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Digital Re-print -

July | August 2014


Storage special
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B
uild it right dont take any short cuts. Good house keeping
is important. Avoid steel modification. Silos have a limited
life, once they reach the end of their life consider replacing
them. Train people who operate bins and silos in their use. One
of the big pitfalls with steel bins is that they can be damaged if they
are not unloaded correctly.
Mr Wambeke then continued addressing the issue of safety.
Be safe on the plant. I have seen a 60ft diameter by 100ft silo
unloaded incorrectly and it caused a huge impact on company. It
happened about 12 years ago on Snake River.
Grain storage systems are a lot safer than they used to be and
grain storage bins can be built to resist earthquakes. Four years ago
a lot of bins in Chile were not designed to resist earthquakes and
the result was most collapsed. In Columbia they now have bins that
have been standing there for two or three years some for around
15 years.
The causes of typical grain storage failure are the age of the bin
and silo. One of the leading insurers in the grain storage industry says
steel silos built before 1995 had a life expectancy of 25 years. After
1995 the design got better with a life expectancy of about 30 years.
Bins in Washington State are still operating and they were con-
structed in the late 1960s and early 1970s. However, they are primar-
ily used for country elevators and are only filled and emptied once or
twice a year. This is unlike your typical situation advises Mr Wambeke.
In order to look after your silo, you should avoid eccentric
unloading at all costs. If there are openings in the side of the bin or
silo make sure they are designed properly. Negative effects from
rapid draw down or by operating negative aeration systems on
steel bands causes corrosion around the base. Also, air temperature
affects deterioration of concrete silos. People often think that the
solution is to wrap cable around them however, Mr Wambeke
advised this does no good.
Equipment also has an effect on bins. A lot of bins were built
back when typical filling and discharge rates were five or six thousand
bushels an hour. Now 40,000 bushels an hour are discharged and
some old bins are not really prepared for that. Foundation settle-
ments are a real culprit, particularly for concrete silos.
Mr Wambeke pointed out that people tend to think that con-
crete silos are indestructible but concrete silos built before 1977
typically only have one row of circufriental re bar designed to resist
tension in walls. When you eccentrically discharge a silo you create
bending moments in the wall. This makes the silo go egg shaped and
these concrete silos are not prepared for that.
Mr Wambeke moved on to discuss the US law code AC313 97.
This specifies that if there is any reason for eccentric discharge the
silo should have two layers or rebar in the walls.
It is a lot more difficult to tie the steel and put it in place. If we
want silos to last we need to do that. Every steel bin sold by North
American companies will have a standard warning against eccentric
discharge on the door of the bin and on the roof. The correct way
of discharge is through the centre of the bin. The incorrect way is to
open one of the side gates and discharge through the sidewall. This
creates draw down forces on the wall that the bin is not designed
for, making the bin go egg shaped. The result could be catastrophic.
Mr Wambeke provided an example of such an incident to illus-
trate this point.
There was one eighty thousand viscule bin in a cluster of four.
The bin was eccentrically discharged. The plant called the bin com-
pany and asked what to do as the bin looked like it was going to fall
down. Despite the fact the bin company recommended that they
should stop, they continued to unload it. The bin then landed on the
ground and it took out the elevator legs and three bins putting the
plant out of business for months. Hence, rules are especially in place
for steel bins only to be discharged from the centre. If you discharge
in another way you cause moments in the wall and draw down
forces on parts of the wall.
Mr Wambeke relayed experiences of several bin failures in
Washington State and North Idaho. They were not total collapses
but a lot of them he stated had something to do with tampering of
the original construction of the bin by adding or subtracting latches.
Furthermore, managing grain in the storage pays off if you want to
maintain the quality of the grain when you put it in. In the northern
part of the US most of the wheat you get comes in good condition.
It is cool and does not have a big insect infestation. But if you do no
not use it very quickly you want to avoid grain deterioration. Once
you put it in the bin its never going to get better than it was, but it
could get worse.
The talk then addressed avoiding uncontrollable insect activity.
Controlling insect activity with chemicals and with a good aeration
system are normally the best solutions. Equally, paying close attention
to the way in which you operate the aeration system is important. It
can reduce shrinkage in the grain that you store and reduce weight
quality losses. It can also avoid damage to the grain by filling in dis-
charge equipment.
