Sidang Penyunting

JURNAL ILMIAH PSIKOLOGI INDUSTRI DAN ORGANISASI

Pelindung:
Rektor Universitas Mercu Buana
Ketua Umum Asosiasi Psikologi Industri dan Organisasi (APIO-HIMPSI)

Pengarah:
Dekan Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Mercu Buana

Ketua Penyunting:
Juneman Abraham, S.Psi., C.W.P., M.Si.

Penyunting Eksekutif:
Sharron

Mitra Bebestari:
Prof. Dr. Fendy Suhariadi (Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia)
Prof. Dr. Murnizam Hj. Halik (Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia)
Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra (Zhejiang University, Republik Rakyat Tiongkok)
Prof. Dr. Moch. Enoch Markum (Universitas Mercu Buana Jakarta, Indonesia)
Dr. Phil. Hana Rochani G. Panggabean (Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya, Indonesia)
Dr. H. A. A. Anwar Prabu Mangkunegara, M.Si. (Universitas Mercu Buana Jakarta, Indonesia)


Jurnal Ilmiah Psikologi Industri dan Organisasi (JPIO) merupakan sebuah jurnal yang menggelorakan riset,
pertukaran akademis dan praktek profesional yang berkenaan dengan persoalan-persoalan psikologis industri dan
organisasi. Jurnal ini mengapresiasi integrasi interdisiplin antara psikologi industri dan organisasi dengan ilmu-
ilmu sosial lainnya sebagai salah satu pendekatannya.

JPIO didirikan di Jakarta dengan Surat Keputusan Dekan Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Mercu Buana Jakarta No.
21/059/F-SKep/XI/2012. Selanjutnya, pada 17 November 2012, telah ditandatangani Nota Kesepahaman tentang
Kerjasama antara Asosiasi Psikologi Industri dan Organisasi-Himpunan Psikologi Indonesia (APIO-PP HIMPSI)
dengan FPsi UMB dalam rangka penerbitan JPIO. JPIO terbit setiap Juni dan Desember dalam setahun.

Sidang Penyunting JPIO hanya menerima artikel hasil penelitian empiris. Setiap artikel yang masuk dikenai proses
blind peer review oleh mitra bebestari. Panduan bagi penulis dapat diunduh pada
http://www.jpio.org/jpio_template.doc

Jurnal Ilmiah Psikologi Industri dan Organisasi (JPIO)
ISSN 2302-8440
UNIVERSITAS MERCU BUANA, FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
KAMPUS A MERUYA
Jl. Raya Meruya Selatan No. 01, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11650
Tel. +6221-5840816 (hunting), +6282112655387 Fax. +6221-5840815
http://www.jpio.org ; http://fpsi.mercubuana.ac.id ; http://apioindonesia.wordpress.com
E-mail: penyunting@jpio.org; juneman@gmail.com

Daftar Isi

Sidang Penyunting

Daftar Isi

Exit Interview and Self-disclosure: How Employees Reveal Personal
Information and Feeling as They Leave the Organization
Gita Widya Laksmini Soerjoatmodjo

Coping Stress among the Seafarers: How Does Emotional Intelligence Give
Effects?
Rini Nurahaju & Nurul Sih Widanti

Relationship between Employee’s Attitude Towards Safety Talk and Intention
to Apply Safety and Health at Workplace
Nikmawati & Fitri Arlinkasari

The Correlation between Job Insecurity and Organizational Commitment of
Outsourcing Employee
Wayan Pertiwi Artha Sari & Dewi Soerna Anggraeni

Building Organizational Culture Based on Competing Value Framework to
Gain Competitive Advantage
Helliyani Esterina Hakh, Ikram Fatahillah, & Wustari L. H. Mangundjaya

Effects of Perceived Organizational Support as Moderator Variable on
Correlation between Self-Efficacy and Procrastination
Kristiana Dewayani & Indah Cahyati

Factors Influencing the Success of Creative Industry Business in Jakarta
Benedicta Prihatin Dwi Riyanti, Ati Cahyani, & Bambang Sungkowo


Panduan Bagi Penulis

Indeks Vol. 1




i
ii
69-78
78-89
90-95
96-102
103-116
117-127
128-139
JPIO ISSN 2302-8440
2014, Vol. 1, No. 2






Exit Interview and Self-disclosure: How Employees
Reveal Personal Information and Feeling as They
Leave the Organization

Gita Widya Laksmini Soerjoatmodjo
Department of Psychology, Pembangunan Jaya University

Improving employee relations for a better organizational climate can be
approached in many ways, including by focusing on those who choose to
leave the organization for various reasons. One way is conducting exit
interview – an exchange of information between a representative of an
organization and an employee who is leaving the organization. When
conducted properly, it can serve as useful tools for improving people and
the organization, as well as turnover reduction and retention tactic.
Hence, it should be implemented as a part of the overall human resources
management process. However exit interview is questionable in many
situations. It is because exiting employees are reluctant to reveal their
personal information and feeling, known as self-disclosure. In this
research, semi-structure interviews are conducted to former employees of
an organization on their experience in participating in exit interviews. The
quality and texture of self-disclosure process experienced by each
individual is captured through interpretative phenomenology analysis.
Findings of this qualitative research identify themes disclosed by these
former employees in their exit interviews and the process they
experienced. It is hope that this research would contribute to better
understanding on exit interviews and on how to improve employee
relationship and organizational climate.

Keywords: exit interview, interpretative phenomenology analysis, self-
disclosure

According to Mitchell, Brooks, and Lee
(2001), there are many reasons why people
voluntarily leave organizations - or in another
word, resign. Such decision falls under the
broad term of turnover, defined by Stovel and
Bontis (2002) as the rotation of workers around
the labor market – between firms, jobs and
occupations and between the states of
employment and unemployment. Specifically
on employee’s decision to resign, or voluntary
turnover, Mitchell, Brooks, and Lee (2001)
view that job satisfaction and job alternatives
are two major factors identified as its main
causes.
When an employee chooses to leave his or
her organization, some organizations engage
with him or her for the last time through exit
interview. An exit interview, according to Zima
69
JPIO ISSN 2302-8440
2014, Vol. 1, No. 2, 69-78

70 SOERJOATMODJO
(1983) and to Goodale (1982) as stated in
Robyn (2006), is an exchange of information
between a representative of an organization and
an employee who is leaving the organization.
Exit interviewees usually done to employees
who voluntarily quit instead of those who are
fired or laid off (Meyer & Krug, 2007). In the
cases of voluntary and involuntary turnover,
exit interview gives both the organization and
the employee the opportunity to explore and
exchange information for mutual understanding
of the terms, condition and any possible
options. In some cases of involuntary departure,
Cox and Dufault (1996) note that exit interview
gives the employee an opportunity to learn the
causes and reasons for the organization’s
decision and any possible implication for the
future. The only time exit interview is not
recommended to use, according to Shlosberg
(2010), is when the terminations are heated.
In general, according to Giacalone, Knouse,
and Pollard (1999), exit interviews may provide
information for the organization for three
distinct purposes: diagnosis and strategy (to
ascertain the reasons for problems), for public
relations (to provide separating personnel the
opportunity to raise issues that are important to
them), and for personal reasons (to provide an
area for personnel to voice frustration). The first
objective of exit interview, as elaborated by
Cox and Dufault (1996), is to inform or confirm
the decision to an employment relationship. The
second objective is to explore and clarify the
reasons and conditions, options and terms to
reach the most satisfactory conclusion. This,
according to Cox and Dufault (1996) includes
what type of references the employee may
expect to receive, any outplacement assistance
or continuation of certain benefits, effective
date, severance payment, remaining vacation
entitlement, transfer of insurance coverage or
pension funds, et cetera.
Shlosberg (2010) argues, when conducted
properly, exit interviews can serve as great tools
for improving the organization. Simone (2010)
notes that the information gleaned from an exit
interview can be applied to solve problems that
may exist within the practice. It is because exit
interviews, according to Meyer and Krug
(2007), offer an opportunity to find out
information that otherwise might be more
difficult or impossible to obtain. Exit interview
can provide a good mechanism to take a hard
look at how the organization is perceived, as
explained Meyer and Krug (2007). Because the
employee is leaving, Giacalone, Knouse, and
Pollard (1999) argues that he or she should be
particularly candid about presenting thoughts
and impressions about the organization without
the fear of repercussion that a continuing
employee might feel when talking about the
organization. This would make an employee to
be more open and frank in their discussions
about the company, according to Meyer and
Krug (2007). This is considered a valuable
piece of information because, according to
Tyson and Schnell (2012), a current employee
may be reluctant to provide such insights.
Exit interview, according to Simone (2010),
also serves as an excellent retention tactic for
future employees. Hence, Shlosberg (2010)
argues, it should be implemented as a part of
the overall human resources management
process. Weber (2013) suggests that
information obtained from exit interview can be
entered into a database to help human resources
leaders to identify trends, for example in
compensation issues or whether employees are
leaving in large numbers for particular
competitors. Complaints about a particular

EXIT INTERVIEW 71

colleague or manager, according to Weber
(2013), can be used for the organization to
provide feedback or coaching.
It should be noted that while some departing
employees might use this opportunity to be
completely honest with their employers –
others, however, according to Smith (2013),
might be less candid. According to LaFarge
(1994) in June (2009), circumstances play a role
in determining how honest exiters are during
their departure. As Duhon and Giacalone (1991)
explain, quoted by June (2009), employee
would be most reluctant to discuss topics that
they feel most uncomfortable about, and more
likely to openly discuss topics that they feel
positively about.
Givens-Skeaton (2004) in June (2009)
elaborates further that this depends on types of
information with regard to the degree of
sensitivity and degree of threat. In low
sensitivity issues and low threat conditions,
participants did not expect disclosure of
information would result in harm to the
departing employee. This research also
concludes that participant’s perceptions of
sensitivity and threat did impact their
willingness to disclose during the exit interview
process. The average participant in this study
indicated a greater willingness to disclose non-
sensitive or non-threatening topics such as job
context issues. This study also indicates that
departing employees are less likely to discuss
personal or confidential information or topics
that may get them into trouble.
In the article written by Smith (2013), it
states that when it comes to exit interview, the
general rule is if one does not have anything
nice to say, then one should lie. According to
Smith (2013), one should be “honest but don’t
be too honest.” Furthermore, Smith (2013)
suggests that one should stick to official
business as much as possible, and if criticism
must be provided, one should proceed with tact
and caution. Smith (2013) elaborates this
further – it means letting the human resources
department know the positives and negatives
without hurting personal reputation or
jeopardizing the chance of getting the company
reference. Because of these points to ponder, it
is no surprise that the exit interview, according
to Zima (1983), is frequently a difficult one to
conduct.
Fitz-enz (2010) concludes in his research
that the validity of exit interview information is
certainly questionable in many situations. It is
uncommon for employees to be hesitant to tell
the complete truth, for fear of burning bridges.
Others just aren’t willing to spend the time to
provide an understanding of why they are
leaving. Moreover, the numbers of people who
leave in a given area may be too small to
provide more than a glimpse of what is
happening in the department that is
experiencing turnover.
If employee do not give accurate
information in the exit interview, even if the
information is fully utilized, attempts to reduce
employee turnover based on the information
will be somewhat ineffective, Robyn (2006)
argues, as the decisions will be based on
inaccurate and unreliable data that would
ultimately lead to ineffective human resource
practices. To encourage candor, Weber (2013)
argues, one can assure departing employees that
their answers are confidential and can help the
company make positive change. Meyer and
Krug (2007) suggest that the interview should
be performed in a private area to ensure
confidentiality. The interview should listen
carefully, avoid making assumptions and avoid

72 SOERJOATMODJO
engaging the person in an argument. Redman
and Wilkinson (2002) also suggest that exit
interviews should not be carried out by the
resignee’s immediate line manager, should not
take place on the last day of work and should
only proceed once assurances of confidentiality
have been given and probably the best approach
is to focus questions on ways in which the
organization’s management practices could be
improved in the future.
From the above mentioned elaboration, it is
clear that self-disclosure plays a part in
determining whether one opens up during the
exit interview. Self-disclosure is described by
Chelune (1987) as the process of revealing
personal information about oneself to another.
Self-disclosure, according to Farber (2006),
reflects decisions one made about the
boundaries the private self and the outer world
that revolves around a basic question: what
elements of our private world will we express to
the outer world? Farber (2006) furthermore
suggests that self-disclosure involves
negotiating an appropriate balance between the
helpfulness of sharing a part of ourselves with
another and the inappropriateness or even
danger of overdoing it, perhaps sharing too
much too soon. For self-disclosure to be
successful, useful or even meaningful,
according to Argyle, Furnham and Graham
(1999), it must be carried out at the right time,
in the right situation and to the right people.
In the work context, self-disclosure clearly
occurs during employment interviews. It can be
said that self-disclosure of personal revelations
by interviewees are an integral part, and may
reasonably be said, to be the primary focus of
employment interviews (Tardy & Dindia,
2006). The standard script for employee
interview includes a section where questions are
asked about the applicant’s personal,
educational and work history. An in-depth look
would reveal that what happens in employment
interview as one starts to join the organization
also takes place in exit interview as one is on
his or her way leaving the organization.
Therefore, attempts to maximize the
usefulness of exit interviews can be achieved by
encouraging self-disclosure of the exiters.
Feldmand and Klaas (1999) also show that
individuals are more likely to self-disclose their
reasons for departure when: (1) exit interview
data are treated confidentially and fed back in
aggregate form, (2) employees are protected
from supervisor retaliation in the form of
negative recommendations, and (3)
organizations have previously fixed problems
systematically raised in exit interviews.
Considering the above mentioned
elaboration, research question for this writing is
formulated as follow: When individuals are
experiencing exit interview, how do they
exercise self-disclosure in revealing personal
information and feeling? This writing aims to
explore and articulate the meanings and themes
that emerge from the personal experience of the
individuals when they disclose information
about themselves in exit interviews. The writing
hopes to contribute to the understanding of how
employee opens up in self-disclosure during
exit interview as they are leaving the
organization, what information they decide to
reveal or not to reveal and why, as well as
factors they identify as accommodative to self-
disclosure. Findings captured from this research
are hoped to equip human resource personnel in
organizations with sensitivity in implementing
exit interview in order to gain maximum self-
disclosure.


EXIT INTERVIEW 73

Methods

To answer the above mentioned research
question, this research adopts qualitative
research design, specifically interpretative
phenomenological analysis. Interpretative
phenomenological analysis is a qualitative
research approach committed to the
examination of how people make sense of their
major life experiences (Smith, Flowers &
Larkin, 2009). Smith, Flowers, and Larkins
(2009) furthermore explores that when people
are engaged with ‘an experience’ of something
major in their lives, they begin to reflect on the
significance of what is happening and IPA
research aims to engage with these reflections.
The aim of interpretative phenomenological
analysis, according to Smith and Osborn
(2008), is to explore in detail how participants
are making sense of their personal and social
world in a particular context by studying the
meanings particular experiences, events or
objects, perceptions and states held by the
participants as they are exploring their personal
experience.
Tools used for this purpose is semi-
structured interview done with 4 research
participants of male individuals working as
staff-level in their prime adulthood stage (28-41
years old) who left the same organization due to
low job satisfaction and/or the availability of
job alternatives and underwent exit interviews
as they were leaving the organization. As
suggested by Smith and Osborn (2008), a
reasonably homogenous pool of participants is
identified through purposive sampling. Such
small-sized participants are allowed in
qualitative research design, especially in
interpretative phenomenological analysis, as the
purpose is to capture the essential sense making
of the participating subjects in details.
Face-to-face interviews are done throughout
September 2013. At that time, participants are
already disengaged from the organization for at
least one month. Duration of the interviewees
around 45-60 minute. The interviews are
transcribed and analyzed. Themes explored in
the interview comprises of: (1) Exit interview
and reflection on how subjects felt and think
when experiencing exit interview; (2)
Information revealed and did not reveal during
exit interview and factors influencing subjects’
decision to reveal or not to reveal information
during exit interview, and (3) Reflection on the
experience of exit interview, whether the
subjects assess exit interview as useful to the
organization and themselves.
In implementing interpretative
phenomenological analysis, researcher follows
the key stages of analysis as proposed by Storey
(2007, in Pearce, Filep, & Ross, 2011): (1)
Initial readings of the transcripts in order to find
coherent meaning and themes, (2) Identifying
and labeling themes, (3), Linking themes, (4)
Producing a summary table of themes with
illustrative quotation.
In order to do so, researcher first transcribed
the interviews and analyzed individually in
sequences by marking relevant items,
identifying emerging themes and noting
connections. Constant reflection and re-
examination of the transcripts was utilized to
ensure that themes and connections are related
to each other. Researcher also takes out
particular passages to highlight the themes
identified from the text.

Results and Discussion


74 SOERJOATMODJO
Participants of this research are identified in
the table below. Based on roles and
responsibilities they carried out in the
organization, all research participants
experienced exit interview conducted by
different representatives of the organization
from managerial or human resources
development-related positions. While details
regarding time, venue and interviewer of the
exit interviews including the manners of how
interviews were done vary from one subject to
another, the purpose remains similar. Subjects
of this research are identified in the table below.

Table 1. Research Subject
No. Name Gender
Duration of stay in the
organization
1. Subject 1 Male 30 months
2. Subject 2 Male 24 months
3. Subject 3 Male 28 months
4. Subject 4 Male 16 months

Findings of this research are as follow.
Participants are asked about their exit interview
experience and how they reflect on it. One first
prominent theme that emerged is that exit
interview is an emotional and personal moment.
Subject 1 uses the word ‘relieved’ to describe
the sense of closure of the exit interview he
experienced.
All participants are aware of the intense
feeling arising from the process. The
participants also find that affective tone of the
exit interview experience is lasting, as indicated
by vivid and detailed description, not only the
chronology of the exit interview but also the
emotional aspects of the process. While the
feeling is expressed from the description
offered by the participants, the emotions
themselves are varied - from relieved to upset,
from positive to negative emotions, depending
on the reasons of leaving the organization.
In making sense of the experience,
participants relate their emotional description of
the exit interview process with the overall
experience of being members of the
organization. The impression captured is during
the exit interview, whether it is positive or
negative, is then generalized by participants to
conclude their personal evaluation of the
organization. In other words, for them, the final
call of exit interview becomes the emotional
embodiment of the whole working experience
of the organizations.
For Subject 3, this is encapsulated in the
statement below:
“When I was informed that I was given the
opportunity of exit interview, at first I was glad
because I had a lot to say regarding
organizational problems. Then I realized that
this was all just formality. I felt this whole exit
interview was just a joke… Personally, the exit
interview makes me glad I left because I just did
not want to spend my time working for an
organization that is essentially a joke.”
Regarding the information revealed in the
exit interview and why participants choose to
open up about it, participants reflect the notion
of leaving a legacy, making it the second theme
emerging from the research findings. When
deciding to make their inner feelings and
thoughts known during exit interviews,
participants choose to share information they
view as important memento, something they
leave behind that the organization must know
and acknowledge, must pay attention to, must
act on it and learn from it and must make future
improvements based on it. The information
varies from positive to negative, yet it
represents something of high priorities
according to the participants.
Subject 2 reflects such notion of urgencies
captured in the following statement:

