D08 ? *n 2 "2 ? *n sta'e 2
&)S ran'eE 0D025 to 1D2
&ime ialE 0D5 to 15
(e!inite timeE 0 to 100s
3Nustable reset time !or sta'e 1
4mer'ency earth !ault OGC on !use !ailure
$sta'e 1%
*444 Curves
0D1
1
10
100
1 10 100
Current $)ultiples o! *s%
Operatin' &ime $s%
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 2,1 2,1
Settin's )iCO) S1E
Directional+6on Directional
'arth #a*lt Protection
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 2,2 2,2
P78 Qero SeM*ence Power Protection
&he Jero seFuence power is ma?imum, at the !ault an
ecrease alon' the networ, !or bein' nul at the neutral
trans!ormers
&hat protection is elaye by a !i?e timer to cover the 1+
cycle P by an inverse timer to provie selectivity
.&4 speci!ications
(Q (Q (Q (Q
<rma
<rmin
%Ao
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 2,, 2,,
Settin's )iCO) S1E
P78 Qero SeM*ence Power Protection
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 2,4 2,4
+1 FunctionE Characteristic
*eaE etection o! +hase2'roun resistives !ault 2 not eliminate by the (istance
+rotection
3ctionE

&rip "+ !or Fw resistive !ault

&rippin' time with inverse curve


P78 Qero SeM*ence Power Protection
Ir(t) > Ir
Sr(t) = Vr(t)*Ir(t)*c!("#i-"#i0) Sr(t) > Sr
$%
&
Z!" St'rt
Z!" $ri"
Ir(t)
Vr(t)
D(c)*nc#*+*nt
$ri"#'!(
Z!" $i+*r ,)c-
$'
1
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 2,5 2,5
Distance Protection ,l)orithms
(irectional Caracteristics in +1
.
<
(irectionalE 215S
$since -1D"%
="
=1
=2
=#
=p
.C3 a?is B@5S
Forwar
5ery resistant Fault
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 2,4 2,4
+1 FunctionE +rinciple $1G#%
Calculation o! resiual +ower SrE

Sr = 5r]*r]cos$ 2 0%
5re!!, *re!! = rms values o! resiual volta'e P currentD
+hi = phase shi!t value between 5r P *rD
+hi0 = 255S $to 'et a sensibility ma? at @5SG !i?e line an'le%D
&rip Lo'icE
P78 Qero SeM*ence Power Protection
+1 &rip
&base e?piration
&inv e?piration
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 2,5 2,5
+1 FunctionE +rinciple $2G#%
Si'nals associate to tripE

C- trip orer

Start *n!ormation

&rip [Slow protection\ $&C21%\ in!ormation

&rip Si'nal $!or 3(( 2 C- !ail lo'ic%

Start (isturbance

(irectionnal Fw *n!ormation
P78 Qero seM*ence Power Protection
+1 Startin'
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 2,8 2,8
+1 FunctionE +rinciple $"G#%
&rippin' &imeE

