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BIOMASS FUELLED POWER PLANT



Self-study report submitted by

SABYASACHI GHOSH

Roll No:- B-25


VII semester B.E.(Mech), 2013-14

Under the supervision of
PROF.A.D.PITALE



Department of Mechanical Engineering
G.H. Raisoni College of Engineering, Nagpur
(An autonomous Institute under UGC act 1956 & affiliated to
Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Nagpur)


June 2013
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Declaration

I, hereby declare that the self-study report titled BIOMASS FUELLED
POWER PLANT submitted herein has been prepared by me as a student of VIIth
semester B.E.(Mechanical Engineering) programme of the Department of Mechanical
Engineering of G.H. Raisoni College of Engineering, Nagpur.

SAYASACHI- GHOSH
Date: - 07-11-2013

Certificate
The self-study titled BIOMASS FUELLED POWER PLANT submitted
by SABYASACHI-GHOSH has been carried out under my supervision in the
Department of Mechanical Engineering of G.H. Raisoni College of Engineering,
Nagpur. The report is comprehensive, complete and fit for evaluation.

PROF.A.D PITALE


Evaluated by:

1 Signature.(Examiner)


2 Signature. (Supervisor)




Head,
Department of Mechanical Engineering
G.H.R.C.E, Nagpur



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INDEX

SR.NO. CONTENTS PAGE NO.

LITERATURE REVIEW-I
1.1 INTRODUCTION 6
1.2 BIOMASS POWER 6
1.3 WORKING 7
1.4 RESOURCES 10
1.5 MODERN TECHNOLOGY 11
1.6 BENEFITS 12
1.7 DISADVANTAGES 13
1.8 BLOGS/COMMENTS 14
1.9 NEWSPAPER ARTICLES 15
2.0 CONCLUSION


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SR.NO. CONTENTS PAGE NO.

ASSIGNMENT-I

LITERATURE REVIEW-II
2.1 INTRODUCTION 22
2.2 BIOMASS TECHNOLOGIES 22
2.3 ADVANTAGES 26
2.4 LIST OF BIOMASS POWER PLANTS 26
2.5 TECHNICAL DATA 28
2.6 NEWS PAPER ARTICLES 29
2.7 FUTURE DEVELOPEMENT 29
2.8 IMAGES OF BIOMASS POWER PLANT 30

ASSIGNMENT-II






2.9

REFERENCES

35

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Summary
As India has a large amount of biomass, there is a high biomass potential in India.
Rajasthan, Punjab, Maharashtra and Haryana are states with high biomass potential.
Together, they comprise close to 50% of the total estimated potential for biomass in
India. India has been promoting biomass gasifier technologies in its rural areas, to
utilize surplus biomass resources such as rice husk, crop stalks, small wood chips, and
other agro-residues. The goal was to produce electricity for villages with power plants
of up to 2 MW capacities.
During 2011, India installed 25 rice husk based gasifier systems for distributed power
generation in 70 remote villages of Bihar. Biomass power plants in India are based
mostly on agricultural waste. The electricity generation could be cheaper than coal if
biomass could be sourced economically but some established biomass power plants tend
to misuse the limit of coal use provided to them (generally 10-15% of biomass use) to
keep it operational in lean period of biomass supply.
This summary report of biomass fuelled power plant will try to introduce you the basic
need of biomass power plant in India, along with problems, challenges, advantages,
disadvantages etc. This report shall contain new types of biomass technologies that will
India and other parts of the country to impact its growth and boost these technologies in
the next few years. This report also includes the images of biomass power plants in
India, along with blogs, comments, and news paper articles given by the experts.
The current availability of biomass in India is estimated at about 500 millions metric
tones per year. Studies sponsored by the Ministry have estimated surplus biomass
availability at about 120 150 million metric tons per annum covering agricultural and
forestry residues corresponding to a potential of about 18,000 MW. This apart,
about 5000 MW additional power could be generated through bagasse based
cogeneration in the countrys 550 Sugar mills.




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LITERATURE REVIEW-I

1.1 INTRODUCTION:-
Biomass-fuelled heating is the oldest and most well established form of energy
provision in the world, being inextricably linked with the development of the human
race. However, it was largely made redundant by higher energy-density fossil fuels, and
its application in modern energy systems, particularly in industrialized nations, has until
recently played a declining role. Renewed interest in biomass-fuelled energy systems
stems from a number roots. These are dominated by interest in reducing greenhouse gas
emissions, the advent of efficient new biomass conversion technologies, and reasonably
sustained high fossil fuel prices and high price volatility.


