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What Is Islam?
It's not every day that religion appears as a front page story in today's newspapers, particularly on a regular basis. But over the past 20 years one religion has made the front page perhaps more than any other . . . the religion of Islam. Islam claims up to one billion followers worldwide. It is not only the fastest growing religion in the world, but its influence touches virtually every area of life--not only the spiritual, but the political and economic as well. What is more, its influence is being felt closer and closer to home. There are now up to 5 million Muslims in the U.S., and over 1,100 mosques or Islamic centers. What does Islam teach? How are the teachings of Islam similar to those of Christianity? How are they different? What should our attitude be toward Islam, and toward those who follow this powerful religion? These are some of the questions we want to address in this essay.
The History of Islam
First, we want to take a look back at the history of Islam. Islam was founded in the early seventh century by Muhammed. When he was 40 years of age, in A.D. 610, Muhammed claimed to be receiving messages from God. These messages were later compiled and recorded in the Koran--Islam's holy book. About this same time, Muhammed began preaching against the greed, economic oppression, and idolatry that plagued the Arab peoples. He called on the many factions of the Arab peoples to unite under the worship of Allah, the chief god of the Arab pantheon of deities. Though his message was initially rejected, by the year 630 he had succeeded in gaining control of Mecca, the economic and religious center of the Arabian peninsula. Though Muhammed died two years later, the religious/political movement he founded rapidly spread throughout the Arab world, and far beyond. By A.D. 750, the Muslim empire spanned from Spain in the west to India in the east. In the centuries that followed, Islam penetrated deeper into Africa and Asia, extending as far as the Philippines. During its "golden era" Islam claimed some of the world's finest philosophers and mathematicians. It was during this time also that Islam and Christianity clashed as a result of the Crusades to reclaim the Holy Land from the Muslims. Beginning around 1500, and accelerating after the industrial revolution of the 17001800s, Islam felt the increasing influence of the European powers. Eventually, large
portions of the Muslim world were colonized by European countries. This political and economic domination by Europe continued until the end of WWII, after which Muslim countries began to attain political independence. With the discovery and development of the vast oil reserves in many Muslim lands, economic independence suddenly came within reach also. At last, Islam had in its grasp both the opportunity and the resources to reassert itself as a powerful force in the world. After being on the defensive for many centuries, Islam was now on the offensive!
The Current Status of Islam
At this point we should discuss the current status of Islam. In doing so, it's important to realize that Islam is not a monolithic system. Though all Muslims draw their inspiration from Muhammed and the Koran, there are many identifiable groups and movements within Islam. The most obvious division is that between Sunni and Shia Islam. The Sunnis (who compose about 90% of all Muslims) draw their name from the fact that they look both to the Koran and to the "sunna" in establishing proper Muslim conduct. The "sunna" is the behavior or example of Muhammed and of the early Muslim community. Of course, there are many sub-divisions among the Sunnis, but they all identify themselves as Sunni. The other major group of Muslims are the Shi'ites (who compose about 10% of all Muslims and reside mainly in Iraq and Iran). The word Shi'ite means "partisan," and refers to the fact that Shi'ites are "partisans of Ali." Ali was the son-in-law and cousin of Muhammed and one of the early Caliphs or successors to Muhammed as leader of the Muslim people. Shi'ites believe that the leader of Islam should be among the descendants of Ali, whom they believe possess a special divine anointing for this task. The last of these divinely appointed leaders, or "imams" most Shi'ites believe to be in "hiding" in another realm of existence. The Ayatollah Khomeini was believed to have been a spokesman for this "hidden imam." A third group that should be mentioned are the Sufis--those Muslims (among both Sunni and Shia) who seek a mystical experience of God, rather than a merely intellectual knowledge of Him, and who also are given to a number of superstitious practices. In addition to these divisions within Islam, mention must also be made of attitudes among Muslims toward their contact with the Western world in modern times. Though the situation is much more complex than we are capable of dealing with in this pamphlet, two broad trends have been evident within Islam. One trend is toward some degree of accommodation and adjustment to the West and to modern ways of life. This has manifested itself most obviously in countries like Turkey, which have instituted largely secular forms of government and Western ways of life, while maintaining Islamic religious practices.
The opposite trend is toward a return to a more traditional approach to Islamic life and a rejection of Western and modern ways. The most extreme expression of this trend is manifest in the various forms of Islamic fundamentalism, which insist on the implementation of Muslim law (called the Sharia) in every area of life. Fundamentalists have been most successful in Saudi Arabia, Iran, Pakistan, and Sudan; but they are active in virtually every Muslim country, at times resorting to violence and terrorism in attempting to implement their agenda. In understanding this potent religious and political movement, it is important to understand the various divisions and attitudes within Islam and the basic beliefs at Islam's core.