&inv $Sr% = $,]Sre!%GSr compensateE


1ith E
, = aNust time constant
Sre! = Compensate .esiual +owerE
1053 !or *0 = 13
50 va !or *0 B 53
Compensate Sr is a variable compensate resiual power
calculation
P78 Qero SeM*ence Power Protection
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 2,9 2,9
S1 G 1in4pac
1ith C2D0 5ersion
P78 Qero seM*ence Power Protection
)icom S1 settin's = 1in4+3C +a'e $p#G#%
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 240 240
?nder + Over .olta)e
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 241 241
.easons !or volta'e eviationsE
.e'ulation problems
Loa variation
Fault conitions
.eFuirements o! protection epens upon applicationE
Line or phase volta'e measurement
Operation !or all or any phase
Suitable time elays
3larmG&rip
+##0 unerGover volta'e elements suitable !or all
applications
.olta)e Protection
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 242 242
4ac(*p Phase ?nderEOvervolta)e
Protection 23 E "0
7
53 G 53-
*()&
&hreshol
etection
7
7
W
5- G 5-C
5C G 5C3
Sel +hase3
Sel +hase-
Sel +haseC
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 24, 24,
4rea(er #ail*re
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 244 244
Circ*it 4rea(er #ail*re J"04#K
&wo sta'e
Fast reset e?ternal initiation
-loc,in' scheme compatible
.eset
-y unercurrent
-y protection trippin'
-y C- au?D contacts
From other
evice
-ac,trip
.etrip
&rip
-F
*0*&
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 245 245
4rea(er #ail*re Protection J"0 4#K
C- Fail Si'nal
$"%
8@--
-usbar 1
-usbar 2
50-F
Other
protection
C- Faile
$2%
&rip Orer
$1%
-ac, &rip Orer
$#%
50-F
50-F
50-F
50-F
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 244 244
6on Protection #*nctions
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 245 245
MiCOM P440
6on Protection #*nctions
C& G 5&GC5&
Supervision
Communications
3utoreclose an
Chec, SynchD
-ay )onitorin'
P Control
Sel! (ia'nostics P
Commissionin' &ools
# Settin'
6roups
Fault Locator
)easurements
Fault 3nalysis
&ools
)aterials
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 248 248
Settin) Fro*ps
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 249 249
Spare Line .elay 3pplications $&rans!er -us%
?se o ,lternative Settin) Fro*ps
2 " 1 #
Four 'roups available
Settin'
selection
inputs
SC3(3
or +LC
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 250 250
.=+C.=+C= S*pervision
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 251 251
.= S*pervision J1K
3larms
4vent recor
-loc,in'
3aptive settin'
1 an 2
lo'ic
"! on loa
lo'ic
"! on
ener'isation
lo'ic
)C- i'ital
input
5&S
3
-
C
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 252 252
5&S alarm
5&S bloc,
LC(
4vent recors
Loss o! all " phase volta'es
uner loa
+##0
$
5olta'e
collapse
.= S*pervision J2K
*
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 25, 25,
5&S alarm
5&S bloc,
LC(
4vent recors
Loss o! all " phase volta'es
upon line ener'isation $via +SL%
+##0
P
0o
5olta'e
5&S *7*nhibit
.= S*pervision J!K
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 254 254
C= S*pervision
3
-
C
*
O
5
O
P
&
3larms
-loc,in'
4vent
recor
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 255 255
Capacitive .olta)e =ransormers
S*pervision E JC.=SK
Characteristics
+rinciples
)iCO) S1
C5&S Function
Since version -1D0
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 254 254
Function C5&SE Characteristics
Capacitive .olta)e =ransormers S*pervision E
JC.=SK
&C& 3nomaly
5olta'e control
&C& activation
!unction
&hreshol 5r
5r 7 5r &hreshol
5r
5a
5b
5c
0 t&C&
8ab 7 0D8]8n
8ab K 0D#]8n
(etect internal !ailure o! C5& by usin' the resiual volta'e measurement
Si'naliasation by output contact [&C& anomaly\
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 255 255
C5&S FunctionE +rinciple $1G1%
)onitorin' o! 5r threshol pic,up $settable%
)onitorin' o! +G+ 8 3- volta'e $with hysteresis% !i?eE

SetE 80: 8n

.esetE #0: 8n
Si'nal o! elaye alarm C5&S $settable !rom 0 to 5mn, by step o!
"0s%
Capacitive .olta)e =ransormers S*pervision E
JC.=SK
&C&
Supervision
Fault
&C&
3nomaly
inication
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 258 258
Function C5&E +a'e )iCO) S1G1in4+3C
Capacitive .olta)e =ransormers S*pervision E
JC.=SK
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 259 259
S*pervision8
.=S & C=S & C.=
Settin's )iCO) S1E
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 240 240
#a*lt %ocator
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 241 241
19:
"D8
19,m
10miles
Distance to #a*lt %ocator
1ith )utual Current Compensation
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 242 242
,*toreclose and Chec( S5nchronism
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 24, 24,
/nte)rated ,*torecloser
with .olta)e Control
8p to # cycles o! reclosin'E
First !ast cycle can be sin'le phase
$+##2 2 +###%

" time elaye cycles


Startin' selection
elementsGautorecloser interloc,
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 244 244
5olta'e control !unction allowsE
3utoreclose on live line G live bar
3utoreclose on ea line G live line
3utorecloser on live line G ea bar
Sa!ety chec,in' prior to manual close authorisation $remote or local%
+SL eicate to increase the wait winow to close conitions
/nte)rated ,*torecloser
with .olta)e Control
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 245 245
C4 Control & Monitorin)
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 244 244
S*pervision
&rip circuit supervision
C- state
C- supervision
0umber o! trip