Biomass has always been an important energy source for the country considering the
benefits it offers. It is renewable, widely available, carbon-neutral and has the potential
to provide significant employment in the rural areas. Biomass is also capable of
providing firm energy. About 32% of the total primary energy use in the country is still
derived from biomass and more than 70% of the countrys population depends upon it
for its energy needs. Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has realised the potential
and role of biomass energy in the Indian context and hence has initiated a number of
programmes for promotion of efficient technologies for its use in various sectors of the
economy to ensure derivation of maximum benefits Biomass power generation in India
is an industry that attracts investments of over Rs.600 crores every year, generating
more than 5000 million units of electricity and yearly employment of more than 10
million man-days in the rural areas.


1.2. WHAT IS BIOMASS AND BIOMASS POWER ?

Electricity that is produced as a result of utilizing surplus biomass sources into energy is
considered biomass power. Biomass combusted in a boiler produces steam. This steam
drives a turbine generator that produces electricity. This electricity will be fed into the
high voltage transmission grid to be transported to end-users. Generating power
through the use of biomass represents the cost-effective and cleanest way to provide
renewable electricity in biomass potential regions with high levels of biomass resources
and its processing activity. Furthermore, use of this resource helps become more energy
independent and use of a locally derived fuel provides employment and direct economic
benefit to local communities.

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1.3. WORKING OF BIOMASS FUELLED POWER
PLANT:-

In Biomass fuelled power plant , there are various modes of power generation but in
this status report we will try to discuss two basic modes of power generation which are:

1. Biomass Gasification.

2. Direct Firing method in Biomass fuelled power plant.


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ABOVE FIGURE SHOWS BIOMASS GASIFICATION PROCESS

FIGURE 2: SHOWS BIOMASS GASIFICATION PROCESS
Gasification is the conversion by partial oxidation at elevated temperature of a
carbonaceous feedstock into a gaseous fuel. The product gas is a mixture of hydrogen,
carbon monoxide, methane, carbon dioxide, water vapour, and small quantities of
heavier hydrocarbons. The oxidizing medium is normally air, oxygen or steam.
Inorganic residues and an oil-tar fraction are also produced in the process. The product
gas generally has a heating value between one tenth and half that of natural gas,
depending on the composition of the biomass input and the gasification process
employed. This gas may be burnt in boilers or, after cleanup to remove tars, may be
used as a fuel in engines or gas turbines. It can also be reformed to produce fuels such
as methanol or hydrogen. Gasification enables the production of bioelectricity using
modern gas turbines, giving relatively high efficiency (compared with Rankin cycle
systems) and low unit costs at the modest scales of biomass systems. Gasification also
provides a route for small scale, decentralized bioelectricity production using gas
engines.
Figure 2 shows the schematic diagram of the biomass fuelled power plant /gasification
plant .In this there are various types of components which are attached in the power
plant.
1. GASIFIER REACTOR:-
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The reactor is a cylindrical vessel made of mild steel, with an inner lining of
cold face insulation bricks and ceramic tiles composed largely of alumina .Air
Nozzles, provide around the combustion zone, are kept open during the running
of the system. To allow for uniform air availability across the reacting bed , an
additional air nozzle called the central nozzle is directed to the reactor core .A
water seal with a removal cover forms the top of the reactor ,which is kept open
during the entire working of the operation of the system, to facilitate the primary
air induction and loading of the biomass feed stock. A grate is provided at the
rector bottom to hold the char/ash with a mechanism for intermittent extraction
of the ash.

2. GAS COOLING SYSTEM :-
It consists of a direct water impingement cooler, which is meant for cooling the hot
gases from the gasifier reactor to ambient for engine applications and scrubbing the gas
to remove the entrained tar and particulate matter. When the gasifier system is operated
at the rated load, the system requires 80 M3/Hr on a continuous basis for a one MW
rating. The coolers perform the twin functions of cooling and cleaning the producer gas.

3. GAS FILTERING SYSTEM :-
This sub system consists of a series of a quartz based gas filter, a bag filter, a catalytic
converter and a fine quality paper filter. The purpose of the filtering system is to reduce
the quantity of tar, particulate matter and moisture in the gas to levels that are
acceptable for direct admission into gas engines.
4. COOLING SYSTEM :-
A Cooling Tower is provided for cooling the recycled cooling water, after water
treatment, to maintain its temperature within the prescribed limits.

2. Direct CoFiring method in Biomass fuelled power plant:-

Biomass direct combustion is generally based on the Rankine cycle, where a steam
turbine is employed to drive the generator. This type of system is well developed, and
available commercially around the world. Most bioelectricity plants today are direct-
fired In direct combustion, steam is generated in boilers burning solid biomass which
has been suitably prepared (dried, baled, chipped, formed into pellets or briquettes or
otherwise modified to suit the combustion technology).
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Biomass direct combustion is generally based on the Rankine cycle, where a steam
turbine is employed to drive the generator. This type of system is well developed, and
available commercially around the world. Most bioelectricity plants today are direct-
fired In direct combustion, steam is generated in boilers burning solid biomass which
has been suitably prepared (dried, baled, chipped, formed into pellets or briquettes or
otherwise modified to suit the combustion technology). Direct combustion technologies
may be divided into fixed bed, fluidized bed and dust combustionIn direct co- firing,
the appropriately prepared biomass is fed directly into the coal furnace. There are a
number of ways in which this may be done. The simplest approach involves blending
the biomass with coal on the fuel pile and providing the mixed fuel as input to the coal
mills before supply to the boilers coal feeding system. This method is generally used at
low biomass blend percentages. Alternatively, the biomass fuel preparation and feeding
may be handled by a separate system which then feeds the prepared biomass to the coal
burners or to separate, dedicated burners.