The Basic Beliefs of Islam
Though the beliefs of Muslims worldwide are about as diverse as those among Christians, there are six basic articles of faith common to nearly all Muslims. The first of these is that there is no God but Allah. The pre- Islamic Arabs were polytheists. But Muhammed succeeded in leading them to devote themselves solely to the chief God of the pantheon whom they called Allah (which simply means God). To worship or attribute deity to any other being is considered shirk or blasphemy. The Koran mentions numerous names of Allah, and these names are found frequently on the lips of devout Muslims who believe them to have a nearly magical power. The second article of faith is belief in angels and jinn. Jinn are spirit beings capable of both good and evil actions and of possessing human beings. Above the jinn in rank are the angels of God. Two of them are believed to accompany every Muslim, one on the right to record his good deeds, and one on the left to record his evil deeds. The third article is belief in God's holy books, 104 of which are referred to in the Koran. Chief among these are the Law given to Moses, the Psalms given to David, the Gospel (or Injil) given to Jesus, and the Koran given to Muhammed. Each of these is conceived to have communicated the same basic message of God's will to man. Obvious discrepancies between the Jewish and Christian Scriptures and the Koran (particularly with reference to Jesus and Muhammed) were accounted for by Muhammed in his suggestion that the Bible had been tampered with by Jews and Christians. The fourth article of faith is belief in God's prophets, through whom Allah appealed to man to follow His will as revealed in His holy books. There is no agreement as to how many prophets there have been--some say hundreds of thousands. Among them were Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. But all agree that Muhammed was God's final and supreme prophet--the "seal" of the prophets. Though Muhammed himself said that he was a sinner, nonetheless there are many Muslims throughout the world who appear to come close to worshiping him.
The fifth article of faith is belief in the absolute predestinating will of Allah. Though some Muslims have modified this doctrine somewhat, the Koran seems to support the idea that all things (both good and evil) are the direct result of God's will. Those who conclude that Islam is a fatalistic religion have good reason for doing so. The sixth and final article of faith is belief in the resurrection and final judgment. At the end of history, God will judge the works of all men. Those whose good deeds outweigh their bad deeds will enter into paradise (pictured in rather sensual terms). The rest will be consigned to hell. The paramount feature of Islamic belief, aside from its strong monotheism, is that it is a religion of human works. One's position with regard to Allah is determined by his success in keeping His laws.
The Basic Practices of Islam
Now we want to focus on the most important of those works. These are summarized in what are usually called the "Five Pillars of Islam." The first pillar is recitation of the creed: "There is no God but Allah, and Muhammed is his prophet." It is commonly held that to recite this creed in the presence of two witnesses is to constitute oneself a Muslim--one in submission to God. Of course, the word Islam simply means "submission." The second pillar is the regular practice of prayers. Sunni Muslims are required to recite specific prayers accompanied by prescribed motions five times daily. (Shi'ites do so only three times a day.) All male Muslims are also enjoined to meet for community prayer (and sermon) each Friday at noon. The third pillar is almsgiving. Born an orphan himself, Muhammed was deeply concerned for the needy. The Koran requires that 2.5% of one's income be given to the poor or to the spread of Islam. The fourth pillar of Islam is the fast during the month of Ramadan (the ninth lunar month of the Muslim calendar, during which Muhammed is said to have received the first of his revelations from God, and during which he and his followers made their historic trek from Mecca to Medina). During this month, Muslims in good health are required to forego all food and liquid during daylight hours. This fast promotes the Muslim's selfdiscipline, dependence on Allah, and compassion for the needy. The fifth pillar is the Hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca. If possible, every Muslim is to make a pilgrimage to Mecca once during his life. It can be made properly only on a few days during the last month of the Muslim year. The Hajj promotes the ideas of worldwide unity and equality among Muslims. But it also contains many elements of prescribed activity that are of pagan origin. A sixth pillar, that of jihad, is often added. (The term means "exertion" or "struggle" in behalf of God.) Jihad is the means by which those who are outside the household of Islam
are brought into its fold. Jihad may be by persuasion, or it may be by force or "holy war." The fact that any Muslim who dies in a holy war is assured his place in paradise provides strong incentive for participation! Muslims around the world look to these pillars for guidance in shaping their religious practice. But in addition to these pillars, there are numerous laws and traditions contained in the Hadith-- literature that was compiled after the completion of the Koran, that reportedly contains the example and statements of Muhammed on many topics. Because the laws of the Hadith and Koran cover virtually every area of life, Islam has well been referred to as an all-encompassing way of life, as well as a religion.
