I'C'" "'-'hi' ild E''- "d' ~ ucati .,F="" '~" 'I 'I' i ", .

'

",':. ',," "I" ,,·Dca, ,_ 0,0, lB, ," S "am

by.

"A.dullab "'.'35ill 'Ulw:ln.

TraJlSlated by

D1r., M., M,allmoud Ghali

D"'" A' Sh .... c: I ... H' lk hatib

_",~,>.",a!ll1111L,JII, I,:~ .'

'Dr" M:~ Kamal Abdul-Ghani

D A '~.' A' '1 ..:m S" 't., 'b

. r. Au .I' Im,8lu;:: na' ~ an,

D" M"'"'' A" h Sbahh t A,·,'I' 'G"'''' id L ",. ,,-·,S~~- ,.~, !.a.. ' ' " ,,'" In'[

Edi,'t~d by

Kh II~-Ih 'D,~ , A' b Z id UUJla LUU.t. ~~ ". ~ U , .. ····eli I"

Selma Cook

DA~R AL ~ SALAM

Dar A:I-·S~]af]l. for Printi ng, :p'u hli!':h.i ng. Diudbu ~j on. a r nd Translauon Second ed ilion '142.4 A _H: _/2004 CJ3.

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3

Pag.e

Translators' IDtnlduct~ on _ ~ __ .. _ _ _ .. . __ .. _._ .. _ __ ._ _ .. _ .. _._ .. _. 9

Intro duction ~"~., .. _ .. ,. __ .. __ ._ .. _ __ _._ _ .. _ __ . __ _ _._._ __ .. __ .. _._._ _ ] 1

Part One:

Cha,ter One: The Ideal ~i\la·rdl.ge and Its. Relationship to

Education. ._". -."'_---- .. -.- - - - .. - .. --.- .. - .. -.~ .. ~ .. _._ _ __ _._ _ _ ~~ .. ~... :11 ,8,

11) M·· S "·1 l' ~9

~,..I arr~a Ole asa .. Qc~a tnterest . __ ._ _ .. _ _._ _ .. __ ._ .. _ _ [ .

,P,i;!

·C. Marr.ia.,g'e ,[l.IS ;a. Selection and Choice _ _ _ .. _ _ _ _ _ _._. 21

Chapmr 1"'wo: P,syciuo,I,oglcal Fee$~n.gs Towards One's IChUdren .. __ 2.6

.A.. Parents are Disposed to, Love their Children ~.m_"'_Y_R~~ 26 B., Ira ving M.e:rcy and Children is, Blessin .. g from Allah upo n

Ma:n.klnd _ _ __ .~~ ~~ ~ .. ~ _ .. _., .. ~Y~~~ •• ~~ •••• _ ~.a.~ •••• _.~ •••• ~.~ •• _ •• _ •• 28

C. Despising Girls is an A bominable .lahl#yyah (Pre-Islamic

Practice) _ _ _._ _._ __ _ .. _ _ _._ __ _ _ _ __ ._ .. _ _ _ _ .. _ 29

D TL V·," 'h. - f·W· .II!..,. ---. - ''El' .... d .- - '1.."- C.h"ld'~' D .• '1 ~'1 '...Wl!e· . , .. ~r 1,.1\JI,e 0'·· Wlo:mev;er CiU .u:re:s un, ,. ] sea ull. _ ... _ ... .J! ..

'8,,, Giving Precedence to the Inter-ests of Islam over One's

Children _ _ _ _ _ __ ._. __ _._ ; _ _ _ __ .. _._ _ .. __ _. __ __ . __ . __ __ 33

F. Pun] shing and Temporarily Alienating a Child for Ed ueational Purp os~s - .. -.-.-.---.-.-- ... - ... - ... -- .. --.-.~.~"'~ ... ~ .. ~ .. 34

Ciha:pteoli Tbtree: General Rules Coneereing tnt! N ew- born :Baiby .-3.1

Tlu:' First Part: What the Parent Does at Chi~d birth ._. .. _ ... 37

The Seccnd Part: Naming of the B,aby and. :~ts Rules a~~ .••• ~._. 41

The Th~rd, Part: The '~Aqiqah. and its, Rules _._ ... __ .... _. ._."._."._ 48

The Fourth Part: Circumeislon of the New-born Child and

its ]l ules Y~ _.".~ .. ~.~ ~ _u~ ...•. ~,_ ~~ = L~ •• ~, •••• _ •• ~.~~_ ••• _ .•• ,._ ••• _ ••. _ ••• _, 54

4

ChOiptter Four: Causes and Treatment of Children's W,aywardness , .. ,,$8

Introd uction ,_ , .. _.,.~.,._ _._ .. , , " " .. _"' " _ _ .. ,._ , _ .. " _" ", ,,,_ .. _, _ .. _ 58

A. Poverty that Overwhelm s Some Homes ,_"._ ,.~ _ .. ''' _ _ 58

]l, CO~l nk,;'t. an d. Vi scorn, between Parents _ .. _ _._ _._ .. _ , , .. "'"._ ,58

C' D'· d "I;:S E itail t" [P'" t nd '-- ] ", 59"

I '. " ", " iii, i'l ,,", I' '" :' i -I I ~~, .. " . , ." ".' ":"1"1 ... " .. """1 ... ,' ", . - . Lil I. _ .".1

,', , . ,1 YOiitce ii'Ml .] , ,n fU m'e:n,:s 0 ,a.rer y ,lJ.IIi1i" , , om,e .. essness .... ",'

D, The- SpareTime that Dominates Children and Adolescents _ ... 61

H~ Corrupt Companions and Peers _ _ ,.,_ .. _ _ .. _._ _ _ .. _ _ .. ,. 61

"F 'J.AI'; ... treatment of Parents Toward ~ C' hild ren i:"i

'I. jf.VI,lI:i.:'-!J...: . J.~~~ .. ' ,.~ ~'" '~J.~.I.~~i]j. ,v _' .'"tIl.-.· !J ": .,~t!iI. .··.,..;,1 .. ·IW..IJ •• _ .11!iI:I.0!IIin1._ _ ••••• 'lJL

G. Wa tchi ng Pomographi c and Violen t Film s R"."'U"~"'_,,~,~,,_"". 63

'H, Widespread Unemployment in the Society _. __ .. _ _ .. _ 6~

l Parents' Forsaking the Raising of Ch~ldren. ,.-.,,- .. -., .. - ~ - .. ,.-.~ 64

J The :C'", alam ;I'~'Y' 'Fe." .... ;;,f'1IIg' ,0' '; TT1i'h' l,olII 'I]; .., £6'

• il~· IJh (il8.LJJ.llII ~ ~~J.J lilj. " ... L!"!l Y . I~,~·~! .... 11I1~lIl1lnllll .. IIII_II"UI'III..--IU "'"_···_···'''''-''''":''1111" "1111. !IJ .

The Responsibilities of Educators _._ _ _ _ _._ _ __ ._ ~ _ _.~ .. 6-8

,- I ntroduction '" , ,_._ .. _, .. _ ~ .. ,_._ _, _ ,_ .. _."_, .. _ _ _"._ ,_" , .. _ _., ~,"'_."~ 69

Cb:9,p,te'r OfJie,: The Responsi bility for Education in t'be Fai Ut_,,,,, 11 C1rta,ter' Two: The Responsibility for E thiealEd ueation ,_ ... _ .. _ .... _ 77

Cha.I1I~er Threee The Responsi bility for Phys ical Education _ .. _ ,8 6,

-, Se:I!~OUS Problems Facingthe Y ol1ng: , _ .. _ .. _ .. _ _ _ .. _.,,_ _ _, .. _., 90,

~. Smoking ,_,~" _"._ _, _'_."._ .. _., _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _._ _ ~."" 90,

.2.. Masturbation ."'.,,_""'~"'_,._"'._ .. _ .. ".' _"_ .. _ '_., e e ., ••• , •• ,_, •••••• ,._._ •• __ ._ •• _.,_ •••••••• 9,2,

3 D· 11. ~ roN'· , no!:

• .-=rUtlillii.6illness and , , areoncs .~, .. _ .. _.,._ _"'~ _ ,., '''.''''~._,_,,_- ~~,

4- A,d,ILlh~:ry and Sodomy _ .. ~ ..... ;; ..... ~."" .... ~., ..... , .... , ..... _,_._""'."~'-.,, ... , .. _" .. , .... ,.- 99 Cha,prteli '!lti~ The Re1lpons~,lbi~it.Y fOtF Intellectual Education ,,_ .. lIn

1, Educational Responsibility , _ ,._,,_ "" "."'".""_"'_,,., -.,,~u,-.,.-...... ] 03

2~ Responsibility of Intellectual En~i~'bteJlment , .. " ",._ ..... ,,~ ... _ .. 11]

- ._-

,3, Responsibility of Mental .HeaJth _ ... ~.,._ ... _ ... _ ........ _ .. __ ..... _ .... _ .. _ .. _ .. _._ ] 1.3

'Chapter.J?i.ve: The ResponsibUHyfor Psychological Education ._._ .. _ .. _. ~.14

a. Sh yues: s _ _ _ .. _._ _ _ _ ,_ ~." . ., .. _"."""~""-, .. -''' _., __ .. __ ._ .. _ _ _ _ .. _ 0.... 1.14

b. F e;a r .. _ .... _ _,._ _. __ H ."_,, .. "'_ ,~ _ _ _ .. _ _ _ _ _ _ ....... _ ," .. " .. '''~,,~ ,_, "".~ 118

c. In feriori ty Complex ., ."' _ _ _ __ _ _ _._ .. _ .. _ _ _ ,~." .. _" _,_" '" . 122

d. E~J. vy ,,, '''' '" ,. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .. _ _., .. _._ _.,~ .. ,,_, '" ". ._ _ ... _ _ 130

,e, .A nger _ _ _ .. _ _._._ _ _ ~~ _ "'" " _"'.~. __ ., .. _ .. _ _ _ _ _ _._ _ .. _ _ :1 33

Ob.a.pi~e'r' Slx: The' Responsibility for. Social 'Ed.ucatio:n ._ _ .... _ 137

I. Implanting Psychologic-al Principles .. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _, .. _ _ i 38

2, Consi deration for the Rights of Others _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 146

:3 .. Adhering to General Social Morals _ _ _ _ .. _ " , .. _ _ ] ,64

4, 0 bservati on. and Social Cr.i ticism _ =, •. '"'~'''.''''' ,~ , ,,_,~ "" .. ", .•. ,., .. ,.,., '182

IChap-tte:r' Sevcll! Tbe Responsi 'bHiity for Sexual Bd ueation ...... _ 186

1.. The Manners or Asking Permission to Enter _ .. _ ...... , , .. ,_ .. _ 186

2 .. Tile Ma~lnet's of Looking at Woman .. ~, ... _.,., .. , .. _.,_ .... _,.~."' "'w"._'"'' '[-88

3. .. Keeping Children Away from Sexual Arousal. ~ .. , .. -." .... ,.._ .. _ .. , ... ~98 4-. Teaehi ng the Child the Legal R ulings Governing Puberty " .-- d ·IM······I ~- " .. 'it . J 2/'''''l'

an ' .. ,[Ij,IL1iJJ·~ILJ _._ _ _ .. _ _ _ .. ~ .. ,_., ~._" .. ~ ~ .. , H._' ".,_,,~'"'' "" .. "'~ .. IJ!

:5. Marriage and Sexual In tereourse .. , .. _ ..... _ .. _ .... _ .. _ ... ,_ .. ,._,"'_ .... _ .... _ ... _ ..... _. :209 (5. Abstai ning f rom M arriage un til Allah Enriches Those I'iavi ng no Means to marry ~.""_ ... ~.,,, .... ,,_ .... __ ,_ .... _ ....... , __ ........ _ .. _ ..... _._ .... _.2:~.3

7. Is it Permissible {QI Speak Frank ly to your Children a bout

Sexual Affairs? ... _._ .... _ .... _ .... _ .. _ ..... _ .... ""~""._."'.~,.'"c,'_.,'.~,~." "" .• ,,,, .. ,,,_,,,,~,~,,.~, 2.] 4-

Pari 'Three

Cb.apter One::: Effective 'M ean~, of Children's Educa tion .. _ ~., ~ .. 2.] 6

1. Eduea bon by Setting a. IGood. Bxam p]s ._ .. _ _ _ _ .. _ _ _.2l7

2. Education by Establishing Beneficial H:abi.ls "' _ .. _ .. _ _.232

6

oj \~ ~11 'I;i"i'l']j ·t;I·O· 'R bv Wise A" d m - oni 'ii'~ on 21-"'1 n

~I .. .&UU'~1. w ··n -",;'" "Ijf¥' tIlllil;l . ,I', ,- lUI. JI.~,'U 111'""""-I11_111 .... 111 ... _IIIIo.III"III .. IIIU ..... -.LIIII ... I..-II~I __ III· J~-V

4 .. Bdueation b¥ Observa tion ~,~-_._ .. ~--,,~--.-.-,.,~ .. - .. - ... - ... 2S7 5." Education by Appropr.~a;te Punishment _~~~~.,~,_.~~~", 2J68

Ji""l\ll.·<']j·oitl--"';; -.- Two~--~ The Basi ... Dri·ii'lI"":I-·iI'1;'iI·I!lI·;O> Ol'it" C 'b-· "1"14 EAnCfjJ'~~'""'-D' 'l!''j'O

~IJIAJrl~ .. - ".-;I! M· "~I!J~ m;- tt~y~=~·l~ :.~ '. ::~~~, U. --y,[~: gl~~V'_ ' ""'1'"_~.--sonI.L,1 0.

= .

T[ - 114,;;,!",--- " '",:II'Q': sliti i of tbe EL;.l., - tl 21~n

~ .11., ]I,e ~e]l[lw·-. ua L 16S o~ _ le J!:!!!J,uca,_"or '"~~,,~_~"'~,,~,,=_,~~"'~, . ~

''If'L... 'PII'- '. - f IC' '.- -- '.-- - . 283

-, II ,n,Pi;: '. . iiI,:n S' '0,1. .: -Olls.p]JJ'acy ~" ....... "" .... ~"'~,~ .... ~'"~,-,~.~~~_~~'''.,=~''''.. . ",',-_ .

.. The Basic Principles of Chlld Education .. _._ _ ... _."._ "~_ .. ~ .. ~. __ ...... 293

- Tbe Principle of Connection .. _ .. _~.~ .. _ ~ .. _ _~ m".~"'_~ .. _ 293

FlI'S.t: T.he COI~ul,e-ction. of Belief _ ~,.,.~ ~ ,~ _~.~ ~ ~ .. ~ ~ .. .29 3·

Second ,. Soiritual C" '-0· . n·DI·""C"',·t-·'lO·:'WJI . 2(14

~~~v.uo .. :... o!' _"~~" l.'IllIla .. , .--. - - ~"-::._. ,U " , " __ .. _ ,,_ ~:!' ~

15""r-'h Q . C-- .' . "l21

r[im -- : Sports • ·.-onnectu:m ... ~ ..... _ .. _ .. _ ..... _._ .. _~._ ... _ .. _. ~ .... g •• ~ .. ~ ... :J- .: .

. , The Principle of W·.al'[ning ~~ __ ~_,,~.- ..... - .... ~ .. - -.- ... - -- ... -~ .... 326

First: Wart1ing against Apostasy _~~"=_,, _ .. _ .. _ _ ..... _._ .. _. 3027

Second: W·~ntin.g: against Atheism .. __ .. _ ... ~ .. _.~;.~".~ .. = .... ~_ ...... l,30 Third.Warning against Prom hired. Ent-erta-inmJeIl. t ~_.133. Fourth ," W, a min cr {i .!iJ'!!:j.; n st 'H<:io'iI'o W·: .' ..... rsb .. in .3' A12· ,

_~ Vi :._ 1L1.lm "'" OJi. '_ : C G~~U~' -= I¥~-. '" V f-~~,~ ~I~~~I~I~~-··--·-·-·-·-·- - ~-.,

Fifth:: Wam-nin.g against Keeping Bad Company ..... ~_ ..... " 344

(:I·i xth: W···, '.:',Q rni ~ 'ill <:Ii '~I'i 'If1I st 1p ad M .... n mers 3: 4.e'

~l.A.1J.. dl '". 01 _ ,LlJLc ~~~~ _ D~~,_" ,~ .... ,Iulj~ ,0 .. _. ._~_ ... __ . __ ~ .... _I_.....u_ ............. ,,~

Seven: Warning against Unlawful Tbin,gs _ _._ ... _.~. ." 34.5

. Prohibited Food~~ and. Drinks ~~ .. _ _ .. _ .. .u,_ ...... _ ...... 347

.. Problbited CI!otJ:1JJru:ng, Adornment, and, Appearanee ." .. :353, ~. The Unlawful Beliefa of the Pre-Islamic Practice =3.58

. Unlawful Earnings _ .. ~._~~~--- .. -- - - - .. , .. ,--, .. ~. 3~1

~ F orbidden Amnsements Dating from the Pfe .. Islamic

7

Period ~" _,,_ .,. 'H'~"'~"'" .....•.... _ __ _ .. _ _ _ _ .....•... _ _ _ _ _., .. _ 36.5

Chapter Three';: Necessary Suggestions Concerning Education.. 371 ] .. The Child Should Long forthe Most Honorable Gains ,~JJ'l 2. Keeping in Mind the Innate Capacities of the Child ,._._ 374 ], iG·ruvb:tg. "the Child the Opportunity to Play and btl

EntJerta]l1ed._",_,_ ", _ _. __ _ _ _ _ _ .. _ .. _ .. ,.,._ 375

4. Cooperation Between the Home, :M osque, and School uo~.r17 .5. Forming a Close Relation. 'between the Instrueror and

the ChU.d. _ _ .. _ _ _,;; .. ,;; , , .. ,., _ .. ,_"_" .. _".,_"".,.,,.~_, ,,~ 380

,fi The Dai1y Educational Program _ .. _ _ "~.,, .. ~, _ _ _.,._ _. 382

'7. Providing Usefu] Cultural M:OOflS _ _ _ _ __ _ _ 39,6

8~ Arousing the ChiUd's 'Desire to R.e'act ,.,._,~" _u,.·,,···'" .. ,_." •.. 4,00 '9 ~ :F eeling Responsib [e towards Is] run _ ... _.,._.''''=,='''' .. '''~'''_, .. '''''' ·~03 1 0 .. Inculcating the Spirit of Jihadint() the Child's Mind .. _ .. 405

Final Word: ,., .. "'; _."'~,,~"'.~" ..... _ _ p ••••• _ •••••••••••••• _.,." ••• _ •• _ •••••••••• _ •••• _ ••••• _ ••••••• _._ •••• __ ••••••••• 411

Glossary .. _ _._ _ _ __ .. ,._ , , ,,' _"~.,,.,=._."'.~""'. ,,,=,,,_.,~,~""'_,,~ "'" '" 413

fj:,: tht!, Name 0" Al'a/I- the Maslf:' G'~'ac,io.'s the

= II '- - -- -- t, ,r:; , - J! " ,- -" - ,,- -

At At,', 'lfj---' ,-'

-', ,,-,' ,,' "," ," '1·'-" I -",' "

_os" '_ ,-, .,e;rl:~ ,Il,

Traaslaters' IntnldlJlctiion

This j s a translated summary of the book entitled ~ iTar.biy,c.du A 1= Awlaad fi AI-,Islam"" (Child Edueation ]1]) Islam) bty 'Abdullah N asih Ulwan, The book was published in Arabic in two volumes by Dae Al-Selam for Prin ting, Publishing, Distribution, and Translation, Cairo, Egypt, in. 14] 8 ,A.H. 199'{' C.E~

In translating the summary of the book, 'we have referred to the fo 11 0- win 0·'

J/ .. :.I_J .. · . '. ~ _~" ..

=D M" T' " ....:II D'· A] Hilal ~ D'" M" 'ii;..., Kh " th

- : :r. ,',. ,aq ru-1l!Ii.iI,-In. t: ,'~ :br', 1 aD.>iu, "r,~ ... ·' ~ U~jSln, ", _ ,i@1n~ ':, e

N obl,e QuI~an~ Darussalam pu blishers and distributors, Riyadh " Saudi Arabia and Dr. Mu'~am:mad M~~mud1 qhaJt Tow:a:rds 'Unde:rstanmng the Ever'-,Glo:rious Qllr'~a:n, Cairo: Publishing House for Unrversities, Co, 2nd Edition, 1998,. This, translation of the meaning of the Qur'an was used for rendering the Qur'anic Ayiit (verses) into English. In, 'Same cases. the: translation 'was slightly modified with Professor q'~,aJI~s, p ermission,

- Dr, Muhammad Muh sin Khfin, San, {tnt .Ai .. lJ,'ukh'{ir~ Beirut:

~ _ __. _ _ _It_

'Dar Al-Arabia, :t98,). Thiatranslation of the Prophet's A,~adlih (traditions) was occasionally consulted for the: purpose of translation in. the Arabic summary .of the book. Following Me some 'of the frequen tly used. acronyms in thetranslation:

(C~ BE)~ Common Era

(A. 'H',.):' After Hijrah (Anno Hruj:ra)

( ti): Be He (AUa'h) Glorified and Exlted

(ei): Be He Exalted in Might (the: Exalted and Glorious)

(3.): May 'the 'blessrnn,gs and prayer of Allah be upon him t( i.e.

Muhammad)

(te): 'Peace be upon him (one of A.uah~'s Prophets) (~): Peace be upon, them (Allah's Prophet'S)

10

(..): May Allah be pleased with him [i.e. One of the Companions of the Prophet Muhammad)

( ~): May Allah be pleased with her (~.,e. female Companions of the Prophet Muhammad such as U mm Salamah)

(~): MayAllah be pleased with them (i,e. two of the Prophet's Companions)

(6)': May Allah be pleased with them (Proph t' s Companions) Some of the: symbols used in the translitera don of Arabic words (i,e, representing them as they (tire pronounced in Arabie, using Roman letters. and some symbols) are:

IChor kh dh

sh

c. t

s or s

"-' ~ .k

d

Z Of' Z

gl1 or gh q

t t:

placed, over a vowel ~ long vowel

Any corrections, comments, 01" suggestions for improving the translation are most welcome, May AUih guide us all,

The; transla tors

Introduction

Praise be '~O AUah, who elaboreted for mankind, the right ways of child education in 'the, Qur'an. He also legislated the princi ples of go odness, righteousness and guidance in the rules of Islam, Peace and blessings of AUab be upon our. Messenger Mubammad i$~! wh om A]1tl'h sent to humani ty and revealed to him legislation 'which achieves glory and honor, sta tus, and stability, And may peace, also be 'upon his: household, good and 'pure Companions who presented great examples ill educating children and established nations, Hod peace 'be upon those who follow their ways un til the world comes to an end,

Among the favors of Islam 'upon mankind, is that it brough t comprehensive ways tOI educa te people and bring Up' generations, establishing nations and civilizations and. setting up the principles of glory and. urbanization, That is ~o convert misleading humani ty from 'the darkness of polytheism, ignorance, 'misguidance and

h h li 1· r-· lh " , id d - bili

.l"iJ .-:1.-"0"0 to t ."'" lrW lit 0' m onot eism science g- an .,-. anee an sta -'"1 ']'l'V

ib-, ,11lI/ 10, ,u, 'rw ,b .l. . .. J., .. ,'ILl' . 'ILl' ,.~ .. ..:!J _ .'~ .a.... , '1i,i.".!.II! ,. ,n,. ""' ... ,G· " '"'. -' . . ,. ,:1' ,

Allah St~,y;s,:

,..., .. ~'f' ... fi'~' . 'iN'.. ,ii,~. il ," . .... ~,J; -;;'" ./ ~ s: "'/" .. :: 1..

~, ~ ",~~ ~ ~',~ G) ... ~ 71i~!b~ JY,.,~~ '~~"4' ~_ y

~~-'~ ,.,"" ,,:c-- ~{I ··f .. 1' "'J-~~~ .-'" ),~ I jIi" ~ ..... , . .., '"j, jJ."1,"'''

L - ~.,. -. __ J! ,t '.b! ,-~ , . ~,~' ~ I '"-' - - ." - - 'I r.. L ~_ ~.r~,,,, II.

l ........... -." ~,)": ,._-' n- ., '': .•. - ~- ~'~J< ,._. :.' .- -_, ... ,. "I~'.'I

',~ ' .. --v~ -." ,,,",.i' j:. - :.-- - .- .-.~ 7- - ,... u· !l11'~ .. -- '-rr . 'r. ~~

~' t~~f,' ~p! }~

'~'~I,.deet1, tbere lias come to you from A Iii" Q light (PI'Ophftt M uhwnmtld .. J ,ua apl'ainBo,ok (tllis Qllr ttm) ii' Wlwrew'it"li Alliilt guides all: ,tllvs8 lV,itO wee.'k His Go04 PliNUtn"t! to 'W'i'liY'S of peace, and He IJrings them' oul IfJ/ dtD'k.ness j Y' His Will ,,,,""0 tiglt ana guitks tlte:m to Q Straight Way (lslafn';,cMo,nol:lte,ism:)., u, (Al-:Ma 'idah, 15- Hi)

O ,r-- 1- ,~.-,"f ~ stifled I 'i': th- r - ,:"th nd " .. .ontinuit- ,- 'r'· I:-,~Ir'-··ppooen "'S ~eSI~,_~ _. ' 1,0 __ '_ e ,g~ ow ~ _ ~ au _ co __ __ lLU _ Y 0 _ _s~am.

Enemjes acknowledged its vitality and eternity, W'esle:rn thinkers and philosophers testified to Islam such as Bernard. Shaw, Elias

12 =======::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::==~;:::::::;:;:::: CbiTd, Ed:U'cation hI msll!\.m

A,'b'u Shahkah, Lane 'PoU and Ghustaf LO!lP1on"O,} These acknewledgements give to those, who have sound mind and understanding, proof of the: eontinuous and vital teachings of Islam.

If Islamic law is characterized or divinity ~ comprehensi V~fl~S,S,

Dfrlt"low' ""'ii..,, and continuitv ,;t-1),,;:ro.t'I; ,iic' "1* m II"'f""']V theories written in 1i..001"o ,"'"'ii"

g ,~ ,-, _ 'lbl.lL a-,L_~· _ - \.,. r . .,tW .. _~.LU. ,Il..j.,' l.~l~IL_J,~ ~~ "ib- - .,1 r~ '~'J' jJl~"""'iJ.II, ,l'W~ ",,", ,II,l..L~,IL_J, ~ IJ) -', - '.:.L.~ VJ.L

• t.. '1\" ~. h . d - 11...,' - " ...!II b 1 ? st., ikh

Just utjl![eliS m t te mma, orteaomngs pracnced I y peOp,lei t : nauc _.

Sayyed. Qutb answered this question sa.:yi]l,g~ "Muhsmmad -e and his companions achieved victory only w hen they practiced and a. pplied a'ru~, the teachings of Islam, The Com panions of the Prophet

-i'~, '~i' '~I·· 'ILl., • W" -1 1 1[..

Q1> were examptes m a ppiymg its teaotnngs, .. :" len. peop J~ saw blii3mL"

they saw h~a.m" Hence, the, teachings alone do not change mankind; the Qur'an alone does not change mankind; alnd[ the texts alone do not Chal'l1ge mankind So, P[0'F~he1t M'~dlamnllJB.rl 3 preferred raising men who a:pplied these teachings above sim ply making speeches" He :-I'~,~ eeded to .• dem i'!;.'-;-<:1'1Tr>!'.iI1T,~ and renresent Islam in the form " of ---'-:."O.·UIi:"i~

Sl!lcc.ee!.i ... I~.. _!;,o;,. _ U'iIllo1'li,.J! ~~'"' r:;~ . __ ... ' .... w, ..... "~;;> __ = ~ __ '" ~ . ~ .... ~ pI .. ~

individnals."

Generations of MuS:~rn]]u still ben-en t from their characteristics and follow their ways in. education, even in these days in 'wltieh the rules of Islam are rarely app'~i'ed" and the signs, of the Muslim Caliphate havebeen removed, and e~6:mieSJ of Islamhave been a b~.e: to achieve thele malicious aim ~ .'6,. converting the M uslim world in'to, disputing nations ,a\nd. countries of diff-e;ren t principles and traditions. They also iDdu'~le: in di,ssolutio,n andlooseness and live wi thou t aim BDd entity and ~rr-e ~ffl:ieted with despair. Some reformers and callers to ,AUllt are also afflicted with despair and feel hopeless of ever. being able: to retain. the nation to- :~'ts past glory" Rather, some 'of those: callers can to- isolation 'because they' thinkthat this age is the ~M~, and the Muslim consequently should run away frOID seditions. til ~ he dies" This despair j s ,at resutt of:

{l~ The !'!,pelling ,of ,a:][ ~ornigf.lj or lW¢St~t'i!L '~am~s mentioned In the bcok is uneertain because tile ,[!JuthO:J: amy provided the A~bic tFa~~H t~~~t:iQn,> (~d,i'~Of)

']ntroducti,oDl:=, ============================= 13

tIna'bruIi ty '~O understand the nature of Islam, n. The love of life and ha ting death,

111 I'. Th - i 1Dl. ';',n.·n" .... ran r;ff!! ..... f;- the aim for which 'M~,'i~Hms WeIDe created.

,I ,., "Ii:i' '~f;:i' ,v, tlI, """~ v, LJ.~ ~ " , , _ _ ,-,, __ , ~ __ " ,~""_ _ _ __ _ ,__ _ _ ?

This despair will be: removed, and glory and, victory wiU 'be achieved when they recognize th at m:s] am 18:

a. Tile religion of strength and pOW~l1' ~

b. The, religion which calls to knowledge and science,

'., Tl""1 -. . - -,li~ o· ""'n' ~~p~f.;,i ch reeard <['I '1m' a't'N1 00 iCI ,;Il. 11 !'>' vicegerent ,1['I;'f' A·," m ~'~ n'n-

C;'" , ,ue .IeJl1b,l!;v '_" 'f~- Wu,"-, ' , ''''ii;l''' 'oJ' '. ,- U, !;~.:'! 1lJ,...... ~ J'''"'''-', .... .L !!;,<U, 'I!J' ',' uaiI.JI. ' .... , ..

earth to ]ive in, discover it, and to benefit frQID its provisions,

d. Tile religion which honors man and prefers him above an creatures,

e, The religion of work, activity, labor and, v~talitYl'

L The religion of oon:tem,platio'[I, and thought on the creations of the heavens, ;;It!JJd earth so as to reach t11,['; tru th a bout these

creations."

j,. The, religion which prohibits despair, h. The' religlon of honor and, dignity,

Despair win be removed and ,glory and victory wiU be achieved 'when Muslims ill general j' and callers and scholars im. particular, ~ berate themselves from the love of this life and indulging in woridly . pleasures. Also, when. 1the,y lliib erate themselves from cowardice ~ fear, and 11 ating death and be sure tha t Ana]] is the Provider ~ the Harm- Inflicting and, the Benefi t-Giver .

-D' n, "1' ,\,,= . ...a..:!l , .... '1 d.vi - "]'n' 1,.. 1 . d ..Jespa:rur WI j, oe removes anc grory au VWtOllY 'W] o~ oe acmevec

~ .

iM' they recognize the sublime aim for which they were created, This aim is to' worship Allah, The QUf.~;8Ul declares:

~ pA:;! ~l ~it W i~:;~ t:.J "

~1'Al ~tl.l :( A Ililt): Ct,e,ated. iUit' the Ji.nlj! aRId ,lfiJl'R,kill,fi elee,ep,t ,t.h,at ~tlMy

sno.m'ld wOf,s:hip Me (A.llO!Jf,e) ~ ~J (Adh.-Dba.,r.iyya.'~j .56)

The question that arises is: What is the type of worship WhJCl1l AUib commands us'? II ~~ submission to Anih~8 teachings and. loyaity to AllEU] and His Messeng~r and the be'[ie,'veis~ it ls~dso '[true continuoe s commandment 0 f ,AUfih ttl 'bring people out from she worship, of people and idols to the worshi p of A~Uih~; and rejecting concepts and, beliefs which are: in disagreement with Islamic law, This is the task and mission of the :M uslim 'in this, life, Thus, Muslims, should recognize the nature of' their religion and liberate themselves from loving Hfe ~:Ild, '11! ting dea th and recognize the aim of their creation so' uta, achieve growth fo r. Islam and regain their previous g]()ry and :s,tre:D.gt'h ..

The 'Q.'wes,truon that arises is: W,b at is. the way to. reforma tion and whIt is the: starting p OiD~ to reform the: goo d. soc:j,ety? The answer lies in 'title word "education' which encompasses many meanings concepts and fiemds, It irH::']udes, education (If the individual; the Cami]YJ' society and. humanity, Under each, meaning, there are other types and divisious, A~] these meanings aim at setting up noble societies. and ideals" This ednea tion of children is, a branch of jndividual education in which 1:51am call s to prepare and reform 'rum to be a useful and goo d. 'member of society.

This book 'explains the whole and right 'w,ay or child education in Islam, When you read :ilj YiOU, wHl recognize the characteristics and oomprehensi V'efles:s of Islamic ~W. Y 011 wHl also recognize the w:aJ~ of Islam in education ,m:nd, reforma ti CH1..Wnen. ed ueators follow his 'way" the Um,m:(I:/1, will achieve stability. safety and. happiness, and disorder, fear, and unhappiness wi]]] be' removed. 'You will recognize that I;S1]a:m~8 the religion of Iife, humanity, awareness, ed ucation, and reformation,

]t is noticeable that the: Islamic library is PO'O'f' in regards to books on child education in Islam", 1 did, not find a ecmprehensi ve

book, about child education in Islam from birth '~:~) puberty save [hie book entitled, '[ITuh/at Al-,MtlMd'tui'li Ahkam: AI~Mawlud'i by Ibn Qayyim Al~Jilwziyy.ah ~. I~ deals 'with the rules i;)[ the newborn, I have referred to it in the third chapter. I did, my best and searched in references and volumes to write ,8., ccmprehensivebook dealing wi HJJ child education from birth, '~O' pu berry. It also deals with the complete 'Wa.ly U:pCUl which parents and educators should follow ..

I have divided the book into three parts. Each part is divided into numerous: chapters, and every chapter contains several subjects, It will be as follows:

Part One:

Chapter One: The m[d,~~~ Ma\fIiage and its Relationship 'no Education

Chapter Two: The: Psycbologieal Feelings Towards Child r~I,1JJ Chapter Three: General R ules Concerning the New- born. baby Chapter Four: Causesand Treatment of Children 's waywardness

Part Two:

Chapter One: The Responsibility for Faith. Education

Chapter Two: The Respousibility for Bthical Ed uca tion Chap:t;e{w Three: The Responsi biUty for Physical 'Ed uca tion Chapter Four: The Respousi bility for In ~enectu.al Education Chapter Five; 111~ Responsibility for Psychologic.w Education Chap~'er Six: 111~ Responsibility for Social Educatlon

Chapter Seven: The ]R,espo[[sibUity for Sexual EducaHon

Part hree:

Chapter One: Effective Means of Children's Education Chapter Two: The Bash; Prmciples of Educa tio n

Chapter Three: N ecessary Ed uca tional Suggestions

These are the main points. For each chapter in each part of the book. The reader' will find other lmpcrtau t poin ts And. useful 811 bjects branching from these chapter's. The aim of these: p oints and subjects. is to provide and CfU tline an evident and better way for child ednca tion, Finally, I' ask Allah to' make this work sincere tor His sake and to accept it as a goo d, war k on the D',a;y of'J ud"gment I ask Him also to' make it useful for mankind,

'~I, ~ Chapter One: The Ideal U:iRftia,g;e and its Relationship ~o Education ,2., Chapter Two: ,Ps,ych.61,lJipcal F,eeUngs Towards Children

3., Chapter Three: General Rules Concerning the N,ew'='tio-rll Baby 4., Chapter Four:' Causes, and Treatment of Child reIDJ~, W,l1Ilywar.dnf'iS'S

.•.. ]Uilpter One

The Ideal M:a:r.riag:e aad its Ib,~.ati0.nsblip to Eduea:ti.oD

It is preferable to demonstrate three aspects of marriage before setting out to explain thc foundatiens ~aid down ·by Islam fur eel uca ting children:

A,. Marriage is a h uman instinct. B·, Marriage is. a. social interest,

'c. Marriage 18 a selection and choice.

A.. Marli".iag:e as a Human IlilstilllJct:

Islamic .Sh;a,.l~ah opposes monasticism, wbi-c-h eonfficts with man's instinct, and contradicts his Incllnatiens, desi:res~ and motivations .. Likewise, Islamic Sha'rf'a~h! prohibit:esMuslims. to abstain from marriage or renounce it. and inte;nd to live as a monk, dev10ting oim:~se:lf to worship, Al-B'lldk.b,a:d and Muslim related that Anas • said, "Three people came to the. houses of the Prophet's wives to inquire about, his manner of worship. When they· were teld, they seemed tOI have deemed it H~t]je', SO:~, they said, How come we compare ourselves to the Prophet .3 as ]}]s past and future misdeeds ha vie been forgiven, Then ODie of them s aid, ·~m ·~\i'in perform prayer throughout the night forever.' The other said: 'I will fast throughout the ye~.r and will never break my fas t.' The third said, UI will keep ,Iwa 'j~ from women and wil~ no,t marry fOlreyer~' So, Allah's, Mr~8seng,e.r ,~mne 'to them .. and said, 'Are you ,~·f1.e· pe·ople who said so and s,o? .By .Allfih., Lam the most submissive to A Ulm .rll'ld moat alra,tel of .Him ,QJHo,n.g' you,: yet I fast and breok: my fast, 1 pray an,d·J·lee.p~ and I n'-~I"y wvn~'en.+ So; he who doe's not follew

my traduion .in religion, is IUU one of myfollowers, U

So, it is clear that marriage is seen by Islam as a humen mn.sdnctj, that makes man' s desires and iru~lin a ti ons ma terialise, and comform to the na tural law of ]i fe ..

B~, Maf"f,iage as a Soci;al I:nm)'les,t

m". ,Pres~rl'i1Dg the ImlllD13D race: through marriage, the h uman race continues to exist, propagate, and, continue until the Last Day, The N 0 b~,e Qum::j an pointed to this social rationale 'and human in terest by' s~y]ng::

.J.' {"'''''' .. , ..... ~_"""] ,~ .. '(:'"1 J,Z-" I?"r~ J"" ~'·1 .. ~ 1:4' 1,""'" .,1'',;':\''" l..

~: ,U~j ~, r-=-~' ,~ r ' ,"'~--~ ~i!)1 ~ ~: r' .... 1 ~ ~!'- Y'

.,r;hitl A,llail hIlS iliizde'lo; ,ytin .... ft'w'j (mates ot' wi'!}~s) tJ/ your' O'WR ki:tJi/j, anil has w'tlde Jo,r 'OU,~ JrtJm; "out lv,i'JJ;I?$, .'ions and g"rand5o'lla., .. .' (.At.L·,N'~hl" 72) And, ,A1.blh ~ said,

U'O' mankind! Be dllli}illtlJ' y,~rtr ,ley,a" ,WI,O ,cte(J,ted' "ou fr,(},m Q; ,~i:n:gle litl:'f,O'n' (A dam), and fi~(),rn ,'f",~ (A irll,,"' J He crt.'a.tied ,'i~ 'wife (Ha~'~';iJ (lJ~~) ad ft'O.II' the,,," loth Ht ,ttlCtJteul ""'Q'RJ' ,nil!'" and 'W,o,,.,,eJl." (AnI.N;~aj' 1 ji

:2. P,r.eseniing Lilfleage! through marriage, the lineage or ancesfral Iine is defined Wler,e wt not fa li' marriage, which ,AU:i~h has ordained for mankind, the siode:tl' would. have been sW,i;iIwed 'with. children of no lineage or honor; a situation that entails dJ.ssl:pating human dignity, sublime manners, and. awful diffus,~{)n of corruption and Hbertini sm i

.3. Keeping the society 'fr0c: :from immor,a:liUy~: through marriage, 'the society j s kept safe from immorali ty and social disunity, if 'the: instinct of ineli nation 'to. the other sex is satisfied t[fuo,u,gb legitimate marriage, the nation win entertain the best morals and mannera and wit[ communicate the message, and, fulfill their dury 'aJ;S Anal! wishea them, to", Verily, 11)otlh~ng is more truthful, than what the ,P,illoplUle:t., said to point out the moral rationale of marriage and its social benefits when he was, urgru11lg the: 'youth to get married. lie said, ! fJ Y,()~'l'h~Who~q!e,r ea» marry mus: m'Q,I!","Y since it l\viil keep his ;gight ani) pl',iv'(l,U! par tsci{J'on .cmd pure, bu: those who

desires. "

,4. PJlesmrvillg: the s!!)ciety from dise:ase: through marriage, the: society maintains S;:f)J fety from wide spread fatal diseases that result from adultery ~ whoredom, and fornication, such :H :!'i--yphiJis. gonorrhea, and, other' deadly disease's that weaken the booty", and diffuse ep idemic diseases,

5~ S.pwitual, and :ps,c'oIqgie;al se]lenity: through marri age, amity, Iove.nnd intimacy grow between the husband and wife, Allah, m said:

I~, ... ~ ... '" J~"~ ~~ ~ L-:.:'ij~ r.~,~';'f ~.".\'i, ~~ ~}~ ~~, ~~ '~~~'~ "I" r. '" k ~w i~' ~4- ,,-: ,-~ ~ '~p ~ ~..:.t)11 ~~ ~ ~ ~, y~ ~';~i~ ,~~ Y

~' "'~""'it~ ;ij'''' ,"' ..... " .. ,' ~',

e, , •.• " • r. I " \ Nl ~' _ ~ ~~

i!.iI':'- ... I':" ~' ,.c:",:iJ, y; ~

~lA.nd ,flRtmg Hi;N Si'gN3' i's tiis'}, tlmt He' cr'(!lfll'tr;tl,ftN yO'oY' 'wilJ,~s !ro,"1i (lffl'O'Rg yelu.r<'Jel~',e,~':!, thlflf J~Ot' '~UJJ' jin(l Ji1epo's't! i~, i",ie",,~ land' ,Ba l~as: PB" hetJ~'e'ein YOIfl affe'cJi(),~' ani ",,'r!cl., r eJ~,il, ~ .in, that' are iDdfJ~d ,!Jri'g,f,f;,J'Im-' liZ JJ'(!,o,le' l'i,I,r,o rq/lr.r:,t. J'~ (J1-u~R ilm!~, 1])

Such a psychological and sp:iJ:i hull serenity is ,ii\ go 0 d aid for raising children and caring for them,

6" CODpe.:rati!1UlI b~~wcen :s'llo1!lses fo:1' ImJildi1l\g 'die :[amJi13l's::.nd r:ais]ng, cb.ildren: through marriage, the, spouses 00 operate to build a

familv and bear '~'t'" 'f' ",",I:'; TiI>fi.ri sibilitv ('1;,,," 00:l1 .... ;L., or. them ei.'f"'"