1.4. MAIN RESOURCES BIOMASS FUELLED POWER
PLANT:-

The main resources which are required to run the biomass fuelled power plant are
as follows:-

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1.5. MODERN TECHNOLOGY IMPLENTED IN BIOMASS
POWER:-

A decade of experience with modern biomass technologies for thermal, motive power
and electricity generation applications exists in India. Gasifier technology has
penetrated the applications such as village electrification, captive power generation and
process heat generation in industries producing biomass waste. Over 1600 gasifier
systems, having 16 MW,total capacity, have generated 42 million Kilo Watt hour
(KWh) of electricity, replacing 8.8 million liters of oil annually (CMIE, 1996). An
important aspect of small gasifier technology in India is the development of local
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manufacturing base. The large sized gasifier based power technologies are at R&D and
pilot demonstration stage. The thrust of the biomass power programmme is now on the
grid connected megawatt scale power generation with multiple biomass materials such
as rice straw, rice husk, wood waste, wood, wild bushes and paper mill waste. Nearly 55
MW of grid connected biomass power capacity is commissioned and another 90 MW
capacity is under construction. Enhanced scale has improved economics as well as the
technology of biomass power generation. Technology improvement is also derived from
joint ventures of Indian firms with leading international manufacturers of
turbines and electronic governors.




1.6. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF BIOMASS
FUELLED POWER PLANT:-

Biomass power generates electricity that is:
reliable,
domestically produced,
economically competitive and
Environmentally sustainable.
Since biomass energy uses domestically-produced fuels, biomass
power:
greatly reduces our dependence on foreign energy sources,
increases our national security and
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Provides greater fuel diversity.

Biomass projects benefit the regions where they are built in several
ways.
Biomass plants provide high paying jobs during construction and operation.
Facilities increase local tax revenues and in many cases are the single largest
taxpayers in their areas.
Fuels used mostly come from an area within 75 miles of plant sites, generating
income for local forestry farmers.

Biomass energy facilities provide a range of environmental benefits, including cleaner
air and climate change benefits.

Biomass plants also produce far less particulate matter than open burning of wood
wastes, the way most wood waste is currently eliminated.
Unlike energy derived from fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas, biomass
energy does not contribute to climate change. The carbon, which is stored in biomass
material as it grows, is already part of the atmosphere. Biomass energy does not add
new carbon to the active carbon cycle, whereas fossil fuels remove carbon from
geologic storage.

Carbon emissions from biomass facilities would have been released back into the
atmosphere through natural decay or disposal through open-burning. The advanced
emissions controls on a biomass energy facility significantly reduce the amount of
carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere along with other emissions such as
particulate matter.

1.7. DISADVANTAGES OF BIOMASS FUELLED POWER
PLANT:-


1) Agricultural wastes will not be available if the basic crop is no longer grown.

2) Additional work is needed in areas such as harvesting methods.

3) Land used for energy crops maybe in demand for other purposes, such as faming,
conservation, housing, resort or agricultural use.

4) Some Biomass conversion projects are from animal wastes and are relatively small
and therefore are limited.

5) Research is needed to reduce the costs of production of Biomass based fuels.

6) Is in some cases is a major cause of pollution.
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1.8. RECENT BLOGS / COMMENTS RELATED
BIOMASS FUELLED POWER PLANT:-

While going through the research Based on biomass fuelled power plant, I hereby
attach or quoted some recents blogs /comments that I found out as follows:



Private/Joint/Cooperative/Public Sector Sugar Mills:

Special Category and
NE States
Other States
Biomass
Power
projects
Rs.25 lakh X (C
MW)^0.646
Rs.20 lakh X
(C MW)^0.646

The above blog is shown from the press information Bureau, Government of India


Blogs on Biomass Fuelled power plant
Are biomass power plants environmentally friendly?
The topic of whether biomass power plants are environmentally friendly or not is still
connected with many controversies and a variety of different opinions. The proponents
of biomass power plants claim that they help environment by reducing wood waste and
also help in preventing wildifire. They also claim that biomass power plants reduce the
amount of greenhouse gas emissions in comparison to fossil fuel fired power plants.