Sum *
?
, 1D0 K ? K 2D0
Operation time
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 245 245
Control o 4a5
Circuit brea,er control
)ultiple settin's 'roups $#%
+ro'rammable scheme lo'ic
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 248 248
, ?serIs .iew E /nterace MiCOM P440
Pro)ramma<le Scheme %o)ic E
Settin)s E Distance Com111
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 249 249
4itionG)oi!ication o! settin's
an te?t in the protection
4itionG)oi!ication o! lo'ic
schemes
4?traction o! event lo' recors
Supervision
4?traction o! isturbance
recors
3nalysis o! those recors
)iCO) S1 52
MiCOM S1 JP20EP!0EP40K Settin) Sotware
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 250 250
Men* S5stem
3larm
messa'es
FreFuency System
&hree2phase
volta'e
Line
3r'umentD o! ,=m
Column 1
(ata
System
Lan'ua'e
+asswor
0ivD2
Column 2
5isuD .ecorD
SelectD4vent
.eset *nication
C
C
Other title o! columns
6roup #
Column n
+rotD (istance
(ate P &ime
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 251 251
/nterace &M/
PS% JPro)ramma<le Scheme %o)icK
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 252 252
Pro)ramma<le Scheme %o)ic
J/ntrod*ctionK
Bser *rogramma(le sc&eme logic
;imers
.elay
contacts
L4(Ts
+rotection
elements
Fi?e
scheme
lo'ic
Opto
Gate ,ogic
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 25, 25,
Pro)ramma<le Scheme %o)ic J1+0K
&imers
+rotection
elements
Fi?e
scheme
lo'ic
6ate Lo'ic
*n
Out
+ro'rammable Scheme Lo'ic
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 254 254
&O. opto2isolate input
selecte !rom the list
+ossible Choice with S1$hysteresis P !ilterin'%E
Pro)ramma<le Scheme %o)ic JPS%K J2 +0K
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 255 255
&O. opto2isolate input
ae to an internal ((- o! the relay
an selecte in the list
Pro)ramma<le Scheme %o)ic JPS%K J! +0K
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 254 254
Pro)ramma<le Scheme %o)ic JPS%K J4 +0K
One more timer
Lin, throu'htE
Le 2 Output relay
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 255 255
(i!!erent options by elementE
(i!!erent options by +SLE
Pro)ramma<le Scheme %o)ic JPS%K J" +0K
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 258 258
8p to 259 'ates
Lo'ic Functions

6ate O.

6ate 30(

.eversers

&imers
Pro)ramma<le Scheme %o)ic JPS%K J2 +0K
+eer to peer comE
*nter)icom
6oose
Control *nputDDD
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 259 259
+##0
B
2
52 b
52 a
C- coil
&rip
&rip Circuit
Supervision
3larm
Pro)ramma<le Scheme %o)ic JPS%K J3 +0K
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 280 280

Customisation
259 'ates
8 timers
Feebac,
(e!ault schemes
5aliity chec,s
4vent riven
=rip Circ*it Monitorin) ?sin)
Pro)ramma<le Scheme %o)ic J8+0K
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 281 281
4loc(ed Distance Protection
?sin) Pro)ramma<le Scheme %o)ic $;G;%
4stablishe techniFue
proviin'E
*mprove -- !ault
clearance times
*n orer to !acilitate this
!unction, +##0 proviesE
(irectional start si'nals
$(irectional Comparison
Scheme%
-loc, =1
element
Feeer 1
*ncomer
Feeer 2 Feeer "
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 282 282
&M/ /nterace MiCOM P440
Meas*rements JMonitorin)K
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 28, 28,
Meas*rements
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 284 284
+ro'rammin' $set P +SL% o! relays
4?traction o! in!ormation !rom relays
3ssists with commissionin'
$!ault recor, event,monitor control%
Supports analysis o! power system
isturbances $comtrae !ormat%
)iCO) S1 52
MiCOM S*pport Sotware
Compatible with e?istin'
proucts usin' the
Courier lan'ua'e
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 285 285
MiCOM S*pport Sotware
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 284 284
Meas*rements J1K
+ossibility to e?ten measurement
&o remove subsiiary instrumentations
.euces wirin' an space
3ssists with commissionin'
3nalysis o! power system
1
0