~~~ '_~,.j. 1!iJ1l., I bt, !J.J~!liJlr.. Jj.~' 'Ir·~'p·U~-!J!.1I'~ ·I.'~"~,, ~,1 '~I ~.o. 1~~,~.lll, .. ' Jj, I,., .JJ'W, ,,",, 'IiJo!"

comptementary '[']I the adler. So, tbe 'wUe does what 1:8 prescribed to her, and what conforms to 'her feminine nature, by su,pe[visilJ\g and managing the household chores, and lo,o1d.ng after the clftildre.n,

And the husband wor k:s w]thwn his domain, and does what conforms, to, his n.a ture and manhood. So heworks, toils, and looks after the :fumHy. By such coopera tj 0'0, between the spouses, It ,II': --'br" ~I . d ...I ffsnri ld ., 'i~· d ran mn generauon an good 0: .rsprmg would eome nIW ue;ulg" anc

the house would be a p~:~® of love: an d sta hiH'ly,

7., B'urni,ng passi~n for :m:nu:ea1Jhood: through marriage, the p arents'

feelings and sentimen ts rowacds the children begins to burn, and mati va te them to care for their children and to br.~ng them 'up properly, These are the most importan t social interests stemming from, marriage, They are very closely related to family reformation, child breeding), and raising generations.

C~, M8!ma,:ge as a, Select~on :and ICh.o:ice'

Islam has establi shed 'bases and rules for both the sui tor and his

fiance. J't." "th- ~:v [01' ]'1'0' 'W',,: '; 'l,;F>iI'TjII '.:i nd take tb ,. 'em' " 'a '9, 'g' ,I ~Il' d: eliries t iii.. ,<lII

~Q.H~. .II ~ .... .J ~ v , _ !l.1h.iU~ GI_~ , !J.i.1.lI;;., , " , o!I_,U ' ,,,..,~ , ,1..";:1" ~.h ••

marriage wiD 'be successful and will fl our ish. , and the family win. be faithful, 'moral; and secure, The following are the most importan t of them:

L IChaice 'bosed, on, relgio.n: what ismeant by religi on here is the sound understanding of Islam, practical applica tion of all its. TIJUngs, and. manners, and, full commitment to the Sharl~cih 's methods and principles.

If both. the suitor and his fiance are ~J~l to such a standard of understanding, application.and commitmen t, we describe them as rehgicus and well-mannered, That is why' the Prophet ~ guided marriage seekers to look for a pious partner, Al ... Bukb!ri~ Muslim, A'bfi,Da:wiid~ An-Nass'i and Ibn Majab. related that Abu Hurairah, said tha t the Prophet ~ said, ~'IIt 1.8 self-eviden t that a WO:mml is sough: far marriage for Jour reaSon's;" her riches, her noblei: irth ~ he» beauty, and her religion. SOl get ,the pious one and strive to get her. H

In accordance with, that, the Prophet # guided the gitl's famH.y to seek the religious and welt-marmered suitor. At-Tirmidhi related {hat Abu, l:.Iat]m Al-Mazni said that the, Pwophet ,$ said, "Ifyou we.re.' app,.(),(],d~ed by .h'e whose r.eligir.m anil manners satisf, you~ let him marry your daughter; if you do' not do' t hat, there w.ill be iJissen,Jion in the earth and great eorruption. ,'1'

Is there any ,gr.ea tor dissension In'ffic~ed, upon religion and, morals thena faithful gii~ falling in a. libertinistie suitor'shands, or

au atheist husbandw no 'bears no respect fOJ honour or jealousy? And is. there a,·o.y grea tes dissension related to a f.ijghteou·g woman. than falling under the vmatrimonial authority of an immoral, '~l'b'- ertine husband who forces h-er ,~"'io abar dor t 'II,. .. ,"~l.. d i!- ... ,. ." - .

d '" __ "' ,_ , x ~ __ j; _. L~V ~ ..... '" __ , "' .. _ b !,IV .g[[ OOlle· velw alll l,O mIX

with men, and. compels her to drink wine· and dance with men?

So m;~ny .S]:F.~S:~ unfortunately, 'who were exemplary ~n their family's home regard ing chastity and purity, but when. such a gil I m-(l'V!OO to a libertine house, ~~nd a licen tious husband) she turned into anu:rnn;~stl!.'ajned and c&.n~·~esswon:mn, not valueing the prinei ples of morality O:f the concepts [of chasti ty and. honour. No doubt that 'w'hem children grow up in such a sinful house, they

w}'l~ ac (1IIm,i-~ lP~],VOiJlI:r- sitv a ·t'.d· I. Iibertini sm - :~in-'[~ :-::,~ '1-.]-1 ~.~ fed ..... th

~ ~ ~ r.........~ ..... ~~ -J-~" lLi!).",_ Ii.!_=" ~ _~ i!>!!-. II.!!l W] IV.... JL...... m.

corruption and. maleficence". So ,. a choice based on. religion and wi th morals is the most important factor in :a:.chiev.lng happiness feu: both sp(n]J&~~~ virtuous Islamic breeding for the children, 311d good rank and. stability for the family,

1., Cho:ice: ·based. ·onnoble bidh QI1U honour: among the rules. ·Iaid. down by Islam for choosing a SpO'UB~,. isto choose your spouse from a family known 'for their righeousuess, morals, no b]~: birth, and honar,.lbn.~M~j'a·h, Al.'-liakilll, and Al-Bayhaqi related that 'Aishah • said that ~h·e Prophet .~ said, ~i,C1U)[WJr:; for ymlir' sperm, and

marry ]}'Our eqUQ'M", and lei them n::uu'ry yQ!1l'f aQugl1t,efs. II

Th.isHlJiJUli, and. many others, direct the atten tion 'to the.' necessity of choosing someone of no blebirth, 'So that the man. 'cam ·obta·in .moralj pious, an.d. righeous children, In. accordance with. this. meaning, Uthm.an. Ibn .. A·bi A]- ~ As Ath- Thaqafi advised his SO]1S to select their wives, and. avoid ill- bred families, He advised them ,sa;ybiIJg: ,'~o SOl:1lS~ the man who seeks marriage is Iike one; who plan ts, so, everyone should see where he .ms putting his, seeds, and it is quite: [are to get noble offspring from the ill-bred, so select. your wives even if you have to wait fora while ."

Such a selection, that the Prophet 5. has ad vised 'Us of, is taken as one of the grea res t scientific facts, and educational theories in modern times .. Genetic s proved that the child inherits his parent's moral, physical, and. in tellectual eharacteris tics, So, when the selection of a eSponse is, based on noble birth, honour; and righteousness, children gro w up bearing these same qualities, and when a child COin bines inheri red righeous qualities and. virtuous breeding, he attains: the climax of :r.,dig~on,. morali ty ~ and piety;

3". E,xoga,m:y: among the wise Islamic in struetions regarding selecting a spouse is preferring :31 woman. who is not .from. one's family (i.e, cousins ete.) for soo·tjng intelhgent children, assuring their safety from inheri ted diseases t expanding the, family acquaintance and strengthening social bonds. Genetics has proved that endogamy weakens the o:ffsprin~ physically and mentally,

4·~ Prefeni'Dg virgjllS: among the rational Islamic instructions regarding selecting a .fn ture wi.Je is preferring virgins to women who were married 'before. This ~s; because the virgin IS di sposed to intimacy and fa.miUari~.y with her first husbend, contrary to the woman w he 'was married 'before, since she may not find intimacy or love: with her second husband, :B lilt the virgin loves her hus band, and does not long for another man, because she knew no one but him ..

~ Aishah ii~ 'made aU these meanings clear' when. she said to the:

Prophet ~.t according to A~,·~I3.ukhi:r.i,- ~~O' Messenger of' .AUa:h if you were in I vaHe·y with. two trees. Orne was: eaten from, and the other was not eaten from, of which. would you let your camel graze? He said, At the one whieh was, not eaten from, She said, That isme, ~ ,. She meant to point to her precedence over his other wives, since she was the sole virgin 'wife he married, Indeedj the selection of a virgin. IS desirable unless there: was. a serious reason for marrying ;3, deflowered. woman who was married. before, as in the case of a widower or divorced man who is looking for a woman

24, =============~~====:::::::::===' Part Oue

(wife) to look after his 'house and bring up his children.

Al-Bukhdri and Muslim narrated the dialogue Ulat took place 'between the Prophet ,~rund. J{tomr ow their way back from the expedition of Dhat ,A-r .. Riq~L The, Prophet said to him': ~'O Jlibir, hav'e y.ou got, married? He: B!J,diedJ: yes, H~ asked: A virgin l!il! Q' deflowered woman? He replied: a deflowered 'woman, He asked: 'Why n{)'t a ~irg,in so that y.ou mu)! p.laywUh her and'sae with: ,au'? He replied, 0 Messenger of Allah, my father was killed. ,in. the ba ttle of Uhud and! left seven girls, so I married a deflowered woman to

gather them around, her and Iook after them, The Prophet .3 said:

Yoo dfJ the right ,~hing, in.'Sh:Cl~ Allah'.

:5,,; The preference ,or :marrying: a, 'ferti~e 'Woman:: amOifig the instructions of Islam, for selecting a. wife ~s that she is fertile, to aehieve the purpose of marriage Le, ha ving children, preserving the human race, and inhabiting the earth. One of the women's merits is to bear children) and that is why the Prophet 3p:w,efe:ned

Khadiia h ~e'. to his other wives S'o· he m·e-- tio --. ed '~:Ik.CI,t -1J,. - -- ,

_,, __ , _ -,J~-'~- '- -' .... 1.' _ _J_'c , :::, ,111:- ·.·u~~,lne' YIn su'e ,gave

him children while others; did. nor as a :pdvnege~ of hers, The Prophet 3 advised not to marry barren womenhowever bea 11 tiful theY' might be. Abu Dawud and An .. Nasa'i related that Maqil Ibn 'y'a:sar saki that amancame to the: Prophet 3 and said to him ~ i I love' a well- bred, and beautiful woman, but she. is barren .. Shall I marry :h~l?' The Prophet -$ said, ~ ~N e." Tbe man came a second time and the Prophet ,3 said, ~,~ No. ~~ 'When be came the third. time, the Prophet .. said to him, ~matrY' the ,Iov.ing CllU1je,rtile' WQ,man~ as J ~hall take pr,i'de ,'in yo.ur abundance. " ~

These are the most importan t princi ples of marriage, a's; j t satisfies humin needs, sud ts the desires of life, attri bates the cbHdren to, the.ir parents, fr-ees 'the society from ~ibe(['thu:sm and fatal diseases. achieves (~OOn.A]'a Horn, between ;sf,- ~·u;:;es- a - - dJ. i - j tel ~ S

. - - - - - - - - - __ - ~ - - ~ . - - - - - - - - r.... - - '" - - - - - - - - _H -po __ i:l _ ~ ~ __ l'L _gn~._

the' parent's sentiment for parenthood" Marriagein Is~am is, based on strong foundations, and sound rules relating to the seleeti 011. of

a spouse. The most important of w hich is, religion, noble birth and awareness of the spouse's rights, The very' beginning of raising, child.ren in [s'~a:m stems from an ideal marriage built 00'0 selecting a, righteous. 'wife. By doing so, the, Muslim family is ~onnedJ and a, faithful generati on, and righteous prog:en.y are raised,

Chapter Two PsycWio'llgical FeeU.ngs Towam, C hiiiltJ:r en,

A~, Pa:ren. are m,p 0 sed, m, love 'tlbeik' clilld'rem

It is intuitively known that the hearts of parentsare disp OgOO to love their children ~ and are filled with psychological feelings and. parental compassion 1.0 protect, bave mercy, :symp;~tl1beJ and. care for them, Were it D-ot for that, the: 1'1 uman race would Eta ve vanished, and parents would. not have had patience to 100'1<:: after ~heir. children, :SP-I)USOlf them, bring them up, c~i['ing for them. or seeking ~he-ir interests, The Noble Qur'.aD has, depieted these parental feelings, ~!O, so.m~r~imes, it makes children the adornment of Illig presen t life:

On another occasion i t considers them. a great b 01Ul ty tha t is.

1.. 1l.. ki ,'I.l. G-"

worth than . ng the '" ,'[ ver:

., ~ J3f ~; ~; ,~~\ ~~·~t ,

u'We' lutl"e-d ~O;~. ,~il'h' w.etihh and child'ren at~ld m.aile' you moee nlll'n,ter-OilS in' man--po:wer4 J'J' (Al~ISfd~ ,6)

O~ 'in! a' +- bird OOCa8J{Jl1 it 'made: them the eomfon ,of the ~8 ~f thev

Jl..I" .MJ! -- '-' -' - _.. ,.) ,_., -- - - - - ~ ~ - - - "- ~ - ' ~ -- -' '"".J""' - . _. -.J

were plons::

(to" ... jJ" ~ ..... ~- " . ..-,eli. '" -"",r",'" "''''''0'1.. ",,, ...., "'-"'-". ,/~: ):"'- .... .~ ' ..... }P'

. Gr;;l:'~ .s~~,t.H =,'<-:~, ~I, -;;J i'~:£;,'~~ L~\~;I ~' U .~',,.l,:;...,J' ~~ u.Jh"

~ ~~ ,r.ll '-Y=-".' ~. ~ ~'. ~ -' . ~ ~ ','

.A1I1t/· "'056' wlm irll)':' '(to,~l,,. LI1,rd} lIes-to'K' tJ,'IJ~ us flom otlT wipes and ,t)ur offspring th« c'(J'IYI/orl' of our' ey,eJi', a'nil make' ,U'S l:eMeY$ .01 t.he M"l:ti",rln~" {AJ-Fm'q~[I~, 47),

These, in addition. to SlO, many other Qur'anic verses that depict the paren ts t fselings towards their children, reveal ~Jheir. true sentiments and love for their beloved children,

Here, dear reader, we presen ta selection of poetic verses related to loving children, These verses are full, nfrende:rne'ss and sym,pa,'t't-1Y ~ flooded with ,feeH:l1gs, and ,adIe~tio':m.) and stress the love

.l • tl A' ll "'} t, '111..;1 ' t, ~ 'h L

ana iU ty '~[1;~M,~. ia 1, n;8LtS bestowed on the 'parents' ,', earts, I et us

start 'with, what Umayyah Ibn, A'lbi As,-SaJ:t composed r-e,galld.:hug his

-' -' !I' ~,. .

son, This p~~m is, one of the masterpieces which is flooded w~th tendemess and, depicts the truthfulness of parental heart felt towards the: SOiID:

u:m- ,iC:~..:!I1 V--· ... 'h ~ -~-,. , .. _. b

- -.II. reo :).ClU wr en you, were a new- nom,

and sponsored you when you were a youth, ~nd 'you enjeyed VI hat I harvested for you,

If you feU, sick one night, I would, not sleep, but ill 'keep ,lw,H,e all ll],gh t feeling :SQ:rry for yDU.

As, if I were the' sick not you,

SO' D1.Y eyes get flooded with tears,"

Another poet srud regarding '[be torrential parental pity that radiates affectien, ~y., r m-',',p"a·I~1f-'y. " --1,~C" -.,

_ _ _ --"""~~J "'.. ,. - !!Ji~" a.ny lOve.,

"But for a" very weak, structure (Ib,od,y). where some parts are ]~ani,[lg: on others,

I would have had many journeys, in. this wide a.nd, VMt land, Bu t OU! cbildren, amongst us.

who ~ook as if they were our '~ivem w,a\tk:ing on the: ground" If the wind struck: some of them

my eyes would never wink, j]!

So, we: CODe[ ude by' reiterating the strength of the emotiens that AU ah has engrained in ItO the parents' hearts towards their children,

B. Hsvin,g me-rey on Cihci~dFi(,iD is, '9, blmi.n,g: flom AlIlih lo,n :mank:iJnd,

Among the noble feelings that AUfi:h has put into the parents' hearrs is to have mercy on their children ~ sympa thise wwth them,! and be kind to them, It is a great feeling that entails the greatest effect in 'raising: the children and, shaping their persouabties,

A meretlessbearr reflects a stern and harsh oersonalitv, wh'c:h

,11t ,,' ~"I' :re '" , ,,_;L~_ - -~ -= = p = , - --,J' , ., ~

gravely leads to children ~8 corrupti on and perversity. Po r these reasons, the Prophet ~, cared, very much. for having mercy, and urged adults to, entertain this honourable qU~lHtty, Ahmad and ,A.l-, 'B,nL1.\.!ir]'" Abu D'" awnd - A""~=T'I-,Mmld' hi, and Al e= 'H:;ii"'-1ml related that.

, ~~.:~iIi!l. '!II . "'" .. ~~ ._f. ~~ I ~JI~h _ ~I .,;Ib.~~_ _ II ~ ~ .. ----~ - ---,

"Ahd ldl§'fu. Ibn ~ Amr Ibn ,AI ~'l As said that the Prophet 3 said, "H e who does not have' ntercY' mt ot~r 'young" and does not aCK]'Ulwle.g,e the honour' of ,our grown~uPJ} does not beto'ng U) tlJ',,, ~J

And the Prophet 3 used to rebuke any of hi'S followers who did not have mercy towards, Ills children, and directed him, to having mercy and sympathize with them, ,Al-:Bu~:~ad re la ted" ia ·"'Al-Ada.b A l-Mufrad~ J that ~ A.ishah, ~ said, ~~ A bedouin came to' the Prophet 3, and said", !,( Do ,ou: kiss your SQns?I'~ We do not, The Prophet said, to him, "I cannot pu: ,m'er~y in your he'at i alter A.llah iU:M' flJ}'rof)led i.', from }OUI' hea'fl. ~,.

Al- Bu!~h1 s:ru.d that ,Abu, Hurairah said" the Prophet 3 kissed AI- Hasan Ibn ~'Al1 in the plles~n.ce o:f Al-Aqra' Ibn Habi S ,At,.

". ~

Tamimi, 50' Al .. Aqra' said, "I have ten children and I have never

kissed a'fi~,,[rne of. thorn. The Prophet ,3 lo oked at bim and said, ~.~ W!:we vel' is H'()/ mereifu! to' others will not be treated ,merc.ifiJiiy .. n

A~=Bukha.d related that Anas 10[[ M,f~[fk said: a woman came to ~,Aisha.h ~ (ru.ie . asking for help) and ~A,i:slmh I~v,e, herthree dates, The woman gave every one of her children 3" date and kept one for her s elf, The two, beys ate the two dates, then looked at their In 0 ther .' So, she spl it her da tee in 'two hal ves, and gao ve each a half of the date, them when the Prophet 4j was to~d by 'Aishab. about

what that 'WOU1~U] h,ed done'), he said '~~'Wj,I:' are yO~l amazed at t.ha:t'? Allah has endowed ,ml?~rcy Oll: her for ./lC'l''l-iJl:g mercy (J,M her children" ~'I The Prophet's eyes were flooded wi tb 'bears at the ~ight of a dyin,g child,

AI.-Bn'~[axi and Mus~]m f1e~a'ted. that Usamah Ibn ,Zayd. • said that I~he P:[o:ph.~t 's daughter sen t him a message saying that 11.~,[· son was dying and asked him. to come. Hie replied to ber greeting and said UAlUih ,OW/~'S lhat wJlich He took and that 'IIFhlch' He ga'v'e'~ and has set a term for ,e.v~tylhil1g" so, be patient. and Q'sk Allah for rew,"l.,ti.,u S{) she; sent 'back to him a reply pleading For him. to go. to her, 80' he went to her with Sa'd Ibn Ubadah~, M~u.~aCb, Ibn Jabal, Ubayy Ibn Ka'b, Za yd Ibn Thi bit, and S;O]JL'],!e other men. The child was given to the p~oophe~ and the Prophet put him. in. his Iap as he: was heavily breathh:u,g heavily and agita ted, and. his eyes flooded 'W~tb, tears, So, Sa 'd said, Q, MeiSseng-e,r of AUih. w ha t is dlru.S.? T[j,6 Prophet Ii said, "This is mere», wl.ii:'ch. Allah has put 1~t:110 His bondmen's hearts. ~ And in another narration, ~!All{f,'h has [Jut into the hearts of whom He '~i-shes of His b(Jmdme',~, Su"eiy. Allah is met,djill ~f,O those who are "ul!1'cdful., I ~ The mercy 'whicll is deeply engrained in the parents' hearts motivates them to 'take the responsibili ty to look after and raise their c'lJ!UdrenT

C. Despising Ittls is, an abomihud):~e .Jl.hii:ty,a:i (pre-:Isl=unic, practlee)

F.s~amj, in. calling for ~q1lli]ity and justice, has not made MY distinction .~11. the treatment of 'males and females. M aking distinctions between males ,a,nd. females concerning treatment, love, and symlJIBl't1l1Jy is In a bomina b~ei pre- Islamic practice. Alrn ah IS says,

~"AIfd ~1I,he," tlie .t'iV.~ ,of' (the ,iir't/Ji of)' a /eluu;le ,(,chi1!d) is' or,fJught to any oj",t,hem'J' Ilia: jUJc,(!,' beeomee dark, tlni ie i;a filreil within:wtwtl g,ieJ1

He.' ,Iti«e:s Mmsdf frr), • .tll,e pt,o,le' be,cms~e of "I,Iie' e'~il o!',tltat whe,,.eof he btu leen in{MIn-etL Sial It~ keep' IILf" Hi'#I' ld:isJuxlJ'Or ot' j,ur:y lI'er in tie 6:tBtlf:? Certainly, gt1ills Meir d,e:cision:" (Arnt'nN~d'JJ~,!, 58 "' 59)

If we find wjjtbin the :Mu~'llim society, some: fa their 8 who make a, distinetion in the treatment of males between b 0 ys andgirls, the reason behind that: is d,lle to' the spoiled environment from which they acqnired their 'bacltworil'l' ignorant traditions and abomina ble social conventions, It ]S, also due' to the weakness of faith since they have not accepted that w hieh Allah 12 destined for them (i, e. the girls).. Neither can they, their wives, nor all people on earth change what AUah has created. AHah, II 'says"

,ir;~-:. _ ..... \ .I, ,r.i!oi'" rl' '~' j1f~-:'" .: '~ "d'"' 1r"'.':"::" I'''' Ji~ I!; ,.;"Ert["",.,!,.,'" .... "~~! r ~~J~ e; ).. "'~ ~ ~~,.,.:!. ;O~ ~ ~ ;~~ ~'.~, ~j;J~ ..;.~! ~'-- ~ 7'

if.. p -;;; ~ ,iI'~n\!.~ .i!!i1:'~ ,,," { .... , .. ~ ... ri' ''''',L": .ftt'l ,.,n .. "'~ ~ AiJIi ""fC~t'f ~ ,-4~ :,'. ~.,,~,~,~ :,. :;;~ ,~~ '·~~"v' 'i!).~3 ~p. j~ 'iV ~~I

"fT· AI ,r .• t!.L. bel' . _. t Iu I.~-. dom ,,/" tL- I.,~ ".,. tl... _. j U

i. 0' 4UfUJ '--. _0.",:& _ t: 1lHig.' ,....; oJ '0 ,tfiflJVCnS anu .• ~. f!.wl: _.' ,J~t

creat.es 'KJU" He: wilts", He. bestows .fe.mdl~ (Ojftpring)' IJptm~ '",hom~ ,He' wi/l..~,; ;ma lJes.tiJ'H's m.ale (offSpring:) 1l1ufJ,n whom He' wills" Of' He besttOWS bOlh m'tiles IUId.lemaies" ,and' He rSJ,ilerJ' btwren w''Om~ He wils.~ ferily', He ,is Ii" Al' .. Kno we" and ,is Able ,to' .' all' tlings, .. " (A'sih...s:bnu]i3;, 49' ~50)

In order [bat tbe Prophet 3~ may 'uproot this pr-e .. Islamic practice from such weak sOIWk~ he pve ,~F"]S a. special 'mention, in his sayings and, orderedthe fathers and guardians to treat them wen, care £001' them, and look after them, so tha.t they may quufy fGr' AUab"g Ile8S~ngs and enter Paradise. Muslim, related, that Anas Ibn, Millik .' said that the Prophet ij, said, ~ ~ Who,sc,eiV.er 8pD'nslOrs two girls (daughters) until they grow up;, he lfJili be wfth me in Paradise ,like .tillat {bring:ilig t'w,o ,0/ his finfl'er s close to;f;lrther },.~!'t Jmim, A~m,!.\d., in hls Musnadj, related that. '~Uq,bah Ibn "Am'iI' Al-Juhaniyy sadd, that he: heard uhe Prophet's Myin,g':; ~j'WhosQe'~'er had three d{lJ,l,ghter'S an'd' was' patient' wit.h .th'l!m:l, .pro'~'id'e:d ,them 'wu'h food and clothes fr'Om ,his own ,mo,ney ~ ,they will' sheller him from the' Heii-ftre, n'