EXIT INTERVIEW 75

“In the exit interview, I clearly state what I
believe as the core problems of the organization
that led me to the decision to leave. I don’t
know whether the organization can do anything
about the problems, but at least I put the
problems on the record to make sure they are
documented. I want to make sure that I put the
evidence on paper…Someday, somehow, I am
sure, they will emerge to the surface.”
The following statement is taken from
Subject 2 that illustrates how he makes sense of
the exit interview as leaving a legacy.
“I choose to be clear about the core
organizational problem from my point of view
because I feel I am bound by my moral
obligation to tell them the truth and to put
everything in writing. I feel that if I did not do
that, then what is left from me as an individual?
… It is part of my dignity to take a stand and
say everything as it is.”
In different words, Subject 4 explains how
he makes sense of the information he reveals
during the exit interview in the statement
below:
“I work here for quite sometime and I take my
part in building and nurturing this organization
…By opening up my insight about the
organizational problems from my point of view,
I hope I can still contribute to its improvement.”
On the other hand, participants also choose
not to reveal certain information during exit
interviews. Things they opt not to disclose are
issues they themselves are uncomfortable to
talk about. Participants are aware of the
importance as well as the urgency of the matters
to the organization. They also understand that
the purpose of the exit interview is for the
organization to capture what needs to be fixed.
However, they choose to maintain the sense of
personal comfort over organizational interests.
Moreover, the element of doubt also comes to
play. This relates to the emotional aspect of exit
interview process to the participants, leading to
their decision to pick and choose issues to talk
about based on their level of comfortableness.
On why some issues are not revealed in the
exit interview, Subject 1 offers his views on his
sense-making insights of the process:
“I am fully aware that I withheld some
information regarding organizational problems.
It is because I am not sure that it would be
useful for me to reveal that particular
information because I think it is either unlikely
or impossible for the organization to address
such concerns… I am not sure that my
information would be executable in the
organizational context.”
Subject 1 elaborates further on the feeling of
doubt, uncertainty, being uncomfortable as well
as inappropriateness in his sense-making
process of the reflection, marking it as the third
theme emerging from these research findings.
Based on his exit interview experience, this is
his personal account in the following words:
“I can’t help feeling uncomfortable to reveal
such problems because somehow I don’t want to
hurt their feelings. It is because through the
months I spent in the organization, I began to
know them as fellow human beings and
understood why they behaved the way they did
and the context of their decisions… On the other
hand, I am also a person who is sensitive about
employee-employer power relation and also,
they are much older than I am. It was difficult
for me to shake that feeling away.”
When they reflect on the exit interview they
undertook, even though Subject 2 sees it as ‘too
little too late’, most participants view that it is
important both for their own personal growth as
individuals as well as for the development of
the organization in the future. Exit interview,
according to Subject 1, ‘puts a human face onto
the organization.’ On the other hand, in terms of
personal growth, participants view the exit

76 SOERJOATMODJO
interview is a validation of who they are as
professional individuals, a positive one to some
participants and a negative validation to others.
Participants however, put emphasis on how
the exit interview is done. In the words
expressed by Subject 3, ‘it would be much
better to have no exit interview at all, rather
than having poor one.’ Other participants
confirm that the effectiveness of the exit
interview is heavily dependent on the manner
and approach taken in the exit interview.
Subject 1 goes further by mentioning that the
exit interview would be effective if it is done by
a third party the subject is not familiar with.
Furthermore, even though they understand
that exit interview can be useful for the
organizational and personal interests, yet the
temporalities of the immediate time and space
context of the process impact to their comfort
level outweigh their decision. This is related to
the emotional nature of the process, the long-
lasting perception of the legacy of information
revealed during the exit interview and the
importance of personal comfort on the last
couple of days as members of the organization.
Subject 3 offers his insight as he makes
sense of his exit interview process through his
reflection described in the following words:
“I think exit interview has all the potentials to
give human resource personnel high-quality
information that could not be obtained during
the period of time when one is still employed by
the organization. How can one be completely
free in describing the existing organizational
problems if one still has to work there
everyday?”
Subject 2 also conveys similar message, by
highlighting the diagnostic purpose of exit
interview:
“If I were a human resource personnel, I would
document all the information gathered during
the exit interview to address the problems of the
organization. If certain information regarding
certain individuals piles up from one exit
interview to another, it indicates chronic
problems in the organization.”
In addition, Subject 3 highlights how exit
interviews can be made effective, based on his
reflection of taking one himself. Below is how
he elaborates his arguments.
“When documented and analyzed properly,
results from exit interview can offer such rich
data to work on. If I were a representative of the
organization, I would conduct the interview in
such a way so the person leaving the
organization would feel at ease to tell me all
about the problems in the organization. I would
dig for more valuable information to find out
what I can do to address the organizational
problems.”
Going back to the research question of this
writing, it can be identified from the emerging
themes captured in the finding that when
individuals are experiencing exit interview, they
exercise self-disclosure in revealing personal
information and feeling by putting emphasis on
the emotional nature of the process, the long-
lasting legacy of personal information and
feeling offered in the interview and their
comfort level assess throughout the process –
all depending on how the exit interview is
executed by representatives of the organization.

Conclusion

This research confirms that for self-
disclosure to be successful, useful or even
meaningful, according to Argyle, Furnham, and
Graham (1999), it must be carried out at the
right time, in the right situation and to the right
people. In the case of exit interview, employees
leaving the organization are disclosing

EXIT INTERVIEW 77

themselves to representatives of the
organization, in the office setting and during
work hours. The ‘professional’ context of exit
interview is in vis-à-vis relation with the
‘personal’ nature of the information of thoughts
and feelings to be revealed in the process.
During the moments of departing from the
organization, participants clearly perceived the
professional-personal contrast nature that
influence their decision to pick and choose
things they open up as they go along the
interview.
Due to the emotional nature of the process,
the importance of maintaining certain level of
comfortableness as they navigate this affect-
toned moment and the awareness of the long-
term legacy they left behind to the organization,
participants make decisions as they go through
the interview. It means that even though they
have a lot to say, they may stick with the
diplomatic cliché – if they judge the process as
ineffective. On the other hand, they may have
the intention not to disclose anything, yet if the
exit interview process is done properly,
participants may decide to open up themselves
and offer valuable information to future
improvement of the organization.
In his research, Fitz-enz (2010) concludes
that the validity of exit interview information is
certainly questionable in many situations. Based
on findings captured from the description of the
sense-making undertaken by the participants
conveyed through their reflection of their lived
experience of the process, this research argues
that by bearing in mind the way participants
self-disclose themselves during exit interview,
the validity is very much determined by the way
the exit interview is carried out by the
representatives of the organization.
In other words, it is the representative of the
organization themselves who are key
determining factors to ensure that exit
interviews information for diagnosis and
strategy, public relation purposes and for
personal reasons by providing an area for
personnel to voice frustration. To conclude,
well-executed exit interview by representatives
of the organization is key in capturing issues to
be improved, which serves as feedback to the
organization to improve employee relations for
a better organizational climate.

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Publication.

COPING STRESS 109

Coping Stress among the Seafarers: How Does
Emotional Intelligence Give Effects?

Rini Nurahaju & Nurul Sih Widanti
Hang Tuah University


The purpose of this study was to determine how the effect of Emotional
Quotient (EQ) on Coping Stress among the seafarers - in this case the
student/cadet cruise Diploma Program (PDP) that has been UHT sailing
practice. This research is a quantitative correlation. Referred as the
Emotional Quotient (EQ) is the degree of ability to know yourself and
what other people feel, including the proper way to handle a problem that
is owned by a sailor. While the definition of the Coping stress (CS) is an
attempt by the sailors to deal with stress, which include management,
adaptation, management actions, reactions, and certain strategies when
carrying out the task of sailing. Results from this study is the correlation
coefficient between the EQ and the CS of 0.842. The magnitude of the
effect of variable EQ on CS was 71% while the remaining 29% is
explained by other variables not examined by the authors. This explains
that emotional intelligence has a significant effect on coping stress sailors
during his sail.

Keywords: emotional quotient, coping stress, seafarers
The sea is the future of Indonesia. We must
work hard to restore the glory as maritime
nation. National development orientation that
focuses on the maritime approach is absolutely
necessary. Each year, maritime industry still
requires a lot of manpower. Thus the field of
shipping and seafarers becomes a strategic
profession in Indonesia.
University of Hang Tuah as a private
university that based on maritime as its vision
has Maritime Diploma Program (PDP) that
provides shipping education. PDP has three
departments of Nautical, technical and
commercial shipping management. In their last
semester, students majoring Nautical and
technical must implement the sailing task for
about 1 year as part of the curriculum that
should be taken.
The sailing task is not a job that can be done
by each student without any load, because each
individual has a different psychological
characteristic. However, a variety of conditions
that can cause tension when doing the sailing
task tends to be quite high that can become
problems for certain individuals. The magnitude
of the risk of a job can be trigger that caused
stress for executing the work, including for
students of PDP UHT when implementing their
79
JPIO ISSN 2302-8440
2014, Vol. 1, No. 2, 79-89

80 NURAHAJU & WIDANTI
sailing task. In this case, emotional intelligence
has high influences on how a person acts, either
on his own or when interacts with other people.
Emotion also often inhibits a person in facing
the challenges. Fears of what will happen,
anxiety, and anger towards the changes that can
hinder a person to confront pressures and
changes. It related to the uncertainty situation
on the sea, physically, personally and socially.
Ability to manage emotions is related to the
ability to manage the relationship between the
personal that is an important requirement for the
success of a person in many aspects of his life.
Emotion management ability is known as
emotional intelligence or Emotional Quotient
(EQ). Goleman (2000) described the emotional
intelligence as the capacity for recognizing our
own feelings and also others, the ability to
motivate oneself and the ability to manage
emotions well, and also in conjunction with
others.

Definition of Coping Stress
Coping derived from the word cope means
to obstruct, resist, or overcome (Mu'tadin,
2002). In other words, the process of coping
with stress is an individual effort to handle and
control the situation due to the stress of pressing
issues at hand, by way of cognitive and
behavioral changes in order to gain a sense of
security in him. Terry and Haynes (in
Kurniawati, 2006) gives a brief definition of
coping is a strategy used by individuals with the
ultimate aim of reducing the effects of stress.
Haber and Runyon also added that coping is an
effort adjustment, rather than a traumatic event
or situation, but also the pressures that arise in
everyday life. Stone and Neale (in Lazarus &
Folkman et al., 1984) found a coping strategy in
the face of a person's behavior or pressure
problems. Chaplin (2001) defines coping
behavior as a behavior in which individuals
interact with the surrounding environment with
the aim of completing the task or problem. In
addition, Cohen (in Lazarus & Folkman, 1984)
adds that aim of coping behavior is to reduce
the environmental conditions painful, adjust to
events or negative realities, maintaining
emotional balance, maintain a positive self
image, as well as to continue the relationship
satisfactory with others.
From the opinions above, it can be
concluded that coping is an attempt to deal with
stress; such efforts may include management,
adaptability, management, actions, reactions,
and certain strategies. Stress here also seen as
something that requires or provides certain
pressure for individuals who experience it. It
can be concluded also that the definition of
coping stress proposed by the experts vary
widely. But at its core is a coping stress specific
activities carried out by these individuals, which
aims to eliminate or reduce the threats posed by
internal and external problems and adapt to the
negative realities, maintain emotional balance
and positive self-image, as well as continue
satisfactory relationships with others.

Forms of Coping Stress Strategies
Aldwin and Revenson developed the theory
of Folkman and Lazarus then also split form of
coping stress strategies into two, namely:
Problem Focused Coping (PFC). Problem
Focused Coping (PFC) is a real effort to address
the problem of individual behavior; pressure
and challenges, with difficulties changing
relationship with the environment may require
adaptation or also referred to external changes
(Lazarus & Folkman, 2005). This strategy had
an impact on the individual, the individual

COPING STRESS 81

changes or gain knowledge about the problems
he faced as the impacts of these issues, so that
people know the problems and the
consequences he faced. PFC is the main
orientation of coping stress is to find and
confront the subject matter by studying
strategies or new skills in order to reduce the
stressors faced and perceived. Individuals will
tend to use the PFC when he was sure would be
able to change the situation. According to
Lazarus et al (1984) indicator which shows the
orientation of the strategy are:
First, instrumental action (direct action).
Individuals doing business and solving
measures directed at solving problems directly
and to develop action plans and implement
them.
Second, cautiousness (prudence). Individual
thinking, reviewing and considering several
alternative solutions to problems, be careful in
deciding the issue, ask the opinion of others and
evaluate your strategy ever implemented
further.
Third, negotiation. Individuals discuss and
seek resolution with the other people involved
in it in the hope the problem can be resolved.
Based on the theories above, it can be
concluded that the aspect of coping that will
support the PFC is: (1) Instrumental action or
actions, (2) Cautiousness or prudence, and (3)
Negotiation or negotiation. PFC aspects
according Smet (1994), will be used as an
indicator to describe the coping stress by
sailors/students PDP while sailing.
Emotionally Focused Coping (EFC).
Emotionally Focused Coping (EFC) is an
attempt to seek and obtain a sense of comfort
and reduce perceived stress, which aimed to
transform themselves factors in the way of
looking at or interpreting environmental
situation, which requires adaptation called also
internal changes. EFC seeks to reduce, negate
the pressure, to reduce the burden of the
individual mind, but not on the actual
difficulties (Lazarus et al, 1984). According to
Lazarus, an indicator showing oriented strategy
are: (1) Escapism (escape from problems), (2)
Minimization (lighten the burden of the
problem), (3) Self Blame (blaming yourself),
and (4) Seeking Meaning (search for meaning).
Lazarus et al. (1984) said that when
individuals feel less able to face the problem
and deal with the situation then people would
tend to use the EFC. Conversely, if an
individual feels able to deal with the problem at
hand then the individual is likely to use a PFC.
Emotional Intelligence. Goleman (2000)
defined emotional intelligence as a self-
awareness, self-confidence, self-control,
commitment and integrity of the person, and the
person's ability to communicate, influence,
initiative and accept change. Goleman (2000)
gave the definition of emotional intelligence
refers to the capacity for recognizing our own
feelings and the feelings of others, the ability to
motivate oneself and the ability to manage
emotions well in ourselves and in conjunction
with others. Meanwhile, according to Anthony
Dio Martin (2003), in the context of the work,
emotional intelligence is the ability to know
what we and others feel, including the proper
way to handle problems. Based on those
descriptions, emotional intelligence defined as
the ability to manage emotions well in
oneselves and in relation with others, including
the proper way to handle the problems.

82 NURAHAJU & WIDANTI
Aspects of Emotional Intelligence. There are
several important aspects that need to be
considered to improve emotional intelligence in
the workplace. Two experts of EQ, Salovey &
Mayer (1990) - developer of the concept of EQ,
long before Goleman - aggregating them into
the following five aspects: (1) Self-
consciousness (self-awareness), (2) Managing
emotions, (3) Motivating oneself, (4) Empathy,
and (5) Handling relationship. In his last
published book, Goleman has simplified EQ
competency framework as in Figure 1.

Definition of Seafarers
Seafarer is defined as person who is doing
the seagoing jobs. While more broadly, seafarer
can be interpreted as a person who is doing job
sailing on the sea, or it could also be interpreted
as a person who dives the boat, or assist in the
operation, maintenance or service of a vessel.
This includes all those who work on a ship.
(Ikatan Alumni STM-PL Cirebon, 2011).

Definition of Sailing
According to Indonesian dictionary, sailing
can be defined as activities across the sea,
traveling by ship or boat. Sailing is also
defined as something related to water
transportation include navigation, ports, and
shipping along with the security and safety
aspects.
Methods

This research uses a quantitative approach
to the type of correlational research. This study
uses two variables: emotional quotient as the
independent variable (X) and coping with stress
as the dependent variable (Y).
Populations or subjects of this study are the
cadets of Maritime Programme (PDP) of Hang
Tuah University who have completed the
2
3
2 3


Self awareness
 Recognizing one emotion
 Self assessment
 Self Confidence

Social awareness
 Empathy
 Service Orientation
 Organizational awareness





Self Management
 Self Control
 Trust and be trusted
 Discipline and conscientiousness
 Adaptable
 Achivement drive
 Initiative


Social Skill
 Supporting others
 Influence
 Communication
 Conflict management
 Leadership
 Change catalyst
 Relationship
 Teamwork and collaboration
Figure 1. Framework for EQ competencies Daniel Goleman
Source: Martin, 2003

COPING STRESS 83

practice sailing as many as 21 people . To
uncover the Stress and Coping Emotional
Quotient on the subject of the research, a Likert
scale was used which is based on the indicators
of Coping stress and the Emotional Quotient.
The higher the score obtained from the scale
Coping Stress, Coping stress shows that the
higher the individual, conversely the lower the
score of the questionnaire, the lower Coping
stress Coping stress individuals. So is the higher
the scores obtained from the scale Emotional
Quotient, Emotional Quotient indicate that the
higher the individual, conversely the lower the
score of the questionnaire Emotional Quotient
Emotional Quotient, the lower the individual.
Here is a Table 1 (blue print) to measure coping
stress of the seafarers.

The data that has been collected will be
analyzed by using SPSS version 20 data
processed once measurement approach (internal
consistency). First, scale reliability will be
applied to analyze the validity of each items and
Cronbach’s alpha will be used to analyze the
reliability of the scale. After that, the normality
test will be performed to determine the
distribution of the variables by using the One
Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. To
determine the level of coping stress then use Z
test, which compares the mean expectation
(Mean Theoretical) with Empirical mean (Mean
Empirical) variables studied.

Results

Numbers of subjects analyzed were 21
people or all the subjects who participated were
analyzed without any lags (100 %). To state that
a valid or invalid items used benchmark 0.2 and
compared with the numbers in column in
Corrected Item-Total Correlation. If the
correlation figures contained in the column
Corrected Item - Total Correlation is below 0.2
Table 1. Blue Print of Coping Stress
No Indicator
Item Number
Total
Favorable Unfavorable
1 Cautiousness 1,4,7 10,13,16 6
2 Instrumental Action 11,14,17 2,5,8 6
3 Negotiation 3,6,9 12,15,18 6
Total all items 9 9 18
Source : Lazarus and Folkman, 2005

Table 2. Blue Print of Emotional Quotient
Indicator
No. Valid items Total of valid
items
No Unvalid items Total of
unvalid items Fav Unfav Fav Unfav
Cautiousness 1, 7 16 3 4 10, 13 3
Instrumental
action
11, 17 2, 5, 8 5 14 - 1
Negotiation 3, 6, 9 12, 15, 18 6 - - -
Total 7 7 14 2 2 4
Source: Goleman (2000)

84 NURAHAJU & WIDANTI
or a negative sign (-), shall be declared invalid.
Conversely, if the correlation rate above 0.2,
then it declared valid. 18 items of coping stress
variable that have been organized, in the first
round there are 2 items were failed (ie item
CS10 ( r = 0.051 ) , CS14 ( r = 0.180 ) ) and 16
items were valid. While the value of reliability
(Cronbach’s alpha) indicates 0.813. Because
there is still an item that is not valid then the
item is removed, then the process is repeated for
the analysis of valid items only (round 2). From
the results it was found that the 2nd round of
the 16 items, there are 2 items fall (i.e. CS4
items (r = 0.194) and CS13 (r = 0.108)). Value
reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) of the scale is
0.824. Because there are still items that are not
valid then the items were not processed. The
process to re-analyzed was only for valid items
only (round 3). After 3 times processed, all
items have value above 0.2, it means that 14
items that analyzed all declared valid. The
reliability value is increase from 0.813 to 0.824
and the latter being 0.843. Based on a
benchmark reliability, then it can be stated all
items reliable because the value is above 0.7
(0.843 > 0.7). The blue print is showed in Table
3.
While on the item emotional quotient,
which is composed of 24 items, there are 7
items fall (i.e. item EQ2 (r = 0.140), EQ4 (r =
0.193), EQ9 (r = -0.056), EQ10 (r = 0.138),
EQ13 (r = - 0.089), EQ20 (r = -0.271), EQ24 (r
= -0.072)) and 17 items are valid. While the
value of reliability (alpha Cronbach) indicates
Table 4. Emotional Quotient Scale
Indicators
No.Valid Items Total of valid
items
No. unvalid items

Total of
unvalid
items Fav Unfav Fav Unfav
Self awareness 1 5, 17, 21 4 9, 13 - 2
Social
awareness
6, 18, 22 14 4 - 2, 10 2
Self
management
3, 15, 19, 23 7, 11 6 - - -
Social skill 8 12, 16 3 4, 24 20 3
Total 9 8 17 4 3 7

Table 3. Coping Stress Scale
Indicator
No. Valid items
Total of valid
items
No Unvalid items Total
of
unvalid
items Fav Unfav
Fav Unfav
Cautiousness 1, 7 16 3 4 10, 13 3
Instrumental
action
11, 17 2, 5, 8 5 14 - 1
Negotiation 3, 6, 9 12, 15, 18 6 - - -
Total 7 7 14 2 2 4

COPING STRESS 85

0.758. Due to an item that is not valid then the
item is removed, then the process is repeated for
the analysis of valid items only (round 2). From
the results of 2nd process it was found that 17
items, all the value ones are above 0.2 means
that 17 items that analyzed, all are valid.
Reliability value increase from 0.758 to 0.852.
Based on a benchmark reliability then state that
all items are reliable because those items worth
over 0.7. (0.852 > 0.7). The blue print is
showed in Table 2.
While on the item emotional quotient,
which is composed of 24 items, there are 7
items fall (ie item EQ2 (r = 0.140), EQ4 (r =
0.193), EQ9 (r = -0.056), EQ10 (r = 0.138),
EQ13 (r = - 0.089), EQ20 (r = -0.271), EQ24 (r
= -0.072)) and 17 items are valid. While the
value of reliability (alpha Cronbach) indicates
0.758. Due to an item that is not valid then the
item is removed, then the process is repeated for
the analysis of valid items only (round 2). From
the results of 2nd process it was found that 17
items, all the value ones are above 0.2 means
that 17 items that analyzed, all are valid.
Reliability value increase from 0.758 to 0.852.
Based on a benchmark reliability then state that
all items are reliable because those items worth
over 0.7. (0.852 > 0.7). The blue print is
showed in Table 4.
Having in mind that all items are valid and
reliable, the next step is adding up all the items
are valid to obtain the total value. The total
value of valid items is what will be used for
statistical data analysis. Analysis that will be
used is multiple regression analysis. Before
using this analysis to go through the test phase
assumption.
Having in mind that all items are valid, the
next step is to add up all the items that are valid
to obtain the total value (total value of valid
items is what will be used for statistical data
analysis). Analysis that will be used is
regression analysis. Before using this analysis
to go through the test phase assumption.