3
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 285 285
*3 3mplitue
;80D23
*nstantaneous )easurementsE
+hase to phase volta'e an sin'le phase
volta'e
.esiual volta'e $"5o%
.esiual an current phase
+ositive , ne'ative an Jero seFuence
current an volta'e
FreFuency
3ctive, reactive an apparent power
3ctive an reactive ener'y
Chec, Sync 5olta'e
=ero2phase2seFuence current o! parallel
line $use !or the mutual compensation%
+ossibility to print a report
*nte'rate 5aluesE
+ea,, avera'e P .ollin'
emanE
*a *b *c
1 53r
1h 53rh
Meas*rements J2K
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 288 288
&M/ /nterace
'vents E Dist*r<ance -ecords
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 289 289
Dia)nosticIs &elp
MiCOM P440
=6raph
4vent recor
Fault recor
(isturbance
.ecorer
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 290 290
Dia)nosticIs ,id
Complete !ault isplay report
&ime ta' at 1ms
.ecorin' criterions choice
0on2volatile bac,up memory
4asy access via 8serTs inter!ace
4vent lo'
Fault report
(isturbance recors
Fault locator
&race
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 291 291
4ventsE
250 recors $500%
0on2volatile memory
Fault reportE
5 last !aults
0on2volatile memory
'vent %o)
Start 3 10ms
Fault recor
*17 10ms
5K 15ms
&rip 3-C 15ms
C-52 Open 90ms
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 292 292
Dist*r<ance -ecords
+re2!ault +ost2!ault
8 3nalo'ue channels
"2 (i'ital channels
Con!i'urable recor criterion
5ariable tri''er point
2# Samples per cycle $no compression%
28 .ecors $"sec each%
.ecor uration o! 10D5s
0on2volatile memory
4?tene recorin' time
)iCO) S1 saves !ile in the
CO)&.3(4 !ormat
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 29, 29,
SelEDia)nostics & Commissionin)
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 294 294
Sel Dia)nostics & Commissionin)
Commissionin' available to user
*nputs
Outputs
*nternal states
)easurements
4vent riven maintenance
*mprove availability
+ower2on ia'nostics
Continual sel!2monitorin'
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 295 295
Comm*nications
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 294 294
%ocal Comm*nications
Settin's
.ecors
Control
)easurements
Commissionin'
)aintenance
)enu te?t
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 295 295
-emote Comm*nications
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 298 298
Courier $!rontGrear1G2n
rear%
*4C908@025210"
(0+"D0
)O(-8S
8C32D0
*4C91 850 2821$Soon%
(i'ital Control
Systems
-emote Comm*nications
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 299 299
Harware moi!ication to inte'rate
4thernet $8C32 an *4C91850%
3vailable with protocols 8C32 P *4C91850
Selection o &ardware Options
3vailable as a prototype $n units K10 by orer%
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,00 ,00
Harware moi!ication to inte'rate
4thernet $8C32 an *4C91850%
Selection o &ardware Options
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,01 ,01
Harware moi!ication to inte'rate
4thernet $8C32 an *4C91850%
Selection o &ardware Options
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,02 ,02
'thernet /nterace JPS40K
FibreGcopper ports available
10)HJG100)HJ options !or !ibre
*nication o! Lin, an activity
)3C aress is uniFue harware
aress o! car
8se by 8C32 an *4C91850
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,0, ,0,
=5pical ':ample Showin) ?se o =wo -ear
Comm1 Ports
.D&D8D
)oem
+
O
1
4
.

S
8
+
+
L
/
C
4
0
&
.
3
L

+
.
O
C
4
S
S
O
.
)iCO) S1 so!tware
CI222
)oem
.S2"2 .S2"2
.S#85
.S#85
Com 2 Com 1
CI222
)ultiple rear ports
CI222 not neee
where either )O(4)
or .&8 accept .S#85
irectly
.S2"2 Front port connection
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,04 ,04
?C,+/'C218"0
6C/=
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,05 ,05
#*t*re =rend
918502;21
918502;22
918502821
918502821
-ay Level
+rotection Control
Station Level
Function 3
Function -
H5 4Fuipment
-ay Level
+rotection Control
H5 4Fuipment
"
1
"
1
9
9
;
# 5 # 5
8
@
&echnical Services
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,04 ,04
/'C218"0 Compliance %evels E Comm1 Protocols
Strate'y !or +rotection .an'e
GOO38 A1O
;AM8 3C9C
38;;A9G3
+A3;BR6A9C8
R8COR+A9G
COMMA9+3
One 6o 3olutions
M8;8RA9G
Real ;ime <alues
*4C91850 Full
*4C91850 4?tene
*4C91850 -asic
+A;A
8<89;3
R8POR;3
+"0G+#0E 4thernet boar is alreay
available $8C32 protocol implemente
!or 0iC3+ proNect%
*4C91850 -asicE 3vailable
*4C91850 4?teneE 4n 2005 DDD
*4C91850 FullE &-(
.emote settin' can be one either
over 4thernet or via 2n rear port
+##?E Sept 2005
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,05 ,05
MiCOM S1 4ased on /'C218"0
+20G"0G#0
Settin's File
)iCO) S1
*
4
C
9
1
8
5
0