A Christian Perspective on Islam
At this point it is appropriate to offer a brief evaluation of Islam from a Christian perspective. At the outset, it must be stated that there is much in Islam that the Christian can affirm. Among the most significant Islamic doctrines that can be genuinely affirmed by the Christian are its belief in one God, its recognition of Jesus as the virgin born, sinless prophet and messiah of God, and its expectation of a future resurrection and judgment. There are, however, some very significant areas of difference. We will mention just a few. First, the Muslim perception of God is by no means the same as that revealed in the Bible. Islam portrays God as ultimately unknowable. In fact, in the Koran, Allah reveals His will, but He never reveals Himself. Neither is He ever portrayed as a God of love, nor as a Father to His people, as He is in the Bible. Second, though Jesus is presented as a miracle working prophet and messiah, and even without sin, Islam denies that He is the Son of God or Savior of the world. Indeed, it is denied that Jesus ever died at all, least of all for the sins of the world. Third, though mankind is depicted as weak and prone to error, Islam denies that man is a sinner by nature and in need of a Savior, as the Bible so clearly teaches. People are capable of submitting to God's laws and meriting his ultimate approval. According to Islam, man's spiritual need is not for a savior but for guidance. This leads to the fact that since in Islam, acceptance by God is something we must earn by our works, it cannot possibly provide the sense of security that can be found in the grace of God as taught in the Bible. Many of us will find opportunities to befriend Muslim neighbors, co-workers, or friends. As we do, we should be aware of some of the barriers that exist between Muslims and Christians, due to past and current animosities. The attitude of many Muslims toward Christianity and toward the West is colored by the history of conflict that has found expression in the Crusades of Medieval times, European
domination and colonialism, as well as Western support for Zionism in most recent times. We must allow the love of God to overcome our own fear and defensiveness and to penetrate these barriers. In the past several years many Muslims have been deeply impressed by the compassion shown by Westerners (and particularly the United States) toward Muslim countries that have endured severe hardship. This kind of compassion can be shown on an individual level as well. As we do, we can then invite our Muslim friends to join us in a study of the New Testament, which reveals the only source of acceptance before God in His love and grace, expressed through the sacrifice of His Son Jesus Christ and His gift of the Holy Spirit.
© 1994 Probe Ministries
The following organizations have resources for ministry to Muslims: Answering Islam web site: http://www.answering-islam.org.uk/ Arab World Ministries P.O. Box 96 Upper Darby, PA 19082-0096 http://www.gospelcom.net/awm/indexuk.htm STL Distributors P.O. Box 28 Waynesboro, GA 30830 Scripture Gift Mission P.O. Box 250 Willow Street, PA 17584-0250 http://members.aol.com/sgmint/ Fellowship of Faith P.O. Box 221 746 Pape Ave., Station J Toronto, Ontario M4J 4Y1 Canada International Students, Inc. P.O. Box C Colorado Springs, CO 80901 http://www.isionline.org When writing these organizations, ask for a list or a catalog of their current resources for ministry to Muslims.
About the Author
Rick Rood is the former director of publications at Probe Ministries, and now serves as a hospital chaplain. He is a graduate of Seattle Pacific University (B.A., History) and Dallas Theological Seminary (Th.M.). He has pursued Ph.D. studies in theology at D.T.S. and has served as pastor, been a seminary instructor, and has worked for a number of years in ministry to international students. Rick and his wife Polly are the parents of two young adults.
What is Probe? Probe Ministries is a non-profit corporation whose mission is to reclaim the primacy of Christian thought and values in Western culture through media, education, and literature. In seeking to accomplish this mission, Probe provides perspective on the integration of the academic disciplines and historic Christianity. In addition, Probe acts as a clearing house, communicating the results of its research to the church and society at large. Further information about Probe's materials and ministry may be obtained by writing to: Probe Ministries 1900 Firman Drive, Suite 100 Richardson, TX 75081 (972) 480-0240 FAX (972) 644-9664 email@example.com www.probe.org Copyright (C) 1996-2006 Probe Ministries Email this to a friend
copyright © 1995-2006 Leadership U. All rights reserved. This site is part of the Telling the Truth Project. Updated: 14 July 2002
What is Islam? The name of the religion is Islam, which comes from an Arabic root word meaning "peace" and "submission." Islam teaches that one can only find peace in one's life by submitting to Almighty God (Allah) in heart, soul and deed. The same Arabic root word gives us "Salaam alaykum," ("Peace be with you"), the universal Muslim greeting. Who is a Muslim? A person who believes in and consciously follows Islam is called a Muslim, also from
the same root word. So, the religion is called Islam, and a person who follows it is a Muslim. How Many and Where? Islam is a major world religion, with over 1 billion followers worldwide (1/5 of the world population). It is considered one of the Abrahamic, monotheistic faiths, along with Judaism and Christianity. Although usually associated with the Arabs of the Middle East, less than 10% of Muslims are in fact Arab. Muslims are found all over the world, of every nation, color and race. Muslim majorities are found throughout the Middle East, North Africa, East Asia and the Pacific Islands. Large numbers are also found in Western Europe, the former Soviet Union, and North America. Who is Allah? Allah is the proper name for Almighty God, and is often translated merely as "God." Allah has other names that are used to describe His characteristics: the Creator, the Sustainer, the Merciful, the Compassionate, the Judge, the Governor, the Eternal, etc. Allah is without beginning, without end, and He alone sees and knows all things. Allah is transcendent, yet close to mankind. "...He knows what enters within the earth and what comes forth out of it, what comes down from heaven and what mounts up to it. And He is with you wheresoever you may be. And Allah sees well all that you do" (Qur'an 57:4). Since Allah alone is the Creator, it is He alone that deserves our devout love and worship. Anything other than Him is simply His creation. "That is Allah, your Lord! There is no god but He, the Creator of all things; then worship Him, and He has power to dispose of all affairs. No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision; He is the Sublime, Well-Aware" (Qur'an 6:102-103). Islam holds to a strict monotheism - Allah has no partners and is not divided into a trinity. "Say: He is Allah, the One; Allah, the Eternal, Absolute. He begets not, nor is He begotten, and there is none like unto Him" (Qur'an 112:1-4). Any worship and prayers directed at saints, prophets, other human beings or nature is considered idolatry.