Normality Test. This test aims to determine
whether the distribution of a data obtained
following or approaching standard normal
distribution law of Gauss. Normality test can be
done by observing the Normal Probability Plot
graphs generated by SPSS calculations. In
addition, data normality test can be done
through the Kolmogorov Smirnov test.

Tabel 5. Normality Testing Tests of Normality
 

Kolmogorov-Smirnov
a
Shapiro-Wilk
Statistic Df Sig. Statistic df Sig.
CS 21
seafarer
0.136 21 0.200
*
0.975 21 0.846
*. This is a lower bound of the true significance.
a
. Lilliefors Significance Correction

Table 5 above is the SPSS output for testing
the normality of the data. Based on that table it
can be seen that the value of sig (p) EQ is 0.846
> 0.005. Researchers used the Shapiro Wilk test
because the data is less than 50 (Sarjono &
Julianita, 2011). Due to the significance values
higher than 0.05. Then this indicates that the
data follow a normal distribution pattern.

Linearity test

Hypothetical Testing. To find out the effect
of Emotional Quotient (EQ) on the Coping
stress happened to cadets of PDP UHT while
doing the sailing task, then used linear
regression analysis to analyze the data and the
result is showed on Table 6 below.

86 NURAHAJU & WIDANTI
a. Dependent Variable: CS 21 seafarer
From multiple linear regression equation
above obtained constant value of 3.942 (Table
7). It means, if the variable CS (Y) is not related
to the independent variable (EQ), the magnitude
of the average value of CS (Y) worth 3.942.
Please also note the correlation coefficient
between variables X and Y is equal to 0.842
which is seen from the beta. Regression
coefficient for the independent variable X1 is
positive, indicating the existence of a direct
relationship between EQ (X1) with CS (Y).
Regression coefficient of 0.768 implies X1 for
every increase in EQ (X1) of one percent would
lead to increase CS (Y) of 0.768 percent.
Furthermore, the results of t-test to test the
significance of the perception of constant and
variable compensation for 6646 to obtain the
results of the calculation, and sig (p) 0.000.
Where p = 0.000 < 0.05. It can be said that there
is a significant positive relationship between
EQ with CS.

Coefficient of Determination. The amount
of influence Emotional Quotient (EQ) to Stres
Coping with a coefficient of determination
shown by the following Table 8.
That is, the variable Emotional Quotient
(EQ) affecting Coping Stress by 71%. While
the remaining 29% is explained by other
variables not examined by the author.
To determine the level of research
conducted test variable Z, i.e. comparing the
mean expectation (Mean Theoretical) with
Empirical mean (Mean Empirical) variables
studied. Coping stress scale was originally there
were 18 items. Having tested the validity and
reliability of the 15 items that exist, there are 3
items that fall and 15 items were valid. Total of
coping stress variables derived from the sum of
Table 7. Coefficients

Model
Unstandardized
Coefficients
Standardized
Coefficients t Sig.
95.0% Confidence Interval for B
B Std. Error Beta Lower Bound Upper Bound
(Constant) 3.942 6345 0.621 0.543 -9.446 17.329
EQ 21
seafarer
0.768 0.119 0.842 6.446 0.000 0.516 1.019
Table 8. Coefficient of Determination

Mod
el
R R Square
Adjusted
R Square
Std. Error
of the
Estimate
Durbin-
Watson
1 0.842
a
0.710 0.693 2.82836 2.723
a. Predictors: (Constant), EQ 21 seafarer
b. Dependent Variable: CS 21 seafarer
Table 6. ANOVA Table

Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
CS 21
seafarer
*
EQ 21
seafarer
Between
Groups
(Combine) 403.921 12 33.660 3.131
Linearity 332.427 1 332.427 30.923
Deviation from Linearity 71.494 11 6.499 0.605
Within
Groups
64.500 6 10.750
Total 468.421 18


COPING STRESS 87

15 valid items, while items that fall is item 10,
13 and 14 are not included.
Theoretical Mean coping stress variables
PDP UHT Students found to be = 45. Empirical
mean coping stress variables PDP Students
UHT = 47.7619. This means ME > MT. Results
of data analysis using descriptive statistics with
five scales can be seen from UHT PDP 21
students studied, in detail it appears that 1
subject had a relatively low coping stress at all,
1 is low, 16 were moderate, and 2 people is
high. Can be interpreted as a whole the average
student UHT PDP has studied coping stress
were moderate.
Based on the calculation of each indicator
that determines student coping stress PDP UHT,
obtained the following data: Calculation of the
mean score = total score of each indicator each
item valid indicator: the number of valid item.

1. Cautiousness (4 valid items):
= 25 . 69
4
66 65 74 72

  

2. Instrumental action (5 valid items) :
= 6 . 63
5
68 62 64 55 72

   

3. Negotiation (6 valid items) :
= 67 . 67
6
65 71 62 70 68 69

    

Total score for all indicators = 69.25 +63.6
+67.67 = 200.51667
Percentage counting:
Percentage = % 100 
cators forallindi Totalscore
r chindicato Scoreforea


Based on Table 9, it can be seen that the
indicator most widely affects coping stress
consecutive starts is the first order of
cautiousness, followed in second place is
negotiation, third place is instrumental action.
Table 9. Percentage and Rank of the Indicators
of Coping Stress among The Seafarers
No Indicators
Percentage
(%)
Rank
1. Cautiousness 34.538 I
2. Instrumental
action
31.718 III
3. Negotiation 33.744 II
Total 100 %


Discussion

According to Greenberg (in Nurahaju,
2011), in the scope of work stress can be caused
by several factors such as when job holders had
a lot to do with decision-making, monitoring
equipment continuously, working in less
favorable conditions or tasks that less structured
then he tends to stress. A person may also
experience conflict when dealing with problems
related to the duties and problems that are not
related to the task, such as the family, at the
same time. This is consistent with the results of
the study emphasize that the family can be a
source of problems.
Coping is an attempt to deal with stress,
such efforts may include management,
adaptability, actions, reactions, and certain
strategies. Stress here also seen as something
that requires or provides certain pressure for
individuals who experience it. Adlwin and
Revenson developed the theory of Folkman and
Lazarus then also divided form of coping stress
strategies, such as Problem Focused Coping
(PFC). PFC is a real effort to address the
problem of individual behavior, pressure and
challenges, with changing difficulties
relationship with the environment that may
require adaptation or also referred to external
changes (Lazarus & Folkman). From the

88 NURAHAJU & WIDANTI
research. The indicator in this strategy is
cautiousness (prudence) that shows the first
rank, then Negotiation and the last one is
Instrumental action (direct action). It indicates
that the cadets of PDP UHT who did the sailing
activity for the first time certainly cautious,
thinking, reviewing and considering several
alternative solutions to problems , being careful
in deciding, ask the opinion of others and
evaluate strategy that ever implemented further.
After that with negotiation techniques,
individuals discuss and seek resolution with the
other people who involved in it with the hope
that the problem can be resolved. The latter is
an individual will do some attempts and steps
directed in solving problems directly and to
develop action plans and implement them .
Regression coefficient for the independent
variable X is positive, indicating the existence
of a direct relationship between Emotional
Quotient (X) Coping with stress (Y). Regression
coefficient of 0.823 implies that each increase
of Emotional Quotient (X) by one percent
would lead to increase coping stress (Y) of
0.823 percent. Furthermore, the results of t-test
to test the significance of the constant and
variable emotional quotient obtained the
calculation of 6.623 and sig (p) = 0.000, so p <
0.05. Thus Ho is rejected and Ha is accepted.
From the results above, indicate the existence of
a positive relationship between EQ and CS.
Thus it is concluded if the emotional quotient is
good then the coping stress is also well. It is
emotion that often inhibits a person to face the
challenges. Fear about what will happen,
anxiety, worry, and anger toward change.
Changes that related to the duties of the
working situation when sailing on the sea are
uncertainty, both physically and personally and
socially. Uncertain environmental situation, the
very limited social situation in the long term as
well as personal factors that are likely to cause
stress at the time of sailing. This is similar to
what was written by Anthony Martin Dio in the
context of employment, emotional intelligence
at work satisfactorily is the ability to know what
someone and others feel, including the proper
way to handle the problem. Everyone else is
meant here could include superiors, peers,
subordinates or others on the ship itself. If
someone does not have a high emotional
intelligence then not only are unable to
understand the feelings themselves, but also the
feelings of others with whom he interacts.
Consequently, misunderstandings and
interpersonal conflicts are often happens.

Conclusion

The results of this study indicate coping
stress among the seafarers (the cadets of PDP
UHT) is in the middle level. In addition of
questionnaires that filled by respondents also
obtained data on three main properties that need
to be owned by sailors to support the success of
his career, such as optimistic, willing to work
and be responsible. While the main problems
often faced by the cadets while doing the sailing
task are the loss of commitment as a sailor, in
matters f sexual frustration and conflict between
family and work. The figures that most
influence the respondents to choose sailor as
their profession are father, followed by mother,
brother (uncle, grandfather, brother) and
neighbors. The factors which made the
respondents most interested in choosing the
profession, those are a great salary and desire to
go around the world, followed by career factors,
make their parents happy, hopes, peaceful
feeling when working at sea than on land, the

COPING STRESS 89

desires to be different from others, and the
bright future.

References

Aldwin, C. M., & Revenson, T. A. (1987). Does
coping help? A reexamination of the
relation between coping and mental health.
Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 53(2), 337-48.
Chaplin, J. P. (2001). Kamus lengkap psikologi.
Kartini Kartono (Trans.). Jakarta: Raja
Grafindo Persada.
Goleman, D. (2000). Emotional intelligence. In
Sadock, B. and Sadock, V. (Eds.).
Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry (7th
ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams &
Wilkins.
Kurniawati. (2006). Coping stress pada orang
penderita HIV AIDS. Skripsi (not being
published). Surabaya: Psychology Faculty
Airlangga University.
Lazarus, et al. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and
coping. New York: Springer.
Lazarus, & Folkman. (2005). Staying sane in a
crazy world. Linggawati Haryanto (Trans.).
Jakarta: Bhuana Ilmu.
Martin, A. D. (2003). Emotional quality
management: Refleksi dan revitalisasi hidup
melalui kekuatan emosi. Jakarta: Arga.
Mu’tadin. (2002). Strategi coping. Retrieved
from http//www.e-psikologi.com/
220702.htm
Nurahaju, R., & Widanti, N. S. (2011). Perilaku
organisasi. Surabaya: Hang Tuah
University Press.
Smet, B. (1994). Psikologi kesehatan. Jakarta:
PT. Gramedia Widiasarana Indonesia.
Ikatan Alumni STM-PL Cirebon. (2011).
Definisi seafarer. Retrieved from
http://ikal.forum.st/t4-definisi-seafarer
Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional
intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and
Personality, 9, 185-211.
Sarjono, H., & Julianita, W. (2011). SPSS vs
Lisrel sebuah pengantar. Jakarta: Salemba
Empat.







Relationship between Employee’s Attitude Towards
Safety Talk and Intention to Apply Safety and Health
at Workplace

Nikmawati & Fitri Arlinkasari
Faculty of Psychology, YARSI University

Applying safety and health behavior at workplace is one of the ways to
minimize the risk of accident at work. One of the programs to improve the
intention of employee for applying safety and health at workplace is by
seeing employee’s attitude towards safety talk. The purpose of this
research is to know the relationship between attitude of employee towards
safety talk and intention to apply safety and health at workplace. The
research used correlational design study. The participant in this study were
260 employees of PT. X. The sampling technique used was purposive
sampling. The measurement in this research used safety talk scale with 22
items and scale of intention to apply safety and health with 25 items. The
result of this research showed that the value of r = 0.436 and level of
significant was 0.000, therefore the conclusion this research was employee
attitude towards safety talk and intention to apply safety and health at
workplace indicate significant relationship. Based on coefficient of
determination r
2
x 100, showing the attitude variable had correlation with
intention of employee for applying safety and health at workplace.

Keywords: safety talk, safety, and health
Nowadays there are many accidents happen
at all point and it seems unavoidable. Like an
accident in workplace which leads to negative
effect for employees and company. There are
some accident factors, one of those is human
error. Suma’mur (1981), stated that 85% of
accident factor is human error. One of efforts to
minimize the accident is by applying safety and
health of working. Safety of working is a
feature to prevent the accident. Safety of
working intends to secure the employee for best
employee productivity and their benefit
(Suma’mur, 1981). Health of working is a
feature to increase employee’s health, either
labor, farmer, fisherman, civil servant or
freelancer (Asikin, in Konradus, 2012). Safety
and health of working are feature to assure the
perfection of the employee, either materialism
or spirituality (Mangkunegara, in Ramli, 2010).
In conclusion, safety and health of working are
effort to minimize the accident and increase
employee’s materialism or spirituality health in
achieving efficiency and productivity.
Applying safety and health of working is
related to human factor. In psychology aspect,
intention led the human to behave. Fishbein and
JPIO ISSN 2302-8440
2014, Vol. 1, No. 2, 90-95
90

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN 91

Ajzen (1975, p. 288) interpreted the intention:
“intention as a person location on a subjective
probability dimension involving a relation
between himself and some action. A behavioral
intention, therefore, refers to a person’s
subjective probability that he will perform some
behavior”.
Fisbhein and Ajzen (1988) mentioned, there
are three factors influence intention, as attitude
toward behavior, subjective norm and perceived
behavioral control. Attitude is an individual's
positive or negative evaluation of self-
performance of the particular behavior.
Subjective Norm is the person’s perception that
most people who are important to him think he
should or should not perform the behavior in
question. Perceived Behavioral Control is
defined as (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1988):
“This factor refresh to the perceived ease or
difficulty performs the behavior and it assume to
reflect past experience as well as anticipates
impediment and obstacles”.
Those three factors influence the intention
to apply safety and health of working. In fact,
applying safety and health of working in
company is still under procedure standard.
From observation at PT. X, showed some
employee didn’t use safety wear, such as
masker. Amalia, et al. (2013) stated conscious
thought to apply safety and health of working in
PT. X is still in standard level.
The phenomena above is interesting to be
observed for more. One of PT. X commitment
is to applying safety and health of working by
safety talk. Safety talk is a program to inspire
employee to apply safety and health of working
as an important thing. They do this program
everyday to socialize the importance of safety
and health of working, announce about the
potential dangerous, and explain the disease
cause by work without using safety ware
properly. All employees have to join in this
program, in the hope after joining this program
they will apply safety and health at workplace.
Safety talk is an object that can be assessed
through a person's attitude. Aronson, et al.
(2010:210), “attitude is evaluation of people,
object, ideas”. Social Psychology interpret
attitude as important because it can influence
behavior (Baron & Byrne, 2004). In conclusion,
attitude is individual evaluation an object, it can
be positive or negative in do the attitude. There
are three components of attitude, as follow
cognitively based attitude, affectively based
attitude and behaviorally based attitude.
Cognitively based attitude is an attitude based
primarily on people’s beliefs about the
properties of an attitude object. Affectively
based attitude is an attitude based more on
peoples feeling and values than on their beliefs
about the nature of an attitude object.
Behaviorally based attitude, is an attitude based
on observations of how behaves toward an
attitude object (Aronson et al., 2010: 211-213).
Assumed positive attitude to safety talk
prone to apply safety and health of working, on
the contrary negative attitude to safety talk
prone to do otherwise. Susanti’s research (1999)
corps management to safety talk of PT. AIC is
83.33% and irresponsive 16.67% mean that
corps management well received the safety talk
program. That will influence them to apply
safety and health of working, so researcher
want to see the relation between employee
attitude and intention apply safety and health of
working in PT. X.

Methods

Instrument
Instrument of employee’s attitude towards

92 NIKMAWATI & ARLINKASARI
safety talk comprised 22 items with 5 response
options (strongly disagree, disagree, somewhat
disagree, agree, strongly agree). The
instruments made by the component according
to Aronson et al. Intention instrument to
implement safety and health comprised 25
items with 6 response options (strongly
disagree, disagree, somewhat disagree,
somewhat agree, agree, strongly agree).
Modified from intention of measuring
instrument Amalia (2008) based on TPB
Questionnaire (Ajzen, 2006).

Validity
The purpose of validity is to determine
whether the scale produces an accurate data
with the aim of measuring (Azwar, 2012). In
this study, researchers used validity of content.
In addition to seeing the value corrected item-
total correlation of each item.
In this study, scale of employee attitudes
towards safety talk consists of 22 items and
intention to implement health and safety
behavior scale consists of 25 items.

Assessing Internal Reliability
According to Azwar (2012), reliability
refers to the consistency of the results implies
measuring how high a measurement. Technique
used in this study is Cronbach's alpha
coefficient. In this study, the reliability standard
used is 0.8 (Kapplan & Saccuzzo, 2005). Scale
test results of the analysis of employee attitudes
towards safety talk obtained reliability
coefficient of 0.868 and intentions applying
safety and health at workplace scale obtained
reliability coefficient of 0.836 (r > 0.8).

Participants
This research used sample of 260
employees at PT. X. This sample determining
by total sample determining table from certain
population. This research’s sample criteria
using PT. X employees who have been working
at least for 7 months and aged 20-40 years old.

Analysis Method
Method of data analysis used in this study is
Spearman-rank correlation using SPSS for
Windows 18.0.

Results

Descriptive Research Data
Table 1. Attitude Variable Statistic Value
Number
of Sample
High
Score
Low
Score
Mean
Score
Standard
deviation
260 110 35 88.27 10.639

From the table, concluded that minimum
value is 35 whereas maximum value is 110.
Average value from that variable is 88.27 and
standard deviation is 10.639.

Table 2. Intention Variable Statistic Value
Number
of Sample
High
Score
Low
Score
Mean
Score
Standard
deviation
260 145 73 125.03 9.551

In conclusion, minimum value is 73
whereas maximum value is 145. Average value
from that variable 125.03 and standard
deviation is 9.551.

Descriptive Research Data Categorization
There are five categorization of employee
attitude towards safety talk and intention to
implement safety and health of working as very
low, low, medium, high and very high.
There are 22 items and 5-answer choices
employee attitude measurer to safety talk “very

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN 93

disagree, disagree, rather disagree, agree, and
very agree”. Measure by measuring norm,
upper score is 110 and lowest score is < 83.
This calculation using employee attitude
categorization to safety talk as follows:

Table 3. Categorization of employee attitude to
safety talk

There are 25 items and 6 answer choices
employee attitude measurer to safety talk “very
disagree, disagree, rather disagree, rather agree,
agree, very agree”. Measuring by measurement
norm, upper score is 145 and lowest score is <
120. This calculation using employee attitude
categorization to safety talk as follows:

Table 4. Applying safety and health of working
intention categorization

Hypotheses
Correlation testing result between employee
attitude towards safety talk and intention to
apply safety and health of working.
Based on correlation result Spearman-rank,
obtained correlation score r = 0.436 by
significant stadium 0.000. Table data show that
significant 0.000 < 0.05, so there is significant
correlation between employee attitude safety
talk and intention to apply safety and health
behavior of working in PT. X. Based on
coefficient of determination formula (Wallnau,
2007), the measurement showed 19% of attitude
variable is correlated with intention variable.