So' those who raise' children m,]Js.t fellow these prophetic mstrucrions and Islamic teachings relating '~,O the incumbency '0'[

""1'!1'[;;n' or ,r. ..... 'r-:: '1i:f!11"""]-'!:'!' an" d imolem ... , .... iii-';' .... i['f iustiee o:Ii'li'!l,A; ""t1I""'"l'W'V between 'U"'e"niI, ~~ l,oIL . e ~!t]J~ t;,.!L ~j __ - " __ ' ~ =~lL~~. ,.1_~,1~lIU,IIi.-,J,.IUI.,~ ,JIll .. i3L. 'i.;.I~ !fJdU1Y, 'W~ Ul ~,J .... !Ii.?'-"·'f.¥I~ .. ',L:J,l Ul '~!01~

and the males, so that they m,ay gain Allah' 5 Blless.~ngs~ and a garden the breadth whereof 'ws, as the brC'I,d:th 'O'F the hea vens and, the earth,

D T'LI' ,41' ~:f --!1..,",' -- -o/1iIP,Il>, i'!I.'tIIi,z111i~llfu!lIlC ~~';::! ,,,,,iL,,.~1111ll)~"~ dlD~t"lJ.. ~ I,ne 'YU" ,lie 1llI~' Wuvm:th~ " il,o-.~':U~lI!'I..'" 1.liI!a, ",II .h ' .... ',' 1Ii.~,~, .~I

'Whem a. Musl~m. reaches a high degree of faith and belief and believes in predestina tion, whether good 00,1' bad, hi tter or sweet, 'he renounces .an ha pp enings and disasters and surrenders to Allah' s Divine: Decree, Ac.oofd~:l1igly) the Prophet ~, said, whoever is bereaved 0/ a S,OlJ;j a.f~'ld has ,patie:noe. t.1'1:(1 k,eep's ~~lrly,~gJ ;~ Teo A'uah: 'w'e

'~W J l:!"1'" " U Al'l!l' "l'/ J. -,W,,' I ,('.', J ,i a

oetong, ICln!f,~ to ,;,,1'tm ts our Ir;ettl:r:'~~ .J:il,.,llrl W,[,', ,[!'u.~l:t, a ,mJ~3e,iGr i'~,~m m,

Paradise called (The House ql Thtlnksg'ivin,g,).~'

At-Tirmidhi and Ibn 'Hibbam 'related. that, ,Ahhl, Mu.rs:i, A,[As:ha~'(ty '. said that the Prophet 3 said, ,~; Wlme.f,~ a nlun: 's child dies ~ ARa'li Tf! J'Qy~ to !'-/i:s An:.eJ~~.' li{lfiJft }'OU ~ake'n, the SOld of ,my

Lo,.j-j·J·i."liilf"~ ",., i""1..,~~,....-~? Til"'''':;;J.'~ • .-;t~JJ'}' "(;"'~,p l7n ;t!'n'IIJ~,lq:"'1'nD' '1)'I1:W'~"~~~~,Qn Ii.~~:,

v N;(!!l~"~i!<!l""'~ li,.n:d:~~. J! ill;o _ ' i' !trF I., ,I .r ",,"O!., n'"," ':!<!J.oIl..,:r Ii!! , I]: y, I!""," .r V,!!~ ~,~"",~ _ ,f'!!~ ...

heart IS fruU? Tilley s,aYj Ye's. He .~:'(l)t!i,~ What did 1M! &a}~1' They say ~ He p.raised )i'ou tmd r!iaid~, To' A.llah 'We belongJ andto Him is ou" return." IF e 3l'lyS to' tbem: B:uiid a: house j'()'r my hr()ntim (m' i1:f Par.cuiiJ'"':e and caU it the house of tlu:mksgi'V,fn:g.,Suif~Jr pal tenee yields many fi~&l:itS'~l\1'h iell' the patten; and coraeru per son "e'1:ps _ ,Among ,r;hem'l is that it lead» to Par'tJd1-se' and is a sheltetjrmu flellfl":e .. ;'

A-i: B L'i..~" .;j 'M' 'nl' ] d th A- b @ ~ ... ..iI1 A'l KL d . ~.i' er ,W-', ','UNiw:¢lrCl ann I, lustnn re atec that Abu 681: bJl!, 'l'o~,J:iU, ]',[ ~.

said tlud 'the Prophet once s,aid to womeo: f'~jb1y 0/ yo~ ge ts bereaved of three childrt!!H~, they l"Vit:l cer t.a'.inly be a shelter for' her If,om ,HeUfir,~',. The: woman asked: and 1rW'IO? He said, and l"\I1Ii'O,

Also am 011 g: the fro) ts of patience is ~hat the child w ]u) dies young, intercedes for his pa-rerits on the Day '0]-' Judgement, Imam ,A ttma\d'j An-Nasa'i and, Ibn Hibbsn related that Abu Dharr •

saJd. that the: Prophet $ said, "{Any tlil-.o Muslim parents tha: get bereaved of three C'!~ iidr,e.l~ who have nat (re,(ll:heti the' ,a~e of) cOl1$.fttmg ;SiH'S'J Alim~ will let: the:m: enter Paradise due to His' M frey toward» t'12e'm.. A·Did. M uslim related, in his Sah fll that A.bi fIassil1. said, "I was bereaved of two, children, so I: said to Abu Hurairah .: Ha Vie you. heard a saying from the Prophet 1$ that 111IY give us condolence for our dead? He, said, Yes. The young among them are the r'O'lull ,of Paradise, each 0 ne of them follows his [a\~h,elr (o:r said; :ms: par-ents) and, holds his father's garment '0:1L 'hand, as I hold your garment, i2lill,d[ never leaveshim until t~hey enter Paradise together .. J·!'

Among, the fal~'hfu'[ stance show,rl. by the women of the Prophet's c();mpanj.ons which demonstra tes p~.ti!;mce. and contentmeet when bereaved of a child is Umm S'aJlrm'~',s wonderful stance Here is her :".,~. 'II'V" A:]. -B ukh ,SA and Muslim related that ·1ion:aS _J~- said A])u, Talhah

is 1.,0", J " , ,. 1!.tI!>, lli!l.l-j ~~'U!. _ ='Y;;:!lb= ~'_i\!i!l;!, ""- nJJ ~ .~ _ __ _ _

- """" """ ., ,III

had. a son w.ho was suffering from ~]]nefiH;~ and his son died when. he

was, not at home. Wb,e11. he came back, he: asked about his SO'Dj and his wife said; He is in his, utmost rest-meaning that he I~ied,~ but A bft !ai~}llh understood that he; was ge~ui:n,g: better, Then he: ate 'UIDe dinner whidlsne: served to him, She then. made herself up' in. a wa.y she had never done before, and. so he slept with her. Whe:n she ;Sf}',W 'that be was 'we]} satisfied, she said, If) A01i ,!aJ~.ah,!, ten me, wha t you. thmnk. :~f' some people lend others something, then they asked for it, may tbe"y be deprived of :~t1 He· said, NOI .. So she said: Then, aSk Alltab for reward, meaning dl® t his son died. The snb-narrator said,

He 'lf~~o\!I,il' 0n1il)l1\"'U 'cri'l"II.J blamed her for lettin a \i..~m f"'~'-";:>;'i"Ii ~;Ji1'i"''L., her Jnt :-IW~~ I~'~' "b;ol!..j' ~~L:"IOl UI,.O. I ,1~u, .IL~.'. l,v' ,'\r."lIr.. ;L~g. .!JJ~" I !.1iW~~· '~·~,IL.LJ~, .lUI.~. ~

becoming: 'Wmpur,e~ then telliag him ,aib em. this S01l. He hea,d.ed. to the P,ro~h.ett ,$ and 'told. him the; ~tOir.y," The Prophet $ supported 'what U mm Salim had done,]; ~~b-eJ:1lJ he' seid '~'May A.llah bless your night. I'~ orr said" ~~ M.ay A lbJ'/, bless t'hceffl bo,th, ~~, The 'Wlo'man gave birth to a boy ~ and tile Pro:pbet .e 'named him. ,A1bd;uUiih., A man from M=An~ar said, "I saw nJlIl,e ,of A'oduUi.h~ s sons, all of them learnt the QiIllr~ ill bY' heart." This W,I,S, only fbr Allah ~8 response te the Prophet's

invoca tion " w:h~11L he said, I"M llJ' Alliih bless them both. "~

SoO parents are strongly recommended to have faith certitude and pa tience, so that] f they encoua tered any calamity" they would never ~ose pa tience, III case they were. bereaved of a. child, the'}, would never be sad, butwould keep repeating ~!'To Amah surely we belong, 21J,I1,d, to Him " surely, is OU1' return " to Him belongs what He took, and to Him belongs what ,H.'~ gave, andHe set a, term for

*1 . ~;,

every ~ 11ng., .

E.G:i,viin,g pll'ooed.e:nce~ to d:JJe :~I1,te:rests, of Is1.a'lO over lovmg c'hilldJ'ien

Although the parent's hearts are overwhelmed with these true feelings olf love, mercy, pi ty ~ and, sympathy,~ these feelings should not override taking the responsibility for calling to ,AU;ah and striving: 1'[1, :, is; Ca las-e because the intersts of Islam, precede ;aU other interests aad coesiderations, and beca use, establishing an I slamic society and guiding mankind is the faithful person's aim and. target ill this life,

That is w hat was apprehended by the first generation of the Prophet's Companions • and tbe ones whc} closely folkrwed suit, The,y 'bad no target but Isl am !! Jilliid and. calling to A]Hih~s Ca use, and gave precedence to Jihiid' and calling '~O Allah's Cause over loving spouses, children, one's a bode, and kinsmen, They 0 beyed .Al1al1'g saying,

s;!l,f~~! ~~' j~l; ~A' )!a;t; ~;..~' t~~t :~t;~~\ ~t ~l ]i, ~

,:;". t ,J.~~' .1."'" • l:t:..:." ~"'M~~ /"' ,iii, ,p~'! ~""i- or F''''~'''' ~~.--'#'"'''' L""""'/¥

,\~ i~fl .~~"!l i1J • ,:;:Ji . ,"". ~! f ...... ,it'=~1 ~, ': ~.:'~ "":':'"l .' ..• '--- j '~I Uii~~

~ :.;r.-r----;;, ,~.?'~,,~ ~ i! . l..~ pi' I. ~ ~ ~;"..~ ="'~. -. ~~J- I,: ~ do

~' EN -~:ii ;,~~-'rr ,1$ ~::::, '~ ~,: ,:~.;t ~l ut

~ ~~., ~,~ ::;;;"r~ ~ ~~ Jr. .;r' ..

,tt C'a--. l:f' .. ..' , r: ,t,iI'.,~, " . - ., . • ,.,. - h .. - .. -'1.:.. •• --- .• .-

~)lJ\ ''I ~OU"f J a~RfrJJ' ,Y'OlIr SO'll,8" },OMrotuers,; YO'II¥' WrIi''e'J' ~ j"vur

kindre,d~ d~e' w'lQ;lth that YOI;; IUJ1'1! 'gained, the Ct)"'HU!t'Ct In which yo" ,fe'ar a de:l.:li,.,e~, and ,:h'e tlw1i!.iing~ ,ill w,h.ici I'll'll ,de'ligit are d:.etlNf' to FO~ dmlJ' ,AJlih ,and .8is ,Melseng,e¥', ~ml' s<tf;F-i,,'C h.,}' find fighting' ;in ,Hi~' Ctl:~'se f t'le;nwdll:' u.gtiJ AJIII;. /;.ring:s !a''O,(11:' His Dlecisiofl

(te,fmeDt jI., ARd AlidA ,g,tides nat tie' ,pa,op,lew,i'O tin''ll'! A,I-F6:iq:O" (t:he u,j\eJ/~oas" dis,(),lJe'die.lft to Alliilj)~~' (A~·'Ta.wbah" 24)

:F-.Punk:tl:irnl ~md 'temllor;arUy ,s][enlfitml a ch~]d fer educutiijnal PllUpOSes

IS'~iam has 'i ts own way of reforming and raising, children, If giving remarks and admonition is enough, the parent is. not eotitled to temporarily alienate his, child, and if the latter is eeough (1.. e. to reform him), then the p ~'rent is not entitled to resort to beating, But if all these means failed in reforming him then the parent may resort to moderate beating,

A~=Bu1E~ari' and Muslim related that 'J\mr Ibn, ,A.b~l Salamah $

• ..,!II "'.. ~I ,~, ," hi h- ·~AI "Ill'

S31u eoneernmg mstructmg ana ,a\1Ji..m,QililJfLlng a cr hYj 'I, was a

young. bo'y in the' presence of ,AUaJlJ 1'S; M,es~enger and my hand used to go around the dish whj ~e I 'W,Q\S ea tin,g; so All ah's Messenger $, said 'to IDle: '0 bay ~ memion the naJne of AUdJr 1- and e.a t with your righi hand~ and le(1..tfr,on~: the ,dish t'hat is neare: to you,. ~ Al- B~ithar~ and Muslim related from Sahl Ibn Sa'd .' that Allah,'g Messenger $ was offered something to drink. He drank from it while on. his. :r,igt-r~ there was a young boy, and on, his len there were some e~d~ruJy people, The Messenger of Allah said '~O the y.cnlm.g boy (as a compliment), ~M,ay J give fO these (elde~'ly people) first? The boy said, ~By Allah, 0 Allah's Messenger I wi!] not, give up my share from YO'ILl to allyon,f; else, On that, Allah's Messenger placed the ICUP in the hand[ of the boy, ~~' That lU)'jI was "'Abd,uWJah Jon Abbas.,

Concerning temporarily a'HenatJflg a. child, Al-Bukhsr! and

M ii' 'I - t . .:11 iF- t.",," II- Ab:';' ~ ~~d' ,In.. -'. '", A "~Al~"~' ~. M"" - '. fo b -.!a .

US, 111 re1;!3i;I,eu lIUW~I,:I~ " ··'U, ~a.-,W . ~ SWiJi,~l' - " .... ~al1. is., :es::snger ~'i.rl~!;h.!.'e

'the 'thJiowwng 0:[ stones, with the index finger ~nd the thumb, and said that 'ir neither hurts, nO.f· does it harm 1111 enl'Elny~b'Ut is gouges' out an ,eye'; or breaks a tooth, 1

Another narra tion sa,ys that .a relative e,f: Ibn :M u,~~affal, a minor, UU'8W a stoae with. :h'ms index nDiptr and thumb, 'Ibn, M:'1l;g}laffaJ. forbade' him from, doing 8100" and said, that Anih~'~

Messenger forbade, throwing stones with the index finger and thum b saying that it does not hu:W't;bu.t the boy did it again, The narrator said ~o' him;" "~I 'ren. you that Allah's M,esseoger forbade it, and, you do it once more? I 'win never talk 'to, you again. jOj

Concerning beating ,3, chru~d~Abu Dawud and Al .. '1J,8lkim liela~ed, that 'Amr Ibn Sbu'ayb~s, father and ,grandfa'Uum said that Allah's 'M:ess-eD"ger.- said, "Instrec: y,our t'.'hilar,f!n to auend to p'r~ye'r-J' at the ,age of se.1V!f'~:1 and beez chem (for abwJJulo,flil~g it) ,a:t the ,age ,O/',t',en, at1,d' do ,n,al.' let ,them (,mlale ond female siblings) sle,ep tog,£!. ther. 11

These :IP:~~r.I'ses, of mstruction :1,PP'l'y to children in their childhood and adoleseeace, but in the stage of youth, the W,B;'jI of reform and teaching manners change. That is, in, 'ca-se ,8 child does Dot respond to' pessuasion, admoni tion, aDd. guidaace, the educator must resort to aHenatin,g the child as long as he incillines to immorality and perversity, Here are some texts that support this view:

,Al-,BUl~;irl~ in, the sooUO'ft on ~ ~'JV:h:{U i£ allowtJ'tl of obal'lilon'ingcir(l dis,obe-dient~~~ related that wbea Ka'b fa'Hed to tale part in the Ghazwah (BatUe) of Tabuk;, Allah's M,~sseng~Jr' forbade people from Etdking to us ~o!r' fifty' nights until the earth, spacious, as i~ is, became straitened for ~hem~ a:o.dl their sauls became straitened for them, and no one spoke '~!O them, greetedthem, or joined them, until Allah accepted their repentance which was men tioned in His Book. Allah's Messenger $, aliena ted some of his wives for ,8, Duo-nth to rebuke and reform them .. '~'.AbdumUlh Ibn ~U:ma:[' alienated a son of his, because be did not implement a Prophetic .HadiJh narrated 00, 'him by his father, in which Allah's Messenger forbade men from preventing: 'wom.en from going to th,~ 11nOSq~~

This applies, tal faithful Muslim. chi~.d .. BlL1.t in case he denounced. 'b;]"am" the: least thing '~he~ parent is motivated by fa1~h and, tbe Qur'an to do is to declare himself free of him. Allah m said:

~ ~~ ~ ;'r~'l ':;1 ~I~~' jl ~,:~I'~

~~ You .(01 MJlha"'J'lu~'d: $) ,~;ill' ,not fl~i anjP.' pt:(jple. wi,., believe' ill

Ai :filli.:!' ,iP'~ L' Jf:'III " , k' ,", £. "..J' l. ~ ,. h' l. I..

n! ~;i:a,.' "Jt,i'S: t,n,(~',tIlIt'uay,; n~Ilj' 'ct:ng J'rJ~'''u~'"ip ~~,;.t, ti,fJ},~tt w,,'O' '()Pp(J~'e

Allah' Q~d:' Hi's! M;e!I~e'.,e,r' ('MuiQ~m'1I1la'd ~) e~~an ,tlulugh f,{l;;cy wer'e l:h'6'/" ,f~tlel!s" or t,b:eir ;N(J,n's~ 0," tlleir Ir()t,ie,~s, oyt.'lutir kin'ti''ed tpru~,l'e). U' (AI,~Nh;~j~d@,l~h~ 22)

There are :ma~l1y other tex ts related 'to this. view that shaw that alieaating children and, kinsmen when they ]'rIS1St om disbelief, j~ a requi rement of faith and beH,er, because Islam is the 'bond 0 f brotherhood which must precede any other bond,

In ~hi:s chapter, "The PSyC;ll0]!O'g~cal, eelings towards Children,' ~ we have pointed out that some of them may be instinctive and, inna te In the parents' hearts such, ;itS the; feelings of love, tenderness, kindness :1!BJ:nd mercy, Without these :feeU:ng~, 'the, enactment 'Qf Ana'h~g, Imlwwolli~d not have been establi shed J as to preservi ng tbe h uman race, Parents would. not have been motivated 'to care Cor their children and bring them up, and the fa.'mily would, :m,o ~ have been united" coherent, or well-established. We have also shown tha t some other fleelimgs are jahiliya (pr'e;-Ishu~m:i,c practice), such as d:is:~iking girls, And you 'hat ve seen how Isl,am tackled this ;~,IbQimir.ila,b~e CUSW1l1 so 'that the parents' feelings t.'o,warrds; boys ;~,nd. gilds mall' be the same, without preference or discrimination.

¥'QU have also seen that some of these feelings are motivated by general interests, such as, gjving: ptecedemce to J'UtIldrnnd to the call to Allah over loving spouse.s and children, Also Ul:I'[ some of them are educational, such aJ:s,a,d,mo:oi.sh~ng~ rebuking, alienating and pu:ci.s]:d'o.,g i 'Child. You have seen that islam went through sueeessi ve stages of teaching manners i .e, admonishing, aliena ting a;nd, fi:n:~dl.ymoder,a~e bea ti.n,g,;, These ar-e the outlines concerning some of 'the I:sl~,]c teachings relating to bringing 'up children, reforming them and raj sing them in sound, straigh t manners,

Ch'l,pter Tb:ree

Getwr.al Rules, 'CoDlcern:im,g 'rtib.e N'iew=rboI~, 'Baby

"[he Fhst Part:

W"':-! ,4f ~h.' P - rent D -~ at C'" ]fi1i~~'~!rt'h !IlI,ail> L_e at e . ~~ 1'1- __ . IUI!iJ. _

I., The if'eCtlo:uRenda,tion of gj;dog :glaitidln:g.s, ,aRd Cogg;ra,bdaoli)fi :It: ddbl.birlllh:

U is recommended :fOT.' a Muslim to take the initiative to please his Muslim brother in, case he had, a newbo rn 'baby by giving him 0]- a' d· -, 1i','A,'-: ,0",,"' and makin 0' him hap ~'W" In ease he: missed ~i'vlr.i,o' him ,,-

t':I' ' .. II,h.d:nb<J<_~'" = ~-e., - - - -----"P.l' -, .. ~9_ - - ·;;!IOV·. Q- - ~"

glad tid]wgs!, he, must congratulate him -and! ,pray far.' him and, his newborn baby, The Noble Qur'~,an stated several times to give glad tidings to tho se ha v.rung newborn babies in. order to guide Mu.:s'~ims and 'teach them to do the same, In doing S:O, it has a, powerful effect ;f\r;, sire - "I ethe .. -jfi; :r'iIO bonds 0:1~' love ~Im ons M"u' ~,1 im f.~lm···' T o!:!i~_ A'-';"II- ~.~ '~, 'V,U, "ry. .... :([]Iel!,.,U ~AJ.,."'e _ '-"~~ _" "",. ,_v, .... ~ V'lt!!,~ = ~~".~ I!il!!- =LlJ ... .,. .~. GU ~

£o'<:Ii~..:i1 in l'~);.~,·,~1k'o!!o]-m-" - ",~, story ~~.'

.:JiCl!j,U. ,lL ',', 1,1!J},l !;A~_1 ~ IlJi ~ _",.i .. ",. ~~.

'~.;k--;';' ~.:. ~t J .!J.1:j, ~ j!l (A;::. U~ 0~ ~:; t:PJ J.,;~ .ui; lo;

~ . ,. " ." "'~ - ,~, ~. • 'l- r~ ~.!!>, ,. y

.ij cit t-L:j1 TIl ,,'.~~ -j '~~ ij~ ;'~;": ,~j1; ~~£~. ,d'l j.J '~ ~)l:J:l1~~ ~

-' ., .. ". ~' .... -i!; ...... "'- --;" -'"' ;.': ,,' .• ' ...... -~."..-"jj;,.,,~<:; il; - yr:;':,- '~'

,,i 'id~ ~\ "-~~~~,,, ~, _-~:~. 11'''i~ ~ ,l~~, :~t~'~f~ ~, .:b--'~

~ '" :;,;:r--";' .. :. -:..;, .~ '!.:i! ~. ~-'-=-§l~ ~ .. -"' '~.' -=--,. ~ ~,~ ~ '..!I'lJ~

f,rA INI' 'Verily, ~:'(};'lJ came. aur Me.s.s:engY!,rs to .lhrabitn' (AlrrduJn,) wili glad t;''din'lls'~ They .!Jaii:' ,Salaam (,r£(1''''''111 or ,ellet'l) Be ,(l:nsfvereu, S(J'Matn (gre:etings' ror jMdce:/) and h'l IJ'fIstene'd to iliR,te¥'tRm: tll/!w,: wid,: ~: rt)tI'ste4 car: But w,iu!n ,ie Slaw :theifr htNUJs 'lNnt nltl\~' te -- -". .. '1 ("I'Ii- m -DlJ.' J.",.. ---"'-t,"- t -.I ",,:1\. - -. - -"'; -. ~. ,.I'~' . .,1" A'-'WQ .-~~') l .:,~, '(! c ,_(;L~_> t ne nnS~flUue,g; :u.Ci!'m~, ~u COfil,cg'lv,e~ t1! J,ew OJ'

tIWlll;.. They s41~tk 'Frear gut" :lMie haN Deena,.' ,tJ,gmmt th.e 1J(!(}:p'Ii! tJl' liit (1.6,04 U .Ani kiS!' wife '~tI'S 'Srfrtln.4inK (:,i-et'ie}, ialla ,'S/w. laughed ( (fuler, because .tlte .M cSSJe:n'g'(Jrs did ,,,0:/ e.at t~ir ,/004 Of' ,IN fj'i?:~g' ,gliNl'/or 'h'e Sestruclio.R ~llhe' people q[,Ut (Lot)) But We' rav~ ne,T ,g,IRA' tUlings ,of lshiq' -(.Isaac) ~ and a/le,,. lalli" of :Ya fqu, (Jrd'COIJ:)~, "~I (Hfid,69~ 71). And. AUaih 'W said in . .zHar.,i.yy.a.'\~ S~O':f'y,:

rITTle'M: the a~giels c{l1liulllim', ~v.hile ,lje ~~as oft,Q.nding in JJt',ayer in .41- Miltn1i' ('a; p~rl:,:i,« JJ'lru;e .01" IJ P,i'V1Ui'e:' l'oomJ" (saying): '''Allah ,g"i:I'~'S )"61.1' "lad t'itlings: of YahYiu (J~hn). n .1'3' (At '~lrnrn:[JJ~, 39)

And also in another verse:

4.. r~ .. :'~ 1"7:' ~l ~ .... ~ :l ,£'~ ... s» ";' J.l!. ::-~},~",~ I~~. 1# Ld',-" ~ .. , ~'iF ~'~ t!J. ~' ~. ~ ,r?:..:·""- .;,'~"j;. ~~ 'U,b, ~~A r

.f( ~1J''''& ':,,J' \ ~'~O" Z"= ,~ . ,. ( .. '7' ,It. ~,L)~' 'II'"}" ".11 rrv ."

- ',/:II !~a,,: SilW,} "I,. ,;JmUriyya: L~(!J;e'l.arltln, /I~ ," err;i!J'~,.~,e glvi',O'll

dIe glad tidings of a ¥on, ,p,'1i,tM'e name will' he ,Fa"ya (Jo,hfJ:j.. We Ib'aP'e gi Jilen tllal na.me. to 11;0,'-"8 beJar'~ (hili .. ). ss (l!d a'rll~m" 1)

,AJ-B;~~,§:ri mentioned that when the Prophet ij 'was born, Thu.wa,}, bah gave ,g'~ad, ti di n,g;s, of :hms birth to his uneleAbf Lahab, who was hermaster, and said tohim, ~~ Al'.duUih has been given. a boy tonight, So Abu Lahab set her free on t of happiness with the 11 .. e-W8. Allah e rewarded him fair that aLB, he '~e'it him drink after his, death from the little hollow between his thumb and his other fingers,

As-SuhayU mentioned that A~-,Abbas said, "I saw ,Abu Lahab in the 'worst state; in :m.y dream a year iafter his, death; he said: ~M have never been in comfort since I left you, exc-ept that the: p,unishment becomee less pain[ul ,evellY' M:o:nd'al::l{ ,i. e. the day on which the Prophet '. was born, and Tbllw,~ybaJh gave glad tidings of his birth, and ,Abu Laha b was ,ila,P'P'Y about ] t, ~"

Concerning ,gwv:ing congra tulations on the birth of a ehild, Imam Ibn Al .. iQa:.yyim quoted Abu, Bakr Ibn Al - M:unq~wr in, hi:~ boo'k ~~Th~' r;i/t of the' l1elo ved'~' as sa,ying~ '!'~We quoted At- IjI asan A:I.Ba~\fl ,aJ:S s~aylng~ 'tha t a man came to hhn j whHe in his presence was: ~, man 'w.ith a :tU~W horn. boy, the, marc said, ~M ay Amah bless your knight.' So A~,~,~:asan satd tOI him, 'Howcan Y'O'D tell whetherhe will be! a knight or a donkey?' He s ai d.! 'Then, what should I say?; ,Al .. ~~'san, :saird.~~Say May Allah bless your ,gift~ :and. :may you thank.

t-'t..a, G' '-l·'II1~·Ci;-r' 'lI ... 'i'!i;~ b £ii, .An-.t']"fJ'u' 1- a ,.,....-lI.' 'iTI;",,''V he (·'1· "'" tl .'1~ boy) !P1" ..... 'w' up w .. ~'~]' 'i'io

1!.1~'I.i' '_', If.·~II. 'I 9L-.LLI.~JIL _ ~ U :.: .. l~, ~.",.~ . "_lIULIU Jl_:.lr .. ~.~ J lW.. '.' "r.~.r. ' '.~ ..... ~l_ . O:..,IU _ U.-' "I!glll ,Oil

2. R,ee'ijm.~nda~ion lId' SiJIlyilll:g:tlle, A eJ6in. and lqiJl,itJ"i:1lIJ il::i)~,e ,new'bol'lm's e'a:r

Arne n,g the rules laid down by Islam fo r a newborn child is to say the: A~l~tin' in his right ear and lq,ti~nah ~:IJIJ his, len ear immediately after he is. born, t\Joil'1 Da,whl!d and. At- Tirmidhi relatedthat Al:rlfu Ran~' said), ~'~l saw Ana,hl's Messenger ~~.yi:rng adhdn in AI-J:Iasa.l1 Ibn, AIrs ear when F~l'~i;mah rive birth 'to, him, ~,~

According to Ibn Al-Qayyim 's book, the secret behind. saying the A.~~l'filf. and lqol'nah is that it is the first thing that a human 'being bears. They are the words of the Supreme call which contains. Alla]] 's ma,~mfke",ce ,and, glory, and the shaluidah which represents his first step into Islam, So Ilh~:s is like an ins:tr'l!lJctl()ll for h im as ]'H~ starts this life, similar to that of the instruction Tawhid (Oneness) he, is given

- ' .

when 'bi.s ure ends, 'W'e' do not exclude that his heart may benefit from

,~:b.' .4I..Jill! ."', ~.Ik o~ ~ O".~,; 'ik,i:!I, mau not feel ';'110 'i!;'i ,[I UJ',n'1" "'"I:!' '~i ""11i iev . "I iIi'i!l'll '~i nether

I,.U,e n'l!,~~;Qn I~i!ll'. '!.;I!,~!Ll Wet ..... '~'~~.J ,I.l~.·; .I.1"""'~Ib, CL.:J' 'l'VI!.;i,1 '~Ll:b n","".~I~,"'. "IU,i!;;I' Q,.~,ul~,LI .... "

benefi t, that is, pushing Satan a,way 'by the words of the A!i/':',:tln ~ ,~l~houg]:l be (Satan) was awaiting his birth .. His Satan leams of what weakens ~im, and teases him once he gets close tohim.

Another symbol! rests there, i.e. (eaUi:n.g: him, to Allah's way), religion and worship before: Satan calls him to his, own w:ay.. The innateness up [] [a, which Anah has originated ma]]jKilld. was there i!..."",r~"..,.. Satan cbanaed "1'" '~Inl.fll '~'nlli"iIi"I;:;.ta man ;qJIW,:ojJl'jj' from it M·.· :;';i'tJi'l1 10- eher u .... ,U,'Ii,.!',i, "" ;0 " ,a.,u, ".&Wi[lI; i!].'G ,,!J,. 'l:>Ii,ui!.J, '" IO,II,W u"",!!JI, 0 ,(.!I,U ~, . '~',.l . ~. ij"!J..,,. ;':;UJ'.r ,'~~.l.,

meanings and sym bols Hie within the words, of the .A ,dhiin",

.3., Rcc0nmeudimg Tal.,,,lk for 'time: bab,. 'Rte he i5 bOF,u.

'Ta'~'mJt 'means to chew a date, then 1!iO' rub the' newbern's mouth w.ruth ~t by putting a little of the chewed date om the fingertip, and

h~ " ,,,. ," '\!,. '1~ '11... ~ ~1 Y m,. "1 .

t en msertmg i:~,runto the oad:Y s montn, ·:,0'111 bien. move ]tgentt:y to

the Fig]} t and left, until the whole mouth iii nib b~dl with the chewed date" If' dates are 'not available, any sweet 'food may ,do" The: rationale behind this. may 'be :stren:g:then~ng. the mouth muscles by exercising the tongue and the mouth, preparmg the baby for.

sucking his mother's breasts d uring u ursin g. 11 ~s' also recommended that Ta~n.{k be done 'by a pious and righteous man for seeking his blessings and hoping that the baby rm;81:Y grow up to be righteous and pious" Among the lJad~l..hs that the scholars q uoted for reeommendieg Tab~ nlt are:

It is mentioned in. 'I he Srdi:ilulJm: that A.bil Burdah related that A.bEl. M~1sa, ~ said, q I. had a ba by.,f]nd. ~ took him to the Prophet ,~, fUld. the Prophet ~, cal led him .. i'b:ri·h~m~ made Ta'h'n:#c to him with a. d. a, te and. asked. Allah to' blesshim, and returned him to me,

A'~ ,. . d i .it ('1' L"' 'I.. Abf T ]'1 II.\. id .

~BO ~ It 1-8 men tioned ]:1] .riJ;~da:i'd'W'j!1~ tnat : i' -01.1 . a .:~ an Sail', to

A " ' 1IT'L, 'M]''' r 1<. ~~T'" ",~ - 1-:, (- "j,t., , ~,~r- 'Ii ", the n -" .1' et ,~r.;..-,...,11 'l13S ill en . '.' ana, axe mm ] .e, me l!U\lu'y i to ne ,!l~rop iet *. anc

send - ..... --;I:li dates .'i!~;~'t. him The 'iEJi'--olf'iil!l':;*'~ took hirn and ,;;;,;;.il.,t;"A ~1..'

sen .. scm ... : aareswnn mm, ~L: r'ropnet ., _'v, ~~lL=' ana asseu, . s

there tmy tl1,ittig wUh If.inf,?,,~ They said ~ Yes, SOHJJ.e dates, The: Prephet Jj took the dates and chewed them, then '~oot them from h~~ mouth and put them into the baby's mouth and cai~led him j,Abdlldlih.H

4;, R,ecommelda:t~,'OD of Sih:3"V,ill,g ~he babJ:;~~ head

Among the mles laid down by slam for the newborn baby is to' shave his head on. his seventh day and to give its weight ill gold or sil ver to the IJO'OI[ and. needy, The ration ale behind this, is twofold:

TL fi . ~ ,'...l! ' , th 'b bv' 1,' nl . 'no 's" '[ " 'I.., • 'L. - - ..<ll

ine nrst 1:5 retated ~o t te "a,I'Jl S, 11.ei3i,w'~d. ., "};E1f'!lliIJ.,g, ms ue:HI!i;J,

B. trengthens him aswell as, opens me pores on ms head. The second is social, as giving the w"f(lght of his hair :in money to the poor ~:S, a kind of soeial solidarity and caoperation.