THERE IS NO GOD OTHER THAN ALLAH
Contents: A statement that suggests radical change in the approach to science; the science which substitutes its gods instead of The One God; relevant mental experiments... ---welcome-welcome-welcome-welcome-welcome-welcome-welcome-welcome-welcome-welcomewelcome-welcome-welcome-welcome-welcome---
WHAT IS ISLAM:
Islam is the youngest and oldest monotheistic religion. Youngest; because Muhammed is the last prophet. Oldest, because all real prophets originally gave the message of Islam: "There is no god other than Allah"; and Muhammed was simply a reminder of this message, though with newer and more efficient evidences and methods. Monotheism is the most stressed feature of this religion.
The essence of this religion is summarized in this sentence; which is sufficient to make one be moslem if it is accepted by him: THERE IS NO GOD - (other than Allah). Thus, islamic belief is firstly a revolt, a refusal. This is seen in the above mentioned basic statement of Islam. According to Islam, all numerous gods that are believed and that the senses make somewhat probable in the first sight must be refused; and then in the search of the uncomparable/real/one source of the existence - and after a process of reasoning, we conclude: (There is no god) OTHER THAN ALLAH. This continuous aspect of Islamic belief, is also seen in the practical life of the prophets and of moslems; and in their souls. Most of prophets came to communities where there was generally many gods, which were to be destroyed by them: Below is an example from Abraham as told in the Qur'an (Ch.37v.88-96): "Then did he cast a glance at the Stars. Then he said: Surely I am sick (of your worshipping these). So they turned away from him, and departed. Then did he turn to their gods and said, "will ye not eat (of the offerings before you)?... What aileth you that ye speak not? Then did he turn upon them, striking (them) with the right hand. And (his people) came toward him, hastening. He said: "Worship ye that which ye have (yourselves) carved? And Allah has created you and what you make." Yes, as real prophets crashed the idols; the discrete idols of our age are to be crashed and refused. (Well, discreteness is not an important difference between contemporary and anscient idols, because most of the idolators suggest/ed that they were in fact believing in the spirits that exist within the idols.) Human products do not make this universe and the events exist. Statements/accepted facts as:
E=(1/2)m*v2 or E=m*c2 are not what causes physical events; nor any relation that will be discovered later. Energy=f(mass, velocity); mass= f(velocity, energy); velocity= f(energy, mass)= f (time, space) time=f(velocity, space) space=f(velocity, time) location (a)= f (location[b]); location(b)= f (location[a]) or the length of x is y meters; x meters is the length of y are NOT the source of any thing. (f represents different functions for each statement) Rather, as these relations are real while they are tautologies - determining each other by a vicious circle; they must not be causes, especially not the causes of reality; but results of one reality of higher (better adjective: undeterminable/uncomparable; because if determined, or compared, there remains no difference between the idols we reject and One God we accept) order. Why it is said "One" reality? Because they (the man christened-created relations or better: Names of relations) are the unifying things (or proof of the unity of real things) while there is no reason for such a unity; and they do not constitute such a reason, for they are only RESULTS (TEMPORARY ONES); they are not realexecutive entities/things. Today, every fact X, is known in Ys; and every fact Y is defined in Xs. Every fact (for example matter) is formed of constituents; constituents that have no limit in infinitesimally small levels. For example, today, can we see any nuclear physicists who suggest certainly that there is not a sub level of the smallest particle we know today? Can anybody say; an explanation of gravity based on spacetime curvature and/or gravitons is complete and ultimate? No, because every entity is constituted of two halves, or three 1/3s, or four 1/4s, ... And this infinitesimality makes any ultimately exact and full knowledge even theoretically impossible. As this is so, no known thing can be eternal, because of this multiple and comparable aspect.