Table 5. Correlation testing result between
employee attitude towards safety talk and
intention to apply safety and health of working
Variable
Correlation
Coefficient
Sig (2
tailed)
Attitude toward
safety talk
0.436 0.000
Intention to
implement safety
and health
0.436 0.000

Discussion

This research found positive and significant
correlation between employee attitude toward
safety talk and intention to apply safety and
health at workplace. The result of hypotheses
test between employee attitude to safety talk
and intention to apply safety and health of
working, produces r = 0.436 and significant
result 0.000. Table data showed that significant
0.000 < 0.05 which means there is significant
correlation between employee’s attitude
towards safety talk and intention to apply safety
and health behavior of working in PT. X. It
showed, when score of attitude on safety talk
increase, the intention to apply safety and health
of working will way up also.
Susanti (1999) approved that management
corps attitude to safety talk in PT. AIC 83.33%
and usual attitude 16.67% it means that safety
program in management way received well so it
will influence their self in safety and health of
working applying appropriate this research
hypotheses correlation between attitude
Stretches
of value
Categorization Total
< 83 Very Low 54
84-88 Low 54
89-92 Medium 59
93-96 High 47
97-110 Very high 46
Stretches
of value
Categorization Total
< 120 Very low 60
121-124 Low 50
125-128 Medium 50
129-132 High 55
133-145 Very high 45

94 NIKMAWATI & ARLINKASARI
employee on safety talk & intention to apply
safety and health of working on PT. X.
Additionally, Yule and Flin (2007), stated that
there is a relationship between knowledge and
training with the risk of accidents, it is
associated with a safety talk activities that
routinely provide knowledge in implementing
safety and health at workplace.
This research also appeared relation
between dimension in attitude variable and
dimension in intention variable. Behavioral
dimension in attitude variable has strong
correlation with attitude dimension in intention
variable (r = 0.378). In other words, to
encourage employees to implementing safety
and health, company can use behavioral
approach in conducting safety talk program
effectively.
Based on the categorization results,
indicated that employee attitudes towards safety
talk on PT. X in a category is in the amount of
59 people (22%), but not much different in the
category of very low and low at around 54
people (21%). While in the high and very high
categories is about 18%. In category of
intention to apply safety and health at
workplace, there are 60 employees (23%) who
are at very low category, 19% in low and
moderate category, 21% in high category and
18% in very high category. It can be concluded
that employee’s attitudes toward safety talk on
PT. X is still relatively moderate and intentions
applying safety and health at work place is still
very low.
Besides, researchers also looked at the role
of cognitive, affective and behavioral in
predicting attitudes. The results obtained by
using the multiple regression method.
Employee’s attitude towards safety talk is 58%
explained by cognitive and 42% is explained by
other variables not controlled by the researcher.
79.8% is explained by affective remaining and
20.2% is explained by other variables and
74.7% is explained by behavioral remaining
25.3% is explained by other variables that
cannot be controlled research. While the
attitude, wiki norm predicting intentions
together, 50.5% is explained by the attitude of
the remaining 49.5% is explained by other
variables. 54% subjective norm explained by
the remaining 46% is explained by other
variables. Meanwhile, PBC is predicting
intention in about 56.1%, thus 43.9% is
explained by other variables that cannot be
controlled by the researcher.
Result also showed that age and education
have a significant relationship with employee’s
attitude towards safety talk. Age obtained sig
0.013 and education 0.000 (p < 0.05) while
working lives have no relationship with
employee attitudes towards safety talk where
sig 0.572 (p > 0.05).

References

Ajzen, I. (1988). Attitudes, personality, and
behavior. England: Open University
Press & Chicago, IL: Dorsey Press.
Ajzen, I. (2006). Constructing a TPB
questionarre: Conceptual and
methodological consideration. Accessed
from
http://www.unibielefeld.de/ikg/zick/ajzen%
20construction%20a%20tpb%20questionnai
re.pdf.
Aronson, W., Wilson, D. T., & Akert, M. R.
(2010). Social psychology. Canada: Prentice
Hall.
Azwar, S. (2012). Penyusunan skala psikologi.
Yogyakarta: Pustaka Belajar.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN 95

Amalia, K. (2008). Peranan sikap, norma
subyektif dan perceived behavioral control
dalam memprediksi intensi mahasiswa
untuk bersepeda di kampus UI. Jakarta:
Program Pascasarjana Universitas
Indonesia.
Amalia, M., Kireina, V. & Riri, F. B. (2013).
Hubungan tingkat stres karyawan terhadap
kepatuhan dalam menjalankan K3 pada PT.
X.
Baron, R. A., & Byrne, D. (2004). Psikologi
sosial. Jakarta: Erlangga
Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief,
intention, and behavior. Philippiness:
Addison-Wesley Guilfford
Konradus, D. (2012). Keselamatan dan
kesehatan kerja, membangun SDM pekerja
yang sehat, produktif dan kompetitif.
Jakarta: Bangka Adinata Mulia.
Kapplan, R. M., & Saccuzzo, D. P. (2005),
Psychological testing-Principles,
applications, and issues (6th ed.). Belmon:
Wadsworth cengage
Ramli, S. (2010). Sistem manajemen
keselamatan dan kesehatan kerja (OHSAS
18001), Seri Manajemen K3. Jakarta: Dian
Rakyat.
Suma’mur. (1981). Keselamatan kerja dan
pencegahan kecelakaan. Jakarta: CV. Haji
Masagung.
Susanti, L. (1999). Studi sikap manajemen
terhadap rancangan system safety talk di
PT. Apac Inti Corpora, Bawen.
Yule, S. & Flin, R. (2007). The role of
management and safety climatein
preventing risk-taking at work. Int. J. Risk
Assessment and Management. Accesed from
http://www.abdn.ac.uk/iprc/documents/The
_role_of_management_and_safety_climate_
in_preventing_risktaking_at_work.pdf.
Wallnau, B. L., & Gravetter, J. F. (2007).
Statistic For The Behavioral Science
seventh edition. USA: Thomson Learning







The Correlation between Job Insecurity and
Organizational Commitment of Outsourcing Employee

Wayan Pertiwi Artha Sari & Dewi Soerna Anggraeni
Faculty of Psychology, Sanata Dharma University

This research aimed to know the relationship between job insecurity and
organizational commitment of outsourcing employee. In the previous
research conducted on organization that experienced downsizing or
merger. In facts, the need of outsourcing employee is increasing. On the
other hand, there are many outsourcing employees who were done the
demonstration to demand the change of status. The measuring devices
used Job Insecurity Scale and Organizational Commitment Scale.
Research sampling was conducted at PT. Angkasa Pura I Yogyakarta.
The amount of subject were 95 outsourcing employees. The data was
analyze using correlation Pearson product moment by SPSS version 16.0
for windows. The results indicated that correlation coefficient of -0.172
with a significance of 0.095. This results shown that there is no significant
correlation between job insecurity and organizational commitment of
outsourcing employee.

Keywords: job insecurity, organizational commitment, outsourcing
employee
Organizational commitment is defined as
loyalty to the company was associated with the
acceptance of the organization's goals and
values and willingness to exert effort for the
organization (Porter, Steers, Mowday, &
Boulian, in Riggio, 2007). The definition covers
employees' attitudes and behaviors. Robbins
and Judge (2009) defines organizational
commitment as a condition where an employee
puts the organization's goals and have the desire
to remain a part of the organization.
Organizational commitment include those
identifying themselves to the company where
the employees work (Schultz & Schultz, 2010).
According to Steers (1980), the components of
organizational commitment are: (a) an
acceptance of organization’s goals and values;
(b) willingness to work hard for the
organization; (c) having strong desire to stay
affiliated with the organization. The employees
who have strong organizational commitment
will do necessary actions to achieve the
company’s goal.
A research that was conducted by Meyer et
al. (1993) shows that an increase in terms of
commitment leads to an increase in
productivity. Other research that was conducted
in Pakistan shows that organizational
commitment has correlation with job
performance. The result shows that there is a
96
JPIO ISSN 2302-8440
2014, Vol. 1, No. 2, 96-102

THE CORRELATION 97

positive correlation between the two of them.
Meanwhile, a research conducted by Samad
(2011) also shows that the higher organizational
commitment one has, the higher its job
performance. Based on these two researches, it
can be concluded that organizational
commitment is crucial for the employees to
have in order to achieve the company’s goal.
Chughtai and Zafar (2006) investigated
about “Antecedents and Consequences of
Organizational Commitment Among Pakistani
University Teachers”. The results shows that
there is a positive correlation between personal
characteristics and organizational commitment.
In this research also shown that commitment
has been positively related to personal
characteristics such as age (Mathieu & Zajac,
1990), length of service in a particular
organization (Luthans, McCaul, & Dodd, 1985),
and marital status and negatively related to the
employee’s level of education (Glisson &
Durick, 1988). In addition, commitment has
been found to be related to such job
characteristics as task autonomy (Dunham,
Grube, & Castaneda, 1994), feedback and job
challenge (Meyer, Irving, & Allen, 1998) and
certain work experiences such as job security
(Yousef, 1998), promotion opportunities
(Gaertner & Nollen, 1989), training and
mentoring opportunities (Scandura, 1997), and
supportive and considerate leadership (DeCotiis
& Summers, 1987).
Job security belongs to job experience
which becomes a major factor that affects
organizational commitment. Job security is
related to the status or types of employees.
Contract-based workers tend to have higher
level of job insecurity comparing to permanent
employees (Naswall, De Witte, Sverke et al., in
Hellgren et. Al, 2006).
Outsourcing employees can be classified as
contract-based workers that involve third party
vendors (Indrajit, & Djokopranoto, 2003).
Outsourcing employees and its outsourcing
vendor are bound in an agreement known as
Temporary Appointment Work Agreement
(PKWT). This kind of agreement is based on
Indonesia Major Labor Laws act number 13
year 2003. It is stated that the agreement can
only be held two years in maximum and can be
extended for a one year period (Yasar, 2012).
Yasar (2012) also states that ‘outsourcing’
term generally refers as a contract. Outsourcing
can also be defined as an act to turn several
company’s activities and its rights to other party
using a contract agreement (Yasar, 2012).
Meanwhile, Garaventa and Tellefsen (2001)
state that outsourcing is an agreement (with
other parties outside the company) towards
functions, duties, or organizational services in
order to reduce process loads, acquire technical
virtuosity or cost reduction.
It is now common for a company to employ
outsourcing employees. The company employs
outsourcing service to focus on their core
business and bestow their non-core business on
the outsourcing vendor (Indrajit &
Djokopranoto, 2003). There is even an article
that states that the demand of outsourcing
employees are increasing up to 30% each year
(Purba, 2012).
The employment of outsourcing employees
also brings new controversies. Mass
demonstrations are commonly committed by
outsourcing employees. Their demand is to
change their status into permanent. Several
mass demonstrations by outsourcing employees
are reportedly happened to PT Mitsuba
Indonesia (http://www.radaronline.co.id/berita/
read/21580/2013/PT-Mitsuba-Didemonstrasi-

98 SARI & ANGGRAENI
Karyawan-Outsourcing); PT. PLN in South,
West, and North Sulawesi (Tolak outsourcing,
2012); and PT. Pertamina in Cilacap sector
(Saepudin, 2012).
There is an article that tells about a five-
times-break job contract that is experienced by
an outsourcing employee. If the contract has
expired, he will be dismissed. In three months
break period; he will be called to sign another
contract if the company wishes to hire him
again. According to his experience, this
condition is repeated up to five times.
Based on these phenomena, it can be
concluded that the employee’s status is not
permanent, which makes the outsourcing
employees are tightly bound with the job
contract. Uncertainty in job continuation makes
outsourcing employees to more likely suffer job
insecurity.
Job insecurity are generally defined as the
fear of job loss or job discontinuity (Caplan et
al., Davy et al., Ferrie, Hartley in Mauno et al.,
2001). Some was adopted the definition of job
insecurity refers not only to the amount of
uncertainty an has about his or her job
continuity, but also the continuity of certain
dimensions of the job, such as opportunities for
promotion or possibility of being laid off for a
short while (Ashford et al.; Borg & Elizur;
Greenhalgh &Rosenblatt; Holm & Hovland;
Rosenblatt & Ruvio; Rosenblatt in Mauno et al.,
2001). Hellgren, Sverke, and Isaksson (1999)
divides into two job insecurity, quantitative and
qualitative job insecurity. Job insecurity
quantitative is similar to the global
conceptualization about the loss of the job
itself. Whereas qualitative job insecurity relates
to the perception of potential loss of the quality
in the employment relationship, such as
deterioration of working conditions, demotion,
lack of career opportunities, decreasing salary
development, and concerns about the person-
organization fit in the future.
Job insecurity consists of five components
(Greenhalgh & Rosenblatt in Lee, Bobko, &
Chen, 2006), which are: (a) Level of threats
towards job continuity and job aspects; (b)
Values and job importance towards an
individual; (c) Threats towards important job
features; (d) Importance of job priorities; and
(e) Sense of powerlessness to undermine
threats.
Ashford et al. (in Yousef, 1998) also
conducts a research to see the influence of job
insecurity towards organizational commitment,
job satisfaction, and job performance. One of
the results shows that job insecurity may reduce
the level of organizational commitment.
Besides, other impact of job insecurity is low
job involvement (Kuhnert & Palmer and
Leovani & Sales, in Hellgreen et al., 2006).
While job involvement is a component that
forms organizational commitment. On the other
side, outsourcing employees are seen to be the
vendor’s representative who is chosen to work
in a company (Steers, 1980). The use of
outsourcing employees in a company is
intended to acquire more professional human
resources since usually outsourcing employees
are highly qualified in their fields. Therefore, a
company relies on outsourcing employees in
terms of doing secondary activities so that the
company can focus on their main goals (Yasar,
2012). Thus, it can be inferred that an
outsourcing employee requires having
maximum yet professional job performance in a
company, while their salary and assurance are
handled by the third party vendor. Its
requirement to have maximum and professional
job performance indicates that outsourcing

THE CORRELATION 99

employees have to possess high organizational
commitment level.
These existing phenomena, such as mass
demonstration conducted by outsourcing
employees in demanding their permanency
status show that they are in susceptible
condition to suffer job insecurity. Based on
previous researches, job insecurity causes low
job involvement level (Kuhnert & Palmer and
Leovani & Sales, in Hellgreen et al., 2006).
Other researches also state that job insecurity
may lower organizational commitment level
(Ashford et al., in Yousef, 1998). Consequently,
we hypothesized that there is a negative relation
between job insecurity and organizational
commitment on outsourcing employees. This
study needs to be conducted to know the
relationships between job insecurity and
organizational commitment on outsourcing
employees.

Methods

Participants
Participants included 79 male and 16 female
outsourcing employees of PT. Angkasa Pura I
Yogyakarta who has been employed for more
than six months. Based on that assumption, this
study uses purposive sampling method in
choosing the subject. There are 25.26%
employees aged 20-25 years old (n = 24). The
majority (48.42%) of this subject are aged 25-
30 years old (n = 46). 13,68% employees are
aged 31-35 years old (n = 13); 11.57%
employees are aged 36-40 years old (n = 11),
and 1.05% employee is aged 41-45 years old (n
= 1). All of the employees have been
recontracted in PT. Angkasa Pura I. In the
recontract phase they announced as a new
employee, as same as their status previously.
The majority are 78.94% which have been
recontracted for 1-5 times (n = 75). 15.78%
employees are recontracted for 6-10 times (n =
15), and 5.26% employees are recontracted
more than 10 times (n = 5).

Measures
This study uses two scales: job insecurity
scale and organizational commitment scale.
Both are compiled based on the theory using
Likert Scale. The options in each item are
strongly agree (SS), agree (S), disagree (TS),
and strongly disagree (STS). In the Job
Insecurity scale, the items were made based on
job insecurity components (Greenhalgh &
Rosenblat in Lee, Bobko & Chen, 2006), which
are: (a) level of threats towards job continuity
and job aspects; (b) values and job importance
towards an individual; (c) threats towards
important job features; (d) importance of job
priorities; and (e) sense of powerlessness to
undermine threats. On the other hand, the
organizational commitment’s item were also
based on organizational commitment
components, made by Steers (1980). The
components of organizational commitment are:
(a) an acceptance of organization’s goals and
values; (b) willingness to work hard for the
organization; (c) having strong desire to stay
affiliated with the organization.

Results and Discussion

Based on the assumption test, the data on
job insecurity variable and organizational
commitment have normal-but-not-linear data
distribution. After conducting further analysis
by Pearson Product Moment, the data show that
there is no significant correlation between the
two variables. It can be seen from its

100 SARI & ANGGRAENI
significance value of p, which is 0.095 (p >
0.05). Based on this finding, it is certain that
we are hypothesized about negative relations
between job insecurity and organizational
commitment towards the outsourcing
employees of PT. Angkasa Pura I Yogyakarta is
turned down. Based on the interview with one
of the subjects, we find that job insecurity does
not affect on low organizational commitment
level. The interviewee also mentioned that he is
in good state of welfare while working for the
company; therefore he wishes to have his
contract extended. Besides, working by obeying
the rules makes contract extension is just a
matter of formality to him. From the interview,
the we concludes that the employee still has
good job performance although feeling worried
that the company will not extend his contract.
This attitude is needed so that the company will
hopefully extend the contract.
We assume there’s another variables that
will affect organizational commitment such as
job satisfaction. This assumption is supported
by the research conducted by Samad and Yusuf
(2012) which states that job satisfaction has
significant positive relations towards
organizational commitment.
When looking at the description of research
data, there are several differences in terms of
empirical and theoretical mean in the two
variables. In job insecurity variable, the value of
empirical mean is 46.1158; while its theoretical
mean is 42.5. It is supported by sampling test
using One Sample T-Test in SPSS for Windows
version 16.00 software; which p = 0.000 (p <
0.05). Since the value of empirical mean is
higher than the theoretical mean (empirical
mean > theoretical mean), it can be concluded
that job insecurity of outsourcing employees in
PT. Angkasa Pura I Yogyakarta is classified as
high. The same result shown in organizational
commitment variable, the value of empirical
mean is 62.6316; while its theoretical mean is
47.5. It is supported by sampling test using One
Sample T-Test in SPSS for Windows version
16.00 software; which p = 0.000 (p < 0.05).
Since the value of empirical mean is higher than
the theoretical mean (empirical mean >
theoretical mean), it can be concluded that
organizational commitment of outsourcing
employees in PT. Angkasa Pura I Yogyakarta is
classified as high too.

Conclusions

Based on the analysis of research, it was
found that the correlation coefficient between
job insecurity and organizational commitment
was not significant (p = 0.095). It can be
concluded that there is no significant
relationship between job insecurity and
organizational commitment on employee
outsourcing. That means the high or low job
insecurity is not followed by high or low
organizational commitment that employees
have outsourced.
Results showed that job insecurity on
employee outsourcing PT. Angkasa Pura I
Yogyakarta is high. The same was found in the
analysis of organizational commitment.
However, these two variables do not have a
relationship. This may be caused by the
presence of other variables that have a more
significant relationship. This possibility is based
on the results of interviews that have been
conducted, it was found that well-being (job
satisfaction) were obtained by employees of
outsourced PT. Angkasa Pura I Yogyakarta is
quite satisfactory. So even if the employees

THE CORRELATION 101

have high job insecurity does not affect on low
organizational commitment level. In addition,
research conducted by Samad and Yusuf (2012)
showed that job satisfaction has a significant
positive relationship to organizational
commitment. Therefore, job satisfaction is
thought to be another variable that has a direct
relationship with organizational commitment.

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BUILDING ORGANIZATIONAL 73

Building Organizational Culture Based on Competing
Value Framework to Gain Competitive Advantage

Helliyani Esterina Hakh, Ikram Fatahillah, & Wustari L. H. Mangundjaya
Faculty of Psychology, University of Indonesia


Organizational culture is a distinctive feature and a key success in
building a competitive advantage. Nevertheless, organizational culture is
not easily defined, measured, as well as managed. The objective of this
study is to discuss about the process of identifying and building a strong
organizational culture within the Competing Value Framework. The
methods of this survey is using OCAI (Organizational Culture Assessment
Inventory) questionnaires (Cameron & Quinn, 2011) Where measuring 6
key dimensions from organizational culture which are dominant
characteristics, organizational leadership, management of employee,
organization glue, strategic emphases, and criteria of success that in the
end it will be able to see the overall condition of an organizational culture
in a company. This questionnaire is followed by structured interviews
with the managers. Focus Group Discussion and extended discussion is
also conducted with participant ranging from staffs to directors of PT FX.
The results of this study showed that organization prefer to have a Clan
culture. In order to achieve that, actions were developed to achieve a Clan
culture that will synergize the people in organization, such as: workshops;
socialization, and organizational events and activities.