G

4
t
h
e
r
n
e
t

b
a
s
e

.
e
a
r

+
o
r
t

C
o
m
m
u
n
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
*4C10"G)obusGCourier
base Front P .ear +ort
Communication
Hi'h2Level
+roceures
.S2"2 G .S#85 G DDD
*4C908@025210"
Courier
)obus
&C+G*+ 4thernet
(ata )oel
+rocessin'
+20G"0G#0 (ata
)oels
SP.2??? Noins 4thernet G *4C91850
(0+"
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,08 ,08
C/F-' Demo
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,09 ,09
M?E/'Ds =5pical ,rchitect*re
(istance +##<
CSG3.G-ac,up
-usbar +@#2G"
-F
Line (i!! +5#<
+>)
&F. )8@?
$80 or 259 sGcycle% $80 or 259 sGcycle% $80 or 259 sGcycle%
)82-- 5&1
)82-- 5&2
)82)ain 1 )82)ain 2 )82)>
.eunancy
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,10 ,10
/'C218"0
*enti!ie customers with a
stron' *4C 91850 pre!erence
$part o! their speci!ications%
once the stanar is available
$en 200"%E
4L*3
06&
5atten!all
.14
S*6
&4004&
SH4LL
SOL53/
SO04L63=
4SIO)
Hyro2>uebec
34+
&4.03
.&4
*S3
450
*4Co
+ower6ri $*nia%
5ol,swa'en
etcO
&ransmission P lar'e inustries, !irst in
4urope but e?panin' to .est O! the 1orl
1in!arm to come throu'h *4C 91#00 $*4C
91850 erivativeE new obNects%
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,11 ,11
/s=here a 6eed or /nterEopera<ilit5 /nside o a
S*<station T
0on e?haustive list o! e?istin' e?amples incluesE
8se o! i!!erent protection manu!acturers !or a !eeer
protection $security%
.e2use o! e?istin' or Fuali!ie relay $line i!!erential%
8se o! an impose H)*
&he current practice is to use the !ollowin' protocols
*4C 908@0252101G10"G10#, (0+", O+C
*4C 91850 coul provie !urther bene!its
+eer2to2peer $automation%
<)L e?chan'es $con!i'uration%
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,12 ,12
7hat are the ,dvanta)es to ?se /'C 218"0
/nstead o ':istin) =echnolo)ies T
.euce installation costs
.euce con!i'uration costs
.euce maintenance costs
*mprove !unctionalityGnetwor, reliability
.euce e!!ects o! substation transients on protection
an control applications
3aptive applications
Customer .eFuirementsE
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,1, ,1,
Communications base inter!ace between the sensors
an the *4(s
0o har wires 2 !iber only
Sel!2escription o! the *4(s
(istribute peer2to2peer communications o! state
chan'es
(istribute peer2to2peer communications o! analo' an
sample values
7hat are the ,dvanta)es to ?se /'C 218"0
/nstead o ':istin) =echnolo)ies T
SolutionsE
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,14 ,14
/nterMiCOM
J13pa)esK
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,15 ,15
/nterMiCOM Predecessor
LF=+1#1
)enerat
or
!rotecti
on
AnterMiCOM
"3+A +igital Antertri**ing
X CRC-: *olynomial for
o*timum security
,=C6, P0.!1 an' MiCOM
P5!0 Current +ifferential
X Bse of intertri* an' PA;
comman's (et2een line en's

F + 0
RESET
ALARM TRIP
HEALTHY
F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
SETTINGGROUP
FAULTN
AU!TIMER
AU!1
AU!2
AU!3
A B
C
"
#"
##"
H-3eries O4ercurrent
X Pro4en logic
interconnection
sc&emes (et2een
a'Racent relays
MO+B,8K MK% ,ine
X An-ser4ice inter-relay
sc&emes using
,O9#ORH3
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,14 ,14
/nterMiCOMT
P!01P%0
01100011
01001100
P!01P%0
;
;
R
R
#&at is AnterMiCOMY
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,15 ,15
/nterMiCOM
AnterMiCOM on +istance Protection +e4ices P!%0 ?8am*le@
+igital communication lin)
for t&e transmission of *rotecti4e signals
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,18 ,18
/nterMiCOM
L+oint to pointM transmission o! 8 i'ital si'nals
8ser inepenently settable si'nals
Common messa'e !ormat across "0 an #0 series
Hi'h security an !ast operatin' time
&estin' !acilities
Channel statistic
Hey =eatures
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,19 ,19
/nterMiCOM
&o respon to increase mar,et reFuirements !or better
relay
interconnections that enhance applications
&o spee up the trans!er o! commans at hi'h security
&o reuce wirin' an au?iliary eFuipment
&o provie less epenency on power line carrier
communications channels
&o ease an inte'ration o! other relays into )iCO)
schemes
Main 6enefits
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,20 ,20
/nterMiCOM
Possi(le AnterMiCOM connections (et2een !0 series relays
)O(4) )O(4)
.S2"2 .S2"2
K15m K15m
8 si'nals
8 si'nals
.S2"2 .S2"2
K15m ma?
8 si'nals
8 si'nals
<ia mo'em ?o*to lin)s or tele*&one lines or <= or 2ireless Micro2a4e lin)@
+irect connection (et2een relays ?unli)ely configuration@
(i!!erent ways o! #0 series relay connections !or *nter)iCO) application
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,21 ,21
/nterMiCOM
Possi(le AnterMiCOM connections (et2een %0 series relays
)O(4) )O(4)
.S#85 or FO .S#85 or FO
K1 ,m K1 ,m
8 si'nals
8 si'nals
.S#85 or FO .S#85 or FO
K1 ,m
ma?
8 si'nals
8 si'nals
=or 'istance a(o4e 1)m
+irect connection (et2een %0 series relays
(i!!erent ways o! "0 series relay connections !or *nter)iCO) application
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,22 ,22
/nterMiCOM
Possi(le connections (et2een %0 an' !0 series relays
)O(4) )O(4)
.S#85
or FO
.S#85
K1 ,m K15m
8 si'nals
8 si'nals
.S#85 or FO
$850nm%
K1 ,m ma?
8 si'nals
8 si'nals
=or 'istance a(o4e 1)m
+irect connection (et2een %0 series relays
(i!!erent ways o! "0 an #0 series *nter)iCO) connections
.S#85G.S2"2
$CI222%
or
FOG.S2"2
.S#85G.S2"2
$CI222%
or
FOG.S2"2
K15m ma?
P;60
P;20
P;20
P;60
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,2, ,2,
/nterMiCOM
eam*le of ot&er *rotections
integration into AnterMiCOM
4ia MiCOM P3,