Amoeg "the' lladu'hs tbat (he scholars quoted for recommending

~ ,

shaving the. bab"i's hair and giving its weight ]:[1 silver to the peor are:

In Al-Muwatta', :MaJi.k related that J'a,''fa:r Ibn M·n~a.m,m'lJd's, father said, ~~F.a'UJnah $ we~.gbed the hair ,of,AI.-~:aJga'n, ,A~-,,~IusaYI1~ Zaynab andUmm K. ulthfim ,8] nd gave its weight in silver to the poor. And Ya~ya Ibn Bakir related that Anss Ibn Milik • said, that the Prophet # ordered Al-Hasan and Al"ijusayn'!s hair be shaved em their.' seventh day. So it was done, and the '~~gh~ of their hair was given In sil vee to the poor. jl~

The Seoond PJrl

'11 W:· b ·c, - ",II.. - 'uJd - b- kv. b - ill 'm",..l'~' ,Jl~ . ,en :s~~o .. , " ,a : a!!o!',1\'l: ' ,1_ ,~~

Collectors of Sunnah related that S:8.nlllJ,rHIJJ s:8i;wd!, the Prophet 3 said", t, Evltr:y ,child' i:1 .bound ,~'O have 'aqfqa'h~, to be slaNgh:t,eretj Jo', Idn"l~ and' is gi~r:'11. (I. na'me', andhas his head shave,'d~ aU 10.71 his sevemt: day. ~~ This l!o;(;llt,h shows that naming ~ child is to be donie on his seventh day.

There are some other- :~ 1!.ul'llteti,tic !jadltif'.'J that show that a newly 'harm child CffiIJ,n be named on the day of hrus birth" Among them, is Muslim in his, Sa~~,fJ] q,1IL1.01~ji[[g, Anas .~ as :S~,yi'll,g tb;at the Prophet 3 said, 1,"..4 .boy has been born for ,~fl.e' ttJnig,/~t asd 1 named him after j""'J'

' .. ' r - 1~.~~1,~~' l'';,·-·';'.I,~.tild-~; 1i.!- is deducted from these fr:i'U'~~fl:~i['! that '~;~~\t:lIo have a c:!l~,,(::'I!;O.1I ~.I;o!'J' ,,!! i!!.i'lrUil'~~li~. .II,!l. Jl.iO:I !dI"",,!JII\,_~~ILIJiO,... v,~u !U.~"""'~ ~ l !I..I.u __ ",IJI !!,..g.~~ _ on ... ~"'"" _ .... __

ehoice. So' a baby 'can be named on his first day, or his thir-d d.a:y,~ or we can relegate i t to 111:S: i"aqfqah day i.e. the seventh day, It c-an also be, done before or ;~ft~r.' that,

24 Iblllcommen.ded nanu~s, and dtsU~ed, names

.1\, parent must pay great a ttenrion to select~n.,g ,I name f o'r his

'. ~I"" 11~",· hild 'boo .-n".-· .. -·.·-" - -" the ----,-1 beautitul fiam followin ne-'W]y. eorn C 'U.UJL ny C~100SU]~, ~ e most vealL~ ut ~~ __ ,. ~ej; ~'CLG), __ 1~,' g

our Prophet's guidance, Ab(l. Dawfid related tlUll'[ AbU. Ad-Darda said tbal the Pro[:lhet 3 said, n Yem wiil' be called em ti2tt Doomsday hy Y'OiUr names, and J10~l.r fathers names, so choose nice.' lUJmeS",U And M uslirn rela t.ed" in 1~i5 ~,a~ q" that Ibn ~U mar ~ said that the Prophet $, sarucl!, '~T.he beat of yo Uf' names to A llail: are: ~ A.bcktllaJ~ and

,~ .it b ,1 .1') - .l- - - .., - - .. ~

El. 'c.~:u~ uasma»:

The father must avoid an ugly name ':11,[;111 mElly injure his dignity and be Ell reason for m aking fun ,of him, The Prophet 3, usedl to' Ct!.EUl.g;f; the ugly names" ,a!.ocord:i:n.g to w hat ,A.'~,- Tirmidhi q ueted ~A]sl]aLh ~. At-Tirmidhi and 'Iltvn M'ijah f1e]a~ed that lbn, 'Umar ~ said lh,a~, a. dg},l!lghte;r of 'Umar's was, caJUed. ~A,8iyt.th [disobedient)

and. the Prophet .$ called her Jamilah (beautiful). Abu. Davvud said that AU:lh 's M,esSein~e[3 changed the names of A l~ '~.A.s i,

',;j'~ ~·U·~ l ('!I.i!.. .. A I l·r ;r;.. G' it. ""',r", d u~·i:.b "b 1-

,nZl.i·~, - ·.Q'~latl'c' JJ.~;~ayt(m,. ',~·-.~lQ'l\.mHI '·/~!U'fau anu J,i.!W.,I'd' anc gave

, ' • .. 1- _I .'

the name Sibn (i,e. peace) to at man called It arb (i.e, war), A:l-,

M unbait{i. 1.,10 a man called A l~ M u~Cjjij Bani A.i= R''thaah to' a family caned Ban: A.~~ZinY'ah~, and Ba',d R,{.s.hdah: to :8, famUy caned B(ln,~' J\tlllg~w:i),ah, Abu Dawftd said" "I did not mention the chain of narrators for the sake of being brief H'

.He also has to avoid names derived f:roim pessimisticmeanings for the sake of clearing the dlJld from the harm of such names, Al~Bu~~ad related in his ~ai~f.f~ from Sa~id ]bn Al M1l]~ayyah, that ]].[:8: father, qunting his grandfather said" "1 carne to' the Prophet Ib and he said,.!what ,~:s .your' 'ia/~1IeT I said, H (f,z'n (~), 'so he said, U You are called Sahl'~), He said, I will not change a name g]ven to me by my father', Ibn. Al-Musayyab said, 'Roughness is, still mallif!}$~ in us'."

He also has to avoid the names which are tokens of' .Anah ~. such ~;S A had jl S amad, ]Kh:L'UliQJ" Rizz~q~ etc, Abu D,a"'i.ld. said in his

,H I! I_~

Sunan: "Whea H ~iIllW came to the Prophet .$ ~n M ad.~n2L11 ~vruLh :~]S

people, he iUSOO to be called A bdul- lj~k arm, SO:j' the Prophet .;Jj; caned him and said to }1i111,: ~ 'Verily ,. AlhU1 is the ~am~ and He has, the ~ukm (judgment) why then are yOlu called ~A.bd.u~-rr:tatal[l:? HIe said My people resort to me whenever [hey differ in opini on, and I issue the Judgment, and they accept my judgment, So.!AJUlll!S, M'e~'~e:mger J!;. said, "How nice, do· yo~' I~al~e children?" He said, I halve Shur,ay'~ Muslim, and. ·~,~Jbd.ullfih.. AIHth""~ Messenger' .$ asked, u'Who is 'he' eldest? ~.~ He said ~ Sh urayh, Allin'!'s Messen,g~r

.;il;u;,.. "'d' "T.'l. . 11 d ~ I. '" C'~- .( ,~r-M" . 1" ] d i '~,'

.~ sasc, . ',': nen JO~~ are CQ'(:e': htl ~I: ~i'i~~tr-ay~%' .. us tm reo ate ][1 ~1~,;S.

Sa~,~ that A bu Hurairah said that A.ni.·h~s: .M~ssenger $ said, i 'The most en-re'ling' and W'O\F J t ,m'Dl'1 to' Allah ~ on .the· Doomsday is a 1'fMIft!

(1) i.,e, rnr~gib and }Lum:lL (2) ~.e. e~y ~~d. lenient.

called the .kl,~g of ./dl~gsJ there is n,o king but A.liiih",·"

Hie also 'has to avoid names referemg to good omens or optimistic meanings in order to' avoid sadness that ]JUlY result from using the names in. a. negative stucture. Examples are AJZ;a~ (suecessful), .Nafl (u~e:flJl)j .RabdtJ: (g~in)~ :~nd Yas,Ql" (easy)" Muslim, Abu Da,wid, and. At-Tirmidhi related tha t Samurah Ibn Jundub

. d- A- '~l- ""iI!... , roM" ~~ - _ .. AI ,~ - u~./;, .~. b'~ 1-' d s hra - t -

sarc "~. ans ....... essenger ~, saio to me: tne most . {laVe,c.; Il,.: ases .:;.(1}

'[1'1 e S~· bOIl. '" A'ii' "01:. ('''''! . b .. H/.' ".it.) A l h d fll ~

A.: iOtl {lflf? J oUJ': .·'u·~~an'a .suan, "u-o.rYJi! to' ,~f. ,ai.~, . " ,,' 1.-,:a~l: ~u _ t tan;

(p.r·a·is~ be to' Allah), la ilah illa .A llah, (there' is no God but A lJa:h} , and A.Uahu Akbar ,( Allah is the gre:atest).[),() not call ,y,l)ur' son YasarJ Rab:i!; Naji~' or Afla/~, for' when you say; ~'~Whe",e is he?" whJle he 1[$l1:0t there, the answer negates the .Nrean,fng ,ql his nenne, These pJlra's'(as: are ja1.tr,; nclV'e'f add to tne,m;. H

He also has to a void names that indicate submission to gods 'Dither than Alm§.h such as: Ab~J ~ !Ut.z~t Abdun.-Nabf, A.bitul,-1-lu8saYl1~ and

. - .

similar names, since ~hey are obviously prohibited, As to the Proehet's sayiojJ' in the battle of Hunayn: ~~J am ike' .Pr'OIJ'lJet

r e _ . B

unil{)U'btedl,~ 1 an1 the .S,O'R of Abdul = M~l:!~'~'alib"'l'~ It does DO'r; mean that, be's giving himself a new name, but it merely indicates the name by wbteh he was iknown, especially in situations of challenging an enemy ~ as was the case with the Prophet ~ ..

So saying a name for .idel1tillfyrung oneself is, not prohibited since the Prophet's followers ~ used. to mention befor-e the 'Prophe:t.$. the. names of their tribes such as Bm~.i' A.bdli -'.M auii}: Bani A bdushShm~~',!J and B'w~.f .A11;dr,,,d .. Ddr, and the Prophet # did not forbid them to do so.

FinaUYii one must a.v,o.~d the: names that indicate softening, similari ty to girls' names and am our , such 3rS 11 uJdm;~ Nihad, Sa:w3M" ,M ayya,d'a'h.!. N ari.Jndn .• A.~ldm. and the like ill order that the child may acquire a. sense of good personality and distinct character. Thetefore, the Prophet . .$. urged the P eople to. n arne

44 ~~~=================== Pa.rt One

their children after the Prophets' names and. the names of "A:bdulUihJ, 'Al;il.ur ... ·R'a~lnan ~l1JJd. similar names composed of "Abd and 011e of the Most M a.gniflce:nt N ames of Allah .,

Ahu .. DawCWd ,~lmcill, An-Nasa'i related that AbuW·:a~b.b .A.1. .. ·,]fu.shanily

• said. that Allah's Messenger 3. said, "Name jI(}\~rJIf1:lve's ~fi,el" the Prophets (n~d' the most beloved names to Allah are '~Abd~dldh and ~Ab.d~l,r~Ralnnd,~: (md, the most l'Fi~thflI1 tJ/ them ar~'~ fHrUh and

~, . - ;;

H, amm{iJn i (md the ugli(HJt of t 11,e,r.n,: ,~r,e .f-Iarb and MUff.ein" ~, 3~ U is S'UnnalJ to ;gi.ve '~he ddl~l a :liIlicl,Dl~une

AU'II.O,ll,g the ed ncational principles laid down by Islam conceming raising a" child. is to give him. a nickname composed of A.b~(; (father of) and another part, This y]~lds some educaticnal gains sud" as:

~ Inculcating a sense of d.ignity' and respect in to the child's soul.

- Developing his social character and 'making him feel that he has gTlOWl1 TI,p ..

~. 'Glvin.g. him. amiable treatment andpleasing him through calling him by this, lovely nickname.

~"Of' these benef ts and considera tions, the Prophet ~ used to nickname children and can them by these n ames, It ~s related in Sa1!:.r)u;)iI~ shat Anas said, "The Prophet ./$ was the best of all people in morals, I had ,8( brother called Abu. UmJayr!, who I think, b ad been ne,wly weaned Whe:neve~ the chHd. was, broug;11t to 'the Prophet .~:~ he used ~o :say to him, ~'~,a A b\QUm~{l yr! what ,dl~d .An:=

N I (. • ~- ." :l .• d) ..1 ,~ ...

ug:~o:]r: ".Ie .. J!:I:~g(,i'UrJ;gtJ:M~' ·or :vU'I, a- (:i'O.

So:m,e matnen rei~a:Cell to naming aad nic:kllulmin=

A .• hill case the parents had differen t opinions F.'egflmdil1g naming their child, the righ t 00 name the ch:~]d is gruvell to the f~~her.. The Qur':i:n. stated that the child carries the name of 'his, fatbe(';,~'l.ot hi s mother ,. Allah ~. says."

~f,Call tlu!.lt, t aio,t(ul,t;OJl:S) bY' (;'''U1' IUI,I,n'es ,of) tieir jathefs,i tINt" ,{.1' mort jll;fit with A Ifill. " {A'I-A~~a.bl :5)

The'~ladfl 113 mentioned earlier show the t the right of naming is given to the fathe-r ~ such as the Ifadith that M:usHm 'related. quoting Anas • th~t ,AUih'~ ,M:e8se~ng~r ~ said, '~I had a 8.o,i!'I born to me t.on:lgh.t af1fl .I called him after ,my ances tor Ibrahun:. n

B~ The father, or any other person, is, not en HUed to give the child, an. ug],y name like ~A'w'ar (one-eyed], 'Are] (],@Lm~). or similar names. for abiding 'by the general prohibtion stated 'by Anin 's '/lft, saying:

tt! ~(~ '[-~XJ ~ .. :~~

~ ')0- -~,~ Wo, ' lJ' Y

"~NoY' ,iIJ~rlllt ORl!. flfUJI'/J'8r' I, ,lJi:.ci .. ntlW€JJ1,.,~.,~" (l'J.,'tIl[jl1Jr~iJ~ 11)

C. Is, it 'pel missible to. nickname someone ~"Abut""Q.asim:n? S;~hO];I'rs ha ve unanimously agreed that naming child ren after the Prophet' s name .3 is permissible since Muslim related that Jabir ~ said, ""A hoy 'Was born for a man of us, so he named him M !.,lhaJnm,ad,,, H is people told him, UWe will, W1,Ot permit yo,lln to- name him after 'the Prophet ,3,,,," ~ So' the man carried his son and said, ~'~O ,A..~I,:d'il 's Me~sen,gew ~ I have a, b oJ born for me, and m named bjm M uhmmad, but 'my people s:aid. ~h.ey would not permit me 'to' do so." So!' AJI,l.h'!:s Messenger 3- s;aid,~ ",~ Na~:l!ff: Y(Jur selvt!J' a/t,(u' lny. ,name but do ,~~D.i' cali' yourselves b y' 'r~y k;r;,tnyah ,( j""e'. nicm(U1:We').

As to calling oneself by [he, Prophet' s 3 Kunyah, the scholars ha ve d,iff"eren[ opinions;

First: a bsol ute reprehension, quoting the a bove-mentioned flqdftli, and the Ifadith related by A]= EI,u~ art and. M: uslim quoting Abu Hurairah that AUih~'s Messenger # said, "Name JI)Q,wSelv'€'8 alter 1111' ~la~l'l:t~'. lnd do not call yourseives by 111:)' KutJ;yah. ";Al-Sh:aJ'ii~i has adopted this stand.

Second: absolute permission; quoting 'what A,b~l DBlwud, related in, his S~Huln: that 'Arusha said, ~ ~,A woman came to the Prophet $ and said, ~'OAJ1§ill 's M essenger ~ I ,gave birth to a boy and called him M u~ ammad and. nicknamed him A bul-Qasim, '0'1[11 someone told 'me that you. di~~Hc-~n;; that.' The Prophet $, said, '!WA:o allowed ,~alnil:jJ! after Jny name; (mel prohibUeii ,my lnmyah"r And Ibn A bll, Shaybah said, "MtL~,funm.ad Ibn, Al Ash'ath, ~,A'ishaht.s,nel,"'he;w:j, was, nicknamed A bul-Qfisim. t.

Ibn A.blF;.~ aytham:ah related. that Az-Zuhari sfddl" ~'~I saW' four of the Companions' sons, all of whom. 'were named :Ml1:~a-I1l1mad" and 'had Am~Qisim as kUlJy,ah~; they are: Muhammad Ibn Talh ab

~ -

Ibm ~A.bd:!!lUah" :Muha:tDr.llad. Ibn A.bu. Bakr, Muhammad I~~, ,AlW

- . ~,

Ib . A' bf TAl"'\!.,. . .)J '-M' -~~'L. . d 'I],· CI 'd I~);.·· A" 'b" W··· ""

,L'n.. ,:_ U ","'a,:lu and ~Jw.,~amma on bJ\a~. : .idn.,rtl!." ,aqqas.,

bn,§:wu M:alik was asked about naming o,f M uh,3'mma.d an.d giving Abul- Q,asnm. as a kunyah. I=Ie said, "This .i;8 not prohibited and I do no t see any harm in doing tha t, The seholers who said that it is rl~lowed. and U1il;a.t the ,f!ad!l'/u that probih~ted it were abrogated,

Third: .~ t '~s, '[lot allowed to combine both name and kUH,!yah" but it is allowed to have either. Quoting what ,Abu. Dawud related, Ji.bir.' ~I said. that ,AUa']ti'~ Me~~eng:eil' ,3 said, ~~'Who;S',O\e'",'er is nan'Jed' cifi'e.r' nu~y name, is no' to JUl~,&' n'ly kW1yah as his kt.m]{J'Ji and' w,iw:.'lro,:"ver haa myr k~~f,yah as Ai8 kunyah~ is not to be' named b" my name", And Ibn ,Abll Shaybah related that A]l5.hjs Messenger $ said, "Do not c,o.~~1bine L~ly na~ue and my nickname Of k:loi,ty'UI1..,~ JI

FCHIU,rt.h: prohibition of having the Prophet's nickname !~):F' k1J,'ny.fJ'h.is confined to the Prophet' s ~ifetime 'but it ]s allowed after h.is death. Quod:n,g: what ,Abu D',~wu.d. related, .Mu~amJnad Ibn, A,'~~,Hafi.a~ ,n.wah said, Ali '. said, "In caseI get a hoy DaH']J, for me a:fler Y.(J;u:~ rna., I [lame him after your name, and. gjv'e him you k:{'luJ!al{r~ the Prophet ~ said, ,t, Yes" ! ~ l:lumrdd Ibn Zangawayh said 'in his 'book. AJ~Adab: '~~I asked Ibn ,Abu, Uwais about M,ilikjs, opinion on a man

'who co mbin 00, the Prophet's name and fa.my.ahl, he said that JW:dlik said, "This was forbidden during the Prophet's lifetime, '[e-st someone should be called by the Prophet' S name and k,wf,y,fJh and, the Prophet # may respond to the can! but after the d,eath of" 'the Prophet ~, there is no harm, in doing 60.

The fourth opinion may 'be' the preponderant one. So" it is permissible to IUD-me someone after the: P.w:ophef's name and km~ycfh. The f!adiths that forbid i~ are restricted to the Prophet's litetime ,on~y Cor the purp O'81~ of evading confusion betweea the Prophet .1$, and the person who ];5 being called, But after the Propbet '5, dea th, the problem of confusion win not i,3;lnellis;e. Again, the above mentioned Harlil.h narrated by ,Az-Zuhriy that be: saw' four ofthe the Prophet's compaaions' sons having the Prophet's name and kunya'h proves that this practice is permissible,

TEte ThiJ'id Part

T,fte t A'fJt,'al~' a;m;d i;,ts R'Ille5, iii. Wlh:at F&, '~'he 'moi'lloiliiiill~'niIW c,If' 'A:''''',- -~'?'

.!I, _ _ ~ _~ ~ ~ _~ _ ~A!~J~L!I!II' (h, ~~f'flaH~

I.Aqtqa/t literally means cutting, and. the statement "j, 'aqqa wdlia:ayni;' (he 'has. been undutiful to his parents) is derived from it But as a religious term, it means slaughtering :fj, goat on the seventb day of a child's birth,

1. PhOif' of' i'ts legitima.ey

...

A],-Buk'ha;ri :r,e~ated, that Salman Ibn, Amir Ad-Dabbly sald, that

,~ ~ ~ -, ..

Allah 's Messenger 3. said, U ~A.qflJa'h. is to hie of/e'r,ed' for a nelivly

born b'Oy~ 3,0 slau,ght,e,r' (an animal) for hirn. and relieve him '0./ harm ." And the CD llectors of Suru1'ah rela ted that Sam urah said that AUil:IJ,~s M,essenger ,$, said, ~~'IA,qrqah m,~st be offeredfor every 12Jewl, ,born child to be sla~lghle'red lm his seventt: dny~, and he is gi1.lle'1! a na,me~ and have bis ~tlif Ijhtl'l),eiJ:.,~ ~ Im'i~m Ahmad and A t= Tin nidhi related that ~'Aighalll ~ said that A'Hah' s M,essenger 3 said ~ U'Tw.o goats- equal in size- are to be slt:!:f{gJ~te.r€:d.for e1Vf'ry newly' born boy and OfU? for e'v(!,ry girl:' ~

3. Schola:r'-'s !OpjiOiIIS IllIfli :ib e,gi,tim IlIIC:Y

Seholsrs have three epin ions regarding i ts '~e,gj Umacy:'

The first; 'A,q'iq,a rus a Su~nah: and recommended. This is the epinion of Malik, Ash-Shafi'i, ,AbnUld:j Ishaq and Abu Thawr. They' quoted the ab ove mentioned l-:ladUh.!t to support their views, and refuted the opinion of those who said that it W;Ei,S obligatory on the bases thatrif it were ob~:ig!!:to]'y, it would, have boon e.cvid.enUy stated "n 'ULe S-"" .tf :;;. ""'111' 'd the nii" .... iIf'Ibet ,~ would have ",i'dl,j,- d t - the :!J'I_ ~,WU, ~"~ _u~, -.tUl'r~ '(;lft !;!!ol, I,' , _ ~~' ,I,-.!! - v,lfl ~'" _ ,~,#UU!.l1! ,; ;!;!!o v'e ;i]I,~""""e ',01 ue

Umman that it is, prescri bed lIiL a way that gives no excuse to anyone. (for not doing it), The' Prophet 3 linked it !tiel' the people's willingness, He '. said, '~~'WhQJ.Q\ever' has a boy horn to .rl.l)'n:~, and he

,chose to ,make a rituat for hi~'tl J let .him do u. ~~ But the [act th:I't the Prophet 16 did it doesnot necessarily mean that ,~t is prescribed but rather shows that it is recommended.

The: second: jAqiq'cm:is 0 bli~a tory. This is the opinion ,or Imam A,~,- I:IaJ5~(D. Al- Basri, Al-Layth Ibn, Sa ~d, and others, As evidence, they quote what Ig~~Ml Ibn Rihawayh narrated, "The people win be r eekon ed 'for ~Aqlqa as t]lIJey wUl be' reckoned for the five pi',lyen~'!'~ as wen as the: f!cuJitl!, narrated by Al-Hasan quothl! Samurah tha tt the Prophet $ said, ~,~ iA,qfq,a/~ is to be offered /0"

~ £. b H T'l. " "~ 'iL.' ." 'iI!... .:ll

e'l!'ery new,~Y' oom o:y", "lWe;y Jt]srtb)' their opmrcn on tne grounda

tha\t the hoy wH~ be prevented from interceding for bisparents unless they offered ,r(Uliqali! for him" and this supports the view that itis obligatory,

The third: denying its legitimacy, This is the opiniou of the H:!nifj scholars" TIley ([[uote a, .l1adii'h narrated by Al-Baihaqi quoting !'A:mr Ibn Shu'aib's faLher q11UOtj~g his, grandfather that AIHihls

M,il;f'li"'e" - tlIrt· ,.i;I~ -'r- '"",(, ,,'" -l"e·.;l about .~ . ,', 1 f'A he s- 'd· ~[1J 'I - -~, "':'k' ";00 ~~ ~ W~ ~IS~u..·: II~ (l'q'Nla'~;.::.0 ne sai a: . - ,it no ]]O~ u ; e

~uqu.q (disobedience) Th ey a] so quoted a l!adfth narrated by Imflm A~:rn.ad quoting A,b'(i, RfLfi.~ • that Fatimah ~ wanted to ,8~augh~er two sheeps for A.l~tI as au Ibn Ali, but Allflh' s Messenger

;wt;:.. ·~A ,j, Ih - U'D'~' . Ie ~ " t b . j. I" u.;» .' .s i;»

~I sarnY. ~Q ner, ';';YJN t ma. ~'e' aq~(Jan" ··ut ,mi!!V€ ms nair ~t an~ g: ve

the vaiue 6f Us weight .in silver to' t he. poor:" SG~ when Al- I:1iL:S3 fl1 was 'born, she did the same, But the literal meaning 'Of the; abovementioned 11 mJJlh asserts that ~aqtqah is a. Sutmah and recom .. ' mended, Th:~t is what h:@J8 been, ,adopted by the majority of scholars. They refuted the .I ~I.~nifis'j opinion on the grounds that the ~Q'diths qrrnO'~ed by them do not stand as proof for deny-rung the :~egi timacy of ~ (J.'f,£qah.

As for the H.looi1:h n a rra led, 'by "Amr bn Shu'ayh quoting his.

father and lh,'m;t; gc rand father ,o!I.l~,ffi'~"IJ'~'~ M··· ""'~!t';r.>'I'TI.;f!IIIPI!I·~' ~Q'i;.:al "I ~l= ~,.;o'I;~w:;;r..,~ ],:. _~_J,. JIJ ;~i_~;:-' ~~u~, ... }IJ~i~i' .ra .WJ:~£·!I ,n J!.a\~LI, a ':~, ~jji:)~:":~i6(W'J. ~ t.::U.~1JJ,U, ,'. uti Ifl~~~l\' ~~J!'t~

~U'\qtlq', t'! The context and reason .of the Pitop.be~:j':!:i, s,~ying it shows

tha t lfJ.qiqah is a S~~:nnal!~ and recommended, since the wording or the n{./;d{t/~ goes, as follows: "Allah's Messeng:e:r 3 was asked about aq.fqiah, he replied, 'I do ,uot' Uke (~lqiJ'(;J' '," It shows that the Prophet IS hated =i:V~D\g 'tills name to the sJJJlrug'~~ered, animal. So they' said, I!~O ,AUah,'!':s Messenger, we ask about one of UShlV.~l1~: a" child born for him" He: said, ~'~Whlo~~,o.e'~e,r wishes to ,m'a'keG risualfor his child, let him do so; two equa! gO\{lts jOlr a bDy~ and ,one jor a f,tr], i~

As for quoting, as proof, the ~adflh of A,bu, Rafi ( "do not make aqf(j'{l/~'j but have his hair C11!J.tn :it does 'mot hldwca('~e that aq'iq'{J'h. is reprehensible, s:runce the P:rophe:t 3 wanted to do it for his daughter IFa,'~i"m~b. .. ' So' he, said to her t ~,~ Do not make ~atJ.rq.a:h'~'~" because he bas done; it for b oth her sons, and relieved her of this. duty. There are :SiC! many ,Hailit'ns ~hat prove that the Prophet \~ made faqiqah for both of them, among them are:

"b'" D" "'di 't·..!I1 ~1 t Ib At..b'" -,..u._ ·'..:iI1 ..:.1., A1111 ""L,i<

n,'n, .awu.:.re.a.te!JJi, ;!!.dl;n :;!U'U ~ sa.:~UIW:liiat ,,'-nanS

M, ' ... ' .... [o.Ii!',""·TlIIWie-:r ,i[....i']]; ... de ~(ln:rq,'oI'l'-I~'~Mill1' A'" ],~ U ... II:' <:Ji':tf1j, and A·:'" 'l,-HI'll'~<lI''V'D 'b:''1'1

-.. ~,-,"-iJl.:Ji'!uoll.~or· '.L ~, ,~_. -au.. l,i,4.i.!I; . ~-. ~ liv.w. . , - __ . ,n.:~!o:Ji!l,,"-~.I: ~ .~, -. J , • ,..; IIJ. f.:l!U,~·" .J

slaughtering a sheep for each, Yahya Mb:Ll Sa ~iJd. related that ~',Amra\h

- -......., ,- -

quoted 'Aishah as saying, ~"AnBJ~_'j's Messenger 3 made ,jaqiqah for

Al- EJ3!.San and AI-~ 'llsayn on, their seven th day,

W ~ OOfnC:~UJ.d~ from what has been mentioned above thal't the ~aqiqtlhjs SUHnan:, and, is. recommended by themajority of Im!ms

,t.ii.'nAli ;tor.,'L, ..... lars ;('In ].,t:' a father 'It ... ';1 ':Ji babv born to 'II!-.':m' and 'II!-.,;;> I"C G-JlJUI i:iJ.~J.[V R· lI!Ii. bJ.;!!J.' . ,w. G· ~,G 1~,~,:Jj, l~ILa-u Q . ,Go U i IU.: ,L_~, ~'" ,W.ll ,I, ~ niLl' .. ·. ,WJ'\r.i ~

financially able to implement the Su .. mulh~ of AHih 's Messenger J!;~ he mILlS!. do it for seeking AU[liI'!'s reward, for inhmsitlfyingtlle :[eelings of lll'dtnaJcyand. love among bls relatives and friends and for taking part ,run. social solidarity,

.A :Th" .-. "~po ",~. 'jll.'I-, T'~ -', . ~-r 4"A- '" .' l'.

"'f~ "e, ,r.ell,e:ralU,(e, = ,one 111.0", c :.AlIf:tln

W1e have already mentioned the lfadttlt narrated by Samnrah which says, i~ 'tLtJf'qah is to be offered for each newly born ,child~ an, his

there are some narrations that indicate tha tt '~t is not obligatory to offer the ~a,fq:ah: onthe seventh day; it is only recommended to do it ['I1iIJ the seventh day, So, if ~tJt}fqtlh were &~aughtered onthe fourth, eighth, ,OF tenth ,(I,ay ,,~t will do,

5"" Is ~Aq(lJJ4" fOlf ,3 hoy Lilke ,that of 0. gild's?

'~Aqlq,ah is a recommended S'unnah for botb boys and girls alike, This is proved by the Radil.h narrated by lmftm A~mad and AtTirmidhi quoting Umm Karz A'~-',~.:ahiyya.h that she asked A~Uib~~

M 1!1i;i!'i!'\i!Ii,H'i1J;:;r ,~(;. a11..o,II!.l',jT ~'-tf ""tJi _. L 1..;!ii -p'~ll" ...... ;ii, "I,oj.'~.vn 0',..,,,,'''' t'e tor -'"iI' ,i'.o'~~ ."'-;'j,1j Tj' n. - - Ai , " _''';.:Ia.!;..lL~~ru. -$ _. I)]. .".' ~_I~ a)'!.i,f,~c':~~:jI .IJL'i;,;!: re • W ,w:~ ~,~.' v ,0, VilA:~,iJ< J v' - !:<Ii: U' ',/ ~, I,.jl!"U lI;I'I1,!;i

[or a girl. ,,' This Radii h' and these mentioned previously J indica te two principal :p oints: First: boys: and. ~ds are the same r-egarding: the ,~egi'lJi1:1l1:aC-y of ~(U1J't1h:, Second: I~lffedng two, ,gc,ats for a" boy and one fO'f I. girl Is 'the ol~linion of the 111~jio.r.ity of scholars. M>iUk held the 'o.pinion that ~aqfqah for either a. 'boy Or' a grurl is lone' goat

I'~ :Reprehensibility ,of' brcakillg tie ~{ilnes oif' 'A.trla},

A~m,on,g the matters that should 'be observed regarding ':aqtqah is 'not to 'break a bone of it, 'whether during :t]:'~au,gh tering or eating i ttj i.e, ,f;v,ery bone of ~t should be cut at the joint without breaking it. This is shown by the H adilh narrated by ,Abu, Da w6d and. attributed to the Prophet $, ~ 'And do ,'fW,t b.relak a bo~e; of U . ~" The ratienale behind this. is twofold:

:!Fl'fSt demonstrating the no b~Hty of feeding and, supporting the' poor and neighbo urs' by giving them complete 'bi\g: pieces, wi th no broken. bones, and. not lac'king any part

Second: wjjtnes'si:rJ,g ~ good omen aln.d.lbein.g optimistic that the F.'H;:wly born child '~I.~U have complete organs, and strength, since ~aq{q,(Jh is considered Ii sasrifice for the child,

7 ~ Gener,a1 roles ~eWated, to "A'qi""qa

.A., Scholars unanimously agree that '!aqiqah: should e:J1J tertain the eanditiens of ,U#bl,ah (saterifioe)l. The conditions off ,U{}!~iytllJ~ are:

~;o:Ii'

-31~' - --

1; To be more than, one year old, ifit wem-'C; a" sheep Of goat, b~, case the sheep is, onJy six mouths of age" but 'h~g in s;~ze to the' point that you cannot disti:n,guish it from, 'those Olver one :;ifear o'~d, when mixed with 1thelu"rut hi, deemed good for taqtqtYI. But goats will no t do for ,ja'qfqah unless they are more than one year old"

::t To be free from pbJsica~ defects: blind; one-eyed, lean, or lame, i,e, one that cannot 'walk to the slaughterhouse are anim~'~s; unfit to b®~(J,qrqah. Also, animals lacking an ear ~ tail.more than onethird of its fat tail! or most of their reeth, are not fit for ·lJq iqa/J:. Also, animals born without ears" '0'.[' ]U-:minded beasts tbat do not graze, are not good fOl: !aqiqah" MLnoi[' defects that make the animal suitabl e for '~:' 'In ··h are: iL1,-<nt ea rs .. t; ....... 'k - .. he ..... .t;,., sli .h,j·

~ .. = _= _._~_ .. _ .. ~V.!l. ~q.'1:'L _. ~. <:!p~w ~iiP, IUfv. en or.U<J~ or S l:g. L

lameness tbat do.es not keep the animal from, walking, or slight ill-mindedness that does not keep the animal from grazing" 011" 1\ limited 'Dumber 0'( 'teeth lost, o"r less than one-third of the ear

-_. .' - , , .. , <, ,; . .. -, .. ,. . .. . .",

.'[ ,f.': ·1' 1 I . m '\!,. •

tail, or :'::31 t tau 18 . ost 'w. nte the rest remains.