Keywords: organizational culture, OCAI, competing value framework
Due to strong competition between
organizations in this globalization era, every
company is demanded to better manage itself in
various aspects. This management need to
consider growth and competitive based strategy
in order to strengthen company’s stability. In
addition, company need to do various
improvement efforts in various aspects of the
company in order to meet the standard of
quality for national and international
competitiveness. Competitions arise from
various parties create the desire to review the
company's strengths and weaknesses and then
find solutions that need to be done to improve
the dynamics, flexibility, and adaptability as
well as the company responsiveness to external
changes that arise.
Many companies realize that the only way
to find a radical approach in overcoming
company’s problems is by changing the existing
organization culture. Topics about organization
culture are widely discussed by researchers and
practitioners (Divan, 2012). More over study
shows that 81% of respondents agree that
103
JPIO ISSN 2302-8440
2014, Vol. 1, No. 2, 103-116

104 HAKH, FATAHILLAH, & MANGUNDJAYA
inexistence of the right organizational culture
can cause organization’s failures (Meehan et al.,
2008 in Divan, 2012). Lunenburg (2011) also
state that every organization has organizational
culture that cans significantly affecting the
attitudes and behavior of the member of
organization.
A company must have a conducive
organizational culture where this culture can
direct employee’s performances and also can
result in high employee’s productivity. Ritchie
(2000 in Allame et al,. 2011) state that the result
of studies about the relationships between the
effect of organizational culture with
productivity shows a strong direct relationship
that organizational culture affecting employee’s
productivity, performance, commitment,
confidence, and moral. This result shows that
organizational culture has positive impacts to
employee’s attitude and how they are treated. In
addition, Denison (1990, in SIOP, 2013) shows
data that particular organizational culture index,
like mission, the involvement of organization’s
members, consistency of both values and
system, and the ability to adapt in a business
environment significantly related with the
company’s Return on Asset, sales growth, and
customer satisfactions.
Organizational culture is an important
feature that become characteristics, establishes
competitive advantage and affecting a
company's sustainable financial success
(Cameron & Quinn, 2011). Organizational
culture is a place for members of the
organization to gain an understanding and a
common ground regarding the events at hand,
understand the issues, and know what is
expected from their organization (Denning, in
the Forbes, 2011). If an organization does not
have a strong organizational culture then the
result when companies apply strategic plan,
without understanding the processes within the
culture itself play the role of individual
behaviors in organizational, can only produce
temporary changes and the behavior of
individuals is not in accordance with the culture
expected to. Although it is difficult to re-direct
the individual towards the desired
organizational culture, organizational culture
can improve performance in the presence of a
strategy necessary to create an organization that
is more adaptive and responsive to the
environment outside the organization (Kotter,
2001, in Divan, 2012).
Understanding about the importance of
organizational culture in a company encourages
organization to understand its culture and then
define what kind of organizational culture they
desired so that it can be suitable and able to
survive in the business environment they are
facing. With the desired to make changes in
organizational culture level, companies are
hoping to gain a new paradigm based on values
that can sustain its going concern (Anderson,
Amodeo, & Hartzfeld, 2010). In order for the
establishment of organizational culture
change’s goal can work well, a diagnosis and
right approach is needed based on company’s
believe, vision, and missions.
One of organization who needs strong
organizational culture diagnosis in order to be
more adaptive and responsive to market’s need
is a company who play in service industry like
PT FX. PT FX itself is a growing company and
undergoes a massive expansion for its line of
services. This paper will discuss organizational
culture in PT FX. Based on initial interview
with Human Resource Development manager, it
is a fact that socialization and implementation
of values that are still inconsistent is affecting

BUILDING ORGANIZATIONAL 105

employee’s misunderstanding about values
within the company. The lack of consistency in
socialization and implementation of corporate
values, accompanied by the lack of
understanding about organizational culture
values in employees, in the end giving a real
impact on the daily work activities both inside
and between departments, more over its relation
with the system. These impacts are a lack of
value of professionalism that is caused by the
lack of discipline among employees in
following company’s rules and regulations.
These facts cause certain difficulties for
companies especially in human resource
division because at the same time they are
demanded to conduct company’s organizational
values implantation program that in accordance
with the direction of the company. This
becomes a strategy form company to get a
radical approach in overcoming company’s
problems to achieve a sustainable growth. The
needs to understand and learn the condition of
company’s organization culture is felt by the
companies. Therefore organizational culture
diagnosis is needed to identify the factual
condition of company’s organizational culture.

Literature Review

Competing Value Framework
This study aim to diagnose and identity
organization culture using Competing Value
Framework created by Cameron & Quinn
(2011). Based on the diagnosis a strategy to
direct factual organizational culture to the path
desired by company is created.
Based on similar previous studies it is found
that competing value framework has a good
validity and reliability level in measuring how
employees think, their values and assumptions,
and how they process information. This theory
is resulted from 39 indicators in shaping
organization’s effectively. However these 39
indicators are considered to many so that in
order to simplify it, the 2 dimension statistical
analysis is used. The first dimension
distinguishes Effectiveness criteria that focus on
flexibility, policy, and the dynamics of criteria
that emphasize on stability, order, and control.
The second dimension distinguishes
Effectiveness criteria that focus on internal
orientation, integration, and the unity of criteria
that emphasize on external orientation,
differentiation, and competitiveness. Based on
these 2 dimension, a four quadrant will be
created where each quadrant represent a set of
indicators of the Effectiveness of organization.
It should be noted that from the four
quadrants the four main values are assumed as
an opposite or competing sides. Each
continuum sees core values that is an opposite
from the value at the other end (flexibility is the
opposite of stability, internal is the opposite of

Figure 1. Typology of organization based on
competing value framework
(Source: Cameron & Quinn, 2011)

106 HAKH, FATAHILLAH, & MANGUNDJAYA
external). Other conclusion is the diagonal
quadrants are also opposite or competing sides.
The description of each quadrant is as follows:
Hierarchy Culture (Control). This culture
emphasize on creating products and services in
an efficient manner where there are focuses on
rules, specialization, meritocracy, hierarchy,
separate ownership, and accountability. Based
on that, developing a hierarchy or bureaucratic
organization will lead to stability, efficiency,
and consistent production of products and
services. The result of a relatively stable
environment is that functions and duty can be
integrated and coordinated, the variety of
products and services can be controlled, and
employees and their work can also be
controlled.
Market Culture (Compete). This culture
focuses on transactions in the external
environment such as suppliers, customers, and
contractors. The main operation in the Market
Culture is through the mechanism of market
economy, the dynamism of competition, and the
exchange of money. Based on this, the main
goal of organization is profit, strong market
share, expand the target market, and retain
customers so that the main value from Market
Culture is competition and productivity. The
basic assumption from Market Culture is that
consumers are interested in the value so
organizations try to improve its competitive
level, and the main task of management is to
encourage organizations to continue to be
productive, improve outputs, and increase
profits.
Clan Culture (Collaborate). Clan culture
identic with family type organization. The basic
assumption of Clan culture is that the best
environment can be managed through team
cooperation and employee empowerment, and
customers is considered as partner.
Organization that intend to have Clan Culture
tries to develop working environment that is
humane with the main duty of management is to
empower employee and facilitate their
participation, commitment, and loyalty. Leader
is considered as mentor and can be treated as
parent figures. This organization is operating
with loyalty and tradition as its base.
Organization emphasize on long term benefits
in individual development with the main focus
is cohesive or high morale. Its success is seen
from the internal climate and its care for
employee. This organization emphasize on team
work, participation, and consensus.
Adhocracy Culture (Create). This culture
has assumption that innovation and initiative
lead to success, so developing new products and
services, encourage entrepreneurships, and
creativity is the main priorities of company.
Thus culture doesn’t have centralized power or
authority relationships. In the contrary, power
run through from individuals to other
individuals or from team to other team, depend
on what problems are being handled at that
time. An effective leader in this culture is a
visionary, innovative and dare to take risk
leader. The glue of organization is commitment
to market experiments and innovation. The
eagerness to change and meet new challenge is
important. Organization’s long term emphasize
is on fast growth and acquiring new resources.
Success is defined as the ability to produce a
unique and original products and services.
Based on above framework, Cameron &
Quinn (2011) create a tool to predict the
tendency of organizational culture in 4
typologies that are called Organizational
Culture Assessment Instrument or OCAI. This
measurement tool measures the tendency of the

BUILDING ORGANIZATIONAL 107

current organizational culture or desired
organizational culture through dimensions that
are fundamental in an organization culture,
which are basic assumptions of organization
(Dominant Characteristic & organization
adhesive), employees interaction pattern
(Leaderships & Employees Management), and
the purpose of organization (Emphasize on
strategy and success criteria).
The result of OCAI organization culture
assessments is a general profile of organization
culture and the profile of each dimension
constructing the current organization culture
which are mapped in a quadrant containing 4
typologies so company able to know the
dominant typology in the company and the
advantage of that dominant typology. OCAI
also measures organization culture that the
company desired to achieve in the future so
OCAI can describe the current discrepancy of
culture with the desired typological culture
desired by the company. Then OCAI also
identifying the role of the leader, the level of
Effectiveness needed, values that encourage
changes, the quality of strategy, and the role of
human resource management for each typology
accompanied with interview on managements to
find out the goals of the company in the futures.
The result of OCAI can become a clue to make
cultural transformation and changes to the
typology that the company desired.

Methods

When doing company diagnosis, we user
OCAI questionnaire. Not only does OCAI is the
most widely used instrument to identify the
organizational culture in a company (Cameron
& Quinn, 2011), the use of OCAI is to measures
6 key dimensions from organizational culture
which are dominant characteristics,
organizational leadership, management of
employee, organization glue, strategic
emphases, and criteria of success. Moreover,
the use of OCAI is intended to identify the
general overview of the current culture and the
desired culture by PT FX based on competing
values framework which are clan, hierarchy,
market, and adhocracy. Competing values
framework also used to find the degree of
similarity between factual condition and desired
condition in the scheme where how employees
within think, act, what kind of assumptions are
adopted, and the flow of information processing
in that company (Cameron & Quinn, 2011). The
use of OCAI as preliminary study of our data
that later on used as basis for us in making a list
of extended questions to a number of managers,
as extended discussion with the directors, and
as a material for Focus Group Discussion with
the staff.
Based on the result of OCAI analysis, we
then conducting interviews involving 8 out of 9
managers in the Head office by having a
probing interview from the result of that
analysis. This position is chosen because it’s
considered the most representative in
understanding the direction of the company
growth and good in understanding each
employee because the condition of company
and its structure is having a short chain of
command. Extended questions are about the
condition of PT FX that is related with the
result of OCAI Questionnaire.
In details employee, manager, and directors
who are involved on the process both in
preliminary study and the extended activities
are as follows:



108 HAKH, FATAHILLAH, & MANGUNDJAYA
Table 1. Interview, FGD, and Extended
Discussion in PT FX
Position Department Amount
OCAI Questionnaire Interview
Manager
HRD 1
Finance 1
IT 1
Marketing 1
Internal Audit 1
Procurement 1
Accounting 1
Safety 1
Total Manager 8
Focus Group Discussion
Staff After Sales 1
HRD 1
Accounting 1
Safety 1
Total FGD 4
Extended Discussion
Director Bisnis dan Pelayanan 1
Supervisor
HRD (people and organizational
development)
1

Result

The Result of Organizational Culture
Assessment Instrument (OCAI) Survey
The Organizational Culture Assessment
Instrument (OCAI) Survey is done to 8
managers of PT FX. After the questionnaire is
filled by the managers, inquiry is conducted to
each of managers to the answers that they are
given in the questionnaire. Based on the
answers of the managers and the result of
inquiry, the typology of PT FX in general
(organizational characteristic, leaderships,
employee managements, organizational
adhesive, strategic emphasizes, and success
criteria) of PT FX both current and desired by
managers based on the concept of Competing
Value Framework (Cameron & Quinn, 2011)
are as follows.



Figure 2. General typology of PT FX

Table 2. General Typology
Typology Current Desired
Clan (A) 29.47 30.83
Adhocracy (B) 17.91 18.85
Market (C) 24.27 24.89
Hierarchy (D) 28.33 25.41
Sample 8 Managers

In general, PT FX is currently still focusing
on the integration within the company which is
marked by the focus to build synergy within its
team work, strengthen the relationships between
employees as well as between departments. The
Company seeks to form a familial working
environment so that employees feel like at
home. Other than that, the internal focus is
intended at formalization, generalization, and
tight control of work processes in giving
services to its customer. In the other side, the
external orientation of the company is identified
by the main target of the company which is to
become a market leader and win competition

BUILDING ORGANIZATIONAL 109

with similar company through the
improvements of company’s competitiveness
and expanding company’s reach to its customer
by opening additional branches.
From the effectiveness point of view of the
organization, PT FX is currently more focus in
creating a tight control and efficiency in each of
its business process. Other than that, PT FX
seeks to strengthen its position in the market.
This is done by continuously seeks to adapt the
kind of services with the needs of market and
opening new line of business that is predicted
will give profits to the company.
For the company growth in the futures,
managers said that collaboration between
departments must be improved to create a better
company performance. In addition, human
resources development is needed to create
employees who are ready to compete and able
to effectively participate in every discussion
regarding company’s policy in the future












Figure 3. Dominant characteristics


Table 3. Dominant Characteristics

According to its employees, PT FX is
already felt like their own home. Employees in
the same team or departments are already like a
family. Moreover, the company is considered
competitive enough in the market and has a
good control over the working process of its
employees.
The managers hope that in the future the
team work between teams and between
departments can be improve through the
participation of employees in discussions
regarding policy and regulation, creating an
openness of communication between
employees, and employees are more assertive in
expressing their opinion. In addition, managers
also hope in the future the attention of the
company to process controls is improved
beyond the demand for the achievement of the
year end result to make sure every process run
efficiently according to company’s ethical rules
and values.










Dominant
Characteristics
Curent Desired
Clan (A) 30.62 35.62
Adhocracy
(B)
16.87 18.12
Market (C) 27.50 20.62
Hierarchy (D) 25.00 25.62
Sample 8 Manager

110 HAKH, FATAHILLAH, & MANGUNDJAYA














Figure 4. Organizational leadership

Table 4. Organizational Leadership

The managers view the leadership in the
company treated its subordinates as if they are
their own children in a family, leader can create
cooperation in a team effectively. In addition,
managers are considered able to become a role
model in thinking for efficiency in the
company. However in the future the managers
hope that the leaders in PT FX are also
improving the employee’s professionalism
values, not only the togetherness and familial
values by acting more firm in handling the
violations of rules or policy of the company that
are done by their subordinates














Figure 5. Management of employees

Table 5. Management of Employees


Currently the management of employee in
PT FX is controlled heavily by standardization
and tight working control. PT FX also prioritize
team work on managing employee’s work. In
the future managers hope the management able
to manage the employee so that it more prone to
taking risk, more independent in working, more
competitive, and able to make the right decision
for the benefit of company’s leadership
regeneration.
Organizational
Leaderships
Current Desired
Clan (A) 35.62 30.00
Adhocracy (B) 18.12 16.25
Market (C) 20.62 21.25
Hierarchy (D) 25.62 32.50
Sample 8 Managers
Management
of Employee
Current Desired
Clan (A) 30.00 30.00
Adhocracy
(B)
16.25 23.75
Market (C) 21.25 25.00
Hierarchy (D) 32.5 21.25
Sample 8 Managers

BUILDING ORGANIZATIONAL 111














Figure 6. Organization glue

Table 6. Organization Glue

Managers said that this time around, trust
and loyalty of the employees in PT FX are the
one that strengthen the bond in the company
beside the desired to get bigger, and become the
winner of the competition. In the future,
managers hope that control of order of working
process and company regulation are more firm
and consistent so that employees are more
discipline and productive in their work.


















Figure 7. Strategic emphasis

Table 6. Strategic Emphases

The managers believe that strategy
implemented in PT FX are now more intended
to strengthen and integrating the company
internally through standardization and
formalization of working process. In the future,
managers hope that management can devise the
right strategy that is market oriented not
internally oriented anymore to accelerate the
competitive behavior of the employee in the
market competition through more challenging
targets and more differentiated according to the
Organization
Glue
Current Desired
Clan (A) 30.00 26.87
Adhocracy
(B)
23.75 16.25
Market (C) 25.00 21.87
Hierarchy (D) 21.25 35.00
Sample 8 Managers
Strategic
Emphasis
Current Desired
Clan (A) 26.87 23.75
Adhocracy
(B)
16.25 16.25
Market (C) 21.87 29.37
Hierarchy (D) 35.00 30.625
Sample 8 Managers

112 HAKH, FATAHILLAH, & MANGUNDJAYA
market.















Figure 8. Criteria of success

Table 7. Criteria of Success

The managers assess that the success
criteria of PT FX lies on it’s become the leader
in market share and when the company able to
create continuity in the process of service
delivery to its customer. The managers hope the
company in the future able to develop its human
resources to improve its competitiveness and
maximize the quality of its service to customer.
From the result of OCAI analysis it can be
concluded that the organizational culture of PT
FX mostly describing the condition of high
familial values. In general, currently the type of
the organizations is relatively towards a clan
(29,47%) and hierarchy (28.33%) and it’s
obtained that the company is still want its
organizational culture emphasize more on Clan
Culture (30.83%).