The opponents of biomass power plants say that these plants are anything but
environmentally friendly. They claim that biomass power plants contribute to growth in
greenhouse gas emissions and are anything but carbon neutral like biomass industry
claim they are. They even claim that generating electricity by burning different wood
materials and agricultural waste is dirtier than generating power with natural gas.

Orient Green To Expand Biomass Power Generation In India

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Orient Green Power is planning to add over 45MW of biomass power
plant generation capacity in India by March 2013. The firm, which has
over 325MW of wind farms, intends to secure a portion of its biomass
by raising energy plantations in its wind farms. With the proposed
plans, the total biomass plant capacity will [...]
Orient Green Power is planning to add over 45MW of biomass power plant generation
capacity in India by March 2013. The firm, which has over 325MW of wind farms,
intends to secure a portion of its biomass by raising energy plantations in its wind
farms.
With the proposed plans, the total biomass plant capacity will increase to 105MW,
reports The Hindu Business Line. The new capacities include 8MW and 7.5MW in the
Indian states of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh respectively, according to Orient
Green managing director P. Krishnakumar. Both the sites are awaiting evacuation
infrastructure development in order to begin power generation. The company, which
operates over 325MW of wind farms, has windmills installed on over 1,500 acres.
Orient currently operates 26MW of biomass plants in the state of Rajasthan and plans to
add 8MW more in the coming months. The firm is also discussions with non-
governmental organizations and farmers who have un-utilized wasteland to cultivate
fuel wood vegetation. Power plants need about 2kg of wood for generating a unit of
electricity and the company intends to secure 15-20% of its requirement through such
captive plantations initially, Krishnakumar said
.

1.9. NEWSPAPER ARTICLES RELATED BIOMASS
FUELLED POWER PLANT:-




1. THE FIRST NEWSPAPER ARTICLE RELATED TO BIOMASS
FUELLED POWER PLANT WAS PUBLISHED IN HITVADA
DATED ON JUNE 06/06/2013

The Gupta Coal Group is taking a keen initiative to set up the biomass fuelled power
plant near Wardha district, Deoli, Maharashtra, India

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Haryana's first biomass project commissioned
PTI Jun 7, 2013, 05.18PM IST

CHANDIGARH: Haryana's first biomass project, that will generate power using farm
residue, has been commissioned in Khurawata village of Mahendergarh district.
Set up over an area of 15 acres at a cost of Rs 64 crore, the 9.9 MW project comes up
under state's Renewable Energy Power Policy, a spokesperson of Haryana Renewable
Energy Development Agency said.
A MoU was signed between the agency and a Delhi-based private firm for the project.
The plant will use mustard stalk and other agro biomass as fuel for power generation,
and adequate arrangement for fuel supply on everyday basis has been made by the
government.
Another 9.5 MW biomass power project, being set up in Dhana Narsan village of
district Bhiwani, is likely to be commissioned in a couple of months, he said.
Haryana has a potential to generate about 1000 MW power from agro biomass.


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2.0. CONCLUSION:-
The current availability of biomass in India is estimated at about 500 million metric
tonnes per year. Studies sponsored by the Ministry has estimated surplus biomass
availability at about 120 150 million metric tonnes per annum covering agricultural
and forestry residues corresponding to a potential of about 18,000 MW. This apart,
about 5000 MW additional power could be generated through bagasse based
cogeneration in the countrys 550 Sugar mills.
Today, Biomass Fuelled Power plant is the most important source to increase the
production of energy based on renewable sources of energy. In this report we have tried
to cover various important facts related to power plant such as thermo chemical
conversion, biomass gasification process , newspaper articles, blogs, comments by
esteemed guides and engineers.



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ASSIGNMENT-I QUESTIONS
ON
BIOMASS FUELLED POWER PLANT




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QUESTIONS ON BIOMASS FUELLED POWER PLANT
1. What is the Status of Biomass power generation in India?

2. What are the economic benefits of biomass power generation facilities?

3. Do biomass power generating units help combat global warming?

4. Explain Direct Co- firing method in Biomass fuelled power plant ?

5. What is Biomass and Biomass Power ?

6. What are the disadvantages of Biomass fuelled power plant ?

ANSWERS ON BIOMASS FUELLED POWER PLANT
1. The Ministry has been implementing a scheme for promotion of Grid Interactive
Power Generation Projects based on Renewable Energy Sources which includes
projects based on biomass. And 997 MW of Biomass Combustion Projects. The
States which have taken a leadership position in implementation of biomass
power projects are Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Chattisgarh,
Maharashtra, Punjab and Rajasthan. The capacity of grid connected Biomass
Power Project varies from 8-12 MW.