SCIENCE WITHOUT ISLAMIC TOOLS, IS DEADLY LAME; AND CEASES TO BE REALLY SCIENCE However, one should not conclude from above written statements, that Islam is against science or that there is a trade-off between science and Islam. It is clear that the reality is otherwise. Islam supports the science; but a full and continuous science, which does not include conjectures, a science which does not stop to take responsibility for explaining some facts after a point, a science able to explain itself too. Islam being the Ultra-Science, gives us tools to understand everything including science; and bestows upon science the place it deserves; while in the present mentality, science is something that makes us understand physical, chemical, biological, ... events; but does not provide us with any tool to understand itself. When the latter is the situation, how can one say that science is able to explain us anything, even the simplest thing convincingly?
ACCORDING TO ISLAM, TODAY, SCIENCE IS ALSO AN ALTERNATIVE RELIGION AMONG OTHERS (IN GENERAL). COMPARISON OF ISLAM AND SCIENCE AS RELIGIONS: 1.The basic statement of Islam is: "There is no god other than Allah" (Qur'an:Ch.37 v.35). 2. Everything is created, that is to say given its qualifications, and directed according to these qualifications by Allah and while He wants. "And Who makes (things) according to a measure, then directs" (ch87/v3) "He said who is your Lord, Moses? He answered, Our Lord is He who giveth all things their qualifications and directed them." (ch20/v.49,50) "Unto Him do all creatures in heaven and earth make petition; every day is He in work." (ch.55/ v.29) "Then let man look to his food: How We pour water in showers. Then split the earth in clefts. And cause the grain to grow therein. And grapes and green fodder. And the olive and the palm..."(ch.80/ v.25-29) "Say: He is Allah, the One! Allah is He on Whom all depend. He begetteth not nor was begotten. And there is none comparable unto Him." (ch.112) "They said, burn him, and avenge your gods: If ye do this it will be well. We said O fire, be thou cold, and a preservation unto Abraham. And they sought to lay a plot against him: but we caused them to be the sufferers." (ch.21/v.68-70)
3. So, according to Qur'an, nothing can be explained fully when Allah is not taken into account. In other words everything needs Allah for existing. If you say that anything does not need Allah, or that you can explain something ONLY by a factor which is not Allah, you will have assigned this factor to some extent a property of Allah, which in fact it has not. And anything which does not need Allah, is assigned a status similar to Allah, a divine status. Mankind have often made the assignment I mentioned above. To gods such as god of sun, god of water, god of love and so on.These were thought as having partial authority on some parts of the world. Today the same is true for some mathematical, geometrical, physical concepts and relations. A simple atheist is probably to say:Everything is explained or will be explained by sciences; so there is no need for a god. The first part of this argument is good and strong and Qur'an also favours this kind of reasoning. But there is a difference as to the second part: According to Qur'an, science (-or causal thinking) needs Allah in order to explain the existence. Again, as you need Allah to explain the existence, if He is not taken into account; then there must be godlike things that are assigned the post. Many of our atheist friends suggest that we create our gods in our minds. But is it not interesting that some prophets say also the same to their people concerning their gods, according to the Qur'an: "Hud answered, now shall there suddenly fall upon you from your Lord vengeance and indignation. Will ye dispute with me concerning the names which ye have named, and your fathers; as to which God hath not revealed unto you any authority?" (ch. 7/ v. 70) and that the atheists also may have given some things (as matter and its parts) the posts of god? So, the critical question is: "Whether Allah excludes godlike properties ( as unity, coordination, execution, knowledge, predictability, absoluteness, creation of new entities and so on) of: Scientific entities (as matter and energy), the media where these exist (dimensions), their states (as order, chaos), relations between all these (as of matter relating to space or energy; relevant formulaes and so on) or whether these latter things leave no place for the existence of an active god. These really constitute good subjects for debate, especially if you consider verses as "And (He is) Who makes (things) according to a measure, then guides (them to their goal)" (ch87/v3) "He said who is your Lord, Moses? He answered, Our Lord is he who giveth all things their properties, and directed them." (ch20/v.49,50) The difference between the two approaches may be resumed so: The muslim says:"The creatures (includes everything) are given by God, their qualifications (including the physical laws, equations, formulaes [we may be unknowing everything, the real is known by Allah]) and they are executed and may be changed by Allah when(r)ever He wants.".