F + 0
RESET
ALARM TRIP
HEALTHY
F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
SETTINGGROUP
FAULTN
AU!TIMER
AU!1
AU!2
AU!3
A B
C
"
#"
##"
+SL
)O(4) )O(4)
.S2"2 .S2"2
K15m K15m
(*&
(*&
H6C"
P!0
9u7hholE

F + 0
RESET
ALARM TRIP
HEALTHY
F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
SETTINGGROUP
FAULTN
AU!TIMER
AU!1
AU!2
AU!3
A B
C
"
#"
##"
H6C"
P!0
+SL
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,24 ,24
/nterMiCOM
8nerreach protectionE
*ntertrippin' unerreach protection $*8+% $*45 ##8215212%
+irect unerreachin' trans!er trip protection $8S3% $(8&&%
+ermissive unerreach protection $+8+% $*45 ##8215211%
Permissi4e unerreachin' trans!er trip protection $8S3%
$+8&&%
Accelerate' unerreach protection $38+% $*45 ##821521"%
Protection using ;elecommunications acc to A8< !!:-15
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,25 ,25
/nterMiCOM
Overreach protectionE
+ermissive overreach protection $+O+% $*45 ##8215219%
Permissi4e overreachin' trans!er trip protection $8S3%
$+O&&%
-loc,in' overreach protection $*45 ##821521#%
6loc)ing irectional comparison protection $8S3%
Protection using ;elecommunications acc to A8< !!:-15
=or =or *rotection sc&emes using telecommunication a (inary signal is *rotection sc&emes using telecommunication a (inary signal is
transmitte' from one en' to t&e ot&er en' of t&e *rotecte' line. transmitte' from one en' to t&e ot&er en' of t&e *rotecte' line.
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,24 ,24
/nterMiCOM
6loc)ing signals
Permissi4e Antertri*s ?PA;@
+irect tri*s ?+A;@
AnterMiCOM signals ?comman's@
;&ree tele*rotection comman' le4els are su**orte' (y AnterMiCOM ;&ree tele*rotection comman' le4els are su**orte' (y AnterMiCOM
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,25 ,25
/nterMiCOM
Spee $ transmission time%E
&ime elapse between the instant o! chan'e in state at the comman
input an the instant o! the corresponin' chan'e in state at the
comman output, e?cluin' propa'ation time
SecurityE
Security relates to the ability to prevent inter!erence an noice !rom
'eneratin' a comman at the receivin' en when no comman si'nal
is transmitte4
(epenabilityE
(epenability relates to the ability to issue an receive a vali
comman in the presence o! inter!erence anGor noiseD
C&aracteristics of ;ele*rotection 3ystems acc to A8C 50:%!-1
Comman' Comman' ty*e tele*rotection systems &a4e to assure t&e c&aracteristics ty*e tele*rotection systems &a4e to assure t&e c&aracteristics
Zs*ee'Z, ZsecurityZ an' Z'e*en'a(ilityZ to an etremely &ig& 'egree. Zs*ee'Z, ZsecurityZ an' Z'e*en'a(ilityZ to an etremely &ig& 'egree.
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,28 ,28
/nterMiCOM
3*ee'
+e*en'a(ility 3ecurity
6loc)ing
+irect
Permissi4e
Accelerate'
50 ms
!0 ms
-0 ms
10
-5
10
-!
10
--
10
-5
10
-!
10
--
ReFuirements on ;ele*rotection 3ystems acc to 63 .!/!-1
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,29 ,29
/nterMiCOM
Message =ormat
eac& message consists of:
X
start (it-fiel'
X
a''ress (it-fiel' ?R@
X
: user setta(le comman' (it-fiel' ?61-6:@
X
CRC calculation (it-fiel'
X
sto* (it-fiel'
start -1 -2 -" -# -5 -9 -@ C.C stop
-LOCI or (*& +*& or (*&
-8 .
AnterMiCOM message
8ac& 61 - 6! can (e 8ac& 61 - 6! can (e set in'e*en'ently to eit&er 6,OCHA9G 3AG9A, or +A;. set in'e*en'ently to eit&er 6,OCHA9G 3AG9A, or +A;.
8ac& 65 - 6: (it can (e set in'e*en'ently to eit&er PA; or +A;. 8ac& 65 - 6: (it can (e set in'e*en'ently to eit&er PA; or +A;.
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,,0 ,,0
/nterMiCOM
3ignal selection, one 2ay transmission s&o2n for sim*licity
3im*lifie' eam*le t&at s&o2s assignment of 'igital signals ! an' 5 3im*lifie' eam*le t&at s&o2s assignment of 'igital signals ! an' 5