2. Biomass power generating units produce a significant economic benefit to the
area surrounding the plant. A 10 MW biomass power project can create
approximately employment for 100 workers during the 18-month construction
phase, 25 full-time workers employed in the operation of the facility, and 35
persons in the collection, processing, and transportation of biomass material.
Biomass energy facilities provide a range of environmental benefits, including
cleaner air and climate change benefits.
Biomass plants also produce far less particulate matter than open burning of
wood wastes, the way most wood waste is currently eliminated. Carbon
emissions from biomass facilities would have been released back into the
atmosphere through natural decay or disposal through open - burning. The
advanced emissions controls on a biomass energy facility significantly reduce
the amount of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere along with other
emissions such as particulate matter.

3. Yes, electricity produced from biomass is considered to be carbon neutral and
therefore helps to combat global warming. The CO2 that the facility will release
would have been produced as the plants and trees naturally decomposed in the
forest without the benefit of electricity production.


4. DIRECT CO-FIRING METHOD
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Biomass direct combustion is generally based on the Rankine cycle, where a steam
turbine is employed to drive the generator. This type of system is well developed, and
available commercially around the world. Most bioelectricity plants today are direct-
fired. In direct combustion, steam is generated in boilers burning solid biomass which
has been suitably prepared (dried, baled, chipped, formed into pellets or briquettes or
otherwise modified to suit the combustion technology). Direct combustion technologies
may be divided into fixed bed, fluidized bed and dust combustion. In direct co- firing,
the appropriately prepared biomass is fed directly into the coal furnace. There are a
number of ways in which this may be done. The simplest approach involves blending
the biomass with coal on the fuel pile and providing the mixed fuel as input to the coal
mills before supply to the boilers coal feeding system. This method is generally used at
low biomass blend percentages. Alternatively, the biomass fuel preparation and feeding
may be handled by a separate system which then feeds the prepared biomass to the coal
burners or to separate, dedicated burners.
5. Electricity that is produced as a result of utilizing surplus biomass sources into
energy is considered biomass power. Biomass combusted in a boiler produces steam.
This steam drives a turbine generator that produces electricity. This electricity will be
fed into the high voltage transmission grid to be transported to end-users. Generating
power through the use of biomass represents the cost-effective and cleanest way to
provide renewable electricity in biomass potential regions with high levels of biomass
resources and its processing activity. Furthermore, use of this resource helps become
more energy independent and use of a locally derived fuel provides employment and
direct economic benefit to local communities.
6. 1) Agricultural wastes will not be available if the basic crop is no longer grown.

2) Additional work is needed in areas such as harvesting methods.

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3) Land used for energy crops maybe in demand for other purposes, such as faming,
conservation, housing, resort or agricultural use.

4) Some Biomass conversion projects are from animal wastes and are relatively small
and therefore are limited.

5) Research is needed to reduce the costs of production of Biomass based fuels.

6) Is in some cases is a major cause of pollution.


LITERATURE REVIEW-II
2.1.INTRODUCTION:-
Biomass in the Indian context primarily means field residue of crop waste products of
crops processing, forestry and agro-based industries. Attractiveness of Biomass fuel
generation derives from its many similarities to fossil fuels. It is easy to understand that
equipments designed for fossil fuels could be easily adopted for biomass resources with
practically very little modification, adjustments and major translational economic costs.
This is why biomass power generation can be regarded as the true replacement
technology and in the current Indian scenario this renewable energy component is
meeting over 70% of the energy needs of the rural areas covering 70% of the
population. A detailed classification of biomass gasifiers has been included in the earlier
status report along with its description and working with particular emphasis on the rice
husk fired gasifier. It has to be in mind that rice husk is the second largest available
agro industrial residue. It may be appreciated that if used for power generation, surplus
biomass resources in India can save million tonnes of coal every year. Further, 100
billion million tonnes of CO2 emission into the atmosphere can be avoided .Biomass
fuelled power plant projects are ideally suited for developing countries like India
considering the magnitude of surplus biomass available. MNES has undertaken an
ambitious project on Biomass Atlas for India, which seeks to integrate data obtained
from field level studies on biomass assessment. This, in future is expected to create a
bio-residue map of India for use in power generation.

2.2. BIOMASS TECHNOLOGIES :-

In the last detailed first status report we discussed about the various working of biomass
technologies but talking about the future we will try to discuss the matter on pyrolysis
which is a new concept on biomass technologies.

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Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of biomass occurring in the absence of oxygen.
It is the fundamental chemical reaction that is the precursor of both the combustion and
gasification processes and occurs naturally in the first two seconds. The products of
biomass pyrolysis include bio char, bio-oil and gases including methane, hydrogen,
carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The pyrolysis process consists of both
simultaneous and successive reactions when organic material is heated in a non-reactive
atmosphere. Thermal decomposition of organic components in biomass starts at 350
C550 C and goes up to 700 C800 C in the absence of air/oxygen. The long chains
of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen compounds in biomass break down into smaller
molecules in the form of gases, condensable vapors (tars and oils) and solid charcoal
under pyrolysis conditions. Rate and extent of decomposition of each of these
components depends on the process parameters of the reactor temperature, biomass
heating rate, pressure, reactor configuration, feedstock etc
Depending on the thermal environment and the final temperature, pyrolysis will yield
mainly biochar at low temperatures, less than 450
0
C, when the heating rate is quite
slow, and mainly gases at high temperatures, greater than 800
0
C, with rapid heating
rates. At an intermediate temperature and under relatively high heating rates, the main
product is bio-oil.