The (atheist)scientist says "The properties (including above mentioned laws and so on) of everything are intrinsic to them and absolute and not subject to change except for any specific conditions" And therefore, there is no trade-off between Islam and Real-Science, both support each other. Let us discuss this issue in the next part in more detail.
OUR SCIENCE SUBMITS TO ISLAM AND ALLAH -THE ONE.(SOME MENTAL EXPERIMENTS) In general, those who try to philosophize, begin by philosophizing tons of materials while they have/could not philosophize(d) a single point; and they are overcome, the natural result of this, being basic mistakes; because of the small quantity of energy per material, due to the lack of concentration. Therefore, let us use a different method here for understanding things without being indoctrinated; and questioning everything: Let us create in our mind a universe consisting of three simple objects: M, L, A. The nature of these objects does not matter. I did, did you? If yes, let us go on: What are there in this universe? There is: M, there is:L, there is:A; what else? There is: MA, there is: ML, there is: LA and the combinations summed up, there is MLA. What else? There is the frame where MLA, or M, L, A or the combinations exist. Is there anything else? Time? Yes, however, we may consider our universe as a three dimensioned one, and add time later. Now let us begin by an individual consideration: As M, L, A are comparable, let us take one of them (M) and consider it: In this universe, what are its properties? MY SUGGESTIONS: Article 1. INFINITESIMALITY: The object is a positive thing: A sum of parts, that we may divide (to some extent really and) theoretically infinitesimally. Article 2. LIMITATION: It is a limited thing. It ends somewhere in the frame wherein it exists; at least where L, or A begins.Whether your frame is two or ten dimensional it is so. You may argue perhaps: I imagined it in order to extend towards infinities; if so, you must add another dimension, in order to make L and A easily existable, and limit M according to this dimension. Article 3. THE UNITY BETWEEN FRAME AND OBJECT: As this is an essentially limited thing, it needs the frame and can not be understood without the frame. So, anything can not be thought without a frame. The frame is the part of the
object. They are not apart. Therefore, it is wrong in fact to consider them as different things. Here we see unity and apartness that coexist. Article 4. THE RELATIVITY BETWEEN FRAME AND OBJECT: It can not be defined by the frame except by the line that separates it from the frame, because, otherwise there would be a tautology; for the frame is defined by the object itself. Up to now, I dealed with the unity relating to M; internal unity: That exists between the parts of M; The unity between M and the frame: That they are not separable and none can be understood/is meaningfull without other. The existence of frame without object is impossible, as the existence of the object without the frame. Article 5.THE EXTERNAL UNITY(The unity between M, L and A): As we have seen above, M and its frame is one. The same is true for L and A. Now, we ask: OK, M, L and A exist separately, what about MLA then? Let us consider only geometrical relation between them (one could suggest that there could be exactly no relation between them. Even if there is no geometrical relation, there would be a relation, a common point: The special existence). Where does the relation between M, L and A exist then? In M? In L? Or in A? Your answer is probably: No, it exists only in my mind. Well, what about real things then? Which do not exist in your mind and in none's mind? Where does the totality of numerous things exist? In space? What is space? Only a part of each one of the objects; and nearly a theoretical one. It has by no means the ability of being the source of such a unity. In other words, every object has its own frame, so each frame is itself different from other frames, therefore the objects of question must be conceived as including each its own frame. Article 6. THE INTERNAL UNITY:In the article 5, we have taken M, L, A as different parts; there we saw the external unity. If you consider article 1, where we state that each object is in fact constituted of parts, which may be named and considered exactly as Mx, Lx and Ax; you will see that the external unity mentioned above is also true internally, for the same reasons. Article 7. COMPARABILITY: At least some properties of the imaginative objects are comparable; as length, height, color, mass, ... This requires/is the result of similarity and difference(if they are identical in many properties, at least their identities are different) -7.1 SIMILARITY: This property gains big importance when the 1st article is taken into account. Because, the infinite numbers of the parts make the probability of a random constitution of two (or three) similar (even not totally) things: P= x/infinite= 0. And therefore, we look for something that may serve as a common source between things that are comparable (including in the things are also frames).