at local relay an' t&eir transmission to t&e remote relay at local relay an' t&eir transmission to t&e remote relay
2
5
LO1"L relay
:sending end<
2
5
REMO(E relay
:re7ei=ing end<
comms
; R
linF
linF
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,,1 ,,1
/nterMiCOM E
Modem Selection
R3-%- Analogue C&annel
#ata Rate 5 the
Relay Interface
-IT6- 7.
Standard
BL&8I')
Transmission
Time
!IT
Transmission
Time
#IT
Transmission
Time
1-00 <.-- :.%% ms -5.00 ms -5.00 ms
-!00 <.-- (is !.15 ms 1-.50 ms 1-.50 ms
!:00 <.-. -.0: ms 5.-50 ms 5.-50 ms
/500 <.%- 1.0! ms %.1-5 ms %.1-5 ms
1/-00 <.%- 0.5- ms 1.55- ms 1.55- ms
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,,2 ,,2
Concl*sion
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,,, ,,,
5ersatile istance relay !or all )54H5 applications
4?tremely secure 2 (elta techniFues, !or !ault etection,
irectionality an phase selection
Overhea line anGor cable applications
Full complement o! istance an (4F schemes
)enu2riven so!tware !or settin' an analysis
Comprehensive bac, up protection
*nte'rate !our shot autoreclosure with chec, synch
P440 S*mmar5
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,,4 ,,4
S*mmar5 o P440 #*nctions
-1G Groun' 'istance *rotection, %
for2ar' elements, 1 re4erse
element, 1 selecta(le element,
Fua'rilateral Gones.
-1P P&ase 'istance *rotection, %
for2ar' elements, 1 re4erse
element, 1 selecta(e element,
Fua'rilateral Gones.
:5 C&annel-ai'e' *rotection.
50 P&ase o4ercurrent, "ig& set,
for 3tu( (us a**lication.
5.1!5
9egati4e seFuence o4ercurrent
!/ ;&ermal Protection - o4erloa'
501-. 32itc& onto fault an' tri* on
reclose
50151 P&ase o4ercurrent, +; or
A+M;
501519
Groun' o4ercurrent, +; or
A+M;
51== =use failure o4ercurrent
5. P&ase 'irectional o4ercurrent
5.9 +8=, communication ai'e'
%-9 Po2er s2ing 'etection, use'
to selecti4ely *ermit or (loc)
tri**ing
5: Po2er s2ing (loc)ing -
Out of ste* tri**ing
?using P3,@
<;3 <oltage transformer
su*er4ision
C<;3 Ca*aciti4e <oltage
transformer su*er4ision
C;3 Current transformer
su*er4ision
506= Circuit 6rea)er failure
!56C 6ro)en con'uctor 'etection
-5 C&ec) sync&roniser
./ Autorecloser
5/,-. O4er4oltage1Bn'er4oltage
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,,5 ,,5
O*r ,nswers to Lo*r -eM*irements
MiCOM P440
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,,4 ,,4
Personalised Protection
)iCO)E &he 4ssential Lin, 2 Stren'th P Fle?ibility
.eliable protection
scheme
3aptable to speci!ic
networ, substation esi'n
Comprehensive inte'ral
protection !unctions
Stanar lo'ic schemes
can be selecte
+ower!ul ia'ram base
pro'rammable scheme
lo'ic
Lar'e ran'e o! si'nal
selections
" )oels $inputGoutput%
/our .eFuirements Our 3nswers
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,,5 ,,5
6etwor( -elia<ilit5
)a?imum continuity o!
supply
*mmeiate alarms
Loa avoiance
*nte'ral # shot autoreclose
with synchronism chec,
Switch on to !ault
)inimise ama'e
Continuous sel! chec,
1atcho' contacts
3larms via communication
system
+ower swin'
bloc,in'Gtrippin'
>uarilateral
characteristic
/our .eFuirements Our 3nswers
)iCO)E &he 4ssential Lin, 2 Stren'th P Fle?ibility
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,,8 ,,8
Sta
Stanar )iCO) ran'e
user inter!ace $,now 1,
,now all%
Stanar )iCO) so!tware
support S1, S10
StanariJe
ocumentation
Combination o! L ran'e
style !ront panel P I ran'e
menu structure
Fast trainin'
Hi'h competence
Familiar P
easy inter!ace
/our .eFuirements Our 3nswers
)iCO)E &he 4ssential Lin, 2 Stren'th P Fle?ibility
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,,9 ,,9
S5stem Mana)ement
C- !ail system
Local or remote C- control
250 event recors
20 ? 10D5 secon
isturbance recors
Fault locator
C- monitorin'