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Flow Diagram of the pyrolysis process shown above and below.



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The above three figures show the schematic diagram of the pyrolysis of biomass power
The pyrolysis process consists of two types:
1. FAST PYROLYSIS
2. SLOW PYROLYSIS

Pyrolysis processes can be categorized as slow or fast. Slow pyrolysis takes several
hours to complete and results in biochar as the main product. On the other hand, fast
pyrolysis yields 60% bio-oil and takes seconds for complete pyrolysis. In addition, it
gives 20% biochar and 20% syngas. Fast pyrolysis is currently the most widely used
pyrolysis system. The essential features of a fast pyrolysis process are:
1. Very high heating and heat transfer rates, which require a finely ground feed.
2. Carefully controlled reaction temperature of around 500
o
C in the vapors phase
3. Residence time of pyrolysis vapours in the reactor less than 1 sec
4. Quenching (rapid cooling) of the pyrolysis vapors to give the bio-oil product.

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2.3. ADVANTAGES OF BIOMASS TECHNOLOGIES :-

Pyrolysis can be performed at relatively small scale and at remote locations which
enhance energy density of the biomass resource and reduce transport and handling
costs. Heat transfer is a critical area in pyrolysis as the pyrolysis process is endothermic
and sufficient heat transfer surface has to be provided to meet process heat needs.
Biomass pyrolysis offers a flexible and attractive way of converting organic matter into
energy products which can be successfully used for the production of heat, power and
chemicals. A wide range of biomass feed stocks can be used in pyrolysis processes. The
pyrolysis process is very dependent on the moisture content of the feedstock, which
should be around 10%. At higher moisture contents, high levels of water are produced
and at lower levels there is a risk that the process only produces dust instead of oil.
High-moisture waste streams, such as sludge and meat processing wastes, require
drying before subjecting to pyrolysis. Biomass pyrolysis has been garnering much
attention due to its high efficiency and good environmental performance characteristics.
It also provides an opportunity for the processing of agricultural residues, wood wastes
and municipal solid waste into clean energy. In addition, biochar sequestration could
make a big difference in the fossil fuel emissions worldwide and act as a major player in
the global carbon market with its robust, clean and simple production technology.
2.4. LIST OF BIOMASS POWER PLANTS IN INDIA:-
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There are many biomass fuelled power that have been sanctioned, governed,
commissioned in India. The below table will show you the number of power plants that
are operational or are to be set up in India. The below power plants are erected in
Maharashtra.
a. M/s. A .A. Energy Ltd, At: Wadasa (Desaiganj), Dist.
Gadchiroli.
b. M/s. Saradambika Power Plant Pvt. Ltd., At MIDC Chimur Dist.
Chandrapur.
c. M/s Shalivahana Projects Ltd., At: Chanka, Tal. Wani, Dist.
Yavatmal.
d. M/s. Vayunandana Power Ltd., At: Kaneri, Tal. & Dist.
Gadchiroli.

Promoter City State Capacity Current Status
Suryachakra Power
Corporation Ltd
Andaman & Nicobar
Islands
Andaman &
Nicobar
2x10MW Status Not Known
Suma Powergen
Pvt. Ltd
South Andaman Andaman &
Nicobar
7.5 MW Awaiting Statutory
Clearances
Sainath Power
Concepts Pvt. Ltd
Karimnagar Andhra Pradesh 6 MW Awaiting Statutory
Clearances
Orient Green Power
Ltd
Medak Andhra Pradesh 7.5 MW Operational
Vishnu Vidyuth
India Ltd
Visakhapatnam Andhra Pradesh 7.5 MW Construction
Commenced
Vijaynagar Biotech
Ltd
Visakhapatnam Andhra Pradesh 8 MW Contract Awarded
Marsun Power Pvt.
Ltd
Chittoor Andhra Pradesh 7 MW Land Acquistion
Underway
Marsun Power Pvt.
Ltd
Medak Andhra Pradesh 6 MW Awaiting Statutory
Clearances
Medha Power &
Infratech India Pvt.
Ltd
Karimnagar Andhra Pradesh 7.5 MW Awaiting Statutory
Clearances
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Anantha Lakxmi
Biomass Power
Projects Pvt. Ltd
Warangal Andhra Pradesh 6 MW Awaiting Statutory
Clearances
Bee Pee Power Ltd Nellore Andhra Pradesh 15MW Bids Invited