One could say: In the big bang, everything was one, so the similarity comes from there. However, if we consider the relativity of the 8th article, the infinitesimality of the 1st article, the difference mentioned in the 7.2nd article, the dimension +1 of the 9th article; that the dimensions appeared at one time! becomes absurd; they are already relative, and dependent on the body, whatever it is. -7.2 DIFFERENCE:(REALITY:) From the above judgments one may conclude that where nothing exists there will be no need for such a common source; so everything may be an illusion; well this is not the case, neither our imaginations, nor the real universe are illusions. Here the difference of things come on scene: We can test anything; if you want in a laboratory, or in the daily events. Everything has a quantity, everything has an identity, difference, marginality. Because/Therefore everything is REAL. Article 8.RELATIVITY: How big is M that you created? Answer: It is bigger than L, or as big as A or something like this. How big is L? Smaller than M? Well, these answers are in fact no answers. Just tautologies. Do you argue against this? "Yes." You say perhaps, "Why anything should have an intrinsic value, relative values are quite sufficient; value is in fact something relative." OK. I would like that you concentrate your attention on the equation below: lM (length of M)= 2*lA(lenth of A) Here, is there something that saves us from tautology? Yes. There is: It is the ratio: 2. Now another question: Where is this "2"? Is it inside M or inside A or inside M and A, or outside all these? I do not know your answer; but mine is none of them. Because I do not want to fall in the same tautology by giving an answer that is comparable to M or A or their in/outside. Article 9.DIMENSION "+1": In the latter article, you see also that for your M, L and A, that when two or more things are real, there is a need for a unifying continuous platform. This is true also for dimensions. The fact that we can not even logically disprove the probable multiplicity of the frame where our spacetime exists and that another dimension "+1" besides our universe's does not exist, is a solid proof of the unabsoluteness of things. Therefore, we can not base any scientific explanation ultimately upon spacetime, nor upon anything measured according to any physical object. They are not absolute, they have no superiority or more central meaning. By contrast, the fact that everything is according to a measure, requires an ABSOLUTE. Think of a two two dimensional planes: If they are real, there must be an at least three dimensional frame. Think of two three dimensional planes; if they are real,
then there must be a four dimensional frame. If there are two four dimensional frames, then there must be a five dimensional frame. This is the result of comparability of different dimensioned bodies. So, if some things are comparable, we can not know at which step of the pyramide we are located, but we can know that there is an upper step. And we can conclude that there is an absolute single existence atop the pyramide; atop ALL. In this sense, this ALL is equal. Dimension "+1" is the dimension wherefrom you have chosen the special shape of your universe (better I should say, of the simplest part of your universe.) The "2" (it is merely a number, it is the real/special relation between LX and LY) , we mentioned above, is a special value; and I call the dimension where it exists, Dimension "+1". Wherefrom comes +1? It comes from the fact that, how many be the number of any real n dimensions set, this is a very special set, stemming from a larger frame; of n+1 dimensions. EXAMPLE 1: Let the distance between M and A, be 3*lM. If our universe is three dimensional one (without time), then we will be unable to imagine this distance to be 2*lM for instance. But when we accept the dimension +1 frame, it becomes possible; because we have now taken into account the fact that 3, is a special value for that relation; and we changed our geometrical frame according to this fact. EXAMPLE 2: If we conceive the universe we live in, as a four dimension -with the time- set, then there is a need for an at least 5 dimension frame; so that four dimensional units may be comparable without tautology. You can argue the dimension +1 concept to be only a mathematical one (in terms of probability); however, the relativity and the unabsoluteness of things, which we can not escape, constitute a sufficient and solid proof in favor of the reality of the "dimension +1". EXAMPLE 3: The fall or motion of any body is related to other bodies movements: For instance a watch, or the movement of the earth or the moon: The pen, that falls from a given height, reaches earth (all conditions being same) in a given time, that is, while the earth rotates a determined angle, or the second hand moves to another determined position. The relation and its constituents that exist in the dimension +1, may be anything, and therefore, the relation we do see is a special one. In the present conditions of our universe where time exists, your (timeless) LMA, becomes LMA(tx..tz); with all of its parts. As LMA (tx) is a special form of its dimension "+1", in the same way, the whole of LMA(tx..ty) is a special form of its dimension "+1"; as if LMA(tx) stands for M, LMA(ty) stands for L, and LMA(tz) stands for A. Because, the continuousness or the changing values of them according to this dimension, and the resulting set LMA(tx..tz) is a special one. (The relation you chose for Ltx and Lty, is a special one between its dimension "+1"). Where begins the dimension +1? It begins where real relations end; and makes these relations special/exceptional:
Think one of the current laws used as a relation for determining X(t1) and X(t2): the conservation of energy. Thanks to this law!, we can calculate the X(t2) (it may be speed, coordinates, acceleration, ...) if we know X(t1). This law could be different; dE(total)/dt could be negative or positive, instead of being 0. As if I am hearing your protests: What Could Diminish The Speed of a Smoothly Moving Body??? A counter question: What can increase the space it traverses? Do you ask: Did not you yourself say that space is a tautological concept? Yes, it is so according to your belief system, for me it has a sound base. But if you go a step further, you will see that my question holds reasonable, because, your or mine belief system effect both sides: Both the body and the space. Therefore, it is obvious that the conservation of energy is a special one, out of its relevant dimension +1. Thus, all relations that serve as bridges between tx and ty; are special and relative ones, and it can not be said that they constitute any base for the difference of tx and ty; as the situations tx and ty can not be responsible for the relations. Article 10.DYNAMIC UNITY: "And we have sent down from the rainy clouds abundant water, THEREBY to produce GRAIN and PLANT, And GARDENS dense and luxuriant. (Quran:Ch.78v.14-16)" Most people argue that no physical event has a purpose. Namely, the formation of the solar system; or the creation of species; or the industrial developments were neither foreseen nor programmed. Physical events occurring billions of years ago were not shaped as to produce us or any future thing. First a physical event occurs; then relevant results appear. In other words, LMA(t2) is not shaped according to LMA(t3); but, is shaped according to LMA(t1); there is no relation between them except the physical causal one. The conditions prevailing respectively at t1 and t2 are the sole determinants of the situations at t2(=>t3) and t3. However, a very simple fact shows that before these relations, there is a purposeful relation between [all these] [and] [a set of purposes]: This fact is that LMA(tx) we consider, which is defined by a time point, is an illusion and we can not have it in reality; but we can only have LMA(tx-ty). Namely, we can not take LMA and (tx-ty) as distinct things: Whatever small be the difference between tx and ty; there will be a tx and a ty that determine LMA altogether. Therefore, the real situation where y
is not the result of x exists and such situations dominate and constitute our universe. Whatever is the case, LMA has a vector in relation with time (however is time's definition); and this means in the same time that whatever is the situation, LMA is determined by at least two time coordinates. We may now conclude there is at the microscopic/theoretical level a situation where LMA(tx) is not the essential cause of situation LMA(ty); where LMA(ty) is not secondary as compared with LMA(tx). Both of them are the result of a purposeful process/existance under which they are united. You may argue: Even if they are united, LMA(tx) is the cause of a LMA(ty'). Answer:This approach is useful only for practical purposes; and nobody can reach a REAL LMA which is defined solely by a time point (without an interval); without a time vector; without at least two (two here is used only for making the issue more understandable) different "Moments". Now we must consider some other relevant facts which show that ALL is purposeful: a. The relativeness of the size of time intervals b. The relations LMA(tx-ty) and LMA(ty-tz) are identical and linked in this perspective. Arguments in this article show clearly that an absolute superiority or inferiority assigned to causally first or second events have no sound base. And in this perspective, the absurdity of explaining all events only with the same level causes is obvious. "And all things We have kept in a clear Register." (Quran:Ch.36/v.12)
LET ME MAKE SOME CONCLUSIONS FROM THE ABOVE QUALIFICATIONS THAT HOLD TRUE FOR OUR UNIVERSE: 1. The existence of infinite similar things shows clearly a common source; and this common source can not be comparable to these things; otherwise, this thing also would be subject to such a common source. When the first article considered, the similarity is better understood; for, it is a similarity which comes up from infinitesimally law levels. 2.This similarity is not an illusion, because things are real, and are different in a control, and can be tested in or outside laboratories.
3.Things; and the frames wherein they exist are one and defined in the terms of each other. So, these frames are not the unifying things that can serve the ongoing relations, and reciprocal determination. Adding the first article, we may conclude that, everything in the formation step; and after it, is the result of this basic unity. Everything having a multiplicity, that is formed by the unities of the constituents, which constitute always a unity. For we can test whatever we see by each other. 4. What unifies/defines the things is not themselves, or what they are compared with, because, then there would be a tautology. 5. The identity of a set of numerous things is different from its constituents. And it exists. But not in the constituents. Nor in the frame where they exist: As told before, all parts have their own frames and can not be conceived without them; also, the frames must be unified somehow; they need at least an upper frame wherein they can exist and be related to this frame. Where do these things exist? 6. The overwhelming probability that covers everything and the issuing specialty of everything, in the dimensions +1 concept, shows another work of the unity and prettiness of things that are formed and sustained by this unity and that are gathered together being brought from irrelevant probable positions. 7. This unity exists, works, is not the existence or any part of it, is not comparable with the existence.
SAY: HE IS ALLAH, THE ONE! ALLAH IS HE ON WHOM ALL DEPEND. HE BEGETS NOT, NOR IS HE BEGOTTEN. AND THERE IS NONE COMPARABLE UNTO HIM. (Qur'an: Ch.112) THERE IS NO COMPULSION IN RELIGION; TRULY THE RIGHT WAY HAS BECOME CLEARLY DISTINCT FROM ERROR; THEREFORE, WHOEVER DISBELIEVES IN THE SHAITAN AND BELIEVES IN ALLAH HE INDEED HAS LAID HOLD ON THE FIRMEST HANDLE, WHICH SHALL NOT BREAK OFF, AND ALLAH IS HEARING, KNOWING (Qur'an:Ch.2v.256).
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