Results of Interview, Focus Group Discussion,
& Extended Discussion
From the result of interview and extended
discussion it’s found that the tendency to focus
on both values which emphasize on unity and
enjoyable working environment is not
complemented with the increase in values on
other cultures such as professionalism.
According on the interview done to five
managers and a staff, the result is that there are
familial values which are really strong in PT FX
but more often this value reducing the
professionalism values. Familial values
transforming the leaders in the company to
become a father figure for its subordinates.
According to one of the managers this create a
positive effect that triggers a good team work
and make the working environment, especially
in the team is enjoyable. However in can make
the company to become less productive and less
discipline.
Familial values make the control for
regulation violation and work achievements less
effective, this is identified by the tolerance to
regulation violation and inability to achieve
target which are too big. In an effort to achieve
target, leaders tend to be more subjective in
valuating employees and tend to lower their
targets when the employees are not able to
achieve targets that previously assigned to
them. One of the managers revealed that PT FX
currently becoming a comfortable place to work
for underachieved employees because leaders
often give “protections” to them. For violation
Criteria of
Success
Current Desired
Clan (A) 23.75 29.47
Adhocracy
(B)
16.25 17.91
Market (C) 29.37 24.27
Hierarchy (D) 30.62 28.33
Sample 8 Managers

BUILDING ORGANIZATIONAL 113

of company regulation or things related to
discipline, strong punishments are often not
being done according to the rules and it is often
only in a form of verbal warning so it’s not
really effective.
From the focus group discussion the result
is that the employees actually didn’t want to
change this culture of togetherness. They are
recommending activities that prioritize
togetherness and solidarity within the company.
The feel more productive if there is a strong
togetherness even though in the end they agree
that the regulation needed to be more firm and
improvement is also needed in the values
related to discipline in the company. Culture
that they want is togetherness accompanied by
an adequate discipline and professionalism.
After understanding the result of
organizational culture diagnosis and the
direction of the desired culture by the company
we develop a few steps of recommendation to
achieve an internalization of organizational
culture in a company so that it will synergize
with all of the employees within. Our
recommendation programs to form a Clan
Culture are as follows :
Forming a tactical work team for the
internalization of company’s organizational
culture. In an effort to make sure the values can
be well implemented in a company, a tactical
work team is needed to be form for the
internalization of entering culture in a formal
structure of the company and under a direct
supervision of Human Resources Department.
This is needed so that the activities of this team
can be monitored and controlled. Also targets
must be clearly defined before forming the team
so the steps and the purpose of the team are
clear.
Training & Workshop for the Agent of
Change. Actions from top management can
affecting the implementation of organizational
culture. The attitudes and behavior of senior
executive can create a set of norms such as how
to dress appropriately, how to create promotion,
and how to give rewards (Robbins, 2013).
Agent of Changes consist of people ranging
from the leader of organization to staff who are
reliable and care to the company’s
organizational cultures. They are selected to
conduct and successfully implementing
organizational culture internalization. With
these trainings and workshops then the Agent of
Change know how important is corporate
values, and the Agent of Changes are also given
ways and acts that can be done in a daily
workaday life which are suitable with the
corporate values of the company so these Agent
of Changes can be the role model for other
employees.
Organizational Culture Meeting in PT FX.
Organizational Culture Meeting in PT FX is
being held to discuss about the development of
company’s culture internalization programs,
what problems that arise in the program, and
solutions that can be given to overcome those
culture internalization problems. This
Organizational Culture Meeting are attended by
all the Agent of Changes which consist of
Directors, Managers, staff representing every
department, and staff of Human Resource
Department who are the member of Tactical
Work Team for Internalization of Company’s
organizational Culture.
Socialization Via The Morning Briefing.
This morning briefing activities can be held by
the Agent of Change and responsible or it can
be rotated to each department. This morning
briefing can be filled with activities such as
morning prayers, Company’s cultural statement

114 HAKH, FATAHILLAH, & MANGUNDJAYA
tagline and motto shout out, sharing knowledge
and experiences, motivate each other, guidance
from head or managers of the department and
many other activities that can increase the
employee’s working spirit. This morning
briefing must held in a positive, spirited, and
dynamic environment, based on appreciation
culture, sincere, and openness. In addition,
Agent of Change and managers of each
department are responsible to make sure the
employee memorize company’s corporate
values.
Socialization Using Company’s
Organizational Culture handbook and other
socialization media. This Organizational
Culture handbook is a book that contains a
complete information regarding activities of
organizational culture implementation that will
be and that are currently being done by PT FX.
Start by explaining company’s vision, mission,
and the strategic program of organizational
culture values internalization. Description about
the tactical work team who are formed to
manage the internalization process, “Team of
organizational culture” is also included.
Socialization can also be done through visual
media and via company’s intranet ranging from
office computers, posters, or event banners.
PT FX Culture Community Upward. This is
an activities conducted by PT FX that are based
on the similarity of passions and hobbies so it
can create solidarity and togetherness between
employees outside the office where a good
relationships are created not only outside of the
office but also inside the office when working,
interacting, coordinating, and cooperating. This
can improve overall productivity and internalize
the organizational culture values which
prioritize spirit of togetherness and describing
Clan Culture.
Exemplary Employees Award (Karyawan
Teladan). This Championship is held as a form
of appreciation to the employees who are
considered behaving in accordance with
organizational culture values and in a consistent
manner. Employees felt that the implementation
of attitudes and behavior based on SPEED
values give a positive impact both on
themselves and the company. Employees also
felt appreciated with an award from the
company for their effort to implement the
organizational culture attitudes. This feeling of
being appreciated can contribute to improving
the level of satisfaction of the employees.
Coaching & counseling (C&C). Coaching
& counseling activity are created as a ways to
help employees especially staff about their
work problems and give them the right
guidance and counseling to improve their
effectiveness and employees can be more
thorough in acting in accordance with the
organizational culture values.
A Web Based Evaluation Feedback and
Implementation Feedback. Evaluation consists
of two kind of feedback. The first one is
Implementation Feedback (IF) that is intended
to determine if the currently running programs
are in accordance with the plan and the benefit
of the programs when it was first devised. The
second one is Evaluation Feedback (EF) that is
intended to find out whether the programs that
had been ran are giving the desired result or not
(Cummings & Worley, 2008).

Conclusion

This study is conducted in a company, PT
FX, a growing company that undergoes a
massive expansion for its line of services. The
needs to understand an learn the condition of

BUILDING ORGANIZATIONAL 115

company’s current organizational culture is
really needed by the company to achieve
sustainable growth. Therefore an organizational
culture diagnosis is needed to identify the
factual condition of the company’s
organizational culture. This diagnosis is based
on Competing Value Framework who has a
good validity and reliability level in measuring
how employees think, their values and
assumptions, and how they process information.
The Organizational Culture Assessment
Instrument (OCAI) is used in this study. This
measurement tool measures the tendency of the
current organizational culture or desired
organizational culture through dimensions that
are fundamental in an organization culture,
which are basic assumptions of organization
(Dominant Characteristic & organization
adhesive), employees interaction pattern
(Leaderships & Employees Management), and
the purpose of organization (Emphasize on
strategy and success criteria). In addition
interview, Focus Group Discussion, and
Extended Discussion to directors are also used.
From the result of the diagnosis it can be
concluded that the current organization culture
of PT FX is Clan Culture and in the future this
Clan Culture is still being adopted. Based on the
result of the analysis, We give
recommendations to overall activities that can
be done to achieve the Clan Culture which
synergize with direction and the needs of the
company’s business. Further studies can be
done to obtain more data by using more
participants and more appropriately represent in
order to get the whole picture of PT FX’s
organizational culture diagnosis. The
recommended activities suggested can also be
further modified by describing the purpose,
benefits, and the steps needed to be done in a
more detailed manner in order to adapt to the
needs of company of which still carry the
professionalism and discipline. From these
recommendations given, it is hoped that other
recommended activities which support these
recommendations are arose so that the
internalization programs for Clan Culture can
have more variations and more interesting to all
employees of PT FX.

References

Allame, S. M., Nouri, B. A., Tavakoli, S. Y., &
Shokrani, S. A. (2011). Effect of
organizational culture on success of
knowledge management system's
implementation (Case Study: Saderat bank
in Isfahan province). Interdisciplinary
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Business, 2(9), 321-346.
Anderson, R., Amodeo, M., Hartzfeld, J.
(2010). Changing business culture from
within state of the world-transforming
cultures: From consumerism to
sustainability. New York: Norton &
Company
Cameron, K. S., & Quinn, R. E. (2011).
Diagnosing and changing organizational
culture: Based on the competing values
framework. California: Jossey-Bass.
Cummings, T. G., & Worley, C. G. (2009).
Organizational development & change:
International student edition. California,
USA: Thomson South-Western.
Denning, S. (2011, July 23). How Do You
Change An Organizational Culture?.
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organizational-culture/

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Divan, M. S. (2012). Changing “The Way We
Do Things” Presenting a Strategic
Organizational Culture Framework. USA:
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http://www.siop.org/workplace/coaching/co
aching_to_impact_organiz.aspx







EFFECTS OF 117

Effects of Perceived Organizational Support as
Moderator Variable on Correlation between Self-
Efficacy and Procrastination

Kristiana Dewayani & Indah Cahyati
Faculty of Psychology, Gunadarma University


Procrastination has become phenomenon which commonly can be
perpetrated by anyone and may occur in every aspect of life; by no
exception, it may also be perpetrated by an employee and procrastination
in the workplace is influenced by perceived organizational support
(factors from self) and situation in the workplace. This study aims to
examine correlation between self-efficacy as a factor among employees,
procrastination, and perceived organizational support, which is
employees’ perception towards situation in the workplace, as moderator
variable. Respondents in this study are 64 employees of a company,
consisting of 39 men and 25 women. There are three scales used as
measuring instruments namely procrastination scale, adapted from
General Procrastination Scale, Organizational Support Scale adapted from
Survey of Perceived Organizational Support and self-efficacy scale,
modified from General Self-Efficacy. Then after normal data distribution
was identified, data were analyzed with Moderated Regression Analysis in
SPSS version 20.0 for windows. Self-efficacy correlated significantly with
procrastination with value of r = -0.399 (p = 0.001), and organizational
support was significant as moderator variable, with r = -0.429 (p = 0.001).
Thus it can be said that although self-efficacy significantly correlates with
procrastination, but this correlation will be strengthened by organizational
support. This finding is consistent with Weyman’s research that
procrastination is influenced by factors from self and external factors from
self.

Keywords: procrastination, perceived organizational support, self-
efficacy
Procrastination is desire to postpone making
a decision or completing a task that increases
useless pressure (Prohaska et al. in Hampton,
2005). In simple explanation, procrastination
can be defined as behavior of postponing or
suspending (Burka & Yuen, 2008).
The phenomenon of procrastination occurs
in almost every field of life. Steel (2007)
categorized procrastination into six areas,
namely household, financial, personal, social,
JPIO ISSN 2302-8440
2014, Vol. 1, No. 2, 117-127
117

118 DEWAYANI & CAHYATI
work, and school. In society, as many as 20 %
adults were reported to be engaging in it
(Ferrari in Freeman, 2011). Nearly 20 % of
adults admitted that they did procrastination
when dealing with routine tasks, such as paying
bills, paying taxes, or having medical check
(Schouwenburg in Rosario et al., 2009). Not
only that procrastination has effects on routine
daily tasks, procrastination also leads individual
to postpone responsibilities, tasks, and decisions
(Dilmac in Beheshtifar, 2011).
Procrastination has become phenomenon
which commonly can be perpetrated by anyone
and may occur in every aspect of life; by no
exception, it may also be perpetrated by an
employee (Burka & Yuen, 2008). Employees
are very important human resources for
company. Ghani (in Colakoglu 2010) stated that
employees lead success in an organization,
hence company requires human resources that
have potential to develop and promote the
company. Potential human resource is human
resource with quality, both in developing skills,
discipline, responsibility, honesty, and in
building motivation and high work ethic. In this
matter, every company definitely needs
potential human resource, company X is no
exception.
Procrastination in the workplace is
influenced by perceived organizational support
(factors from self) and situation in the
workplace. Influence of perceived
organizational support consists of work skills
and willingness, while situation in the
workplace consists of content of the situation
and support. In this study, researchers
correlated procrastination with one of the
factors which is considered to have influence on
perceived organizational support and one of the
factors that influences situation in the
workplace.

Procrastination
In this study, definition of procrastination is
tendency of organizational support on behavior
to postpone responsibilities, tasks, and decisions
that are considered important in achieving some
of goals and it can create feelings of discomfort
(Hammer & Ferrari in Freeman, 2011; Lay in
LaForge, 2005; Dryden et al.; Haycock in
Dilmac et al 2009; Solomon & Rothblum 1984;
Ellis & Knaus in Chu & Choi, 2005; Milgram et
al. in Eerde, 2003).
Solomon and Rothblum (1984) mentioned
multidimensional concepts in procrastination,
namely:
Fear of Failure. Many people who do
procrastination are usually worried when they
are evaluated by others. Fear of failure is
defined as excessive anxiety of possibility of
failure. They are afraid that others will find
their shortcomings, and as a consequence, their
best efforts will not be sufficient and
unsatisfactory. This factor involves cognitive
factors such as the thought that not doing
something is better (less painful) than doing it
and fail; expectation which is too high which
leads to anxiety of possibility of unable to meet
the expectation, and prefer not doing something
to having others know their deficiency. (Burka
& Yuen, 2008).
Aversiveness of Task. There is supporting
finding that task is considered as trigger
hostility on procrastination (Burka & Yuen,
2008). In the workplace, people do
procrastination when they feel that their work
does not provide sufficient autonomy; when
they see that what they do are not appreciated;
when they are not rewarded for what they have
done; or they feel frustrated, angry, or bored

EFFECTS OF 119

with their tasks (Burka & Yuen, 2008). When
more people dislike their tasks, the more they
think about it and cause anxiety, and the more
they will do procrastination (Steel in Burka &
Yuen, 2008). So, one of the reasons why people
do procrastination is because they feel that there
are many unpleasant tasks in their work.
Difficulty in Making Decision. People
having difficulty in making decision will
postpone this process as long as possible. Some
people do long procrastination in making
decision and eventually making it by deadline,
consequently only one final choice remains
(Rothblum, 1992). Procrastinator’s evaluation
of the importance of a task varies from
periodically and undergoes a dramatic change
as the task deadline approaches, although the
importance of the task is actually not very
diverse. For example, when someone has a
project on next Monday, s/he might not see it as
being important on Thursday, but it seems
important on Sunday night (Burka & Yuen,
2008).
Dependency. People may feel they need the
presence of others to go forward. They fear that
without a partner or a friend, they cannot
activate themselves (Burka & Yuen, 2008).
Some believe that if they put off doing their
jobs, others will help them complete their jobs.
Procrastinators have learned that when deadline
is approaching, friends and co-workers will be
there to help them completing their tasks
(Rothblum, 1992).
Lack of Assertion. People who struggle by
procrastinating often feel powerless when
dealing with person who is more superior.
People may have more superiority than others,
such as manager or professor. Also, there are
people having personal power, such as having
assertive couple or friends having strong
principles (Burka & Yuen, 2008). When they
are afraid, some people have difficulty in
fighting for their rights or speak. They will
perform procrastination when they need to ask
the supervisor for a raise, ask for a letter of
recommendation, or criticize a colleague for
poor performance (Rothblum, 1992).
Risk-Taking. Risk-taking is behavior of a
perfectionist. They believe that there is an
appropriate solution to a problem and it is their
responsibility to find it. Until they find the right
solution, they are reluctant to take action or
commit. So, rather than taking risk of making
wrong choice, they would prefer not to do
anything (Burka & Yuen, 2008). According to
Atkinson (in Rothblum, 1990), individuals who
have high fear of failure will choose a very easy
task that will guarantee success or even a very
difficult one that most likely no one can
succeed.
Rebellion against Control. Rebellion against
control is a form of resistance or response to a
control. When someone has a bit of power, they
can act by way of increasing their control. For
example, in a meeting which cannot start
without them, they may make others wait for
them by coming late, and also by not returning
important phone calls (Rothblum, 1992). When
there is authority that always controls life, a
person may find relief when conducting a delay.
By delaying and refusing to do something, one
can exasperate an authority that holds control or
demand and try to weaken its grip. This is
passive resistance and relatively safe way rather
than having open confrontation of which effect
is too detrimental (Burka & Yuen, 2008).
Meanwhile, Lay’s General Procrastination
Scale dimension (1986) is unidimensional
which consists of only one dimension to cover
procrastination characteristics. Procrastination

120 DEWAYANI & CAHYATI
dimension used in this study is based on Lay’s
procrastination measurement scale (1986)
namely General Procrastination Scale (GPS)
which covers one dimension of procrastination
or commonly called unidimensional. In this
study, researchers adapted this scale as tool to
measure procrastination because this tool is
effective in measuring characteristics of
procrastinator in various situations (Lay in
Ferrari, 1992). Hence, this scale can also be
applied in an organizational environment.
Meanwhile, according to Eerde (2000), in
working, individual differences that influence a
person in doing procrastination are:
Avoidance. Avoidance arises because
situation is considered threatening or affectively
unattractive. There may be individual
differences in interpreting situation which is
threatening or harmful, rather than
approachable or profitable. Avoidance leads
individuals to negative emotional reactions.
When such behavior gives bad result, it will
lead individuals to anxiety (Eerde, 2000) .
Impulsiveness. Two important variables in
this field are: (1) lack of cognitive structures
which disguise periodical option, and (2)
competence of the will (also called self-control
or desire) to overcome urge to escape from
unpleasant situation (Eerde, 2000). People who
are impulsive are more likely to perform
procrastination because they tend to focus on
current event and focus their attention on it
(Blatt & Quinn in Steel, 2007). Given that
future concern is not properly considered in
making decision, they often pursue momentary
decision and ignore long term responsibility. As
a result, impulsive is similar to construction
which is present at moment of time orientation.
Eerde (2000) outlines that in working, there
are situations that affect someone in doing
procrastination, namely:
Task Factor. There are two dimensions
related to delaying task namely delay on task
that is not interesting because the task is too
challenging, and delay because it is not
challenging enough. Complex task or task
having difficult goals will be seen as a threat
(Drach-Zahavy & Erez in Eerde, 2000). For
task that is considered and perceived by
someone’s ability perception to be too
challenging, it will lead to avoidance. For task
that is considered and perceived by someone’s
ability perception to be relatively too easy or
too boring, procrastination is used as a strategy
to complete the task when approaching
specified deadline.
Organizational Factor. Interdependence
between people in the workplace can serve as
social control due to lack of procrastinator’s
self-control. Social control can be considered to
be included in norms of time management and
can be seen as dimension of organizational
culture (Schriber & Gutek in Eerde, 2000). The
dimension of time management will reflect, for
example, how a group is punctual and whether
it is appropriate or not to impose penalty when
deadline cannot be met.
Researchers have consistently provided
necessary information to evaluate three
demographic factors that may be moderator
factors in procrastination: age, sex, and year.

Self-Efficacy
Self-efficacy is key element in Bandura's
social learning theory (in Gist, 1987) which
refers to individual's belief in ability to
complete a specific task. Self-efficacy arises
from gradual acquisition of complex, social,
linguistic cognitive and/or physical ability
through experience (Bandura in Gist , 1987).

EFFECTS OF 121

General self-efficacy (GSE) appears to be
universally meaningful construct in generating
relationships with other psychological
constructs (Luszczynska et al., 2005). General
self-efficacy can be broadly understood as
individual's perception of his/her competence in
all situations (Chen et al. in Cramer, 2010).
GSE refers broadly and stably from individual
competence to effectively deal with various
stressful situations (Schwarzer et al.; Sherer et
al. in Luszczunska, 2005). GSE is also defined
as individual's perception regarding his/her
ability to perform in a variety of different
situations.
In this study, definition of self-efficacy is
global individual's belief in his/her ability
control to organize and take actions in
completing new or demanding task in order to
meet particular goals. (Bandura in Gist, 1987;
Bandura, 1994; Luszczynska et al., 2005;
Schwarzer et al. in Luszczynska, 2005).
Woodruff et al (in Chen et al, 2001) divides
general self-efficacy into 3 dimensions, namely:
Initiative. Initiative is a person's willingness
to start a behavior (Woodruff et al. in Chen et
al., 2001). Initiative is also considered as
decision to perform a task (Luthans, 2008).
Initiative shows the extent to which respondents
are willing to deal with difficult issues.
Initiative determines the type of activities
selected by individuals to engage in it. The
decision which will be taken depends on a
person's self-efficacy towards available options,
for example taking decision related to task in
working environment. (Luthans, 2008).
Effort. Effort is one's willingness to exercise
effort in completing a behavior (Woodruff et al.
in Chen et al., 2001). Effort shows the extent to
which respondents are willing to attach to their
jobs and shows the level of effort they take to
complete the task (Luthans, 2009). Individuals
with high self-efficacy will try harder than those
with low self-efficacy (Luthans, 2008).
Persistence. Persistence is someone’s
perseverance when dealing directly with severe
problem (Woodruff et al. in Chen et al., 2001).
Persistence is associated with general
assessment of respondents with respect to their
ability to deal with unexpected problems and
perseverance in facing. Individuals with high
self-efficacy will keep on struggling as they
have endurance when dealing with problem or
when experiencing failure; whilst individuals
with low self-efficacy will give up when facing
obstacles (Luthans, 2008).
Dimensions used in this study are from
Woodruff et al (in Chen et al., 2001) which
divided general self-efficacy into three
dimensions, namely initiative, effort, and
persistence. Researchers used these dimensions
because General Self-Efficacy can contribute to
theories in organization, research and practice
(Chen et al., 2001). Thus, researchers used these
because they fit the context of measuring self-
efficacy in organization.