2.5. TECHNICAL DATA OF ONE OF THE BIOMASS
FUELLED POWER PLANT IN MAHARASHTRA:-

M/s. Vayunandana Power Ltd., At: Kaneri, Tal. & Dist. Gadchiroli (10 MW)

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2.6. RECENT NEWSPAPER ARTICLES RELATED
BIOMASS FUELLED POWER PLANT:-

While going through the research Based on biomass fuelled power plant, I hereby attach
or quoted some recent blogs /comments that I found out as follows:



Sankheda 1.2 MW biomass power plant a success
TNN October 6, 2013, 11.30PM IST
VADODARA: Early this week, the Union Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
(MNRE) took a busload of entrepreneurs, academicians and experts in the field of
renewable energy (RE) to the tribal belt of Sankheda taluka in Vadodara, for a field visit
to the country's first gasification based 1.2 MW biomass to power generation plant,
named Ankur Scientific Power Plant.
However, what is mostly unknown about this two-year old, home grown, clean energy,
sustainable, decentralized, third-party, grid connected power generation plant- the first
of its kind venture in India-is that the technology used in the plant is also made by the
owners, whose 80% of machinery is exported abroad. And, therein, lies the irony.
"The plant's feedstock comes from the crop residues of the common crops available in
the 20km radius of the site, like cotton, tur and castor stalks and corncobs. The concept
prevents burning of stalks in the field, and, rather, gives money to the farmers for
selling this residue to us. It has also given birth to a chain of entrepreneurs among locals
for secured and sustained fuel supply. Biochar, the byproduct after power generation, is
also sold back to farmers either for using as kitchen fuel or for enriching soil for the
next sowing. But, despite this win-win concept in an agrarian country, the technology is
not getting its due promotion for various reasons, including the preference for solar and
wind power projects," asserts managing director Ankur Jain of Ankur Scientific Energy
Technologies, manufacturers of the equipment.
2.7. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT:-

Apart from generally smaller-scale operations which are based on negative or low-cost
waste or by-product feedstock, bioelectricity production is not economically
competitive
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With large-scale fossil fuel-based electricity without economic incentives. As bioenergy
production increases, high yielding purpose-grown biomass feed stocks and more
efficient
And economical conversion processes will be required to assure the competitiveness
and material contribution of bioelectricity production. The dispersed nature and low
energy density of biomass feedstock will continue to be a challenge in relation to the
scale of dedicated bioelectricity plants and therefore their economic performance. The
greenhouse gas reduction potential of bioelectricity and the potential economic benefits
to rural communities are likely to be the most important drivers of bioelectricity
production in the medium term. Development of the bioelectricity sector will be
critically dependent on the existence of a favorable policy framework. With relatively
high unit costs and the need for assured, reliable supplies of biomass feedstock over the
lifetime of any new conversion plant, tax or other incentives recognizing the
environmental and rural development benefits of bioelectricity will be required for
further development and increased competitiveness of the sector.
2.8. IMAGES :-

The below figures shows the images of biomass fuelled power plant along with the
working principle of rice husk fired gasifier installation.


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ASSIGNMENT-I QUESTIONS
ON
BIOMASS FUELLED POWER PLANT



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QUESTIONS ON BIOMASS FUELLED POWER PLANT
1. List some of Biomass power generation in India and Maharashtra?
2. Write a short note on Pyrolysis?
3. How long does it take to setup a biomass power project?


4. What is the operational lifetime of Biomass fuelled power plant?

5. What is the minimum size of biomass power project?
6. What are the advantages of biomass pyrolysis?

7. What is the requirement of land of 10MW Biomass power project?

ANSWERS ON BIOMASS FUELLED POWER PLANT
1. There are many biomass fuelled power that have been sanctioned, governed,
commissioned in India. The below table will show you the number of power
plants that are operational or are to be set up in India. The below power plants
are erected in Maharashtra.
e. M/s. A .A. Energy Ltd, At: Wadasa (Desaiganj), Dist. Gadchiroli.
f. M/s. Saradambika Power Plant Pvt. Ltd., At MIDC Chimur Dist. Chandrapur.
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g. M/s Shalivahana Projects Ltd., At: Chanka, Tal. Wani, Dist. Yavatmal.
h. M/s. Vayunandana Power Ltd., At: Kaneri, Tal. & Dist. Gadchiroli.