,'1. ~,al,,:df["'ln· ii.'f a iDO.· ·W·· orbuffalois not ac e ented unless ~;,t ~i'!, more ,~i,- an

oJ 0 ~. "-' __ ~ _..... '9~ . _ . .. . ~ il,.i! 'W-_ ~ ~_. _",Ui. _ ~ _ '-" _ .y.o _ _n ~'ioi';)~ ~ _<:! = V're !l.ll ill.

two years, old .. Likewise, s:acr.-il1cing a cam,e'~. is Dot accepted unless it is more than five years old,

B.. It is un aceepta ble foe people to share 'with one another in offering one: '~alqf'qaJlj for example, 'Of seven people sharing in. offering ,1 camel, The Fa tionale of offerring ~a(jfqah would, not be

hi d l 'il.

ac eve. In sucn a C6e,

c~ It is acceptable to substi tUl'te a camel or cow [ora, S'h'eep, provided that it is offered, for one child, Some .s~holars said 'i(N}l{}'a~1 m ust 'be ~ sheep, accordi:n,g to. the ,Ha'diilis about cffering ~aqfqah ..

Those who accepted camels and (~OWS for 'aqlqah q uoted 'Ibn AI .. , 1..4 lILl:n~'~i:r as saying that the Prophet ~ s:aid", ,~~ '~A.,qfqah must be ,offer,edJol" the: boy ~ so shed bloodjoJ' Jdm'!~; without stating Bl certain animal's blood, so, whatever is slaughtered for the aewly born child is sufficient, ·r;Iii;e:-~ri:'·h-;::.r it ,is" ;;~ sheen, 1I"'" .... w, O-,'j;" camel

\r."lu~,. .. , .!Il"I !JIII"- ,I', ~tAJl!r.~~. Jl V'_ Ill!, ~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~IW _V,~l'I ~v _ l'I ,iI.J V . I IIr 1+

D W ... rt, l Udlu L ]"'''' ,L ..:I'",' ,I:' ~ ",' hat :~PP" ses to " ... ;.Uytl'n, app res to Q,'qula;r~, regarmng eating OJ,

i t~ giving s,ado(jlah and. giving ,gifts ,of it A part should be given, to the mjci.wwt:e to please her.

E. It is recommended that ~a'qt~ah shoukl be assigned to the: name of [the newly-born child. Tha t is, by saying: ~ 'In the name: of Anal"

Th ~,t; ~of; for roy' ·'CUI A' ]1 'all Th ;'C 1'r;Z! 'aaiacd: ''''0'' "r c..... and '1:>0' !,' N' .... , 'ii!., arm ;"

,~:a.w~ J!i.il llul, '",",. I~, ' .• lLl..~", II , llf ,JJ..J; ii ,". ~~ iI-~'u/l~: i!. .JIV [,&J:lIl.··· ~ .. , II, ,," V lIJ,l.p _" ' .. J,~I

done if the slaughterer intended t~OI o,fre'f lIaqfqahw']dlOUl

'Dl&!"'"'t;;011' :t, ... ,;:t the ,rio 'It ild ~ i:1' 'f'rj,,<'!j"m;;:;

, • pu'l.IJ. -wv .. Jo!l..Il,~ -lLl~ ~]lL~[._· ~ ,I)~[~, .I'~'"

8~ 'What is the :1e;gi!la:~ive ta'tio.:nale fe o:lferi'Og "Aqfqali?

,-1\ sacrjflce with which the ch~Ml gets closer to Allah • from, the

first m , .... ment "";;;, ""0' m If.!i!~ into th oI!!i w, ,,"":rl-,A

IJl..Il,Ii:I'. 0 ,14J.' '~LL,I,'lb ~=Iv. ~.~. " ,~~ , ,II-~ ~~ '~_'. ~~,,_,U,c!>

· A redemptio n tha t protects the child from dis asters, and eni demics ''li,,1:U Allah redeemed Ism a'il 'by an "''i'ii,,~ ,-- ;'10["

"...~ ,'U.""'~UJl,.: Qi:j' ~iD " ,.,gl,!!. J.~,"'I;,ooI:~: _,:~ .;..~ ~" 'I. ",,t~ ~l!l.lmY •

. ~ Enabling the child to in tereede for 'his parents.

~ Showing pleasure and bappiaess fo':[' having a faith CuI muslim, for which the Prophet # will take pride in over other nations on the Last Day.

· Strengthening the 'bonds 0,( friendship and love among the mem bers of society,

· Providing a" new stream to social ;sioHdarity", '~ In addition to o ther benefits and gains.

i""'\:_ - .. .' -.~ - . - ,111' .t] N. . . 'J B'.. #"' ...... =ld d i;R,,,,, [D, •• 11

'lI;...u'CUBlCIlSI.o:n ilihi i Ie . elY, ,y-. o:rn !!l".uu: ' all· ~'~ ,nU,If!S

1" The Htera] :and term~l,olog~,eal Oleaniug 0.f eiRlIInci8ion

Literallv, j't means the removal of the foreskin of Ell nale' - .. " .ital

.. ="N - - .- - . - .. .. _. .. ., ..., 'WI. m e S ,g,enl a

organ. In refigious terminology ~ it means, the round, edge underneath the glands, i.e, the point of cutting the: foreskin, and to, 'whi,cJh the religious rulings relate. Imam Al]am.ad,~ At- TID rmidhi, and An-Nasa'i 'related that the Prophet 3 said, HWhen ih£1 two

P,;ii'~I!I"t!iiI,1 f'!ir .... ~~:m-.;. .... idnn ('0'.( tits male and ,tJ"D fi·::;"'ii;,'l',..,.,~n)., m eet t·I;. ... 1IiJ 0':t~~~1I"~'

V~:f~~" VJ 1~.fI~' ~ ~."!~,~f~ _ ~·~"'v' I. ~ .~' 1."-. _ ~ a '. i~!!!1~111ri '~-~i. .,~}~ :": l!L;'fr-~!Ir.1lJ;~. a ·l.~~ )1 . 1'~~~If~ bl'jl.RIi!Ii',

'"

11 . TI.~ ,¥; A·';t,".~ (revid; ,~~ces·) ~;I!l'i!lil.'j· '"r,~,v~ the llee11l.jo"ml ~c'tl" M,I! M~,m __ ~;:(: I

~~ , 1Il~ .IJ1.6w iI'!!>l'_ ... , _ _ _ _ _ _ II. ~ ~ .I"~ _ . 'i;'- ~ Ji_ ~ .@ _ J v.!I. "'.!II. "'!IlmJ~~'Ij;,;lil!-lQIiII

~,

Imam Ahmad rein ted in his musnad that ~ Ammar Jbn Y,asdr said that AUfllfsMiessenger ~ said, ~·~Am.ong the practices of'j'it.rah

( . t ...1'" ',~' . ) "'.' tn. rtnsi J'

, Zitn:Uir.e asspostua» s are: nnsmg' one: s moutn, rmsmg one. s nose,

.c.ut.ting the moustache ~ using 3iwalc~. c.lippin,g the nails ~ ,r'emo~mg the hair from the armpits; shaving' the pubic nl1:ir (nui eircumeision;" Abu. Hurairah related that Allah's Messenger .. said, uFive pil~actic~:s are characteristies olfi~rtlfc Circumcisio«, shaving .tJu: pl..il:n;'c' hair, ,cut~ing ,the mOiUS tache j clippin,g the nails t and' the lemOv,at' of the .armpit hair, H

3~ Is circumdsion o:l)Ugs'lory ,or SrJ..nnaJ(}

Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Imam .A.billJanUalh, and. same: Hanabilites say thae it is Sunnah (i.e, lOP tional), Their pro of for saying so is ',0 hat Ah 1.-"'..::1' ,:,: lated from :C:I'h' addad Ibn A: ws "aid that the Prophet Wuil" ~m.;tU.;I., re, . "" .... 'Ii.!!!. ,l.i!:";.'~ IJ!. __ ... ' . _. _. . ._." ilI __ ,,·_. !!o~J. __ .. ' _= __ .II: ~"..... ~~.

$ said; "Circumcision is a Sunnah. for men,. and em honour for

':',. ".' ' •• : ",", .~'~' .;- 'i " .. .'1'1 - Ifi tb ~, [act that AJII tl h "co Messen oer,w,~ has

warnen ~ as we!!. s'.;J!=_e ~____ .. JL.. _L"~_'" ~~- ... ,---,t;! _~ ~, ~ _

combined circumcision with other Sun an. such as using siwak: for eleaning one's teeth" and rinsing one's 'mouth. and. "tilers. So this, :p,ftoves that circumcision is SunnaJ/; and not compulsory, 1\1500 among their proofs is w hat A1-1~~!;Ul Al-Basri said, ~ 'Many people

embraced l;dam with the Prophet \~ blacks, whites, Romans, and. Persians, The Prophet Ie has not iuspected rmny of them .. ~~ So, if circumcision were imperative, the Prophet ~ would not bave accepted them unril they got circumcised. A5h .. tSh.~abi.~ Rabr~.a&l~ .AIAlWZil~t M,ft]ik, Ash .. Shifi'l and. Agmad are of the opinion that circumcision is compulsory ~ and Q.U 0 ted1 many proof such as:

- Imam Ahmad and Abu Dawfld related tha t U thaim Ibn Kula yb quoted. his Iather, who quoted his g,rallfathe:r as saying: that he came to the Prophet. 3. and said, "I have embraced Isldm, so, the Prophet 3; said: have your hair 0/ disbelief cut, and get circumeised. n

-, A~~i'alh ~. said, '~TlieF'e.'U.ft:e'r J~I$ Flt'lle'Qletl to ''Ofl~ (~aying) tielosely fYJI10IH? '1:i'e' ereed of li,.flrm. NIIS'W'et"viltgJ, ll"rig/j'$·. ~ (Allil:~ N ;:..-1]]9 123) A1Hih?,sM,ess<e]]J.gew. tt;. and his Ummah (:~'Ul tion] are instructed to foUo!w Ibdihlm?s creed, and. circumcision is pa:r.t of Ibrah.im.'s creed, This vie-YI' is also supported 'bY' what A].- Bukhari a.nd. Muslim [elated that Abu Hurajjrnh. said 'that Mbnihli'm .. ~ 'was, circumcised at the age of eighty"

- .A);?·mad and. At= Tirmkllti related that Ab~i Ayyil.b s aid that AIHU:l\~ .Mes$eu.ger'~. said, "Ctrcumoisio», pe.rfuming I Siwtlk,. and marrtag« are four ,oj t/~e'e.na'ctmients of A.ll:tlh~5 Mess.'(:;~J.g;er;s" u

- A'l-Kh,tl!!3'bi said, "As wor cin;~mcisw.lon,! ,rdtholl.gn rut .~s men ti:oned. am.,on.g other .sUl~j~(1I2 ~ wt is deemed by many scholars as wiijib (compulsory) .. It is taken. as a m,art tha~. distirnlilmi:s;hes ;~, Muslim froma nan-Muslim, So ~fa elrcumcaed person. was found, amongst a group of uncircumcised people" the pray,et ofjandzQ'h should be held for him, and he should be buried. in the Mus]im's graveyard .. ~t

.~ The scholars who view circumcision as compulscry justify their 'view by saying that the uncircumcised person is liable to spoiHng hispurity and. prayers, as the foreskin covers thewh ole penis ~ it may ,get some 'urine trapped within, and .rut m:IY not be' pu'rifl,ed. (using a stone when. necessary.) So l' the soundness of purity and

prayers is bound, to circumcision. And that is why many old. and con temporary scholars ban the uncircumcised person from leadins the prayer 80- these proofs ouoted bv th .'-:' 511 '.," that

- "Ie - - .• --.J .~.. ~ ,. _.,' ,~ .. -"-' "':11 ... '' ,J" enn . ow .. a "

eircumcisien is ICJ~J-'~n p ulsory. They also refuted the proofs presented by those 'who deem .. rut as SlmluZn (optional ,)

,41" Is a. :f~m alt to lit ,eijrCUlmJcisf!d?

Scholars have unanimously agreed that cireumcision is preferable for females, but nut compulsory. Their proof is that when the Prophet 3 ordained circumcision, he ascs.illgned it to men, not to \Vo]:n~J1. It has not been recorded. that the Prophet .$. ordered a

w .... ,.:m·-''"'.ll to eeteircumcised tli, ..... · ...... ept for the" above-mentioned .. Lf~d::t,,~: of

v. "'" __ ,. :=;'\;;' _ _.! _ """ _ ~ilI'" g) 'Yi'!,........ . _." . __ e _ _ v. _ ~ ~~ t llJ.uu.... 1. ... !.;I;. ~ ~f,~ .

Shaddad "Ci rcumcision Is Sum'j'!ah for men and an honor for women." This Ha'dlth. shows that it is preferable, but not

O"":m·irI.-- uisorv a, v =-.!t- Ij,I, "V~ ,J' .

5~ WOCd :s:1t<iilll1d cirellllmcisionlri(l' :perfor.mlCdl?'

Many scholars say that it is. to btl done .am the beginning of the age of puberty, since a boy l.S held responsible for hls, d,eeds at this, age, But it is much better for the father to have his SO]} ci rClImC];S0dJ in Ute leaJdy diays after hi s birth. Al-Baihaq! rela ted. that Ji.bi.r • said: ~~.AUah'!:s Messeng;er ~ offered '~aqfq'ah for Al"1I:;Iasa.n a:nd. A·[ ., ~:usayn ,and. had them. circumcised ow their seventb day. ~'j

Ql!; What :is: the r,ati'OI1l;~defor dreJUmcis~oD?

Clrcumelsion has, a. religious rationale; as well as healthy beneflts which have been elarifled by the scholars ,Ind. outlined by pllysic:bans:. AIllOI11g the most important religious reasons they mentioned are:

].; h ~c'fl' l' ('" . di 0" • ) d k I'" I I'"

I' ',' ." , '.,'. - """1' ., .. '.-', --- -'I I .' .. '., -- ''-''1'1' '.- ' ... ', ,,-' -. '," .. "

= .~ 15 tne essence o .. ~l.ra,l' mnate .. rsposmcn), anc .. a marx 0', . s am.

11 'I' ,..I!-. • • 't ~'L .• dai d 'iI.\. A]l"'l,.

- It completes the UDSWe:r.VIUg upng atness !lJ.J,B, t IS orr nme ., I~y .' ······ilJi

~ W··.: ~nl said:

~ . Wlv !Ili~i.· .'.

TA'eIl; we lunl.e .'ie,d t,lie' r!i!.'JJ,~'l,at:i:(J7J :f,{j j'lo;fj (0 MI"iant"'(Jd ,3 ( sayi",g);~ ~'(Fo.ll{)I;'i)' tlie , .. e,i~rio:n ef .lirtdr{,,,.' (II IJN/~'ilM) ,Ha:Mi{a (.1s.lan1ll:c Monotll(!isffl - l'€}! wo.rslii," ,lJ'O'n~ 1J1l1~' A,'l,jh) (!\t)~N!a~,11 :123.):

~ It distinguishes Mudj,m [['OlD non ~.'M uslim

- It is an acknowledgement of bondage to Allah Ii 'j submission to

H,i'S orders, and aeceptance of His J udgment,

Among the srngnifict!IJ:n t heal th benefits are:

- It brings about cleanliness andmoderates sexual desire,

'," It ]8, a, phys:~c~J, precauti Din that helmJis to avoid 'm,any di sesses such as cancer and. incontinence.

The a hove mentioned n,des, whether related to giving g~:~d .. 'Udingslof the new born child, saying the AIQha;n ~CH:' h im, recommending TfJ'~~'1.'lk for him offering iaqfqaA, s'ha,v:~ng hw~ bead, n~'mimg him and circumcising him, all ,olbU,g;ate~ [he eel uca t£),:r with the necessity of looking after him from, the time be isborn, caring, for him from the first m oment he 001JlIes i~U,Q; t~l~:S 'world and breathes the air of life

'iI,pH1:m d O'iI'!iO m ..... t Iln:n~I'!if le- ;a'f'e-- t' .... r-: the new-b .... 'TD ""l]."·I-]d·- fr of'i;Ilm il-I ''L;::;" tim ,0,1i, .... , .!J,~.,~~IL. e e •• :. J •• ~'.V"-&l W.l.U UW.LliJJ, ~I--J .... " ~v, . llilliir.i ~IJ~'"' .v.~ v~,I, ,~, .. _ ,W:~ V_,_-_, 1~1~~ ~~~ __ ,~ ,[l1~

~s: born, but it also allows him to :p!ay more attention as he: understands and, beco-mes a warn of life, and grasps the essence of things around him,

Cb:a.:,,.fier Fenr

Causes amI, Treatment of C1illdrml~'s ·Wa.:yl\i:a.J'idfltCSS·

III.b!1)d.u~:ti(l(D

There are :many factors and reasons tha t leadto the perversion of young children, the corruption of their manners and U1IJ,e spoiling of their conductl 'W,e are surrounded by evil motivations and inducements to cormption. Unless educators are cabable of meeting the responsibility and are aware of 'the reasons ~:I1J.d. motives of' corrup tien, and are wise in seeking the means of treatment and ways olf prevention, the children wHl go astray and fsee m~s~ry.

]']1 this chapter we' shall deal in. detail with. thereasons behind childsm's perversion, and the means of 't're'ating this 'prob~em ~n order to be ~wa:nre and weU guided, in od.ulC3!·Hng our children and shouldering our resp ansi bili ties towards them,

,A. PiQ!l'edy tb~.t 01'len~di.eEms some li«mcs,

I t is: lev~d.efi'l tha it w hen the cibUd lack'S s ufficien t foe d and clothing, and faces pOlverty and dep1riv'atioDjl he wiU resort to' lea 'Yin! his place to look: fOI.f:· provision, There, evil hands and corrupt companions will ~t their hands on him and. Read him: to gm'Qi\~ up as a corrupt peEscm.

Islam laid down the foundations of figh ting poverty and putting: an e:lld to i~, and declared everyone's right to ]e:8IJd all honourable ~jf:e\~, completely eradicating all symptems . of poverty, misery, and depriva UO[l.,

B. CIll!Oict aJlIl.Id di:sc;O,rd llte'twem lParclli,1:s

When the child sees clashes between his parents, 'he wruH. abandon thi s dle.p:res.siD.g atmo sphere and look for friend s with w·ho.m he cam spend. most of litis time, 1:1-:" those :friends are t\\ bad influence, he wiU. get used to this dangerous and perverted ~if~ty[e",

As, preventive measure, Islam. laid down, to the suitor ~ tile' righ t means of choosing his future wife' and showed the girl's family the best way of choosing her would-be-husband £or 'the sake of attaining: intimacy and love between the spouses .Jn doing S()~ they protect themselves against family problems and marital discord.

C, Di'¥o['Ce 3lRd what it entails of poverty and h01l1ekssness

Among the factors that lead. to children's perversion is divorce due: to Ute dis-wity and separation it entails, When. the child misses the: caring mother, or the: responsible father, he wit]. grow u.p corrupt and. perverted .. Whal'~ makes such a situation even worse is the marriage of a di vorced woman to another man, or her 'poverty ~]}at compels her to look for work outside her home, Islam instructed both spouses to give each other's righ ts. Among these rights :is that a. wife:

- Must obey her husband beneficen tly .

• T o guard bef' husband's property and her ch;ast~ty.

,. To, not rei ect her busband's call whenever he desires her,

The husband;

.. Must provide for his wife and children.

,- :Must [consult his wife in .h 0'11 seh 0 ld affairs .

. , Must live with .. his wife beneficently and be kind to her .

... Must help his, wife at home, foUowing the conduct [of the Prophet

·0·,

In case it is diffi,cule to attain harmony, 'because of 'the husband's or the wife's ill manners, the hru.s·balld. must take thes-e precautions before di vorce;

1 .. Admonis·hment and lu~d,ance:. If this, fails then,

.2~ F orsake her ill bed, If this al so fails to work then,

.3, Slight be. a ting so that it. lea yes no marks on her- body ~ the

beatings are :fllway from the vulnerable areas, and the face is, to, be avoided ..

4,. Resortin g' to arbitration; mediation with 'wige people from b~s and her families to investigate the problems held between the two spouses, and sugges t practical solutions to' regain harmony and understanding between them .. A1Wah. It said,

'~ ;~::t1 :~ ~r ~ j. J;~r"" . 11:2' ~. 0 ~~ ~.~ ... ..?;!~ ,r~'-:~ 1'~~ ~1, ... :&

.1 I ~: .~:~ ~.;j~~ u'" - ~ U'iJ~'!J1 ~', ~.)~ ii.l.J~ ~t\i Y

1'.~.A.~t I.""".t·l:' .~~~.~ .... "!t. ~r:. ~ ;j b ~ ~.t~ , .. ~-t R1 ;t,,~ ~t!..'r; 'r;'~"""

l..M~1 .. ~. IU~ ~. 'u~ ~ ~~...:._ ~Iti ~~ u.t .: .. , . Co· .' ~

," s '~.'!' i" i',,_" -- '-? ~ ~. ,1:.' .~~ ',- .. ~'.

'-~ ,5t :&~~.~ '1:';:; ~i -~ .. ;,~~ 'il';l tu~' ~,'~ r.~:f ,.,7..; ~, ,,~ F;, (l!"

,.~ ,~, .lOll ~~, ~'~"rr l ~!u.I'~ -t- '~.I!' I..}",r.r

4f F <.'

~

" r. .. ~I~

UA 11 to t;!tos,e WOlnell {In' w,ho'u }J'llFt ,'v,~ see; itr~c(}.lIdul,;t~ admDlIis:n tiem (first), {1U!:xt).~, f.e/use' to slljlre: their he •. , ('anil Iast] ,ient thew. I( ligirl,·,. if it ics lJ'soful); bItt if t'~y f:eil,lJrn to oJedience! ,!teR .Rot' leJgaimt them Ifn'e'a'ns (oj' ann{l!ytl·n~e). Snr:e.ly, A:ll'h is Eve,' M(}j't Big".; Most Gril!U( I, .If ]lOD fe:tBi if ,"i~a't:hietwean them twai" (,:lie' mtltlfl'lul his wife) J a"oti:nt (t.~,\O) m'lJ~t~~tJtOI'J'" {"'lIefr,om his

!iJ,lIJil.J1 (Jljitlte o'i.ll,e:r /foln 1te,'}s; if t'lley .botA: w,i'sl.for p;uJce; A,lla" 'Will ~(l#.Je .tile,"" .r:ec(JtlJdlitlti{).'R~ IN'flIJMld .Allil! is li'ltJt', Al'{f>.KnQ'w,'(!;"t

lfEi"iJli' ;Ii ~~,.. I:. "1 ,I;, ~ ,,~ l . "- ) ",e,r,;...iII,cq,'J'Ul~te,g 'Vlti~: eu t"'t.,,gs~ . \A[i-Nui~ 34~35·

10. ease th~y could not come to a compromise after going 'tic. "",>~,:''l. ,i<> .... ~.~-. stases. the hushand d~.vo.flces his wife once at a time

]r v !I,I,:gIn. Ule"e o'l'lIJ, -e .... ~~ _ _ _ ~ _ __ .. _.. _ .. .

when she is. free from. menstruasion and. during which time he has not had. sexual .. intercourse willi her ~ The aim ·~s to give a chance to' 'retain marital Ufe after the first divorce, as Allah 1m says:

~'- J ~ ~ c- ~ ."" f.~ <=~ "s::.r ~ .. h"'~' j~ ~ ~,"' ~ ~,

~l,~ ~'~'c '. "·~51~~ ~~~"~i ~j!~~~ii~: 4. ;'i

~'f:A",d if hoe hra di'v'6,~ce'(llter (tltoe tmfi'd' ti:tne) jl ':hell ,s"~'e i'S l!'Ot Ia~v1u'l

lili:iiili:t' ..... , ,1.,;_ .. ,iL ~1i\~~,I'jj!.iiiJ!1" 'UH'~,i!~ .. il.~ :E .... ,~...,..,;;no;,;;~~'.lnilii,;(,i~.·l~""'...iL~~, rr. ""~~iI'. 'T"J.,~,H. ~!t" ~_!I!,t. [f'WiIll' ,llmlll·'Ir=Y-J'~J.~r . ,;~IJ.j"'~ ~Il.~ ,ifJ~1.1! ~~1~~'~'~1IIr" ~.~,B.~ll' Ig~lJl~g~ ~ "E;;~1II"1 ~

,t'ke {J'tlter hllSbtm,d di'"o~,c'es hef! ~ h is M sl,~: on li,otA 1(11 tlte,rR that 'tIi'tJp retlnite.~ p¥fJ'vid'e..d theY.lee:l tlud :;:t~'ey t~'n! Ik,~e,! ,the .lim'it:s ,(J,rdainf1a by Alflj~ TIw~,~ at'!e t'lJ'tJ limits of A 1166, ·w.ii'cll' .He ,n,(l/Us pl~jn: loP' 'he

pe',op,ie who ,btl ve ,tn.{)i'wletige'., ~" (AI-B~qaru.h, '2.:U)I)

~ ~1 ~ ~ ~-'~\ C£.f~l ~!' JPJ ~~~ trj~' J. ~~.;, ,

r~,But 1w~t:It>'W ~~ Ih;:"I1,J (a S:lfitable' gift);1 ,the; rieli. (jeeo~~tltng l'()1 hi's ,nea'n;s, ,anti ,t6epo,(J\r acctJydi"'fI to' jis In'fNil;lI;fC11 jJ: gift 6/ reaStJ1Jablt! alnO'N.'n"t is a: ,duty 0'11 {he doers ;o/,{JotJil. j'~ (AJ.,B'3,qaran. 236)

In case the hus ba:r.ul is PQo:~r and unable to provide Ior his children, the: state, has tos ponsor those children to meet their needs: and expenditures.

'D., The spare time dla:t d@minaites cbildre1J1J and, atdolesccl1I,ts

It is known that the chitd grows up fCH];d (rtf playing and having adventure's. So, educators must make use of this fact to get the children engaged, in what their health can benefit from and. what makes them strong, That t is d,one 'by preparing places for them 'tOI play in and have .fUI1 and give them. access to sports clubs and swimming pools. If educators do noli. :fu.UfU their du ty ~ the children would certainly rnix wi ~h bad peers, and will go a~,ong a pa th leading to misery and perversion.

I slam tackled the problem of spare time by o fferi:ng' practical means that make their bodies heaU:hy and strong, Among the greatest of these means Is getting them used to worshipping, especially prayer, and teaching them fiighting techniques and, cbivalry" swimming" jumping and wrestling. But. nothing lean he achieved without having large playgrounds, vast libraries and suita ble swimmrumg pO:Q11s~ provided that they conform to the:

Islamic requirem,e~'ts~ and its DO ble manners",

:E." Corrupt c!lm,,3IlILhm:s aDd. ,peers,

Islam, has, instructed parents and educators to observe the conduct of '~he~r chsldren, and has guided them, to choose good company [or their children, and to develop in, them every no bte manner and sublime: bela vi our. They have also been directed '~O

[£,,2,' ==================

(L ' P'a:[t One

warntheir children against evil co,mpl3'0Y and bad peel'S, Allah E said,

t~ Frien.ds on tll'atDd;Y will be foes [(},rJE! to anothe.r ex;eeprt A,l- 1I~.I,t~h,iilji:i'ii (" D~';ifflIiI'~'S '!"!' seQ V 2,2)' . ,~~ (A.z·Z""1l!kh'-'~'f" ~1:--)[

[If,..." iN: 11.14!1j!. I-I.. ". ,y't!V"'Mi_, '_. _".I!';i '. !II_ [!II'~ .~., " .. ~, ~_ . _~:... ~ ~ ~ g .}

According to- At- Tirmidhi narration, the Prophet 3 said, ~'tMan ,foUows his bosom friend's faith; ,;f;<) everyO,ln~' m1flst check w.ho his friend is. ~,~

And the Prophet ,e also said in the ,~adft,h transmitted by ,AI·, Bu~~,ari and, Muslim, "The likeness of the good' campanion {rna {he bad one J is the likeness of the. perfume bet/ret; and the bello w blower. The pe,fftlme bearer will eitbe« give ,"O*, same 1:'0 .buy ~ or

,'"I' ,:'[''i': ~t, I';:' ;:-"",- ."m-l,I'fi![:'~(m,',· him .. ,But the b,~,tl','~I.o1I.lI"fl':o';j''U)F wiU either

y01Jl WiLl ge a ,n;~,e l_ ._e~ . rv. _...... . _ ... J: eJ. _ ~'" v _ ,,,0;,_ ... , .r~.

b'iilj',n, your clothes Ji or you will get [a bad smell ,0/ hun. I I'

F'~ 'MisWLUlltm,e:nt 0" paJien.ts towards eh!iLid.re:n

En [case a child, is. treated by his, parents and educators Vii th cruelty harshness, tormenting, bWarme~ contemn t, and. 'being: scandalized OE' derided, hi s resetien 'win be: evident in. his behaviour and manners, and the output of fear and seclusion wiU be reflected on his cond net and deeds

Islam orders educators to show su blime manners and kind treatment in. order that ehildren 'may grow up righreousand feel dignified and appreciated. Islam instructs people to treat one another with mercy ~ forbearance, and. tenderness, Allah. U said,

fit ~I=:: '~f"~'~lt1 l....rJ\ 1; ,""; • ~:r :£t ,.J,'" l.. "'. ~' ,~,~~ [,1',,' .. ' ~ UI-t [=-. ~J''''

;it And b(ld ,yon beren se,e.f.e' anti 'tuslt-heQr[t.ed~ they wlJllld la~e l,rok'en dmayft:o.m tdmut ,ou. n (AI "':Imrau!, 'l,59)

And AI- Bukh ari related that the Prophet ~ said, '~A[ilahw::rily loves len ienee in ,ev€'Jth[i~g,.! ~ And. AbO. Dawd and At-Tirmidhi

related that the Prophet .£$ (said; ~'~Mercy g.i'IP'ef:£ are gi'w1en ml;l,ra,y by tnt! All·,Me.1"ciftd', Gi'V'(}! m:eri~' to those on earth, 80 tha: He Who'iS in hease» may give mere Y' to yo~rl., ~ J.