Perceived Organizational Support
In this study, definition of perceived
organizational support is general belief of
employees from their experience regarding
organizational policies, norms, procedures, and
the extent to which the organization treats them,
appreciates their contributions and cares about
their well-being (Eisenberger et al., 1986).
Kraimer and Wyne (in Wallace, 2008)
define perceived organizational support as a
multidimensional constructs. Kraimer and wyne
(in Wallace, 2008) divide the organizational
support into 3 dimensions:
Adjustment. Adjustment in perceived

122 DEWAYANI & CAHYATI
organizational support reinforces employees’
adjustment in context of transfering tasks
(Kraimer and Wyne in Wallace, 2008).
Adjustment refers to the psychological comfort
which is associated with new task (Kraimer et
al., 2001). Employees are encouraged to
become more resilient and engage in career
development activities to deal with changes that
require knowledge, skills, and abilities, and to
facilitate their mobilities.
Career. In addition to fulfilling
physiological needs, employees also have desire
to extend their potentials and develop their
skills within the organization and to meet their
needs for development and self-actualization
(Krishnan & Mary, 2012). Career in perceived
organizational support leads to reinforcing
employees’ career (Kraimer and Wyne in
Wallace, 2008). Supervisor’s support includes
providing feedback on work performance and
encouragement for career development (Ito,
2005). This support helps employees monitor
their career goals and formulate as well as
implement development activities in accordance
with their career plans (Ito, 2005).
Financial. Organizational support theory
states that beneficial reward indicates that
organization appreciates employees'
contributions to the organization (Krishnan &
Mary, 2012). Financial in perceived
organizational support leads to reinforecement
of financial needs in terms of compensation and
benefits (Kraimer and Wyne in Wallace, 2008).
Organizational support, financially, refers to
appreciation in the form of honorarium from the
organization such as raise and bonus (Shore &
Shore, 1995).
Dimension of Perceived Organizational
Support Survey (Organizational Support Scale)
from Eisenberger et al. (1986) is said to be
unidimensional which includes one dimension
for measuring perceived organizational support.
Statements relating to organization include
employees satisfaction as members of an
organization (relationship towards organization
or supervisor, appropriate salary, adequate
facilities in the form of medical, gratuity,
housing, vehicles, shipping, allowance and
funeral), employees performance (employees
assessment on the extent of their effort in
performing all tasks and responsibilities),
anticipation of employees value in the future
(related to elements assessed by employees over
their existence in the future, namely values on
loyalty, achievements, responsibilities,
obedience, honesty, cooperation, initiative,
leadership), appreciation towards employees
passion (related to employees perceptions of
reward system for extra performance, such as
reward for working overtime, allowance beyond
basic salary, non-cash allowance, and other
allowances such as representative allowance,
structural allowance, functional allowance,
general allowance and meal allowance),
consideration of employees opinions and
objectives (perception of whether employees
contributions and proposals are accepted by
company), employees awareness towards fair
payment (employees' perceptions regarding
salary adjustments , gradual salary raise,
payroll), work enrichment (employees
'perceptions of how company manages the
employees, such as mutation, rotation,
promotion, demotion), empowering talented
employees (employees' perceptions of how
companies provide appropriate formation for
employees, employees are placed according to
their abilities, which is based on the nature of
work , the nature of predicting workload and
employees capacity), employees satisfaction

EFFECTS OF 123

over their work (the perception of overall
satisfaction with the overall tasks and
responsibilities in the company), employees
welfare (provision of appropriate salary,
adequate facilities, in the form of health
facilities, gratuity, housing, vehicles, shipping,
and funeral).
Dimension of perceived organizational
support used in this study refers to the
measurement scale of perceived organizational
support developed by Eisenberger et al. (1986)
namely Survey of Perceived Organizational
Support which is unidimensional. Researchers
chose this measurement scale because it has
some constructs and it is unidimensional, which
means that it can measure perceived
organizational support globally. (Eisenberger et
al., 1986). This statement covers overall
perceived organizational support and is
considered appropriate to context of
organization.

Research Method

In this study, there are 61 samples who are
employees from several work units, namely
personnel department unit, secretariat and
protocol unit, treasury unit, and general unit.
Sampling technique used is non-probability
sampling. Non-probability sampling is a
sampling technique that does not give same
chance or opportunity for anyone in population
to be selected as sample (Sugiyono, 2011).
The proposed hypothesis is organizational
support as moderator of correlation between
self-efficacy and procrastination.
To identify procrastination, perceived
organizational support, and self-efficacy,
primary data were used. The data were collected
directly from respondents using questionnaire.
The questionnaire consists of biographical data
of the respondents, scale of procrastination,
scale of perceived organizational support, and
scale of self-efficacy.

Scale of Procrastination
This scale is adapted from General
Procrastination Scale (GPS) which is
unidimensional, developed by Lay (1986). This
scale consists of 13 points of statement
regarding day-to-day activities that indicate
behavior of procrastination. Correlation
between item score and total score on valid
items range from 0.301 to 0.724. While the
obtained Alpha Cronbach reliability test
coefficient value was 0.814.

Scale of Perceived Organizational Support
Measurement of Organizational Support in
this study used Organizational Support Scale,
adapted from Survey of Perceived
Organizational Support which has some
constructs and is believed to be unidimensional
that is to measure perceived organizational
support globally (Eisenberger et al., 1986).
Organizational Support Scale used consists of
24 valid items. Correlation between item score
and total score on valid items range from 0.300
to 0.753. While the obtained Alpha Cronbach
reliability test coefficient value was 0.901.

Scale of Self-Efficacy
Data on self-efficacy were collected by
using self-efficacy scale which is adapted from
Sherer General self-efficacy Scale (SGSES) and
was developed by Sherer in 1982 (Sherer et al.
in Priest, 2007). The scale consists of 15 points
of statements relating to individual expectations
in facing new or demanding situations. General
Self-Efficacy can contribute to theories of

124 DEWAYANI & CAHYATI
organization, research and practice (Chen et al.,
2001). Self-efficacy scale was conducted per
dimension. Self-efficacy scale is
multidimensional which consists of three
dimensions with 15 items in total. Dimensions
of self-efficacy are initiative, effort and
persistence, of which item numbers are 7, 4, and
4 respectively. Correlation between item score
and total score on valid items within the three
dimensions range from 0.363 to 0.605. As for
per dimension analysis, initiative ranges from
0.432 to 0.667, effort ranges from 0.303 to
0.527, persistence ranges from 0.442 to 0.514.
This means that scale validity coefficient of
each dimension indicates its measurement
function or in other words, it provides precise
and accurate results, in line with the purposes of
this study. While the obtained Alpha Cronbach
reliability test value of self-efficacy was 0.857.
Respectively for each dimension, initiative was
0.803, effort was 0.606, and persistence was
0.682.
Then hypothesis testing was conducted by
using Moderated Regression Analysis technique
in SPSS program version 20.0 for windows.

Results and Discussion

Descriptive Data
Respondents in this study are 61 consisting
of 39 men (64%) and 22 women (36%). Data on
gender and its empirical mean are displayed in
detail in Table 1 below.
Respondents in this study consist of 35
employees whose employment status is civil
servant (57.4%), 22 employees whose
employment status is not civil servant (36%)
and 4 employees whose employment status is
outsourcing (6.6%). Data on respondents
employment status and its empirical mean are
displayed in detail in Table 2 below.


Table 1. Data of Respondents based on Gender
Gender
Frequ
ency
Percent
age
(%)
Empirical Mean
Procras
tination
OS
Self-
Effica
cy
Men 39 64 30.79
125.4
9
59.71
Women 22 36 30.86
123.0
9
58.90
Total 61 100 - - -


Table 2. Data of Respondents based on
Employment Status
Employment
Status
Frequ
ency
Perce
ntage
(%)
Empirical Mean
Procr
astina
tion
OS
Self-
Effica
cy
Civil
Servant
35 57.4 29.46 123.51 58.80
Non-Civil
Servant
22 36 32.09 124.86 60.50
Outsourcing 4 6,6 35.75 133.00 59.00
Total 61 100 - - -

Result of hypothesis testing shows
correlation between self-efficacy and
procrastination with r = -0.399 with significant
level or p = 0.001 (ρ < 0.01). This indicates that
correlation between self-efficacy and
procrastination is significantly negative. In
addition, there is correlation between perceived
organizational support and procrastination with
r = -0.353 with significant level or p = 0.005 (ρ
< 0.01). Effects of organizational support as
moderator variable can be seen in figure 1
above.

EFFECTS OF 125

Perceived organizational support is effective
as moderator variable in the correlation between
self-efficacy and procrastination with r = -0.427
(p = 0.000). Thus it can be concluded that
employees with high self-efficacy have
tendency of not doing procrastination, and
likewise when employees perceive that there is
organizational support for them, they have
tendency of not doing procrastination .
When employees feel that they are well-
treated by the company, for example, the
company provides a fair and appropriate salary
for them, and appreciate all the employees
efforts, then naturally, the employees will feel
that they are ‘indebted’ to the company. This
matter may trigger the employees to do
something as an act of ‘returning the favor’ by
taking initiative to give contribution to the
company. Luthans (2008) stated that the
initiative is also considered as decision to
perform a task.
How significant the employees will
contribute to the company depends on the
extent of appreciation given by the company to
them. The higher the appreciation, the more
significant their contribution in performing
tasks for the company. This conforms
Campbell’s argument (in Eisenberger et al,
1990) which says that performance will
improve by expectation that the amount of
effort put forth on the performance will be
rewarded appropriately. When employees make
Figure 1. Effects of organizational support as mediator variable
Table 3. Significance of Organizational Support as Moderator

Model
Unstandardized Coefficients
Standardized
Coefficients
t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
(Constant) 53.507 0.321 166.673 0.000
moderator -0.018 0.005 -0.427 -3.623 0.001

126 DEWAYANI & CAHYATI
effort in completing a task, and the reward
given by the company is as expected then the
reward can be reinforcement in making an
effort which is influenced by employees
perception that the organization appreciates
their contributions.
When company appreciates its employees
more, it will lead employees to the next level
which is persistence. Persistence is
perseverance when dealing with severe
problem. (Woodruff et al. in Chen et al., 2001).
When employees are so eager to get
acknowledgement or reward from company,
then they will struggle passionately though
dealing with difficult matter.
Respondents in this study, in average, are
employees in early adulthood whose age ranges
from 18 to 39. With the fact that most of the
employees are relatively still at young age, they
are expected to perform productively. However,
based on results of this study, it can be seen that
the empirical mean of procrastination at late
adulthood is lower. This suggests that
procrastination can indeed be avoided from
learning or experience. Research shows that
people tend to reduce procrastination behavior
with repeated practice (Ainslie; Baumeister et
al. in Steel, 2007).

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Factors Influencing the Success of Creative Industry
Business in Jakarta

Benedicta Prihatin Dwi Riyanti, Ati Cahyani, & Bambang Sungkowo
Faculty of Psychology, Atma Jaya Catholic University

This study aim to explain whether there is a significant effect of the
variable ability to see opportunities, optimistic, risk-taking and creativity
to business success in the creative industries in Jakarta. One hundred and
sixty five (165) entrepreneurs in industry creative were being collected by
accidental sampling. Five instruments were used in this research. The
result shows that the only variable of creativity that gives significant
influence on the success of the creative industry businesses. This study
also shows that the level of optimism and risk-taking entrepreneurial
creative industries are still below average.

Keywords: creative industry, ability to see opportunities, optimistic, risk
taking, creativity, business success, entrepreneur
The development of small and medium-
scale enterprises is necessary and sufficient
because it can maintain the stability of the
national economy and reduce unemployment.
Business development also becomes important
for the survival of the business in the future.
Why business development is important
because a lot of businesses that already exist
apparently then stagnated or even gone
bankrupt. This happens because the business
owner does not have the ability and willingness
to develop their business. As shown in table 1.
that in fact the addition of the amount of effort
from year to year, the amount is significant.
Even in the small and medium scale enterprises
has decreased the number of attempts. In
addition to the decreasing number, the level of
employment in the micro enterprise sector is
still very low, on average only 1-2 people in 1
business. This condition is different from the
medium-size enterprises. For one type of
medium-size enterprises, the average labor can
accommodate up to 65 people.
Looking at the above data, it seems that the
number of small businesses that dominate the
number of businesses in Indonesia is stop
growing. This group of small businesses has a
particular difficulty in developing a business.
Researchers conjecture is reinforced by the
statement of one of the manager of a private
bank that gives special funding on micro-
enterprise groups in a number of areas.
According to Mr. X (personal communication,
August 10, 2012) the Bank was looking for a
JPIO ISSN 2302-8440
2014, Vol. 1, No. 2, 128-139
128

FACTORS INFLUENCING 129

solution how to provide reinforcement in a
number of its customers so that they have the
ability to develop the business. Technical
training on financial management and has been
given, but appears to have no significant
impact.
This condition is different from the business
engaged in the creative industries. Contribution
of the creative industries in the economy of the
Indonesian government's attention as well. In
the creative industry value added increased
significantly from year to year, both in terms of
operating income, the number of business units,
the level of productivity, the amount of labor
and the value of exports (see table 2).
Therefore, through the Ministry of Trade, the
government began to give more attention to this
type of industry. The Commerce Department
has been put through a variety of efforts to
boost economic growth in the creative
community.
According to Simatupang (2008) the key to
success in creative industries is the ability to see
opportunities, speed products to seize the
opportunities presented, the precision in
estimating risk, the ability to collaborate with
others and workable strategy in the face of
competition. Added by Simatupang (2008) that
the creative industries have characteristics such
as product life cycles are getting shorter and can
not be predicted accurately, more and more
product variety, seasonal nature or according to
certain events, products or imitated easily
hijacked, and level intense competition.
Therefore, for those who were involved in the
creative industries need to have nature take
risks, and have positive beliefs about the
availability of the opportunities around them.
Simatupang opinion is actually common to all
types of businesses. Ciputra (2008) also
describes the same thing that to become an

Labor

Micro People 69,966,508 82,071,144 84,452,002 87,810,366 90,012,694
Small
business
People 9,204,786 3,139,711 3,278,793 3,519,843 3,521,073
Medium
Enterprises
People 4,415,322 2,698,743 2,761,135 2,694,059 2,677,565
Large
Business
People 2,719,209 2,441,181 2,535,411 2,756,205 2,674,671
Indicator Unit 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Business Unit
Micro Unit 45,217,567 48,512,438 49,608,953 50,847,771 52,176,795
Small business Unit 1,694,008 472,602 498,565 522,124 546,675
Medium
Enterprises
Unit 105,487 36,763 38,282 39,717 41,677
Large Business Unit 5,022 4,577 4,463 4,650 4,677
M+SM+ME+LB Unit 1,804,517 513,942 541,310 566,491 592,485
Table 1. Data Development of Micro, Small, Medium and Large Enterprises Year 2005-2009
















Source: Ministry of Small and Medium Enterprises Republic of Indonesia (www.docstoc.com)
September 10,2012.

130 RIYANTI, CAHYANI, & SUNGKOWO
entrepreneur should possess three very
important elements to running a successful
entrepreneurial. The third thing is to create
opportunities (creating opportunity), product
innovation (innovation) and measured risk-
taking (calculated risk taking). Meredith (1984)
expressed similar thing also that if you want to
become a successful entrepreneur then the
entrepreneur should be able to take calculated
risks, take risks with creative thinking.
Sitkin and Pablo (1992), defines risk-taking
behavior as: "the degree of risk associated with
decisions made". Individual awareness of the
existence of risks in behavior indicates that risk-
taking can occur when individuals realize that
there are risks so that risk-taking is no longer
understood as the cause of the unexpected or
accident, otherwise the individual aware of the
possibility of undesirable things happening to
him (Yates, 1994). Yates (1994) also adds that
individuals can estimate and calculate how
much risk there may be, otherwise people
would not be aware of to avoid the risk of
possible options. Thus, the risk occurs
understood not as the cause of the unexpected,
but going from the decision-making.
The term risk-taking behavior spanning two
things, namely that risk-taking emerged after a
consideration of cooking (Deliberative risk-
taking) and the assumption that the risk-taking
emerged without any consideration (non-
deliberative risk-taking) (Yates, 1994). The next
No Indicator Unit 2005 2006 2007 2008
Trend
(%)
1 Based on GDP
1.1 Value Added
applies
Billion 214,540.85 256,848.12 297,557.26 360,663.46 18.60
1.2 Value added
constant

Billion 135,394.13 142,091.32 147,906.98 151,581.42 3.86
2 Based on
employment

2.1 The number of
worker
People 7,360,032.12 7,009,392.09 7,396,912.73 7,686,409.85 1.86
2.2 Productivity


Billion
rupiah
63,605.92 65,458.35 65,043.51 64,918.88 0.55
3 Based on
company activity

3.1 Number of
company
company 2,734,076.04 2,576,235.42 2,813,959.21 3,001,635.14 3.75

4

Based
international
trade

4.1 The import value Billion 76,462.03 84,840.18 95,208.60 114,924.97 14.31
4.2 The export value Miliar 6,915.06 6,045.16 8,077.49 10,441.82 16.49
4.3 Net trade Miliar 69,546.98 78,795.02 87,131.11 104,483.15 14.13
Table 2. Statistics Creative Industries in Indonesia 2005-2008



























Sources: Department of Commerce 2009 trends 2005-2008

FACTORS INFLUENCING 131

term risk-taking behavior fully intended that the
risk -taking that comes after a thorough
consideration or in other words as a conscious
action that arise after the identification and
characterization of the possible undesirable or
potential losses in risky situations (Yates,
1994). This becomes especially important when
establishing the risky decisions, people will
think about the decision because the decision is
not free from the consequences and uncertainty
factors (Yates, 1994) and risk-taking occurs
when the decisive decisions on the options
available to realize the possibility of loss and
uncertainty. It refers to the Deliberative risk-
taking. According to Yates (1994) risk -taking
behavior has three dimensions, i.e., took the
decision in a risky situation, the courage to act
in a risky situation and is able to bear the losses
that will be experienced in a risky situation.
In managing the creative industry, in
addition to already well thought out creative
and calculated the amount of risk that must be
born, it is also necessary that optimistic attitude
is what he decided later will give good results.
According to Lawrence, Scheier, and Carver
(2002) defined optimism as the expectation of
good things that will happen in a person's life.
Expectation that good things will happen to
entrepreneurs making entrepreneurs do not have
too look at risk as a barrier for himself and his
business.
More about creativity, Sternberg and Lubart
(1993) describes creativity as the ability to
produce something that has a novelty (original,
unexpected) and appropriate (useful, adaptive
limitations. While Kirton (1976) and Morgan
(1996) states that creativity is a trait that exists
within every person. Some people are very
creative (eg: great artists, inventors large), there
is also a creative person for themselves and a
small sphere around it.
Creativity theory of Kirton (1976) is a
theory of personality creativity. Kirton
creativity theory is better known as Adaption
Innovation Theory. In Adaption-Innovation
theory proposed by Kirton (1989), he
emphasized the cognitive style rather than the
cognitive capacity / cognitive level. Kirton
emphasis on cognitive style because Kirton
believes that every human being has creative
potential of each and therefore Kirton create a
measurement tool called the Kirton Adaption-
Innovation (KAI) inventory. KAI is a test tool
that puts the individual in a continuum scale to
see if the individual is classified as adaptors or
innovators.
In the Kirton Adaption-Innovation (KAI)
inventory, there are three underlying constructs,
namely (Kirton, 1989): Sufficiency vs.
Proliferation of Originality; Efficiency; labeled
rule / group conformity.
In managing the creative industries, in
addition to creativity and risk taking, it is also
necessary optimistic attitude. Attitude is
optimistic that what he decides later will give
good results. According to Scheier and Carver
(2002) defined optimism as the expectation of
good things that will happen in a person's life.
The concept of optimism as a general
expectation that a positive result will appear in
the future according to relevant researchers
studied the entrepreneurs. Expectation that good
things will happen to entrepreneurs making
entrepreneurs do not have too look at risk as a
barrier for himself and his business.
Seligman (2006) states that people who are
optimistic are better developed than those who
are pessimistic because of optimism produces
pervasiveness and persistence, and it is this that
determines the development of the individual.

132 RIYANTI, CAHYANI, & SUNGKOWO
In Positive Psychology, there are three
things that can distinguish the behavior of
optimistic and pessimistic according to
Seligman (1991), the permanence,
pervasiveness, and personalization.
Permanence dimension explained that
optimistic people always respond to bad events
as something that is temporary. Unlike the
pessimist, adverse events are something that is
considered to be permanent and helplessness
when facing a failure, pessimistic people take a
long time to recover.
Dimensions pervasiveness explains that
people who are optimistic when it finds
difficulty in activities to keep or find a solution
and move on with a positive thing. In contrast
to the pessimistic, would give in to all aspects
of life when encountering difficulties and
negative impact, such as anxiety, fear, anger,
sadness, and frustration.
Personalization dimensions explained that
when find trouble or failure, then the optimistic
blames himself (internal), in contrast to a
pessimist who is always blaming others and
circumstances (external). In doing
Personalization there are two ways, namely,
general self-blame (blame yourself for what
happened and it is difficult to forgive
ourselves), and behavioral self-blame (blame
yourself for yourself, but it is temporary and the
things that more clearly.
This study will focus on several factors: the
ability to see opportunities, risk-taking,
creativity and optimism to see its influence on
the success of the business.
According to Stevenson and Jarillo (1990),
the heart of entrepreneurship is the orientation
to see the opportunity. Opportunity itself is
something earned, not exist by itself, so the
opportunity was the result of the perception that
there is a chance.
Dutton and Jackson (1987) propose a model
of the perception of opportunity. Categorization
opportunity to "chance" or "threat" to be of key
importance in making decisions. Models of
Dutton and Jackson argued that the perception
of opportunity is driven by two key perceptions
of the other. First, a situation where the
outcome is accepted as something positive
which is in control of one's situation then this
will be categorized as an "opportunity".
Conversely, if the situation is considered
negative and is beyond the control of a person's
ability to control the so-called "threat". This
elegant model is then tested and managed. The
results show that how we make decisions is
influenced by the perception of reality, not
reality itself. Thus, if the situation is considered
to be an opportunity or a threat it really depends
on one's perception.
This research will be carried out on sub-
sectors of creative industries spread across
Jakarta with emphasis on creative efforts
managed by graduate-college. This also can be
seen in the educational success of educating
entrepreneurial graduates.
Currently 14 sub-sectors of creative
industries to grow and thrive in Jakarta, where
the leading business field consists of 18 types,
namely: (1) Services drama activities, music,
movies, theater and other entertainment; (2)
Radio and television services activities; (3)
Impresario services, (4) advertising services, (5)
Consultant architect; (6) Research and
development services (7). Multimedia and
computer services; (8) Museum services; (9)
Marketing research services; (10) Large trade
fashion, crafts & other creative products; (11)
Fashion retail trade, craft and other creative
products; (12) Retail trade antiques; (13) Batik

FACTORS INFLUENCING 133

industry; (14) Industry jewelry items; (15) Toy
industry; (16) Apparel industry; (17) Industrial
packaging and boxes of paper and paperboard;
and (18) Manufacture of metal containers.