0umber o! operations

Operatin' time

Operation uty
Circuit brea,er control
Fault ia'nosis
System monitorin'
/our .eFuirements Our 3nswers
)iCO)E &he 4ssential Lin, 2 Stren'th P Fle?ibility
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,40 ,40
=otal #eeder Protection
(istance
8ner P Over volta'e
(4F, Sensitive (4F 2 +ositive
P Jero seFuence polarisin'
(irectional ne'ative seFuence
overcurrent
5 Jone characteristic
1ea, in!ee scheme
Circuit brea,er !ail
C&G5& supervision
Forwar P reverse
etection
Sensitive !ault etection
-ac, up protection
+rimary plant !ailures
C- 2 5& 2 C&
/our .eFuirements Our 3nswers
)iCO)E &he 4ssential Lin, 2 Stren'th P Fle?ibility
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,41 ,41
-elevant /normation
,vaila<le+?nderstanda<le
Lan'ua'e selection
Customise te?t !acility
3ssi'nable L4(
3ssi'nable outputs
+ro'rammable lo'ic !or
L4(s
P outputs
1inows P 'raphical user
inter!ace

S1, S10

+SL 4itor
/our own lan'ua'e
/our own te?t
*nications relevant
to the substation
/our .eFuirements Our 3nswers
)iCO)E &he 4ssential Lin, 2 Stren'th P Fle?ibility
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,42 ,42
,vaila<ilit5 o /normation
*nstantaneous (3&3
Store (3&3
3ccurate (3&3
Synchronise (3&3
Lon' term (3&3
retention
Fast in!ormation access
On Line measurements
K1: accuracy
250 store events
20 store isturbance
recors
.an'e o! communication
options
2n rear port $Courier%
*.*62- time
synchronisation
Fault locator
Fast access time
-attery bac,e realtime
cloc,
/our .eFuirements
Our 3nswers
)iCO)E &he 4ssential Lin, 2 Stren'th P Fle?ibility
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,4, ,4,
%o)istics
Compact siJe 8 case
or enhance siJe 12 or 19
(ual C& ratin's or *4C
900##28 !ibre optic input !or
0C*&
" volta'e ran'es
*nternal !iel volta'e
)inimum stoc,
)inimum panel space
Suitable to all substation
/our .eFuirements Our 3nswers
)iCO)E &he 4ssential Lin, 2 Stren'th P Fle?ibility
> MiCOM P441, P442, P444 - February 2005 ,44 ,44
-elia<le Operation
710 years e?perience o!
al'orithm
8se !rom )5 to 4H5
networ,s
)ultiple ,=o resiual
compensation !actors
Stub bus protection
# settin' 'roups
Hybri line !acility
Hi'h per!ormance elta
al'orithm $patente%

Startin'

+hase selection

(irectional ecision
+roven per!ormance
3ll networ,s
3aptive con!i'uration
/our .eFuirements Our 3nswers
)iCO)E &he 4ssential Lin, 2 Stren'th P Fle?ibility
6ye [
Franois Lhomme 22.02.2005 Franois Lhomme 22.02.2005