,G. W:3JJtehin:g 'IJ[1!tligralP~~ic' ,and, 'v ioJeld: fII]Jmil

Among the great factors U1lJia t lead to ehildren ~ s perversion and, make them 'Olean ~ a(p~ltl1e~~Cj and careless, is what they 'WH tch in the cinemaand on v,e]evjsio]]. This Includes vi olent and pomographic related ccntent, T1'lIJ,e same affect comee from magazines and stories with similar content, When the child reaches the age of discretion, such scenes become imprinted in his, memory, and settle into his mind ~ 8H]' he tries to imitate them I:d8J [1) provided parents and educators with 'the right methods for directing and educating their cl, ildren _ Among these methods is the comprehensive protection from an ything that may inflict upon them the Wrath of the Sublime Potentate flLld, lead them, to the Hell-fire, Allah Ei1 says,

~ ~t ,~t ~l I)I ~I;~ ~Jt G;~ ,

'~O· iI. 1.1" f u.r ..JI' .,~t' Ii. 1,J ~ ",'"

, ' ..... ' 1m, :Mi't:~O ,r1Iil,lS~'€" ry aJ',u.0,Ji ,,,rtJ.rIlJ 'yOI[lrs,r!' :iV,e:s ntf" 19#" ,J,(llntltCiY a

F:i't~ ('1Je.10 j'~ (A'lo·'1[',iihri~, 6)

e " •

A,'~s!o' among the principles of these methods ]~ the fee,]jDJ,! of responsibility on the part of 'those: wbohave the right to instruct and educate 'fono'Wi~1lJg the Prophet's saying, "All of yo~' are custodians, and e~efy custodian is ,r'e'8po~'lsible for 'what is in his custody. ~'J'

Among the prineiples of those 11ll~Ul'Od8 is e~iminatrung: any harm that '(8&)' lead to, corrupting their faith and manners, as the Prophet # said ~ aeccrding tOI what 'has been narrated by M,§Jit and. Ion, Mi] 3.11", ~~ There $l1:(}!,~tld be ,n,eii'lun' ll'af":n:lirJ,:,' nor reaiprocas il1g hait'fn.;n So, according to these principlee, it is incumbent. on every 'parent and ed ucator to keep their chilild:rm a Will' from watehi ~l,g_ pornographic. and violent filme, and, prevent them from bu:yi ng

immoral magazines, p osse ssing ,~.'o'ye: stories C)r. reading books inclining to a theism,

H~, Wid~Si,rea,d Im,emp,loynlent 'i:1lIJ tJle sOfi.ety

The family whose father who ha,s a wife and, children, but is unable to find a job to earnhis mivirrug and provide for his, :f.a:m.ily will be pJlone [0 acmelessoess ~,nd, p overty, The chruld.ren wiU be dragged into perversion and corruption, Moreover, the father and. his fa'mi~y members ElJlJalY consider getting money through illegal means, I:nd, gaining it by unlawful w,ays,

Islam, has treated unemployment, whether it is imposed OJ' out of laziness, It has treated unemploymen t wherea person has no

'~, r-'~ di ," h 'i '11 'IL.,' '1'~ '" d 1J..,) b

way whatsoever 0,'" tln:_~liLg ,~, jon, wnue ne 18 'W["lLU1,g ,~m" an e, .. y

two things: R= The State :S'~1Q1!lJdl. secure a job forhim, b- The society has to 'support him until be gets, a job,

The treatment for unemployment :r,e:S:llltiillg: from :~azj:fi,e:Sls], even though, work. is :[lrV,flJ.nab~e: and, the person is able, is to be through the State i .e. the State must observe :him,~Eurld admo.nish him ~f be abandons work. I n case he insists on not working, it compels and. o bliges him to, work, In. case unemployment is, a result of senility or illness, the Sta~,e must look talfi,ew. those unemployed people, and secure for' them, an honourable llife~ whether' they are Muslims, o:r.' n,oD:"M'uslims,

m~ Pa'r''CimIts for:siat:ing, theiLr' JiesplO(miiiJiliiUty 'owanis, the-If cbndr.~D

Among the great factors ~hat lead. to children's perversion is 'w:ben the parents fonmke the :r,e:tcu:m!attlon of their children, and neglect their guidance and rea'r~llg., W'e should Dot :ignO:ll'e, tile, mother's role: in bearing thisburden. She is, in, this respect, equalto the fa ther. Besides, her :r.,es:po:u;sibilit.y is, more important and more serious on, the grounds that she ~s 'murCh doser. 'to her child since he was, born and until he; grows 'up a!nd. becomes mature. The Prophet

$ has a;s~dgn.ed, g"1lLC~ a resp (lns:i'bH ty to themother, when he said .. ;

~,~ ~jl'. .• I . ~''' .. I",~ ,r f. .JI' l'. . .. .,J"

'A,nu' a wom:m~ l'S tne ,g",~'af~t;~an ,oJ' ne» nusoanas nome ~ ena ts

responsible JOt he'j" ,Subjet.: ts. n if the mother and father fail to sh oulder the' responsibil ~ty >0 f educating their children. they, undoubtedly, willI grow up, as if they were orphans, and live like vaga bonds, How truthful the poet was when he s aid:

"An orphan is. not that wh 0 was left behi:rnd, h umbled and humiliated by his :p erects The orphan is, that who has !lI! forsaking, mother and a preoccupied £1lI! ther, ,,~

Matters get even worse when parents indmdge most of their t]]116 w:11 S~IilJS and, COIT!IJ'ptiol1lJ", and get d~!dy iuvol~wd in lusts and. sensual pleasures living ,31 life of looseness and libertinism, N'D doubt '~hat rne children's perversion, in such ,mil, case, win be more serious, May AU:ah show mercy to the poet who said,

"The plant that gI'OW:S ill the green field is not like tfu:alt which grows ~n. the desert,

How' come W'~ hope for perfection for children, \Vbnwl~re: fed by the breasts of imperfect (mothers)?

Islam holds be ~h. f:a\tber and motber highly responsi ble fON' educating their children, SInd threatened them with a. great punishment if. they faUed to shoulder this, rnspOfn.sillbil~ty, ,AU§Jl 1& says,

.MI,'" ,~-;.",!p -"'" ~t:. J,i i'¥ Jo~~I,r ,~...- ofC ~" , ,~1.-- ~ ~" ,-.4 rJ'''''''' "" ~iI' ..-"'If,, .,.

,.:l<~ ~ ,£.~ ,~, . -'""e:' ~J~lJ -. ,...,~ I, t:..!! ~ ~ ~,,; ":-Ih 'r, ->":1 ~ ,Ltl I,,~,ij, ~.~ 10;; vb •.•..

£. ~ !!;. _'~ ... II""' ~ ~4· - '~rr.'~ - J ~-- - ... ~ T. III ".

~ ~~1 ~' Q~~ I~)~ t ,~f Sj~ ~

~"fO y,o-ll 'w,i"" ,Ij'll:lie,e! W4rd olffr,o.m J~'Olfl"ge,IH~' tmd p.,€)rI" /iJ.'1nilie,s .' Fit',fJ,' (Hell) wh'Os'e'/u'el,is I1\U!'D alld S,t€iR-l,S, o"~~'w:hi:c'h ,tl;re (ap,vinl,;ed) an8,elsSII{!I',n (,o'd) sIP,ere', who' dUOD,a,y not, (fro,rtl. ,U't,C,II#ng:J the C6.1t1ttJ'lm\flJ' ,tlt'lY recelre jrt11R ,A,llihj, bll,t, ilol tlMt ~Nci ,t'ft~ are

c'{J'JHmtl.'nwul;, (A't- 'f~~lm, 6)

A~"EI' kb" '" . '~I M"'-'~I'--c - 1 ·,~ .... A thae "'1.- p' -- -,'1:- -,~, ,M~ - aid ,!~...,; I,-,DU_·· • ,"'11. aDliJI! ,.' _US~Im reiatec : ,8.'~ ane - ropne ~ '*, sal, n

,~l;an is guardian o/liis jmn:ily (hoIlgenol'd) and fa f,'esponsible foe his; $Ubj'tc.~'s tm'it ,a woman ,'is gzul.,diau o/' her husblln{J}s hom«, ,();1~'(1 is responslble jor her subjecu. ~;,

J", The c:alamity iEa,t:ing: ,orphans,

If :1lI,1fl, orphan who was bereaved of his father has not found a sympathetic hand to em brace, him, and. a 'lid ad heart that sympathises with him, and if he 'has not found kind, treatment and full care fro!mfiis guardians, he' will undou bted~y be inclined. '~O perversion and crime. Islam has mstrueted guardians and relatives of the orphan with good manners and 'virtues" Here we have 3,; selection of tae t~t2l;mjc instructions, that enjoins caring and, sympathising with orphans, Allah W addresses :His :Messe:nger ,iii; saying}

", rie'tlo~~e.,~ tre'tl'l n'O,t tie o'f,p,haR ~vi'th' o,pFe.'ssio"~,,. ~~, (A,~ -~;~j 9) And He __ says,

A. ;""f]1;;' ~~.,., .J' <JJ,;'f"-;-;i1\ _.~II ~,'~~y~,'~tl;1 ~ ...... ';~' h.

'-';:,' ;;:..;~! ;t.~ ~, -J:1J! w ~~~ ~,~ tj~ ~'iI,;,):1 'Y

wlla,~'e J~O''' s'een ,hill,' 'who' den fe's "h'e' Re'C'DMp'tRC'6'? Tkat is ~~,'o rep,u(se's tiJ'e' ofcpll!un Ji,W":s'h'iy.,n (AI-Ma~oon~ l·l)

AUWl :IDe bnkes the disbelievers whose hearts are harsh, ;mrnd

therefore they do not honour the orphan by s:~.yi:ng~

, "'- ~"';1-' '" J!;j3"':JJ ... 1: J;' ,? Q)" ... ':""'~' ~"j,:l';:"'~ ,,!I~,~ ~.,':::- ""~':. '~.1".t' I .... 1,'1t yi,.,.. , ....

~- QI""". ".' ,j- ~ . ,,<, :~, 'ut; .1,~,jWj fo:!!l,l ~ y..!UJ ,~l '"'" i~ "",,,'lJ','

. r .~'.--' I' '" ~ Jrr- .~==-, ,~.- -' .. :" '.

~;fN(J't at' ,tdl~ gO inilei!d~ bt yow do' n01,'ktJtj'bu.r tim o'.phtm. An4 y,tm dv ;nor(; u#!'-ge: 6'1" onotAer en ,olleri.' food 1,0 tlti!:' ,idllen" .. ~'~ i(AI,= f'~jJr~ l6-17)

Also, Allah '~ warns of transgressing aga'h]j~5'!~, the orphan's weal th or eating up anything from them, He says,

The Messenger 13 of Allah urged in many ~adiths to bOnO\I!D" and, care for the orphan. ,Am,ii],ng them is:

A[~,lthlkh~ld related that Sahl Ibn Sa'd said, that Allah's M,essenge:m: ,:3, said, "'1 end the SpORSQ,r ,~f tke orphan j a' relative o.r'f,ho't I ar« inparadist:" like I:ha~' ~, ,ind. pointed 'with the index finger and middlle~lnge:r. separatingthem :sU,g'btly. Ibn Maj:aih related that AbU! H urairah 'said, tha t Allah 's M~Sfug.er 3, said, i ·T"lu! best :r.. \{' ~" M' ' " ill" • b •. 1:.. L ,L· .it, d d neuse 'q, ~;tJe .' .' 'us"rms IS Q' neuse U;,/:Wi!dC.f~ ,an ()rl):f."anl~ twnou'r,e' .. ',~, an.

tho'€: w.orst llOti3e of the M usli1'ns is ,~ house in which ,an orphan is m:is.tr{Joit,ed. ~ ~

These are the 'most ittllJiP,Q,l[tant of the main factors that lead to' chi~dl\en 'SI perversion, SO!I "kf the educators: do not observe their causes and do not uproot them and do not followtbe effective treatment ];aid down by 151am~ c:hiJ],dr'en, will grow up as, corrupt persons and wiU 'be ro,o,:~s for demolishing the society'. How worthy i Ii is f~)I' parents and ed ueaters to dOSiely :foU a \\" the Islamic methods ~D, ,edJ,ucat~ni children, trea ting their perver-si'Oi[l~ tJlei"r' behaviour, and. reforming their souls!

P'lIi!II"+T''Iluo' iAlIIlli, ... !!'T."

Tire :Res,ponsiU'dUt~ of Educators

1.. Chapter One: the Responsibility fot F aith Ednca tion .

. 2..Chap't,er Two: the Responsibility for Ethical Education,

1.. Chapter Three: the Responsibility for Physical Educarion .. 4" Chapter Four: the Responsibility for Mental Education.

$,. Cha:p:~e:r Flve: tbe Itespolilsibility for Psyc'ho:~ogi,cal Educ ation a. 6. 'Chapter Siix; the Responsibility for Social Bducatien,

,., Chapter Seven: the Respo([},s~biUty for SexuEl]. Ed.uCI:HQrrn1.~

,A11110n,g ~be most apparen t respcnsibili res that Islam cared about and urged is the responsibility 0:0, the part of educators towards those whom they are responsible for educating, instructing and teachsng, It is, certainly 11\ serious and important responsibility. It starts in the very early years of ,~ijfe and continues through the stages of discretion and adolesceoce, until 'he becomes f'uI~y mature, No doubt that 'when an educator accomplishesaia task in. its full scope, a righteous person win be brought up. Hence, $ righteous family will 'be established and will co ntribute to' building 'Up an ideal society. This, is, the; starting, poin t of Islam 'tow ard s reformation, The: Q''iJJ'l,in and Sunru1-h cam. on people to fulfil tbe: duty of edueation, Among the Qu:r~i(nic verses. are,

- J,.;,

,~ ~ ~l j:~;' "

'~~Bflt stop t.'/U!'lIJ', 'v'erll:y .t'/i'e}' a'f,e' to ,be: 'fJ,~'e's.t:io~e:d.. "" (A~ '·~fn\t~ 2)4)

- ~

4 .o::'~ ,'J;:11I ~~::::~. ... ... ·,1 ,~'" ~"'','',.-:~ ..K-~".u: ~: .. iiJ·· 'I iIilb ~... ~~- •• ~ ,. ~'.LI' ~ . j,

-"I J" . ".' _,~'ll ,r:' ~- .",

t~Se,~ bJI! POtJ.f 1(},;".(J.~ iRdeed 'we skflll iI,~JiRi~:e~y ak I," em: all to ... ,gethe,f!',~ Co,D\cf1r1Ji~g whtlt the. Y Filer", /loink ;j' (A1g:,fIl itl'r~ 92,·1~)3)

~ r':t ~t, y..-.q 11 tZ!: ;;JJ (~i:i;: :~

-,:, ~ '!II.r.;J ~ r.T.,: ' • .r.If '~,,,, y

A.- . ..-.:,-- .. the 1- - onourable r r, .... ,.-·~'~,- .<!o't,' traditions - ""'f,-' H',J~t·1 >.'!'- a-;,:!I;+

ID .... n,g ue ], .... ,IIll,v _[IQi.U~ [p~ vP~]J!;,il!.l IY.~. _'~ .. L ~''''' V .rc~au, '1!!l!!~ ,r ....

Al-'B ukharl and, M uslim related, ~~A ,11:lWl is .a guardt'an: {} / his family ~ tmd is fe:Sllm~'sJ.:ibe,for his subjects ~ (Mil a lijPOn1CU1: is a gtfartlian in: her husband's home and is rl€!sPQns.ibte: for her subjcts. ~}

1J,t""- ._" ated rhat A· b" Clu'I;:I;\l'TI1I~ri' M·· 'a'[~'k Ibn A]- H'I "~w-"''WI''th s '.JI:d'-

Jl IS: reia .. .••.. I~UIi:iI, .". u ~,.=g'J';.';'U~~ ~. ,~}I] .. .!!.v,,;~ ,'. ~ ',~ ~,./"",,J'. ·L~~ "~~. j'

!'~W',e came to the Prophet #; as a group 0 f peer'S and we stayed with him twenty nights, He thought that we are homesick, and asked 'I!l'S about whom we, left behind of our famities. So 'we' told

him, and be was so kind and merciful. He said, uGo back to pour fan~U!j~es} teach the,rnp ,t:ma inslnu:t ,tJren~:~ aed /ma;y in ,the smne mm,'lner you ,SQW "J'e pray. When the prayer is due, Iet one of y'O~ declare A.dhtiJt j ,and Iet yo;ur ,eldest lead the prayer," Related b~y M·, Blld::~al'ri. ~'j, At .. Ti.m:ddhl related,' ~N at-hing has been g,ftlH,t,eil by a lathe'¥' to ,Q S,Q,n bette' than good' 1Jitfl]nerS, ;',1

In addirion to 19"'" man:" ther Our'ani ... , verses end U' ...:rr~}".

, I!.JI, ._- .'_~c_';"',·~ ..... _I.., .: =._ J ' -~t ..... ~-:II;!._- ~~.u.'~'I'"",.IIi'iil!' ., ;l;II.iIl , ,J!".1ilm:,d.J ts.

Setting out :f-rom this Q'-ur'i1l1'C; instru ctic -I" .d Peonhetic

___ . ~ .. __ ~~ __ ~_ _ .__~_ __"_ .~ill _._ om an _ , fOp e u:

au~dJ,ance;~ educerors eared a bout ,educating;; ms tructing and gujd~ng: their children, Moreover, fathers used '~O' select for their cbildren the best teachers and finest educators, We ShiaJU. talk in dJ~~a']],~ with Allah's help, in ntis section lalbou:t the most imp ortant responsibilities .

Cha,p,fe{[' One

l'he ReSpil)MUNUty for Fai,th Edncafi~D

What is rUe8JlIJ.t by tal th education is to link the child, from when he startsto realize the principles of faith, and teach 'him the pillars of Islam, and the foundations of Sharfiih .. By the principles of faith we: mean 'belief in Allah, H:rusA1]Ige18~, His Books, His Mess/eng:ers! the Last DaY' and. Divine predestinaticn. By the pillars of Islam 'W~ mean, wi~ness~.o Allah's Oneness W.I,thout partner and that MuhflJrn:mad. 3 is the messenger, fasting, Zakah (alms-giving) and pilgrimage to ~v hoever can afford it. And by UJLe foundations of Shariali we mean an that is related to Islam, as creed, 'worsh~p,~ manners and rulings.

So the red ucator must inculcate such concepts of fai th and Islamic teachings into the child's soul, and the: Prophet # recommended jjns:~jJUng the principles of faith and. pillars of' ISlam into the chi~d:"s mind during his early years of his life. Among the Propher's Instructious and recommendations are:

] ,;, :His (lommandlmJen;i t:o make 'the ~1I!t~Eral1ee tif L,llfiIJ1(l, lila A II{Jhu l'be, fHS:ll: tkilllliJ; a, ddld hears

A']~Ha]dm related that Ibn .AbhSi;s said tbat 'the Prophet 3 said, f~Make '~li1: Ildha Illa Allah j the .first word that commences your t.11.ildren~s UJe .. ~J' The rationale 'behind. this is making the word ,aI Oneness, the first thing a child hear, the first word his tongue utters, and the first wor-d hecomprehends,

2: •. In;tr:~.ucing tdm to ·ttu.~ ruiling-s, or wbat is ~awful and unJl.w.Fu~ This: is in order that])e may grow up observing A]hih~·s· commandments, ·teep'Jn,g himself ,away from 'whatever He ,f(HT bade, and get closely bound to the rulings of SJulrrah.

,3~ C0m:m:I'odi:tlg him 'to 'W(lr-sld,:p at 'the ag:e of'seven

A,bu, Dawud ,and. A~- EIa:kil!n, rela ted that Ibn ~ Amr Ibn ,AI .. ~ A~, said.

- .

that the Prophet 3 said, "Command your e.hatU,en to p'ray at the age 0/ seve~,~ and beat l.lieln for not pp,(lying ,(U' the ,age of ten, and separate between then~ (males end /em;ali!s) in beds. ~,

In analogy to prayer ~ they must be' trained to fast some days if theycan endure fasting, and D1JRk,(! pilgrimage with their :fatbe4f' if he can afford it, IDll order that the child :may lie am, the rulings of worship at an early stage of his [ire and become familiar wi Hu performing It

41', Te:adUl1g mm t~, ~~Y'e AUiUI's Messenger' \.,~ and h~s fa:mily, 3J1.d

- - 441-"- -4J. .... , - "N'" -1i.,'. - QC' '""'r~':'i-

r'eChmg me '. OI!Ji,~,e · ..• · r- Ii.IL' : __ :n

,A'~ -'I;~bar;§nl rela ted that ,AIlli ,$ said. that tnt Prophet tj said, ~ ~Rafii}uate yow ,c'~ildre,~ to entertain three traits: Lo,vin.g yDflr Propli'el. lo-v:fng ,lids .family anii'r'e'llIlxlwe.sJ and' reciting tJt€ QW"d'n. S:r.woely the bearers 0/ the Qur ~al~ la.m' in the s;hadow v/A ll"'a/:i: ~s ThroH't: on ,a (lay wliere there is no SIUlik~H; but Hi8~, together with A llah:«

M ~1 fj"~ Ai ~'jl

8Ss,enget s ana: 'e'~o'vea ones"

Related to thi:s is. teaching the children the battles ofthe Proph .. et ,1$ and the- history 'of the Prophet's companions, Muslim leaders, ,e nd the areat ~il.til;;l"';!;Ii:""VF' banles in Q .• order that thev mav foUow the

an '"'., gr-e"" Y!wJ"':L ... U' , _ ;ilI.1 = . "" ~ _ _ __ _ _ -' $ _ _ _ _ _ . _

model oftheir ancestors, and o'btraim a close affinity with .oUI Noble Islamic history. Here are :So.ID'e of what Muslim 00 UiC~l[(~QrS said a bout the necessity .of teaching children how tOI recite the: Qu:r.~ in~ to know a bout the battles of the Prophet 3:p and, the great deeds. of our ancestors and heroes:

S-i3l~d, Ibn A'bt W,aqqis. '. said, "We used. to' teach, our children

, .

'" bon Iii, !"~,~: ba , .. tles """f' the Pr ,p·'he~['~.~ -,." as we: teach thorn a. Siul'tln fmm

a 0 illll~ l~lILIie . . ." ,.!. 'V __ = _ __ ~ _ _ . _ _ _ _. _ _ __

the Qur"',an .'

Deen", teaching the. child 'the 'Noble IQw':an:jtb.e sayings of benlgnanr people, the tales of the pure-hearted people, and some religious rulings,

Ibn ~l!lld:itn R~H)Wn ted. in his M~qttddm~ah (In tro duction), to the im portance of teaching the Qru:u~,an to children and m aki.ng· them memorize i.~~ and, he made deal' that 'teaching the 'Quf,an 1.5 the basis ofedJ'ucati.oim in all curricula. throughout various, 1'sl amic countries.

How important it .~s for parents to teach their children, e:a.:dy in "their lives, the principles of Faith, the pillars of Islam, and tJ1~ rulings of Shar l~(Jh! atnd accustom them to loving Allah 's M essenger I~' his fa'mHy and relatives, his companions, the teaders and conquerors, aswell as. reciting the Qu:r~,§,]]"

It is OhVIDOUS to the scholars of education and ethies, that a. child

""1\... " '1'... . '~. liei 'f' d 'b m" f ,. AliI l ,('I if 'II\.,

18 nom 'w.~ tin the re 19lon I~):. OneHJ!8S an. ,:e~le· ]11 w a 1." Cio, :~ . ne

entertains a discrete education at horne, a righteous social setting, a faithfulenvironment, he win grow up with an unequivocal faith, noble .mal1.'OOIS, and righteous education, The Noble 'Qu:r~iu has confirmed ltthis fact, as A]lah 1& says;

" ~ ~ilir ~ J"i Ji S~ ~

~~A.llah/s F'i'ff.a': (i', e. Altil, 's lx/tunic ,~I-:O.ti(Jlicis,m) with which He has c:r~'(lt:(J,d .lJ,,.tkina..~!, H' (.Ar~R urn, 30)

And .A.W-BulClmr.i related that .A.b([ Hurairah said that AUih~sl Messenger 3 said, ~'~N() cf.!:ilil is born but having x'he failh of Islam, lnd its parents turn than into ,cl J;ew~, Chrisli.,cmJ o,rM~g(u$", , .•

Scholars of'ed uea tion and ethics proved this fact, 'and it is snffleien t in ~hls respect to q uote Emu'm Al ~10 haziH as s,aying:: "The

bovi . th 1 ld f i\.\.:: d '\!-,," I\!", "

young ' .. oy .~s. a trust 1U . ne 1'O.~. o ~uS paren ts, ano ms pure neart 1'5

a precious jewel, SO' if he is habituated and taught the: good, ~IDe win entertain j.~ " and wiU 'be ha ppy w.~th :it :in this world and, in the

Hereafter, And, if: he is ha bitua ted to the evil, and i'8 neglected as ;~urrima~s are neglected, he will experience 'misery and wiU be destroyed. Protecting him can only be achieved by educating him and, teaching him, the good manners," ~

From this presenta tion ,of mnate nature and i ts effects, we realize that if a ch~ld. is brought up in a" perverse house, ~md is taught in ,3 miscbeivous environment, and mixed with a corrupt group, he: no doubt, will turn away from faith to atheism, and from Islam to infidelity,

So :~OlJJg as educators in general, and parents In psrticular, are responsible for [,a.isrung the child, on, the bases of faith, and inculcating Islam into his soul, we must 'know the, ~i:mJts, of thi s responsibility i aij,d, the dimensions of' this duty. The: ~imits of this responsibil ty are represented as follows:

1. Guiding them to, believe in AU,al~" H:~8 undefiable Might~ and. Hi s wonderful creativitv throu a,' ,1!.. contem pla 'I,. -- CJ th h -. ....0'.,: - ,,.. ~;', >' :,' ,r' ,j.~:

. _. __ . _ ~... ,,., __ ... ',.1 . - - - ,~,t~ "-'"'v~~ _",,", " ... uDe II;: ...-retJlldon n IbUe

heavens and tbe earth during their age of discretion, It is preferable to nroceed with them from eo '"00' ,',-; nla j';-,- ",' ;jl;l~-

_ .... _._ __ .. _ _ .It" - - - . _. ''''~ -~ - ~ .!!,,~ v== ""MM,. ,mplL!C!I.'~lllg ul.e

concrete matters to abstract ones, and from the part 'to "the whole, 11LUlt-i[ tJ1iSU,"," aonroach the issue of faith with full cor vicno , I

... j _... _ .. _., -' . .t"',,t:' - - - - - >;l_ --, - ~Ik!;~ _ ~ ,1101;, ~ virL 1 ... W Ia!"

evidence, and proof. Wben a child absorbs, from, the very begh:1!rdwg:, the unequivocal issues of fai'th:!, and stable: evidences of the oneness of Alhih, ]10 destructive to 01 can strike his Wiv~].y heart, nor can evil advoca tes beve ,any influence on his faithful mind, due to. unshaking b~li~f~, well-establisbed certi tude, and :fun conviction he has acquired.

2. Inculcating into their.' SiO'1l!1~h; the 'spirit of submission, piety and,

itud . A'~II"'~!'I, 'L .-'1' f i\l,. 1...:1 Thi be acl . .:iI

servr uae to ,',,', ~,awl~ tne .ore 0' , the wor as, , ,. IS canne ac ]l~V'ei!JII,

by focusing their attention on the undefiable might and, the dominion w hich is great in, every sense, In the spreutmg p:~a:lll:t" the growing tree, the aromatic beautifully coloured. fl.oiwer'", myriads of wonderful creatures with magnificent fonnetioas.

The heart cannot help but submit ~o the magnificence of Allah •. What can, the soul do but feel. the piety to-wards AUahE and ex perience the pleasure o[ submis ~doft and sweetness of servitude to Allah, the Lord, of [be worlds. Among the means of strengthenina submission and establishing p,ie1ty is to train the child, d UJl.~Dg the age or awareness, 'to submitin his p:r.aye:r and d uring listening to 'tilt 'Quf1iJ1,.

,3" Developing in them, the spirit of remembering AIHib. 6 in all their conduct and circumstances. This can 'be' achieved by training the child, to know' that Allah Ii sees rum, and knows his secrets and what be harbours, and He knows the treacherous look of the eyes and whatever the breast conceal, The educator m 1111S.t train the child '~O remember Allah in wha t he does and tea,c:h him to' be sincere to Allah, the Lord of the worlds, :~IiL. all his, utterances and! deeds, and teach, him. that Allah, does 'mot accept any ·d·· eed from him un '~,i"';f;~ 'iI!-.,;;:. does it , .... ,n'~l~f f~,;r- His Sake. The

~'.' ,.. , ........ ' .. W .. ' . JIb., y, .. h ... Il!Ol' U"" ....... iJI . U -~..) Jl'll.J,~. . .. oil' i.J'. ,'1;.0". ' .

educator also has to train the child to remember Allah when he thinks, that is, 'by training him to make reckoning with himself, and train him to. observe Allah 'W hen he feels SO~, so tha t he may attain the rank of Ihsan (dgbt action or goodness) and sincerity

.... :·:t-.::,A····1']}!:'I, "":.:. thouah ', ; inzhim.und .·hi~e von de

to worSUlIJP.. ii:lal as [1]O~g ~ you are see ... ,& ... , .... ~ [t ... ' .. W._ yo ... .0

not see him" He truly sees 'YOi\]"

'·W:' t, ., ,'.,.: ··C:]I~·I..:i· f-'I '0. '-,' "M\:"lI,,~, has been m ientio :'n· ed above that the

, e COll.JIUI-U,e, :m'. m. 'v.. ,U.;:&!.II,. _~o~ ~ ......... ~~~ _ " ..... ~,~I!J_ .~ .!Y_l!.Jv" ..... ~ ."'_. _~.'_

responsibility of faith, education is important and serious, as, it is.

th "" "0' .'ur'"',;;Ii. A'f:" all virtue and the 101l'1'~,n 'Ii'!i of p' erfection lot .. ;;;t, the '" .... ' .. a'~in.:l

Il I ~ Q..,_,.:., ~ u.1l __ , ,¥"JlJJJ ~I,~ . -LliU .. ~j.!U, 11021., -6l.IJ.a. '.'", -~ .. 11~~ .. ," ,·,ILI. I,,," .lIh.JI 1_J.,~ ,JJ.LJJG:J11IHL.,

basis for entering ,a cl1i]d into the domain of faith and Islam.

Tile parent and educator should not retrain. from seizing any chance to provide the child wi tb the proof 0:[ the existence of Allah, and with. guidance that consolidates belief and strengthens faith .. , This, w:ay of seizing the chance of providing advice is the 'w,ay of the first educator, ,Ml1l.ITham.'m!ad $," Here we: present to you, dear

ad ' ~'I,". . . ,'~l- o'ir -" :"d'''lI''- .... .,:>0 ~'- A stvle ..... r the Prenhet .ii-\t(;;o

reaner, uus exampieor guicance anu :~.,;-,: """'- '.,-~.' -~ :"';'I""'".! ,~"

At- Tirmidhi related that Ibn Abbas ,~ said "One day ,I, 'wag riding behind the Prophet $~ and he said to me: "',0 y,otmg man~ I shall l'€,tlch you' some words: "Be m,m:df~i of Allah~ and .Allah. lvUl protect jVm~', Be nlindful of Allahl and yo~ will find ,fl'itrt in front of you., ,If )1119$1 ask ~ ask of A llah, ,ff ym~ seek he.lp ~ seek h'e,lp !rOin Allah. Kn'Qw that if th« nation were to gal'he1' t(Jft~Nher to benefit yo~ with,~ Ml:ything~ ,~l wfJ,~dd benefi: JW~~ ani;; ~~it,i:' something that Allah J~ad a/'r,fJady prescribed for yOl~ ~ and ,if they gather together to harm yo,~ with m~ytl1'ing. ,they would har,m ,}OU only with smne,lhinr thtu A,Nah it.lI.Q al:f'.fU},dy prescril)l(~iJ for yo U. Thie pens have been /ifted~ and the pages hcn;e dtied" ~,. If the 1 band together to CtUJSt~ you injury ~ th.ey wl1l n',eli'er do )ltryU any harm except what .A Ua,h has p.r(!stfltibed for J!(]$i. The .qfli'U.s [Decrees] are suspended. a'2d ait! scrolls are jold'ecl (.D!e~Uny is decided),

In another account j ot her than that by At- Ti rm'idhi we l'ruav1e,

~·'O' 'b " , ,ill" . , ,J A ,li"~L ';l1' {',",J' 1'""0:1"· fi .

'-'se,rve you, obngauons towa.rU'J " UW~II yml wz>" ..I,m'&',:im'i'aCln:g

y,Ot~~' try to ackno w led.g-e A.ll&h ;J:Ftll'(Jr s 'when in prospe rily ~ 1-1 e acknowled,geS' J~O;U in adversity; and kl~ow that what YOIl miss cannot indeed be.' ,your lot; and what becomes J!,(J~lr lot will not indeed miss you. .Le'(lffJ! also that l~ic t'OT J comes t 11rQugh endurance ~ and relief comes wUIJ distress and tJ~aJ with h.al'dsl:ip' cOJ?me.'jl affluenx;,e., ~~

Chapter Two

The 'Re--s\pflI:nsibiH't.~f@r Ethical Educa,frjon

What we m"eanby ethical education is the set of ethical princi ples and moral val UeB that have to be inculcated in. the child I' in order to be acquired by him 38 customary behavior from his eady years, through the; time he becomes, legally capable, up to 'his f'ul~ adulthocd Evidently, suchethical principles and moral values are the prod ucr of deep, belief and righteous religious upbringing,

~"lL ]"11 I"" I'C-'I,c;;,!5I,'1l' that ·w,/1l..,e·:I'1I, /,1I11e-, child is brouaht H'I1I, from his +,..'t'Ii -jl1..,."".

Ui~, l~ ~, .• ~~~.II. Q!Ir. JJ.~ .. il!,~ IL1~. . JUL tII- ".- ,jJI .··.·,i . l-_~~_ JI)L., U',~~ ,.J, I!J.' " ,[ l~ L~:L.lU~!.U,

years, U,P CNJ. belief in ,A,'m;~,~] Ii ~ hewill dev'e::i.,op au, innate, facnl ty for acceptance and :PlLU8Urut of moral standards and, values and! no ble behavior cl~m]l- arlv ~'f the i"'ii!..~;~d is br ..... uah ,t ~'i -- ".-- .oi _. ~.~T'ri""..:o - h. - - . I!.Jc:=~: .': ==, ~~ J =J Q,t cj'l' ~ .. 1!!i';"'i!l.h=_ ~;",. - 'fivlll1.i:i; -. """p linl ..:'lLll. ,UUJLWV<J,P" ere:

,a'~ien to Muslim tenets, void, of , an religious orientation, then sucb a child becomes, prone to dissolution and Wm'!D()'ra1Jry,! or even error and heresy, Thus", ~t is MO wonder that Islamic Law has given special priority 'to' the moral education of child.ren" Here are SOUle of these recommendetion s and precepts:

At-Tirmidhi reported that the Messeager of AUah, ~ said; "No boon has been given b~! a father to his .c:hildhen is m;o,re v.a1ual;le tho.'n!