Research objectives
Knowing whether the factors of creativity,
optimism and risk-taking levels affect
significantly the success of the creative
industries businesses in Jakarta.

Benefits of Research
Gives a description of the determinants of
the success of the creative industries businesses
in Jakarta.

Method of Study

Type of Study
The present study belongs to a non-
experimental study which conducted survey and
used method of exploration.

Population and Sample
The population in this study is college
graduates who manage creative businesses in
Jakarta. Sample in this study are entrepreneurs
from the creative industries with the following
characteristics: (1) S1 graduates; (2) Has
opened a business at least 1 year; and (3) Its
domicile in the city of Jakarta.

Sampling Method
Sampling method used in the present study
is accidental sampling in that the samples taken
for this study are considered affordable or
accessible to the author.

Instrument
This study is utilizing list of content to get
the demographic data and business success
(Kaplan & Norton, 1976). Beside list of
content, there are four questionnaires in this
study are the ability to see opportunities
inventory, the questionnaire of optimism
(Seligman, 1996), risk taking questionnaire
(Yates, 1994), and questionnaires creativity
Kirton (1976).

Data Processing Technique
Data as the result of this study would be
processed in descriptive and inferential way.
Analysis technique for the compiled descriptive
data is by calculating their percentage, central
tendency of mean, and deviation standard.
Technique of analysis for inferential test will
utilize the analysis test of regression analysis.
A brief explanation of each questionnaire
are as follows:
(1) The ability to see opportunities: The
ability to adapt to the changes around him,
Instrument Number of items Example statement items
The ability to see opportunities 1 -17 I always pay attention to feedback from
other people because it can be useful for
the development of my business.
Creative - Inovative 12 – 20 I love trying new ideas
Risk taking 23 - 32 I'm willing to take risky decisions so that
my business can succeed.
Optimism 33 - 39 I am always optimistic about the future of
my business

Tabel 3. Research Instrument Table


134 RIYANTI, CAHYANI, & SUNGKOWO
especially related to its business and always
have the initiative to look for business
opportunities. This includes the ability to look
at business opportunities and manage the risks
encountered.
(2) Creative-innovative: The ability to
develop ways to improve their business success.
This includes the ability to create a new
product that is different from existing products
on the market that have more value than the
other product.
(3) Risk-Taking Behavior: Courage and
ability to take risky decisions in managing their
business.
(4) Optimism: an optimistic attitude that he
will succeed

Reliability and validity test of instruments.
Test the validity of the items used by the
researchers in this study is testing the construct
validity. In testing the construct validity of the
method to be used is internal consistency. The
formula used is the Pearson Product Moment
Correlation (Crocker & Algina, 1986).
Researchers in conducting reliability testing
using Cronbach alpha coefficient formula, it is
this measure of decision making as the data
only once, in addition to the existing range of
scores in measuring instruments that researchers
use non-dichotomous (items that have a wide
range of scores) (Anastasi & Urbina, 1997).

Table 4. Validity and Reliability Test Results
Instrument Validity
Reliab
ility
Jumlah
item valid
The ability to
see
opportunities
0.214 - 0.425 0.612 11
Creative-
Innovative
0.272 – 0.352 0.482 4
Risk taking 0.204 – 0.365 0.502 7
Optimism 0.203 – 0.296 0.467 4
Business
success
4
Total 30

Data Analysis Techniques. Data will be
analyzed using descriptive statistics and
multivariate statistical technique of regression
analysis is.

Results and Discussion

Description of Respondent
From the data, respondents that we can
identify consist of 87 married and 78 single and
110 male and 55 female, 124 respondents have
family as entrepreneur and 41 respondent no
have entrepreneurial family. The numbers of
respondents are 165.

Descriptive Statistics
Table 5. Results of Comparison Test of Mean Data with Midpoint Scale
Scale
Range
Theoretical
Scale
Midpoint
Scale
Range of
Empirical Data
Mean Data
Opportunity 11 - 55 27.5 17 - 40 32.1358
Success 6 – 42 24 9 - 40 22.5758
Risk taking 7 – 35 17.5 5 – 20 11.6182
Innovation 4 – 20 10 5 - 20 11.7030
Optimism 4 – 20 10 3 – 15 8.4242

FACTORS INFLUENCING 135


From the above table, we can see that the
respondents of this study have mean data score
higher than mean scale in variable of
opportunity and innovation. For the success,
risk taking as well as dimension of optimism
data mean are lower than scale mean. Therefore
we can say that the respondents of this study
tend to have high score in opportunity and
innovation but low in risk taking, optimism and
success.
From table 6 we can concluded that the
variable ability to see opportunities, optimism,
risk taking and innovation can predict the
success of the business (F = 3.400, p = 0.11)
From the table 7 above it can be seen that
the regression equation is Y = 11.482 + 0.22X1
+ 0.320X2 + 0.11X3 + 0.101X4.
From the t value, it can be seen that of the
four variables were found to influence the
success of the business, only those innovations
that contribute significantly.


Table 8. R value
Mo
del
R
R
Square
Adjusted
R Square
Std. Error of
the Estimate
1 0.280 0.078 0.055 6.18097
Predictors: (Constant), Optimism, Opportunity,
Innovation, Risk-taking

From this table we can see that multiple
correlation among opportunity, risk taking,
optimism and creativity have significant
correlation with success in business (R = 0.280;
p = 0.055)

T test. When viewed from the analysis of
different test between groups entrepreneur
whose parents are entrepreneurs and
entrepreneurial group of entrepreneurial parents
not it can be concluded that:
a. Entrepreneurial entrepreneurs whose
parents were significantly higher than the rate
of innovation is not an entrepreneurial
entrepreneurial parents (t = 2.419, p = 0.018)
Table 6. Regression Analysis

Model
Sum of Squares df
Mean
Square
F Sig.
1 Regression 519.604 4 129.901 3.400 0.011
Residual 6112.699 160 38.204
Total 6632.303 164
Predictors: (Constant), optimism, opportunity, innovation, risk taking
Dependent Variable: Success

Table 7. Value of t and beta
Model
Unstandardized Coefficients
Standardized
Coefficients
T Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
Constant 11.482 4.965 2.313 0.022
Opportunity 0.036 0.127 0.022 0.287 0.774
Innovation 0.614 0.215 0.230 2.851 0.005
Risk 0.022 0.169 0.011 0.130 0.897
Optimism 0.301 0.258 0.101 1.166 0.245
Dependent Variable: Success

136 RIYANTI, CAHYANI, & SUNGKOWO
b. Entrepreneurial entrepreneurs whose
parents were significantly higher than the level
of risk taking entrepreneurial entrepreneurial
parents not (t = 2.017, p = 0.047)
c. Entrepreneurial entrepreneurs whose
parents were significantly higher levels of
optimism than parents not self-employment
entrepreneurial yanhg (t = 2.176, p = 0.033)
d. Entrepreneurial entrepreneurs whose
parents were significantly higher success rate
than parents not self-employment
entrepreneurial yanhg (t = 2.546, p = 0.013)

Independent Samples Test based on married
and unmarried. When viewed from the analysis
of different test between unmarried
entrepreneur groups and groups of
entrepreneurs who are married, it can be
concluded that:
a. Entrepreneurs who are married are
significantly higher than the success rate of
entrepreneurs who are not married (t = 2.040, p
= 0.043)
b. Entrepreneurs who are married tend to
be more innovative than the entrepreneurs who
are not married (t = 1.916, p = 0057).

Table 9. Table t test for Entrepreneurial Group of Parents and Non-parents Entrepreneurship
t-test for Equality of Means
t df Sig. (2-tailed)
N Mean
Opportunity 124 32.3952 1.300 159 0.195
37 31.4865 1.291 58.524 0.202
Innovation 124 11.8790 2.166 159 0.032
37 10.9189 2.419 71.421 0.018
Risk taking 124 11.9597 1.771 159 0.078
37 10.8649 2.017 74.245 0.047
Optimism 124 8.6048 2.080 159 0.039
37 7.7838 2.176 63.515 0.033
Success 124 23.0484 2.123 159 0.035
37 20.5405 2.546 82.878 0.013


FACTORS INFLUENCING 137


Discussion

Optimism and risk taking variables in this
study were shown no have a significant impact
on business success might be due to the average
score of the variable is included below average.
It means that entrepreneurs in the creative
industries still lack the optimism and still less
willing to take risks. This would affect the
success of the business. And when seen average
business success, it can be seen that the average
success of their efforts is still classified as
moderate. These results provide input to the
creative industry businesses that they should be
more willing to take risks, should continue to
seek opportunities and should have an
optimistic attitude that the success of his efforts
became more increased. Risk taking also not
has significant influence on the success of the
business. Risk taking in the creative industry
are represented as entrepreneurs cultivate their
creative ideas. In the creative, entrepreneurial
risk funds and other resources to create
products/services. Once this is done then the
next is not really necessary anymore because
the risk taking that is needed then is more on
how the products / services that are created to
penetrate the consumer interest. Surely
consumer interest is assessed at the beginning
when the product / service was about to be
produced.
Optimism is also no proven effect
significant to business success. Optimistic
attitudes and behaviors in the creative industry
is also already there when entrepreneurs decide
to make the product/service. Process to think
and optimistic attitude beginning to choose the
type of business and creating products/services
a requirement products/services produced.
Entrepreneur creativity typically rely more on
intuition and more to satisfy his ego in
generating creative ideas that become optimistic
factor to umpteen number of operating.
In terms of demographics variable proves
that entrepreneurs have entrepreneurial parents
have a higher business success than
Table 10. Table t test for Married Entrepreneurs and Single Entrepreneurs
t-test for Equality of Means
t df Sig. (2-tailed)
N Mean
Opportunity 78 31.5385 -1.910 163 0.058
87 32.6667 -1.916 162.472 0.057
Innovation 78 11.7179 0.509 163 0.611
87 11.5287 0.514 162.702 0.608
Risk taking 78 11.5385 -0.602 163 0.548
87 11.8506 -0.606 162.991 0.545
Optimism 78 8.2051 -1.248 163 0.214
87 8.6207 -1.265 159.852 0.208
Success 78 21.5256 -2.027 163 0.044
87 23.5172 -2.040 163.000 0.043

138 RIYANTI, CAHYANI, & SUNGKOWO
entrepreneurs whose parents are not
entrepreneurial. These results provide additional
evidence for the discovery that entrepreneurial
parents significantly influence on the birth of a
successful new entrepreneur. Results parenting
shape a child into one who knows how to run a
business.
In addition to parenting, entrepreneurs who
are married also proven to give a higher success
than self-employed entrepreneurs who have not.
This result illustrates that entrepreneurial family
certainly has more resources than are not
married. Sources that can be a source of
funding, human resources and sources of
emotional support and social support. In a
system of collective societies such as Indonesia,
kinship became one of the sources that can be
useful positively on business continuity. People
who are married have a larger circle of family
and when it is used properly, will become an
important resource for the success of the
business.

Conclusions

Creative industries business success is
significantly influenced by entrepreneurial
creativity. Entrepreneur of the creative industry
in Jakarta has optimism and risk taking are still
below average. This shows that they are not
fully convinced about the future of his business
and still have not dared to try things that contain
elements of risk. That's why their success is still
not optimal.

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FACTORS INFLUENCING 139

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Indeks Volume 1


Indeks Subjek

Accidents and Safety

NIKMAWATI; dan ARLINKASARI, FITRI,
“Relationship between Employee’s Attitude
Towards Safety Talk and Intention to Apply
Safety and Health at Workplace,” 1(2), 90-95,
Desember 2014.

Emotions at Work

NURAHAJU, RINI; dan WIDANTI, NURUL SIH,
“Coping Stress among the Seafarers: How Does
Emotional Intelligence Give Effects?,” 1(2), 79-
89, Desember 2014.

Measurement

KRISTIANTI, LYDIA; GINANJAR; SARI,
ADINDA T.; SOERYANTOPUTRI, TIASKA
K.; HALIM, MAGDALENA; dan
SUWARTONO, CHRISTIANY, “Uji Validitas
Konstruk Psychological Contract Scale,” 1(1),
14-23, Juni 2014.

Organizational Commitment

DEDDY, YOHANES; SITORUS, KARTIKA S.,
dan KIRANA, KARTIKA C., “Pengaruh
Psychological Capital terhadap Komitmen
Organisasi,” 1(1), 24-38, Juni 2014.
SARI, WAYAN PERTIWI ARTHA; dan
ANGGRAENI, DEWI SOERNA, “The
Correlation Between Job Insecurity and
Organizational Commitment of Outsourcing
Employee,” 1(2), 96-102, Desember 2014.

Organizational Culture

HAKH, HELLIYANI ESTERINA; FATAHILLAH,
IKRAM; dan MANGUNDJAYA, WUSTARI L.
H., “Building Organizational Culture Based on
Competing Value Framework to Gain
Competitive Advantage,” 1(2), 103-116,
Desember 2014.

Performance in the Presence of Other

HALIDA, RIZKA; ARIYANTO, AMARINA A.,
dan MULUK, HAMDI, “Kesamaan dan
Kesinambungan: Pengaruh Pendekatan
Appreciative Inquiry terhadap Common Ingroup
Identity dan Persepsi Kesinambungan Pasca
Penggabungan Kelompok,” 1(1), 39-68, Juni
2014.

Positive Organizational Psychology

SAHRAH, ALIMATUS; FATMAH L., SITI
NOOR; INDIYAH; SUSILANINGSIH;
KANDI TRI; dan ASTUTI, A. T., “Structural
Model of the Influencing Factors of the
Subjective Well-being of the Prisoners, 1(1), 1-
13, Juni 2014.
DEWAYANI, KRISTIANA; dan CAHYATI,
INDAH, “Effects of Perceived Organizational
Support as Moderator Variable on Correlation
of Self-Efficacy and Procrastination,” 1(2), 117-
127, Desember 2014.
RIYANTI, BENEDICTA PRIHATIN DWI;
CAHYANI, ATI; dan SUNGKOWO,
BAMBANG, “Factors Influencing the Success
of Creative Industry Business in Jakarta,” 1(2),
128-139, Desember 2014.

Turnover

SOERJOATMODJO, GITA WIDYA LAKSMINI,
JPIO ISSN 2302-8440
2014, Vol. 1

INDEKS

“Exit Interview and Self-disclosure: How
Employees Reveal Personal Information and
Feeling as They Leave the Organization,” 1(2),
69-78, Juni 2014.



Indeks Pengarang

A

ANGGRAENI, DEWI SOERNA lihat Sari, Wayan
Pertiwi Artha.
ARIYANTO, AMARINA A. lihat Halida, Rizka.
ARLINKASARI, FITRI lihat Nikmawati.
ASTUTI, ARI TRI lihat Sahrah, Alimatus

C

CAHYANI, ATI lihat Riyanti, Benedicta Prihatin
Dwi.
CAHYATI, INDAH lihat Dewayani, Kristiana.

D

DEDDY, YOHANES; SITORUS, KARTIKA S.,
dan KIRANA, KARTIKA C., “Pengaruh
Psychological Capital terhadap Komitmen
Organisasi,” 1(1), 24-38, Juni 2014.
DEWAYANI, KRISTIANA; dan CAHYATI,
INDAH, “Effects of Perceived Organizational
Support as Moderator Variable on Correlation
of Self-Efficacy and Procrastination,” 1(2), 117-
127, Desember 2014.

F

FATAHILLAH, IKRAM lihat Hakh, Helliyani
Esterina.
FATMAH L., SITI NOOR lihat Sahrah, Alimatus.

G

GINANJAR lihat Kristianti, Lydia.

H

HAKH, HELLIYANI ESTERINA; FATAHILLAH,
IKRAM; dan MANGUNDJAYA, WUSTARI L.
H., “Building Organizational Culture Based on
Competing Value Framework to Gain
Competitive Advantage,” 1(2), 103-116,
Desember 2014.
HALIDA, RIZKA; ARIYANTO, AMARINA A.,
dan MULUK, HAMDI, “Kesamaan dan
Kesinambungan: Pengaruh Pendekatan
Appreciative Inquiry terhadap Common Ingroup
Identity dan Persepsi Kesinambungan Pasca
Penggabungan Kelompok,” 1(1), 39-68, Juni
2014.
HALIM, MAGDALENA lihat Kristianti, Lydia.

I

INDIYAH, lihat Sahrah, Alimatus.

K

KIRANA, KARTIKA C. lihat Deddy, Yohanes.
KRISTIANTI, LYDIA; GINANJAR; SARI,
ADINDA T.; SOERYANTOPUTRI, TIASKA
K.; HALIM, MAGDALENA; dan
SUWARTONO, CHRISTIANY, “Uji Validitas
Konstruk Psychological Contract Scale,” 1(1),
14-23, Juni 2014.

M

MANGUNDJAYA, WUSTARI L. H. lihat Hakh,
Helliyani Esterina.

MULUK, HAMDI lihat Halida, Rizka

N

NIKMAWATI; dan ARLINKASARI, FITRI,
“Relationship between Employee’s Attitude

INDEKS


Towards Safety Talk and Intention to Apply
Safety and Health at Workplace,” 1(2), 90-95,
Desember 2014.
NURAHAJU, RINI; dan WIDANTI, NURUL SIH,
“Coping Stress among the Seafarers: How Does
Emotional Intelligence Give Effects?,” 1(2), 79-
89, Desember 2014.

R

RIYANTI, BENEDICTA PRIHATIN DWI;
CAHYANI, ATI; dan SUNGKOWO,
BAMBANG, “Factors Influencing the Success
of Creative Industry Business in Jakarta,” 1(2),
128-139, Desember 2014.

S

SAHRAH, ALIMATUS; FATMAH L., SITI
NOOR; INDIYAH; SUSILANINGSIH;
KANDI TRI; dan ASTUTI, A. T., “Structural
Model of the Influencing Factors of the
Subjective Well-being of the Prisoners, 1(1), 1-
13, Juni 2014.
SARI, ADINDA T. lihat Kristianti, Lydia.
SARI, WAYAN PERTIWI ARTHA; dan
ANGGRAENI, DEWI SOERNA, “The
Correlation Between Job Insecurity and
Organizational Commitment of Outsourcing
Employee,” 1(2), 96-102, Desember 2014.
SITORUS, KARTIKA S. lihat Deddy, Yohanes.
SOERJOATMODJO, GITA WIDYA LAKSMINI,
“Exit Interview and Self-disclosure: How
Employees Reveal Personal Information and
Feeling as They Leave the Organization,” 1(2),
69-78, Juni 2014.
SOERYANTOPUTRI, TIASKA K. lihat Kristianti,
Lydia.
SUNGKOWO, BAMBANG lihat Riyanti,
Benedicta Prihatin Dwi.
SUSILANINGSIH, KANDI TRI lihat Sahrah,
Alimatus.
SUWARTONO, CHRISTIANY lihat Kristianti,
Lydia.

W

WIDANTI, NURUL SIH lihat Nurahaju, Rini.