Promoter City State Capacity Current Status
Suryachakra Power
Corporation Ltd
Andaman & Nicobar
Islands
Andaman &
Nicobar
2x10MW Status Not Known
Suma Powergen
Pvt. Ltd
South Andaman Andaman &
Nicobar
7.5 MW Awaiting Statutory
Clearances
Sainath Power
Concepts Pvt. Ltd
Karimnagar Andhra Pradesh 6 MW Awaiting Statutory
Clearances
Orient Green Power
Ltd
Medak Andhra Pradesh 7.5 MW Operational
Vishnu Vidyuth
India Ltd
Visakhapatnam Andhra Pradesh 7.5 MW Construction
Commenced

2. Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of biomass occurring in the absence of
oxygen. It is the fundamental chemical reaction that is the precursor of both the
combustion and gasification processes and occurs naturally in the first two seconds. The
products of biomass pyrolysis include bio char, bio-oil and gases including methane,
hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The pyrolysis process consists of both
simultaneous and successive reactions when organic material is heated in a non-reactive
atmosphere. Thermal decomposition of organic components in biomass starts at 350
C550 C and goes up to 700 C800 C in the absence of air/oxygen. The long chains
of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen compounds in biomass break down into smaller
molecules in the form of gases, condensable vapors (tars and oils) and solid charcoal
under pyrolysis conditions. Rate and extent of decomposition of each of these
components depends on the process parameters of the reactor temperature, biomass
heating rate, pressure, reactor configuration, feedstock etc
Depending on the thermal environment and the final temperature, pyrolysis will yield
mainly biochar at low temperatures, less than 450
0
C, when the heating rate is quite
slow, and mainly gases at high temperatures, greater than 800
0
C, with rapid heating
rates. At an intermediate temperature and under relatively high heating rates, the main
product is bio-oil.


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3. If there are no issues in fuel collection, investors and fund, then it is possible to
develop a project in a fast track mode in 18 months period.

4. If properly maintained, biomass power plants can run for around 20 years. It is
possible to extend the lifetime by another 10 years by major rehabilitation.
5. The economic viability for the capacity below 6 MW is not sustainable. However,
Biomass Power Plant in the initial set up phase in India had an installed capacity of 6 to
7.5 MW. The right kind of capacity from economic viability point of view should be
between 7.5 to 10 MW. Beyond this capacity, the logistics of managing raw material
would be difficult. The project size depends on the fuel (biomass) availability near the
project location. For a capacity of 10 MW and for a biomass fuel with average gross
calorific value of 3150 Kcal/kg, the total fuel requirement is around 1.0 Lakh / annum.
The collection and storage of biomass is the critical activity for any biomass project to
succeed.
6. Pyrolysis can be performed at relatively small scale and at remote locations which
enhance energy density of the biomass resource and reduce transport and handling
costs. Heat transfer is a critical area in pyrolysis as the pyrolysis process is endothermic
and sufficient heat transfer surface has to be provided to meet process heat needs.
Biomass pyrolysis offers a flexible and attractive way of converting organic matter into
energy products which can be successfully used for the production of heat, power and
chemicals. A wide range of biomass feed stocks can be used in pyrolysis processes. The
pyrolysis process is very dependent on the moisture content of the feedstock, which
should be around 10%. At higher moisture contents, high levels of water are produced
and at lower levels there is a risk that the process only produces dust instead of oil.
High-moisture waste streams, such as sludge and meat processing wastes, require
drying before subjecting to pyrolysis. Biomass pyrolysis has been garnering much
attention due to its high efficiency and good environmental performance characteristics.
It also provides an opportunity for the processing of agricultural residues, wood wastes
and municipal solid waste into clean energy. In addition, biochar sequestration could
make a big difference in the fossil fuel emissions worldwide and act as a major player in
the global carbon market with its robust, clean and simple production technology.
7. In totality for a 7.5 to 12 MW biomass power generation units, a minimum of 10
acres of land is required. Depending on the cost of land in the different areas, land to an
extent of 20 acres should be identified for fuel storage. Also in view of storing the fuel
in vicinity of the plant, which make more economical more the land more the storage
and less the cost on fuel transportation.

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2.. REFRENCES:-
1.https://www.asme.org/engineering-topics/articles/sustainability/biomass-attributes-
handling-and-processing.
2.http://www.slihttp://www.slideshare.net/ARAVIND220/biomass-
gassifiehttp://www.slideshare.net/nandeesh1/analysis-of-biomass-and-biofuels-
11484825rdeshare.net/iqbal_abbas93/biomass-fuelled-power-
plantshttp://bioenergytalk.blogspot.in/2013/04/are-biomass-power-plants.htmlblogspot.
3.http://woodbioenergymagazine.com/blog/2012/orient-green-to-expand-biomass-
power-generation-in-india/
4.http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/industry-and-economy/biomass-power-
industry-seeks-generationbased-incentive/article4686537.ece
5. http://www.bioenergyconsult.com/biomass-india/
6. http://greencleanguide.com/2012/06/26/biomass-cogeneration-scenario-state-
maharashtra-benefits-renewable-energy-certificates/
7. http://biomass-power.industry-focus.net/maharashtra-biomass-projects.html






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