"J'L ;1.'. H A" ] ill.. Ib M~"'" 1 f Ib .iIi 'b'b.... ...u.- h

gooe oree",d.'n;g',. '. ,SO~ we nave 1:.- U r alJall after .. "ll ,M. __ as ~ that

the Messenger i* said ~ ~; 'Cosfer 1$oble-muuledne.ss ,on your chUdr:en~ (uta p'ftJvide for ~'hetr gaod brE<edmg,1-/'

An of these teachings or [J:iJJe Prophet 3 indicate the great allre;1Jc'hing responsibili ty OTIL the part of educators :lieg:ardimg 'bringing up children on. the ]]J,O hie, moral values of Islam. Such responsibilities: involve educating them, to ba jruthtul, honest, upright, and. unselfish .. Also included here is training children to be respecta ble ~11 wordand deed" veering sway from abuse and insul tts and! similar f~'uJ.lts", As, opposed, to this, they train children respect for elders, generosity, '~hdng in amity wj~b n eig hbor 5" benevolence towards the poor and, orphans, and affection :fDF." the indigent,

As. IOD,g as no ble education in, Islam depends on strict observation and steady supervision, then. it is the duty of fathers, mothers, and. teachers to be alert to such abuses:

J. Lying

;1" Insutts

I, Lyin,g is one of meanest attributes frotn the religiouspoin] of Vi'6W" Educatcrs have to observe: children's behavier in this respect, and tr:-)I their best tto show the; young the odious aspects ,of the ,baibit of ~ying. Thus, since upright education depends 011 the noble model by educators, they (educators) have: to avoid lying to YO'lIQjng ones, even if they are desirous of making children. step crying; lying in such circumstenees '~Ylo,'u[d eventually des;tr.oy the confidence of the young .in, their ed ucators. That is why we: see our first educator" the Prophet '* I' ad vi sed parents and educators not to lie to en ildren, even i f theymeant to just a ttract their atrention or for fun,

He.re 'we have A'bft D'~wid['ela~i[]\g OIl the authorhy of ~'A: 'b'-..iI'i",)'l8'L Ibn ~A'" m ')"'11" ~'*'-. that '1\.,,' .... said MO' "'li'liO dav mv mother call -..ll

,-;", :: .. uu ~ [,-,Ill , U~', ,'-. ~'o:iJ, ~ .1,- .~. ·Ib jlll~ iill~.':~_':li 1·'., . .IJ.lL~ '~/~j' =i, 'J" ,; 0·.·1l}·.~·', . _. leu,

me 'When the M,essel1"lfg,er of ,AUda -3 was wi ill. us in our horne, She s:iIIlid~ 'Come on, 'to take thist.' Then the Prophet said to her, "'Wh'at. do }"o,u tntend giving hi»:-n~ She said, ~ I am @ioing to give him dates, ~ 'Then the Prophet said, ~B,ewo.re j if you dO'n()'~' real~, l1J,unt to gfre anythi~g I tit a t HU}lJ;I'd be a lie fort!().r'(iat~1:ed ,on poc~~",'~'~

A~ain A:~]1u~d relates from A'b'il 'H nrairah • that the M,essengt:[' of AUah. .. said, '!~A.ny>Dne who, ,s,(I.'ys to' a diUd~ ~Camle on ~'nd have this and does not: ell': t:tu;llly. g,t.]~e U 1.0 I.! im; ~hetl this is a de-fin ise Iie i u ~

:l~ ''Eben is, no less dangerous than telling ~:ii@s:; and it ,~s usu,aUy rampant in communities deprived of righteous upbringing based on the values of hHinl. So it is imperative for parents alnd, educators '~O implan t in the young the sense of 0 bservance of religious behavior and fear of A]Uih, [o,g,ether 'With the baneful results of thett in 't'ms, world and in, the Hereafter,

Sometimes there are cases where parents are not dissuaded from their children's contrived thefts, especially when the child may claim that what he go t was not 'rnr()ugh theft, but '[hrough ha vkll1"g, gifts from friends or through leftovers, There are even cases of parents encouraging their children to steal, and in, such cases, such youngsters grow -ru:rnto persistent criminals. An extreme case is attributed to a youngster ~ who 'was convicted of theft 'by lit .s1t{lr£~{J'h coert, and be W:IS to have his. hand cut off. So the boy cried to 'the judges, "Before y.ou cut off'my han.d.j, cut off my mother's tongue, The :filr:S;~ timeI committed that crime WEl5 when I picked up :an egg fr,at]] one of' our neighbor's house; but :my mother did not rebuke me; nordid she order me: to return it where' it 'belonged, On the eontrary, m:y mother uttered the trill ,of joy (ztl'ghrudah:)~ and said, "Thanks to AUihi My son, is now a rnanl' ~ So without these words, ]I would never nave become a thief." (~,)

,3,. A'btlBf's and Insults: these are some of the acts of misbeba vier 'that have been often currently 'heard, for many reasons, Of these reasons is that the chHd, probably heard, the same abuses and, insults from adults, Another reason, is loose upbringing where chHd:r1en ~u:e~eft. to mingle with. children 0:11 the streets and alleys,

Thus, it is the founded, duty of parents and eduea tors t.OI present exemplary behavior to these young ones i11, the form of polite speech, and in constant attempts 'to, keep them away from offensive and insulting companions, Together with this, they should tell. them to beware I()( loose ~alk~ and to learn the A,h,a,'tjith. forbidding such abusivelanguage. . -or here is the H(rdith~ related byAJ~Bukhir~ and Muslim, w'm,lch says, ~'(Ab~5blg a Mw;lim is' an if)~mo'ral act, and

,jig"h ling aga:rnst him: is disblllief ", Another l[adith says, "One of the.' ,nwst g,rier,{J!'tJ8 offenses is .d~at a n~an sltoldd curse his paren ~'J' ". Thien the Prophet. # was asked, I'~IO Messenger of ,AUii'lil, how does a,

'MnsUm curse: his parents? '!',' Theuthe Prophet ~, answered, If A man: may abuse ana ther ptl'rs,on 'sfather, t.hen the t)tll~ler per son abuse's the speciker 's ,Jadter~' OJ' ama« nuty tJiJW(! another person ~$ mother!, then ttl'€: 0 the« per son; abuses ,aU! spe(l'keW'8 mothe«. 11 Thi S ,1ltJ.'dith is related by Ahmad and. Al-Bukhsri. An,odleI' Hadith. related by A tTirmidhi ~HlllyRj "'A betieve« Jdu)uid not be an: olfe~ulef~ nor should he be' one; woo curses I or be a'bom"nable'~, or- loati1soffl"e', I~

4. Indullgenee ;3111rd Dissolution:, such behavior has become rampan t among our younger generation nowadays j boys and. gids, alike, due to their preoccupation with blind mimicry ~ thus, g:euing more and. more inclin.ed, to corruption and licentiousness. T I) them, life now seems to' be timely ,enj oyment, degrading lust, and Ia w less, aC'~iv~t~es, If ili~y mis 5 snch misbehavwo':r, then life seems to ha V'G no purpose. Of course, we find that the Messenger 3 has set feu" all parents and educators the practical principles and righteous ideas for training children oa upright behavior and true Muslim morals, ,Amollg these are:

1.. W,a;rnling Against Blind, Minder),

H Al B 'nl"h"''' ..:I'M 'n° I ,.~ . .Jl 1!... . th Pr· 'n ~ ' . .:l

e.re~;. '", :,'u~~,arf ann " usnm n~~·~,mI'rnu, that tne <'Q;p~let~, ~:alG~

"Behase dlfJereluly from the athetst» by sho;v,ing the nxusta'c/:ll(!' and' keeping the beard", '0'1' after the rela tion of M uslim, ~'~C:utoff #'rs 1ilO~9t.a'Che~, and keep ,the bc(U.(11 ,and thus be' different .!rlf;J'nl the ,Magans ", A!S related 'by At-Tirmidhi, the ffadlth runs thus. ,I'Anyan,e of us w,he OO]'lS the garb of olhet8 is I'$ot Of:1e of U~~: ,do nol 'fJ01~ the ,garb of J€WS ,or Ch rts tians . ~!, Another ,1!ttdit:h; also related 'by At-Tirmidhi 8~\YB, "Let not a;~yane ,of' ,'.ou be an' ,oppor,tunistwho wou.ld say, 'il go with 1:11y company; If they do good, .1 do the lOre; if I,hey behave bl(ldly~ l do t./u? same. "Biui' get isuo the habU of dQing ,g,(Jod if the people ilo good)' and ,if tlj;ey m'iltl;ehave;~ avo!~d their

" it.. ) . .i :» J~

smsoe. .Zt1Vlor.

] .. F(J!fbidding ,Exeessi,l"c Enj~!JDu;!nt

Here we have the d:~v:rune words, "Thereafter, indeed yOl;~' wi'u be defini t,eiy'-" eues tioned about bliss , . ~ AJ~:~:) we 'have the Il'adi lh related

~ ~ ~

by Mmi'm A~mad. after M:ui!'z Ibn Jallflll, • in a traceable Ho{lith,

"Bewareof excessive enjoyment.for tlUf: true 'WO'twhdppers' .of A,U(Jh do HOf,' bululg,e' in excessive enjoyitu!'IU., ~"

In 'the two, aut he:n tie books; i[ is related, UULl 'Umar ~b,n ,AJ-J.:;'~Thatmb '. wrote to tile Muslims in Persia" saryil1lJg, "Beware of excessive enjoyment and the garbs of polytheists," What is intended by enj olymernt here is to be immersed In W~lat i s delicious, and to roll ove4" incessantly lID!. wealth. and, hu:ur-y.

,3\0 Musie: a:nd, Di_obJi~e Siiing;il~g:

In, a H Q"Jli:h by the Prophet 3- J.ebL\t~cill, by .i!\J-,n1!l~,~id, A~:mrul and Ibn, Mijah, 'we read, ~ 'Indeed there will be: in. 1ny n!il,tiolt MJr12t!

P'e'(}~.le' "~I,I~o 1"fJ'f;£t'rt1 adalter» p. : ~"jI',~,rt!l)'il";b.~· .~:~ ~,n\i'"J.,o'1l"'';'I!'J:;il'' _c:;'lk.- d ,:r."'IiIIi, iI.,..-tm';f:)"' "j~ ~~",h

- ,1:"-- lrlt'" __ ~ -~G--- -- ----I;o'---!Ri.J, It;' __ ,~~~:d~~! l:~~1 W~~[l-.' in·-~,~,Ii3i""~~.l',~, _T-l~ifl~II't..~r-~Gi' lWtE--.fi",f.I;I.

and pl{l1i~'g music ptl,n"}'ds,'8,ible", U AJ1lotb~rHa,di1,h related by At" Tjrmidhi after ,A,'b~l M'[b;i. says, !~A.I~J~{me '~v'o listens to songs, will ~un be ,(lllf)w-et{ t (l' iisten to .tJ~1e: rauhaneein (reciters tJ! the iQur 'an] i~~' the Garden. J~' N eedless to sa,y that anyoue Wit11 discernment would ]'e~;diL'e, that Jistening 'to such prohibitions le:ad,s the young ~o the abe r ra tions of sex! l UJiLIlJ ry, depravity and immoralityl

4. Effc:m[J1Ijae~y'

III the two authentic books after S:~.~id. Ibn. A,rn=.M~U'sayyab~ we read, "Once M,u:~'awiyah came to, Madinah and addressed us, and then brought a ball of hair and said, ~ I never saw anyone with bis hair like' this, except the Jews, The ,Mesmngew of A.nah caned, it forgery," In the werds related by Muslim, Mu 'awiyah was

..,;I ''I..-. "''''ll I~Y··' i\;.. .-..iI .. , t.... r-' b - .

reported to na ve s mu; ' ...... CU, nave none miseruer .' y adopting

such 'evH d.'oth.ing!} and the Prophet forbade S~H:lJJ forgery,"

A-' ' .. ", .. '. "',j, '., ,-- - -··,·t ··d.' ~ f~'i .iIi'l n'., ·k'L/".",,"'" A' b--1" 'Dl'- '" ", ...... ..:11 ,c' _..a IA- t

.gal.l1~ 11,. Ul;repO.I. e , ,8i. ~-~.r .F\. .. -DU .;.~~,:~ltlj . - u,~.wUu~ anu .,~_-

Tinnidhi from .. Ibn Abbas.. that the Mes~en.ge:r of A IUth 3 said,

!"~M-' .' -. 'h . -- -- 1'" ,-j' Jl-·L:,iL i;,,,n--·. - ~:J;. ~I'r:...., .-,. .' ~. . - ·li'. - s -'1' ~ - :;: ,01' tn« cusse OJ' .~u_u;t~ ,JU!!:~ upO'n ~;i'H;?' il;,tJernmaJe men, !l'I'il',(~ l,tI~r~ .. e

~i.VOmen. ii In the wording of Ahmad, .Abu, D,i:wud, and Ibn Mij~lh.)

- ' .

the Prophet .3 said) ~~M{JY' tn,e curse of A lldh ,fail on '~IOmeJl actinglike men ~ ClI2d mer: ac !.',ing' like Hlo,men. ~.,

Then Abu. ,DiwGd. relates after A]i'., I'~I S;8\W ute: MesseDge,r of AHib .# take a piece or silk cloth in his right hand, and. 161\ piece of g\old inhis left, and. said, ~Sur'e"y this is forbidden co ~h~e males of IllY' tUUi{l~f.. ~; t.

S 0, w~gs~ using gold ornaments, or silk clothes for men is, not permissible, Similarly, ,effemin~cy~ ado'pti,]lg virility, and beIDrng partly-dressed but partly-bare OIl tlhe part of women all of these a:rr-e ef~emli.rult~ and dissol u Ie manners, and lead. 'to e.fiil\'cimg virility and. hnmihating the' human personality.

,5. ·U:m.rveiling, ~']aulltin=" Imtermixitlg Ind Prohibited, Viewing;

In Sural« A~~,A~~.2i'b ,AUAh .' 'says,~

" •• ' ... '""'.' -:ij: ..... IF~ ..... ~~. ....,>' . 00:; , ... .,. /.-' '~.~ ".-. "'. j,.... .......... '-' ""." ~ ,,i',";,~ ~ ~ '~f" ~~t~

~ ,!)~ U1l~ ,~ D-t--~-'~~· ~ Zn'~ ~~ ,~fl~ "O"~ ~~~, &~j~' jI, ~1 ~~

",' ~". I '~~.:..i!! . '~J .,~'F1' ,y~. 1Il~" ," ~,T ,;ioI':. ~-- <iI" ,I, ~ ..... ~

. ~' I~~~ .~ ~i G~ ~~j1 j

li(J Pr-o,led Te,It,,'Our ~li'!',e:s' end J'O,~'" da"~tI"tet's and ,i'h'e ~&rome'lIlof th-e ,'a-li~'Ji(trS!' to .,!i'UV' ~'heir Ic,l€Jtlks (~-eils) 1(111 () jilcr tltieir IHftiie:s'. .Th'tlt ~Jill' be: b(!:t,tt'.~ t'lt,(Jt,' dIe! 5ho,'l1I(/, be known (QlS,P,i!,e,' f:"lesp't!cttlbJe WD,rllen) .111lJ' !IB' ntU: to ble Q4f1,;()ye,d~ A"d AJIIiI is E'~et' Oft-,Po.rgip'ilig:" Mo'st iI.,j· ~.jiIj"~' -.- ~ .'-'iI

jJ":j',ert~ ,,~~. (Ai-A~b~ 59;

,AHi~h '. S:.a\ys, in Surah An .. ·N fir:

~... t-P' of; .'~'t ~,. '~~$1 ~ .:-if~ l~jIj"'''~ ~~;f'''' ~. , ....... ~~' ,r. \ ~~... ~: •• Ji"~li ~ A

"t .~ ,4lIl ~ r' ill! ~~;l ~I~J .i, c' - '.~~ ~i-i2~ ~ !t~i'ti!~ ~ ",," ;y

t"" "'-~- ''';',JIl''''' / ,~j • ..1 .... -"-",-" P ~".. "" ... ,:~ ,~, ~'.' ,j/J,~"" """I,""' .~ ... - ..... " .... '1''''

'l.;i, :l!l'~ ~) .. ..i...t~-;jlJ' ~» ", ";, ~:~.I~ ~ ~;":,A- h ••. ~._Ii"~'-:'II - ~~ ~ ~

-' ~ -' ..... ,~ '. i ..... rP":!-;. -,' ,_'. _' '....:. .. il.::- - l~ .• '<ri": ~ . ,',;....,.. -.;;;: ~ l~"" ~' • _,' - -Io"-~

,,I.' ••• ~~, ~~ ~;) ~i~ if; ~~ ~ ~~ ,~-~.:-~ ~'~~ ~.

~ ",:,.;".,~ ~ .' .• ~~ - ~;r.flllr' ,. '~'~- ',' . i"~ ~,-~., ." ...

for/Jidden tliFJI:"s) ~ tl:nd',PI',otl;Ct thif!.ir .1!n'rp,(lte IU'f',t,s (fro,", illeg,al' s1],xu,al' ects), Tlta' ,i's PlU"t!Y!fJJ"' tht;n. VedI1,~ Pi lId" is' A I1~A ware of ~Jltat .tl.e,,' ,4()'~ And tell .;lU! helie/J),m, 'W'mlJe'lJ ,to IOH;~" their ,g'(lze (p'Om /'OOking at' [orlJidtkn thJ~g,s') Itn(/,' pro1,fU:t :their pri'l'tlt," "ilrl:s (froM illc.:t;ul se.X'lftd aet» JI and ",,,,t' to' s,/m'~!." ,off ,tn,eir QtkJf'ImeB," e'::t;ce,t ,Otl', :l'hat' wAichi is il.l1P Men t, lana to dr'lUV their ,r,eUs' ,Q'I"Ct" Thei, bo,,..onu olid not to re'ipltal t:,iei,' tUlOl'lfflJe.nt except to tie;r jitM"(JJjdsu.~'~ (An-Nur, JO-,3:[)

As for fbn:mtiiR;g~ W~ ha ve the command:

,~ 1~T t~\:;Jl ~ G~, ~J ~~' ~: ztJJ'

~"'~Alnd' ,9,ttllY in y,t}'fI,r hOlU'(!lS~ ,alli do ,Ihj(f. dl,'!J:p'iay' Yl~.un·.'felves like that ,(j'(' the t'inC'~IIJ' ,cCI,I':,j]i'~!;"!""';(I'H''''!'i:II , ~J' ~'.&I,_ Ali " ~ ,b".. 3':3"'1

_ ';1 ~' ,:r":;,;JJ .... ;J "0) 'lI!V" Hn""". lI.r.u,. _~za 1 -,~

Here, we have Imam Muslim in his ~a~i~, after ,Abu. Hurairah • that the Prophet ;I; said, UTwo cal egories are ikS'~li,u:d,for Hell, and 1 have not seen them, a category tha: l~i(Jl,ids 'w.ldps similar to ,C@l1r1S1 tails; wi't.h t.he'sew,J~ips~ they beat ,hMI1UIU. beings", Another ,(J,at.ego,ry is " band of wmn~n panty-dressed, p art: ly .. bare )! sW'a;Jdng' ,r~gJu and left tryJng' to aitraat m(i!l~ 's anension, lhd'r' haif MO'opi:rt.g like camels~ humps. These (people) will not ense» ,the' Garde1'n..i' emil wilt ti10t ,~Hi'Cn s.m~ell Us scent, althou;gh its scent CQ'~ be s11'M!died Q·t {l ,dis tanee o/five' hundred seasons.

Forbidding lnternl~llg;'1ng or the Sexes,

AH§J.lJ ~ '~1 as forbidden intermixing, for He says,

,J, i~;~ ,:(.,~~, ;ik' i;:f;~i~ ~~ ~t; ~"j;j:t:1 ~~~t: 'I~~ 1}

~ . A.r." . ry--:r,", , " io";, 1.-- - .' ,,,., - . or' .,

'·"A·"uw.helj' you (lS,1f, .(his~r,i'v~~} fo, ~'~'J't'hiug you wantJask the'm, front behind a JCr,ee.N~; 11i'tj" is .put:u far "ottlr ,hetu'l~ and Jar tleir hiUJ,r'ts ~ ~~ (AI-A~:m b, .53)

Here W'e also have the Hadn h~ related by At -Tirmidbi ahat the: :Messen,g.er ~ said, "Le t n:ol an:y man have prieacy with a '~voman ~

fi,,;..., ~,it; ~~~ S'· -'If:i'!IiiO ~w:;'ll' be ~,:r..',;i!I~',.. thtrd ,)i , vr ,~N'e,~~ ,!I.~i!Or;.r,~ '" ',i.j: 't:. ,~t,k~i'- ~lu,".

A.O'ain~ in the two a utbeene books (As~,Sahih:aJ.'H:) ,. '[the MeSi~ell~.~e;:t"

~ ~ - - - ~

of Allah "3 is quoted as saying, '~!Bew(lre qf' e'12u:riuK' pleces uJ:/ier[e,'

Wlomel~ ,ftJ.stde1 "Then :1, man sarwdl" ~,~ 0 M:,es:se:Dger of Ana:h~ even i~"" he Is a relati ve oil the husband?" Them the Prophet answered, 1'~A relative (,tfl this case) ~5 dea't.i1,. jj Finally, we have the Hadl~h related by Im a'm M uslim, 'that HI e Prophet ~ 'said, when he W,I;~ asked about 1:0 unintended, sudden :1,0,0 k~ ~ !Turn ~iUf loalf: ,Q:W(f,Y.;, ~'~

So 'h should 'DOW be understood that when h umaa communiries ,I[I.d nations Id,otpt such Divine principles, and. adopt such mo des of behavior and avoid all attributes :8JH~n to :dgllteo'Us:IlGSS, and virtues such as: unveiling, intermingling of the sexes, and, all sorts, of prohibitions then such comm unities 'win undoubtedly lead, 8, life of plUrruty and virtue, ell] oy peace and security and. could aspire to achieve happiness ana, glory, Such are, dear paron ts and educators" ehe main educational principles and, praeticelmethods set by fsl,im for ethical behavior, the growth 0 f personal morality, a:nd, good manners,

Finan y~, we have to rem hi d ourselves of the role of dogie o bservation and, the heavy responsibility on our pad. to ensure the righ tJi3O'US behavior 'Of our children, if we search fer the causes fOilj' dissolute morality of children and their deviant behavior, we shall fi nd. rut f.e;.S'IlJlting from our disregard of the: trust 011 the part of parents, and neglecting their education and guidance,

S~me Causes ~)f. CHildren;':!;; DcYia:tion

l. A [ather th at. may s:how ma.nty in o bserving that his children should not mix wwth evil associates, from which they .fllCq'wire m ,a:nIY" ·0: f their natterns of ·d·· ~~~ ·0·'· D''"', """Til ~1 jm ,- un .- ora [ be ~!l~· ~I 'V·,]' ""'1Il'

, .-,_" ,- .: ',_'" _ t ,~J!, ,.r;"--. _-I~~." _~ 'V .. ;.... ~~~'~':." _~ g~t..A:Y' ~I· ,'- ,n~ IlL! ... ~~ ~~ . ,V.l~ III

,-- - - .. - .' ,;f,' ...:I," -, , .. ], if 1\i..'·1 ' ' .. , .. ". *1, 1\ .. , . . t ,Ii'::']-, ... . .. ·'f ' ' ... '~. r· ...

scenes o.~ u.],!)SO ure ee ]ja:,v.~,or ~ OF. tna ~ presen _ 1 urns '0,_ V~ oience.

Such a. father is actualty pushing dunn. into an abyss of perilous dest ruction

~d. ~,w !oJ." 1 " .. I·,"', ,I,lil ..

:3, ,A, father who does not. stop ~js children from buying imm OTa.]

'no 'lnt:i!'i"\CI< and maaazi 'irti.<!ii"" .n; if" ~il'\I"!t;Tfr"ii '""e"lll;~ ~'iill Or i"->r ...... '··;i"'" boo k {'! will not

.t.~itlrv.,I,;;;t! " __ -,IUIiU '" '. __ ,b~L!.Jl~!gg'j! !~.iw l~v~, JLI- ,~!-Jj!.~Uel 'I!.r.i ,V.'tJll~ .. " - 'lUI oj!!"~ lAf.IJl, ,1.1-. _

stop hi s cb ildren from abomtcation and, vice.

4", ,J!\. father who is lenient about veiling ~i~ spouse and daughters, and :i s heedless of: their nn veilil1g and flirting, Of.' their mingling with other flirtl]].g companions, S,Ud1, a father is helping his children to fall in UJ!i vice and. dishonor: and thismay end up wl!th defilement, an d. voiding their chastity, Then neither remorse 11 or tears would be of a~ny avail, It would. be necessary for a father to have a look at his children's desks and, observe their writings; for '~t may be tb a t these children acquire whatever they like ~:n the way of pornographi c pictures ~ wan ton papers, or love-letters; and here strict supervision is badly 'needed,"

To Parents arrul :rlEd'uc~.t@r;s,

With all ~ha;t W'e have presented of the Messenger's msistenee on the: right behavior ofchildren, with an that has been said that right behavior is: an outcome of true belief, with all of the vicious influencesto which your children are subjected" with all that has, been presented about the reasons fo,:1i deviant eharaeter, and dissoulte behavior, it seems now there ,ws: no, other way, except that you adop,t a resol nte stand fo fI all religious values: in the upbringing of your children .. It is towards them whom, you, have U) shoulder your responsibility for their educa tiof.i.jj teach ~ng and care, Y QU. have tn know that any negligence in this respect, would. lead them to grow impotent, dissolute, and vicious,

So 'be apprehensive of the warnings from AJl§.h9 and 'be V~fy observant ,of their behavior. Such observance win defini ~e'[Y' help 'towards. seeing your children flourishing before your eyes, as bdUi an t youths in society ~ as if they w~r.e 8Ln:g,e{ls treading on the: earth, secure and, serene.

'CJaa:pter' Three

TIre R,espo:nsibUity for Ph1Jsica~ Education

H" responsibility for ph.ysica], ed uca tion, we mean the parents ~ and eduea tors' respoJis:ibrnHty for bringing up tl1~ children heal thy and sound, in body" Here ,~8 presea ted the sound discrup!,~ine presented by Islam £:0,[ such sound up brwl1gwng:

t P1FovitUmg 'filr the F:lmly::

The Qur'dn gives us the W',ords of AUdh ~;

oii!' I[,,~ Ji .... ~r -s:".! .... ,~ :Jr.!'., .IJ' .Jti'r ~~-::;;,"" ~ ,,: 9~~ ~~Ji (Jf~ ~ }.,t~1 ~J '7"

·~lJlIt lie faller ef du]' ,c,/dla .sltdll.ie,M ,1'1;q C,I}BI 0/ t'il! mol,ke~ ~s foot/' Q.'nd ~'lotA'il.W' 6B a f:eas.().~fdle b(jsi8.,.,~ ;~' {Al-B:,ul"ar,a'bj :2:33)

Here, we have: Ilnam MusHm relating that tbe Prophet $, said,

f'~Al dinar paid in the waY' of Alldh~ and a d,m{J~· ,you paid' fOt I he /r'e'(tdom of (J' sla1!"e'! cmd a d:fntlr "OU g![l'~,e' as donation to an indigent} and' a' dinar ,you paid,/or yow lam iiy-dl'e greatsst reward will b'e ,foT the dinar PO,tl paid joryollr jam i{y; n

Thus, we fl"nd that the' Prophet ~, condemns the failure to' maintain the rights, of children, and Q'V;aJ:d0i9 ,~n providing for them. 'Hence~,Ahw D"i:wud. and others relate tha t the Prophet ,~ said i 'It is enough v.ice' for a p,e,rs!on, 1'0' destroy those wllmn he sustains. ~" The

l::rAI'~~11. -. ...'~""iI';-,~1 b 'iU Imam Muslim 1I1i~''llf'--1iI Hift, L -,..., -- L

same ,ria~d~n: was :r"":l"lLi-eU,',j rmam ':, :,011\ nn, ;j,~.Jl/,l]J!:.tii-j, J!~S e'nO:ugn

vice /0,1' a perst;m to ket!p .bar;/c provision ,/1".0,711: those who,,,,; he is z'ht)' 0"'6' te~fpO,l1,8ib~e for. ~, Provi sion here includes he:a]thy food, sanitary housing, suitable clothes, to make sure that they g;r(}'w up Bound, and. safe from disease,

1~ F!iJUow,~ng the P[ooe,,:i's, :rW[' :H't:alltlb,y F'llJod, 'DI'ml\, a~d .s~p

'01iJJe~ of the leadi ng precepts 0 f the Prophet ~ is not te be

• • t': di ",1i d . 'I... f': •• ] ...ill b A"~'·, ...:I d

excessive ltii 1!6e mg ano 1~,f.]:n,K.nlg; :1:01' ~t ~s ,[}e :rn,lteu, .' 'y-,~lliiLnau, ana

At-Tirmidhi that the Prophet $. said, '~7,~ .no 'way dots: theson ,oj Adorn (a hUffl,(1n /).ein.:g) flU a vessel worse than he fills his, belly.. It. is'

en ough lor hil1'i ,10 eat ,Q fe ~v mm" sels U) keep his backbone steady. If f've" he needs more, ,th~u Dne .third (of ,hiJ" stomaeh] would be for food, another ,t/1:i:rd for his' b(t'Vtl'f,(~,(l'''i' cm:a OfU!' third fo» Of,(Ult.hfng. H

Concerning beverages, "Drinkmg sluJl~'la be twice' Of three times; and respiration in the' dTil1;/ci'~1:g vessel is to be,forbldde:n.~· an'il drinking w'h ile s tan'iii,~g- is (list] /orbicldell. ",

'1'::"0' r sleep ~"'" p rescrib ses ~ 'Sleenine ,['iI!.,r;~ ~IJ b n ,.t;I;~ :~I~09 :t"~'1')'"I~"~'r:':i,1~ fo ""

,,- ... ~ . Q. ~,._., lUl~ ,...I,IJ, 'l..iQ.~, lI. _ ~:fI '.' ~ l'"'~ Ik-,.IV ~r- ~~ ..,r.~.V.!Il;II;-l~!itl,. l;. rV'lI~ ~"111:r ,~ Im-b,n ~ ,~iJUJ;, i " . II"

8,~ee.p,ing' on, the I~ft' side rna;)' itur I:' the heart I and .IUUn::pe:I" respiratio». ,'1 Heee, ,Al=Bukbid and Muslim relate tJh~~t Al-."Bt3Iii Ibn '~Azib • reported U1;8!t the ,M:,essenger of AUa'h * said, 'r~'Wh'en }VU intend to ,go' to bed, then perfonn ablution-for 'prayer~ and sie'ep' on )N:n./,r ,rl;:ght

-d' ,,.,iI' 'S. l' , .. J' r, Y A-I' ... , f l' I... • , lif'" Y' 1

.ne} Qnu .sa" I ,'upp,~U~,(l,t;'ie.€J t;JC ': Oit.~ ,', itl.'rJ~, sU'un~:u n1;ysef to ,'m:J,~· ,.

set n1;y face towards 'You;' I ltave e'~tr,usted In)! affairs to- :Vo:u;" I have resorted with ,my back to YOU'I with all l.onging- and awe to You. Ther!(! is 'no reft~e Of de,l:h1,;!~ranC'e except to You. Lbetieve tn line Book YOU' h'ave sen: dQW,'i~, and the ProphetYou have sent: SOi' le,~l these be the fillal ~vo']"'(13 IN'U sa,' before ,you sleep, "~'

3., Caution Clnc-er.nbl\g, Idectiou;s, DiselS1frg

Here we have Im.im, Muslim and Ibn Mijal'l and others rela tins J§..bir. Ibn ~AbduUih,".s narration that in a delegation from Thaqlf' that came to the Prophet 3 there was ,;1 ~~per, The Pr'op'het 3 sa.~dJ. 'to him from afar ~ "Go back.. we have alr€,tldy acce,pt'(ul yQ~U' (J'l:leg.faJ.lce. ,; "Again, we have in the ,~,(l?~f~ of A[- Bllkhar'i' th at the, Messenger or ,AHAh §, said" "Flee ,aw'a)! from ,the.' leper as much. as yoU' ,/lee fr()~'?; ,0; tion. ! ~

In A.~'~§aJ.l,i!!iJl~~ we have the ,H(t(./i,th: narrated by Abu Hurairah that U1Je Prophet $, said, 'r~Beware ttf tne iint,errniX',~r'g of the sick and the' .he,(llth:y/~ So' it is incumbent on educators to seclude: anyone: suffering from a contagious sickness from, the rest of the: children,

"..,'II "1 d f tl ~I· d hed f idemi

'to a VOh.!!, tne sprear 0; the rnsease, an', the ~ anger' or an epn enuc,

AI 'T'[a.rtilrt'm.i!lift~· iIt-,v M"-';I!ii'~~I""'o;Jj,Fi:"1"1Hi '~Ib. ,I II!WA _. ,""iI~1J, 1m Jo' .re, ,1~UI!L.-~ '-Il 'IWI 1111

tmam MUrsUm, .A'~Jn,ad" and others related after J;ab~:r Ibn ~Abdl1d]a1h that the Prophet said, i'~F()1" ,ev€.IFY ai'lmlYl1t tht,re is a .relfledy,; so off the' remedy is 1'tgll t J reco'v.'€1'Y is sure with the permissio»

.,It A'n"'ji' ~, J!i. 'I on, M ~~ ,!~ 11 '" Ah d r-" u.... h

OJ .f':u,tt;~ ~ '. rosa m the ;, .u~rlit1:u; u:y .II rnam "=~'ma 'j a 'leF I _ sama :. ,

Ibn Shurayk, who said, ~!'ID: was in the company of the Prophet ~ whe~, some Arabs came, and said" ~'!O MeSS~llg;efr of,AJ]ih~ ShaH we take medicine? So be said, Yf;'j, 0' ]lOll b'O'ltdn'u!:n of AllaJ~; do take medicine; for surely A.lld/~ ~ h{l:{f; n'ever prescribed any sieknes» lIwi ~'A'out pres,(;!,r,iblng t he eura to.r U, except for one sickn'ftss ." So they

k d U'U"J'l! •• ,~' H id ~ {'!I "["' 'j' '!'~

as en, 'wr dar lj'i ~·t. . ..e: !lm!.~ .. ', ,.jef.!'~:u y ,"

Th~I:S~ paren ts and ed ucatcrs ha ve to, aceeps these directsves by the Prophet * to take good care '0 f their children in case of ,ajjliIl.'ent" and, treating ~be,i,r' sickness, since taking precutionary measures is one .0 f the principles of I:s~il11,"

5" 'Ih~ CIQ,Qcepi oif' "No, H-a,rm. amdNOr R.eci.,[,(u;3ti~g 1I.nj'liI!fY~'

In this respect, we find M aJ ik, Ibn M.ajah and Ad- D,ilTaqu,!~l]r relating after A bu Sa'~rd AI = Kbudr[ that the Messenger of Allah * said, "No harm'~ and no rtu::ipnJC'tJ',t,i,"g iujw'y. ;oj

This ~!iJdith has: been eonsidered 'by jurists and legal theorists as one' of the important jegislative 'precepts prescribed by l.s~a(m, Aecording to this concept, educators, and especially mothers, have '[,0, make sure that their children 0 bserve sanitary instructions and precautions for dwelt sound upbringing, and. healthy physical growth, Some of these instructions and concepts are:

1, Eating ripe frults, and avoiding unripe Orl:6S ..

2, W,asmng fruits and vegetables before eath'rug them,3. Bati lilg meals, at regular times ..

4". Wa;s.h:i,]1g hands before and after meals,

So 0 bserving such runs tructions is a guarantee that the c~lUdlre[). will. grow up healthy and. sound i.ll bo dy.

L' 'p, 'h"" ,I 'l!i"d I', ,.", ,'I ,,-, '(I H- - -lOaf" hi-'

l1i, " ySJ.'ca~. ,iii!.; IIlC3,dO,1III ,an" .o:rm_-, M "P

~'~A1J'dm'akt! 1t'I(]iadJ' ,againJ:t the',,," tlll"O'u (IN,'' of PIJ1~el~ ~ ,iIJc/uriing steeds (If '~"'~! (unti's~ ,pl(lj~i(ts..~ ",tissiles}, ilrt:iller:"1) ~~~ n I(JU-Anr~J~ 00)

Here 'we find Imam Muslhn relating that the' Prophet e said, ,j ~A strw~g be/.ie;t!'er is more gr,aciol~'S and more beloved by ,tl,Ullh than <Cl weale: believer. ,~

'That ,rus.~ Islam ] s alwa ys calling upon Muslims to learn how' to sw~m, archery and horsemanship.

7., Leading: a Sjmple,. Moderate'., Pleasures'ble LiFe'

Thus we have Im.am ,A~~mjad relating' after M u 'ad.b Ibn .J abal this traceable H,ul£~Ii,-'~Bewar,e of imnwi$eratrt'iy pleasurable #fe~ for the' true bondmen of A,lld.n are nat of Ihat' sort." Here, the Messeager 3 is the mod~1 and exemplar in his very simple but tough life as, regards to food, clothing and housing, How becoming i tis [or our M uslim genera tions to follow 'his example and adopt his rulings and mode of life!

:8. Seri(!lIl:!'Uu~ss" ,DiiUg~mce'~ and, K.ee,phlil A'w,ay from La:xj~y :aJod Disso~gteD.e&S,

Again, we find Imam Muslim relating that the: Prophet ,3 said, ~ ~ltpbcdd what is US{lff~l to' ,You ~ seek ,help /r,'(J,m A ll(ih~, an;a do not feel im'P(Jl~m:t + i'~'

or course, it is self-evident that if the child is brough t up in an atm esphere of laxity and dissoluteness, he will grow disrupted and of' an intricate character, Hence, ed,llCB.h),:n, have tomake sure that

the: children are brought up with a sense of diH,g,ellce~ simplicity, confidence, and, sel f- respect, and '~O' be kept ;i1W:3lY [rom disruption and feeblenes s in body and, m ind, These are the basile concepts offer-ed. 'by I'sl!lm for child education,

Through the upholding of 'these concep ts, the young generation will e:mjoy health y and sound bodies and characters; and in this, case, yOlu ha ve fuU1Hed yQi~U~ trust SJThd p~:dbrmed, the duty ttl at All8ih a has put into your charge, Hcwever, there are ether serious problems W~ can 0 bserve among the r0m,ul1g; and old, especially adolescents; and these problems must be taken care of, so that tbey can 'be r'em.led~OO, ,~'1l11d. their h a:rmful effects can 'be explained, These serious problems, faein g, the young and, o']d, 'ma,y be summed tIP in the foUow~ll,g:,

']. Smoking 1;", M astur bation

4", Adultery and. Sod:oimy ..

I~ The P,rob~,e:-m of Smlmg

One of the mos t di sconcerting phenomena nowadays is smoking, which has, become widespread. At SOD1.'e lengtb" this phenomena may be discussed, as, follows:

a, Dangers resulting from smoking.

b. The laws of ShtJrtah as regards, to Sino kin.g.

c. How to deal w,itb the pro blem,

a, Physica] ,ami! p.sylC:bolo,gic~ dlltig;ers:: it is now proven beyond doubt that smoking results in 'Ole: disastrous effects. of ]un.,g disease, as well as the 10\88, of memory, ]08,8 of appeti te. paleness, problems w] rh respiration ,and. nervous systems and ph.ysi.ca] Ul heaUb".

b, Finan-cial d;on.g'e!D: of C01LlI[,SS, sm,oJdn,,g as a, daUy bavru.'t does ,ev{lmluaUy ]J~¢lId, te financial problems, wnruch woul~d, then lead to family confHcts since, ]0 most cases, smoking may mean encroachment on daily provisions for the bouse and its inhabitants,

Tile la,Wi o,:f SlI.ll'rd ~gainst: ~moking,

3" It is, a ruling unanimously agreed upon that anything that '~eads to harm or ruin must be avoided. 'Here, we have the ,f/,at/f1;'h, related by A~mad, and, Ibm Mij,an, tha t the Messenger of AUih tit said, "No haf'ri~,~, and 110 re,e.i,p'.'r'O'Ctla"E injury. ~~ Since smoking is considered p'"hyslkally harmful, then 2vo,id.:in,g, smoking .is imperative, and thus prohibited"

b. Smoking should, 'be included, within A 1- Khabii ~idi (vicious acts) because ,ol:f'the; hasm it entails, Of course, 'we all know tha t Allih ~ made lawful all good things" and made unla wful an harmful things, Here we have the words of AIll dh g:j

"He all~w,s tltem as ,la-wful A,f-Tiayyihift' (i~e~ ,(lilgood tin'll larwf14i a'S r1,8aJ'tls t1Ung~'j tkeds,~ ,be'liefs, ,,.,."'0113, (lnd /fJo'da) ~ Md pro1liii't,s di'em a'S unltlJt!ill' A ''-KItaA'it,i, (i~e., all sf.i' ad IInlaNt/1l1 d'j' TfJgu'ras dtings, tk'e.'~; ,helie/s" pe,,'s'€J'II'S,,;, fllm/s) ~ n :U' .(Al-,A ~I:if, 151)

c. Smoking' makes the body laz.y and benumbs the mind, especially 111 the IC8Jse of ,aJlddi.cts;, ,Aga'hl, we have the M:~senger of Anal a :fl'):rbIdd:in,g ,a~~ sorts of sJackenio:gl benumbing and jn toxiea ting substances, as 'we have in the ,H adit'h fe'bl ted, by A.~'mad. in 'his MU.sMQd~ and Abu Da:wOd ill. his SunanJ~ after Umm Salamah • who said, "The Prophet, '# forbade :tdl slackening and in to xi ca tiD,g substances," Thus aU these texts by word ;and, meaning stress, the fact that smoking is unlawful, for it has, physically and finandaUy da-ng:erous effects,

'y- - - ! - ,,,",,-,---,j " "f' ,th- Problem

,rNIlUll'eIl!.'1 e" __ C = ' _ _ ' ,

Such treatment falls, ,fits:t~, into the hands of the State in the form of a wholesale pl1Ub~ici ty cam p,aigll, in papers, magazines, radio, and, 'te~,evi8ioll,~ a:'p~ns~, s:mo.:icillg, indica ting dangers tol heal th, A tax increase on tobaeco, wi th an increase ~n prices, and, prohi bi tion ,~,n

crowded places are means of fighting smoking Even ad 'nillts. who

,""'-_-'c !/!,-,-- ok .c.1ii"r-r11' ",'[.0; culd 'l.~,'ltr>l!!; ;"I~ observance '~n]" the ord iuances ~,!C'

;(lire ,~rn ..... ,~,o ",.,J,V c_, __ , .mU;,1''''', iI,.~ , 'liJa; : ,'~';UJl.i__ L,IU,IL !In[, ,'.... .....~,',- _ ,UGU,'!i.i".;) vIII.

A- ~]-a""it.l deterrent from smokins Thus t-'h,1'3;1jJ sb 1"""~ll](~1 have enoueh

~~= _~. 11 .:._ ~ ~,~1.Llj ~,~ ,_~ "li:. V.lll_~b. i.1I',LIL". &.~,~JI:~I. ~Ji 1ILw.~;II .~ ~ J !I1i Ll"l V ~_ 1JIj. ~l_ .. ' _ _ _ i1~~ ~J'I~~, _

11tlSO]'\fIE'; to withstand the attraetioe, and enough ccmmen sense to always follow the straight path,

As for the youn.g~r generation, who have the 'bad habit of: smoking, tbJ!Y :Jhcu.!Ill,d, be under the strict 0 bservation of parents and educators Fath .. en, should u~l' [0 treat the divergence of the young, and make sure that they are; again on the way to' sanityand safety,

2~ Tne Pr{l;b:~em I)f M:asturl1'h3!th:um

This, problem Is rampant among adolescents and YO'~ld"i!:s. rn ,:g"enend. Some of the: main reasons fo F' S UlCJ] a pro blem are the, provacative dresses. of women, iF.l~,er,]:n.i:l1,g~:i,tlg in s~root8\" gardens

'" - - A ,,,,'iI-- i!..i.!i;1i'" P-.'~ o\!ii,....;DiI;!

anu ornet I Wi~!...~,.

Thus, theatrical and film presentations, together with "books and magazin~s about love and sex, all present one of the most dangerous .innue!i!lt~ on the psychological and moral behavior of youth. So an adolescent, with EO sease ef'religieus awareness of the crdinanaees of .AUAh, wHl re~ldjly fa]!. in to aE1)f of these two alternatives: a, Hewould either' tzy to s~'~is(y his sexual desires in other prohibited ways, OF. 'b,. abate this desire through mastnrbation.

'Of course, the second alternative is definitely 'harmful for the: body, mind and procreation. Our discussica ,of'this 'problem comes under three headings:

R '" Its harmful e,ffec'~s:.,

2;,. 'The, Sl~(J:rf jah ruling concerning this pro blem, 3. Treatment.

'The' I-I'a,rmfu~ Effecm

a~, Ph:,.d,ca~. e:ffecm:: anyone p racticing masturbatic n ~s, Ua ole to' these complications. Bodil y exhaustion, shi vering heart p alpi tations, and pulmonary ill.fia.mmatioll ~n. most C,~,ses"

'b~ Sexuall effeeb,: one of the most dangerous effects l:S: impotence which means disa.brulty of man t.o, get married or satify wife's desire, This may lead to' abstaining from marriage Of hating the other sex, This means that rnarri age:" run. such eases, wiU tender the 'w~fe unable to keep her integrity; and thus the couple nU1\Y seek divorce, o:r '[be wife 'may find her sa\~i afaction through irnmoralways,

c"P;s,ychol.(Jig1cai ~umd mental efFects: among the dangerous effects her-e are distracti o,n~, forgetfulness ,. irresol u teness, alo 0 ftu~ss~ tim ~di ty and laxness ..

~"A nd ,t:htJ.S'e ~lYio g.'U·ard ,f.,'~i:f' ,c''''d~tity (i~e", I,riv,ate' parts ,/rtJ.'II1 ,ill-egal s,ex:lllll,illci's J' ~ B'u:;t.p,t /rfJ'In "heir wi~e's ,or {tile J'i'n'-es J thilt ,"hew ,lllit ,hud's .p'O'~seiSS., ... {OJ' then, t,he>,' m~e jr-e,e /r,'f)IH ,"tm~'8j~ But wlto'OIiJ\OJi" seeks .Dt1p'Olul thaJ'j then. ,hQrse are tie' t,,.tlIJlfg,,res,~o,~'. ~~ (A~=Mu.'min(j,l1!, 5,61,1)

So I,IiIlY a ttempt of sexual satisfaction other than. through marriage i(j. e. through :id:1!:d tery ~ sodomy, or mastnr batien) :~8 prohi bited, Her.,e~.~, 'we have the Htuifth: from ~'.A.~,d. who, said, ~~ I heard

of a. :people who wiill. be mustered, 'with 'their hands: pregnan t, so I thinkthey :arre; those who :pr.actised masmrbation, A,gaim 'S,a'id Ibn Jubayr sajdo~ 'AIUib w:ill torment :3 nation that used to be fdvol.o'Us. with their private parts (1), )',

.0) Q1a(),'~ed. froHl Ash-Sh~ikh Mu~a:ff:iJmifLd Al'~imNd.~. in lu~ book ul;~,~m~d ~~Ui A1;&#1'" fFt~ 1!:ro.'tdn.g .f~:~s.elu)od) p, 40".

b" It is we]l .. known that w'h~fi. leads 1;10 harm, or causes perdi tio,n should be a voided, £o:r practicing ,rnt ,ru;s prohibited, ,Aga;Jiu~ we ha vie the saying 'of the Prophet '~'l' '~!:N() harm'i tlntl ,~to. I',ec.t:p.r()\ca:t,i~,g i,y:uJ'Y. J ~ Since masturbation has its harmful p!by~ical~ 8exua~~ psychcdogl,lc&l and m!entm~! effects~ then it isprohibited,

A PeTtue"!! Question

Since masnnbation l:B fo:r.bi~d~n~w:hat is the .s"Ala,rt~ah ruling in regards to ;8, person who ~s se«uaUy overwbelmed, and 'WG'uld, probably faJ~ into siuful ,ad1!dtery?'

When rut comes to wei,ghliDg: between sinful acts ~ a. person getle.:raUy C'ihCH)'SeS" at moments of dJ'~8'tr:ess~ '~~iba.t :is: less sinful; and here 'we have the juristic axiom, "the choice ofthe less sinful, and ]elstvi.dou;s,;:~ ~ That is why ]e,gat'~ jurists have, said, "Masturba tion ]'S prohibited, if the! act her-e is to arouse sexual desire w'hen, it is dO:Fllla.:m:t But if' the desire ~~s so overwhelming that it causes vexation, and distress, and ma:y lead to' ad'lId:tery, and thereis 1l.O .other mems; of' sexual abatement, tbenmasturbation is permissible :!, on the basis !o,f mutual equivalence, Here the personbarely ,e-SClpes penalty, fOif' here he has neither reward 11,O:r. PtlDis'~:meml,t (1). ~"

TI:(.l;]j,bnmt

1. Eat:J!, :m~},[ifiag;ez: this i~ the most e;f'Il!ciJtn t 'way for eradicating such a destructive habit, and, the 'best means 'QI,f ffui~f~Uing the needs 0':( overwhelming' desi re,

2., S'dper"~ga,m\17 :faS'dng ('NtJJl.)~ we have the s~:yffi.mg ,of the Prophet ,.,~ u 0 Y'0U~.g feU(r~MS'~ aMy'O:!J1e ,of you who ts s'e''Xually ,(~Jompete:mt~ s/~()u.ld ,;na'fY'~: ,lor .tIli~~ is more ;tf1~lenia.bl(;r to l:ow-e,ing one js g'aze @ em(/. more .immune' If}t I he: pri'vat'e' P,elJ!'tS. ,But ,un:yonJe wll'O cannot afford n3iarr,iage,~, has to ,.las,[~, for i,r: is ,e'MO'l:~gll r,estr{JJf,l~t. ,! ~

0) ibid~

3~ Ke-~phrug away frmn se:x!1!Ial. :iDe:it'eRll1fllrts: keeping awa y from ga~dn,g at :fiJjir~at~ous women ~ as wen as. a bstaining from 'reading sexual litera *.'·'I,iile and l.j stee in 'g to lice n f.·1' ous eon Q'l ,;i re d efin 'l',t'A~'v l"'A~'p"lf"l'~I'l ')" iIl'Ii

~!j,.! '.~. '" ~,I,lI!JI _ ,_" _ .IJ!. __ , ~~" _ v ~ '" _ !!. V'~.;:! ~V~J.~ R..t "" .... j,.l , ..... ~.,J' 'I.'!;"W .~. LiII, .W.L

this respect,

4i. ,Keep:iJn,g ·bl.Jlsy: of course, when. the young find much. spare time, they begin to have all sorts of dreamy- ideas, fool] 511 cenceptions, and. exciting sexual whims, ,a]ldthus~ the-y may :S]jdde~[i~y get sexually excited. Here, tile youth find. no other alternative other than getting satisfaction through unburdening himself of such an everwhelmmg passion. The remedy bere is, to keep 'busy through phys~ca.l training, useful cultural readings, developing 31'[[ interest ill religieus education, or military training,

5:~ H:~g'h~eoH eomp(a~i(l(nFdlifJ: one of the main eoncerns of parents is to advise thei r young ~-iO' choose :C0f' their company virtuous companicns i who 'would remind them in case ,of forgetfulness, and to advise: 'them in case of deviation; far of course, a :feU!o:w usually adopts the ideals of his com panions, I'll a Hadi'th: of the Prophet .. rela ted by .At~ Tirmidbi: f iA man ,emh'races the ,rei~g,~o.~: o/,hlffr iendl,. jid/ow. n Thus, keeping a W:2lly from dissolute friends and. intimate relations withrighteous fellows are basic precepts, ..

6- Mediica1 pres~ri.:pt1.onSl:: physicians and bealth speciaUsts have these recommends tions for easing inordina te sexual desire;

. ., ]l~l!~hing, with cool water ~n. the summer and washing his private partswith cold water in. other seasons,

R" ]' -- --h- "'_] -" ,-

,. O:If)i"il'fi1 ~·r pi '\11~ ~IP~[Ii rIEI~hl.ri~rr-F~IIti~~

J!.,I(;5'UIJ .ia .. . ~',;;Ji"""~., Ii;;i.,...."'~ ""'.GI'I, ..... ,

.- A.yoiding very spicy foods,

D'" " '~ .... t .AI.N!' h ibl

~,·.ts.p~ns]'ng wun . rea ana '01)11:00 as rune', as ]pOSS]' .". 'e.

,. Decreasing his cons umption of eggs and meat,

= Sbp.h~,g an the righ t side of his body ~ and [~cing Q'lbl'ah.

- Fi:rJJ!81HY,i an omnipresent a,[Dpreh.e~Il;s]on 'Q,f Allah'!i attending re'~igious meetings, performing congrega .. tional, as! weU as optional prayers. Togther w~th constant recitations of the Qur' a,n" pre-dawn prayers (.lPYa.m)~ optional fSLsting;!rea.ding about the Prophet * .aJ:nd, his Compauions, and reminding oneself of' deam and the Last Day: ,In of these are effecti ve i illl. arousing a youth's feeling of devotion to AUM1 and, realization of His Glory,

3. TILe Problem '~If N:arooncs,

Addiction is. US1.1.sUy- found among: homeless people 'who MV-e lost their parents or guardians, as wen as among dissolnte youths, in the company of imm oral 'bands, Here: we deal with 'three aspects of the: pro blem ...

:151, Harmful effects, ~. .' llLll _~. 'I!ir.I~"ll~, ~!.11~

'b, TL." S .. ~h·' -~~ Ii!., ,--,. Ii!, .-,~

. _'. "He, _. . _ arl tlJ!J ,r.uung.

H:anuful Effects

- Physical and mental effects: it is a] ready known that addjjct]cHl may lead to iJ.IDS,wD]'ty, dissipatedmemcry, distorted thinking, as 'weU as stomach ache, '[OSiS. of appetite, and. hardening: of blood 'vessels.

An addict is financially .0'0 'the' verge ()·f bankruptcy since he: a]w:rnys. finds it eflSij/ to ~qJ,u~fid,er his money on. narcotics, Of course, this leads to' ],overty;a.nd causes lack, ,of prod uetivity and m,any econom ic problems,

Sudl an .addk:tj on m ay ~.ea.~. to lying, cowardice, and 'Iac't of ethical responsihility; all 01£ theseresult in committing crimes of theft, ad.ultery~ and a hostile attitude towards, sodety, Then we also

find that imperialist 'no· ~1IiJcCIo-r-C' m ·';::l·Y·: ~I~·,,"B. narcotics a,~ .", ·W- eap ·0-' iIiI, again ill 1,lll~olL ~' ~. }~ , '~' ,'~iIiI, I)A,~: ,i.1!'1.. ,~' » ¥Y ~ _ 0 - "':~,: ~,.:J!~l,. I~_~,'~~ 111. ,,'~.:3 'Ii"v,o. a" . ,1wU, -." '- .i.~ ~ _ .'U.II. I~

their enemies, with the purpose of causing instability, disso lu ti 0 Ill, and ,3 bating the sense of solidarity in the nation.

Th' i('I!:L ' ': f I. 'R 'm'"

, ,,'e d\~arl "ari: ..... J1!ll.mg,

As, fer the luiling in :[s'~,imj we have a consensus for prohi bi 'tio]} of intoxica tion and narcotics, AU5.h ~ says against wine:"

rW :;~~~;u' ,~J'f ~ ,~ ~~, '~~ ~~~1; ~ ~r u'L l:;t',t:, ~jr ~ "

t'[ ,..., ~t;: j<n 7Ft" ';;"11' ; ;r~~i~'" ~''''t:;r~,-: ":c?t: .... " j; ,'~ ~~ Jl' :J. ('1: r ~ .( # ,.t,~ ,~ ,r~..; ~I!;r' ~:" '~'I!l ,~,,~! ~, e..t i)~ :":~' -,;, ~'- ~.;t i~l w ~ --- ~-,

~ ... P--:!l ~'+ '_~ ,:1;;;,-""" ,-", ,"" .... <!'"

'" ~~, f~ ,~ ~,\ if;; ~~

(\iI'O' l.iI!. ,~,:r~ ~ 1', ~ r-' l't'~ ~ jl' I:I~ I li\. ~I\',!';J •• ,', il'p )'

; ,',I 1'0:11 WnO ~,II;inJ'C'. 'iRt;(J:xtcan,ts ': a', ~iI!n(-,s 6,,' - ir.hC;O'iti!~''£' W~n:N,S'" ~

iJlld,gtJm/)l~J and'AJ-,Am:ab, amI'A~,AlltblJ (ar.rtH"3JjD¥' aeelinc ,lu;;:l{; or decision) I.~' an tJ.'bnm'inatio'n ofShail(J'I:'~fJ (S(a,(fH,) iii'll liwo rk: S'tJ1 liPoid (strictly' Irlll) tid I' (alMnintlDon) ,in 'Jr.r toot 'yiJlI ImIY ,be slI'c'Ce'ssjill4' Shaitim (S«iiJII) WliUltS' ,o:"il' 1;0 exeite e1l17l#, lInd' hatr'ea between you Hit' in.lvx';;c,anI8 (oJt:Dlo,ie drin"L~) ,and' fJiaMiling, ,and' hinder ,QU Irom the ,rcm(1;mb,r6nc,~ "I AJz:lih ana ftom: .As".Saldt (the; pr'fl3er).~ So'.; ,,,iI' you riot tlen' (Jis,ttlin?U (.A]r.'M:ati:~la'll~ 90,~ '91'~)

'We also have the ,H'ad{th~ related by A'bu 'Diw11ld J'~A..lliih hns cursed wiue ~ th'tJrSe w,ko dri~k' it, or ~ffer it, .itspurC,f,Q3ie.r and seller, the ,one: who 'pfie:JJ$'fl3 it ~ whlQ asks it ~'() be 'pft!5LiSi;a:d,i' its carrie» ana ,d~'(! one I~t] whmn it is eamed: I ~ Alii fUf' narceties, we have jnnemerable ,f!i1d€thf; fb:rbJdmog them:

- N,a'f,cotrncs could be included under Khamr fw~ue), sincenarcotics inebriates the mind, and 'tilts ,rut away from its judicious nature. W',e have Al"':Bu~~iri 'and Muslim relating ruffir '~'Uma\[' Ibn AlKha !tai'b,. the Commander of the Believers ., who addressed the peQ!JP,~e~ while he 'was, 'standing' (nil the Jninbur (pulpit) of the; M:essenger of A~ailil 3~, saying, "Khamr (wine) is what inebriates the mind: ~~

A- . 'U' -8--' 1 'f ~~ ela d b ]' '"" Al d .dI A'!t., ...

s= _g,S,llfD, 1_ mID 'a aman '~ U re a.t,e( ,"y mam , ]'m,a:~, l,tl.,M"I(jU,

D:§,~vUd, said, "The Messenger o,f .An:i'~ :3 bas forbidden evervthine thatintoxicates or ~41m,'iYalshes ,,, 'Oi[ course narcotics

"_ '_" '.&.,/1 -. ,. ~.- . " .. ,'., - .-. '.,' . .- ~"!_,,," _._!-:... ~ '_c., __ .. ~:- _.1~ ' __ 1 .,", .. - .• ,I

am to be: Ineluded here, sinee d~.ey ha ve both. pernicious effects,

- They are also included under the word, "vicious things" ,kluwa '(it h

in the words at Allah ~, about the Prophet,

"'- I'" ~"''''''' Jo ,0 ,~1-::, '" .,,r:!'" '" ,,," '" nr JIi J! i ~ ,..... 1 ..

'~ L"'i--fiJ! ~' t~J ~,=-",,~,'-~I ~ ~'J Y

,U He ,trJlo"s' ti,aM ,(!slawjil"l A t- Tajryibat {{i.e',~ (;I'lrg(J~d and I.lI,~ft'l) ,as r-egtlftlf tiling's, dte'ils, ,leJiefif, person's, foods) ,I' ami pr,QI,ibib' IlUJm ,(IS II,fjiQJNifC>l1 AI-KlNl/)ti~i,:t,' (i.e'~ all e~J,il' (ljj,d' tI.'rJ'laj~Jill' Q;S t'egu'Iitis tlli'ngs~, de'eits" !Nj.,lie/s"e.r!iO'1IS, 1()(}tI;1)~,.,.;~ (AI-A'[iif 157)

Here we ha ve again the Prophet ,t!$~ as related by A~lnad. and Ibn Mijah: UN{} harn~~ Q'I$a no ,reciprocating irljury. s»

EU'Ceti:ve Trea tnle:m!t

- Righteous Education

- A voiding causes,

~, Punishment fa,r perpetrators

R~gb:~ei;JilJs Edll(ath;n~,

Refigious upbringing is represented by belief ,~l1J AHrth, ~~ nee this ]~ a basic; element ill tU]]ca~ reeonstructi on and upbringing, ,A relevan t example is that of the pagan Arabs, who wer-e addicted '~Q wine before ls]:am,; and, thelr versatlle poetry about intoxication is abundant, I r owever, once 'they embraced IsHlm and devo1!1:dy accepted its prohibitions, they quite voluntarily pou red out their.

,..lI b '~ f . . 1)",' f M d'" til,. M ..JII

prC'Sierveu . a(nc~~,s 0'- WI.!H,e mto the streets 0- ..... a :lniHI,~_l,..oUe,F']]

societies art'; strongly recommended '~O realize how devoted 'we' should. be to the values of isUlim and its characteristic rules ~o'r' righteous 1]. p bringing,

A:Yoiding Causes,

Anattack on addiction sbould primarily be the responsibility 0 f the S~Rte", Here, selling and buying all ~H:rr~s ,of intoxica ots should. be prohi bited by competent authorities, thus lea ving no means fo,:r' addicts to obtain them,

PU'I1llisitnneJll:t

Of course we know that Islam has prescribed :forci.'b~e penalties

for druukardsIebout 40=80 ~asl1e:s). Penalties may also be through lmpfrruso'nment~ fine:s~ or eonfisca ti on",

4. Pmni"1Ji~,y ,and Sod.omy

These represen t two lOll the most dangerous sins committed by adolescen ts and youth :in general; and we know how ID,=:!lIlJY adolescents bave fallen into these sinful acts, due to the aegligence of fathers, and educators, 'We will deal with these problems as, follows:

Am Harmful effects C~ Treatment

:Ef'Eecm

Such grievous sins result in maJ.D.Y venereal diseases: gonorhea, 8yphilrns and other infectious diseases Here we have the l!adi th. of the M,e.ssenger of A1Ulh ~ related by' Ibn MijaJ1.~ Bazzar and A'~Ba'Yhaq[i~ 1'~Noiwhere are obscenities rampan: o vertiy, ~he,n comes t.h'e sp"reado/, epiide'1nJes ,and m'aladies that were n'e'~,er found before. }~.

Sodal~ Eddea1 ,aJD,d PsycJnilllQgic91 EOiecm

In the s G;cj,ru~,. ethical and psychological matters; tbe harmful ,efiects ()f these crimes lead to confounded ancestries, dissolution, and the dismem berment of families,

The s7Ul¥I~~h Riling

Th-e ruling of Shar-.{r.ah ~ definite prohibi tion 'by the CCH1.SenSUS of jurists and legal theorists. Such a. prohibition is clearly stated in. the: words of AUill f~:

'1; ~~ ~t ~1 'r~' Ji ~ 5J~ 't; ~\~ ~! ~f 2 0~ -1 ;;J~ ,~ ~ &JJ!.

~1A.tuJ tlwlJt W.lfD .i'nvoke: 1I.,ot I~ny otller'ilai (I}od) eUtJ'ng witl;: Alld"~, no« ,kill ~fle' perS61J lIS .Alliil;: '(l8Io.,mdd-{m~! e.x'C1e.pt f()r.il.l~t ,€:tlNse" no,r co'mait ille,gaJ ,s8x~,tll :i"tel-vo,'fl,rs,t! - and w/,oe'lii'er il~.s t.hi~'i1 shall t'lr1ccsi1'6 ~i.. - ,. ,iL· t U {' ·01.·1 F ~. £'Q'\

tne ,punISI,rMJ!-n.· '1I.,ff-t - . urqan, II.!! ~,

Al-B,utb~d and Muslim reported that the Prophet 13 said, <IAn adulterer does no t {JC01fl'J'n'il a4td:l'e,ry except when he fa ,,1.0' longe" a believer, ~'~

As for sodomy, here we have thewcrds of AUlh m,:

~ 6Ji&> ~ ~1 J' ~;zi ~ ~J ~ ~ ~ ~Ji; ,

H .,.16,., '~~l8~~n .~"i'~-'Mj.~, .~'I,,~j,,",D;~ .4 i~A.'r.:J,,"'.'J,'~' , .... I!',\t;I!,.;(I',If.AI,"'r' ,j"~ ... , '~~\,;";,ilii tn~,~. "IV".J!1III"Jll,,"

,.tJ,il}luli '~g; lJI![; rl;,lJl!l;illil~ c: !l'5I1~lU~\iI1~' ~I,~'I~"",N r~wtJ! ~if ~y..J ~!I:' J ~lR' .T !I;J.'~, ,~ ~ f.1~ ,:,;r U'iA~r-

wi'IP'es?' Nrq',. yo,,, are a tyosfJQ.'s~ing pelJple/,;'j'" (A~h~SbiJl],!'ar,~! l66)

We: also 'have ill the Ffadith related by ,A'~-,~aJdm that the Prophet. ~ said, "Tbe most d'·c.ad,ful ,t;'hing thar 1 fear its pun.i.shme," t most' is the crimes of' the h(Ju,~e.hotd of L.u~' (s,odom;v). or course the .sIUltiah' has its prescribed punishments. F'oT adultery the 'two puni shments are:

1; Flo'ggb1Jg: of a 1 00 hush~-s and, banishment, forAJlih says:

~ "',~ b~'·.,...... n.;.~, ~.1-" ,"- ......... ~. ;.i~ .. ' 'ti" .,,~""" <r,; .... ~,,,, ~.' ,.

~~ ~:. J lj':b t, ~ti:]j :~, :t~, ~ ~) J ~~~'i ,~11~1J ~l)!'

;r ri"'r:"~ ,~. . - ~ J.. - '.'.J!"'" '- ~ L~- ~ "

'~~'T:he; mo:mWl and tie M"~ guiltY' ,olllleg!M. sexual ,in,tei,,'Co"~~e,flof ,eacll '1 durin with d' lIunlrtd !ifri,aSl., Let Dot pity ~itMtJld' ,0," in tlleir ICa$e,~ i'n a JJu'nislun~rJ~ l!r,jJscr,iied, ~Y' Alli".,~,.,J::i (An-Nir~ 2)

2, Stoning is the punishment for a married man, or woman, as attested by 'many authentic Had:{tks,.

Punishment for sodomy; Here' we 'halve this. sta temeat by Ala Bagb;~w'i~ "Scholars havediffered ,;1 bout puni~d\ment for sodomy; some say dna t the punishment here is the same as for ad ultery: if the person is married, then he is, to be stoned; but if the person is not married, then th~~;ru.tlJJis;hme{!lt is a hundred lashes, aJ:1IJd this Js the most acceptable of two, statemen ts by Ash=Shifi,!t ~'~

Some schol ars including M:ilik and A'~mad, see tb211~ a sodomist sbou[d be stoned, whether married or unmarsied. Another opinion of A,sb .. ;Sl1J;ifJj!t ]S that bethactive ,and. 'neg:atl:ve' perpetrators are to be: k]U~d(O. The Hanafi schoo:[ says that the punishment is ta1zf,

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