On the topic of silo maintenance and repair, Mr Wambeke
addressed the use of equipment and tools that can be used in order
to maintain grain quality, for example, the proper use of an aeration
system. A grain temperature monitoring system is a management tool
available to help you know when to aerate and how long to aerate.
It can help to detect any unusual activity in the bin like mould growth
or unusual insect activity. There are moisture detection systems that
come with temperature cables. With these moisture cables positioned
in the centre of your bin, you can have a read out sent to your com-
puter. There are insect detection systems also. By using traps inside
the bin, any unusual activity is reported back to the computer. Carbon
dioxide monitoring inside the bin is a tool that can be used to detect
grain deterioration.
Staff must be properly trained when it comes to the use of the
aeration system advises Mr Wambeke.
catastrophe
storage bins
S
CAFCO Grain Systems Vice President Mr Dan Wambeke
attended the 118th IAOM annual conference and Expo in
May where he gave a talk about ways to avoid catastrophe
with storage bins and silo maintenance and repair.
by Daniel Wambeke, VP of sales and engineering
SCAFCO Grain Systems, Spokane WA, US
16 | July - August 2014
GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
F
STORAGE
B
uild it right dont take any short cuts. Good house keeping
is important. Avoid steel modification. Silos have a limited
life, once they reach the end of their life consider replacing
them. Train people who operate bins and silos in their use. One
of the big pitfalls with steel bins is that they can be damaged if they
are not unloaded correctly.
Mr Wambeke then continued addressing the issue of safety.
Be safe on the plant. I have seen a 60ft diameter by 100ft silo
unloaded incorrectly and it caused a huge impact on company. It
happened about 12 years ago on Snake River.
Grain storage systems are a lot safer than they used to be and
grain storage bins can be built to resist earthquakes. Four years ago
a lot of bins in Chile were not designed to resist earthquakes and
the result was most collapsed. In Columbia they now have bins that
have been standing there for two or three years some for around
15 years.
The causes of typical grain storage failure are the age of the bin
and silo. One of the leading insurers in the grain storage industry says
steel silos built before 1995 had a life expectancy of 25 years. After
1995 the design got better with a life expectancy of about 30 years.
Bins in Washington State are still operating and they were con-
structed in the late 1960s and early 1970s. However, they are primar-
ily used for country elevators and are only filled and emptied once or
twice a year. This is unlike your typical situation advises Mr Wambeke.
In order to look after your silo, you should avoid eccentric
unloading at all costs. If there are openings in the side of the bin or
silo make sure they are designed properly. Negative effects from
rapid draw down or by operating negative aeration systems on
steel bands causes corrosion around the base. Also, air temperature
affects deterioration of concrete silos. People often think that the
solution is to wrap cable around them however, Mr Wambeke
advised this does no good.
Equipment also has an effect on bins. A lot of bins were built
back when typical filling and discharge rates were five or six thousand
bushels an hour. Now 40,000 bushels an hour are discharged and
some old bins are not really prepared for that. Foundation settle-
ments are a real culprit, particularly for concrete silos.
Mr Wambeke pointed out that people tend to think that con-
crete silos are indestructible but concrete silos built before 1977
typically only have one row of circufriental re bar designed to resist
tension in walls. When you eccentrically discharge a silo you create
bending moments in the wall. This makes the silo go egg shaped and
these concrete silos are not prepared for that.
Mr Wambeke moved on to discuss the US law code AC313 97.
This specifies that if there is any reason for eccentric discharge the
silo should have two layers or rebar in the walls.
It is a lot more difficult to tie the steel and put it in place. If we
want silos to last we need to do that. Every steel bin sold by North
American companies will have a standard warning against eccentric
discharge on the door of the bin and on the roof. The correct way
of discharge is through the centre of the bin. The incorrect way is to
open one of the side gates and discharge through the sidewall. This
creates draw down forces on the wall that the bin is not designed
for, making the bin go egg shaped. The result could be catastrophic.
Mr Wambeke provided an example of such an incident to illus-
trate this point.
There was one eighty thousand viscule bin in a cluster of four.
The bin was eccentrically discharged. The plant called the bin com-
pany and asked what to do as the bin looked like it was going to fall
down. Despite the fact the bin company recommended that they
should stop, they continued to unload it. The bin then landed on the
ground and it took out the elevator legs and three bins putting the
plant out of business for months. Hence, rules are especially in place
for steel bins only to be discharged from the centre. If you discharge
in another way you cause moments in the wall and draw down
forces on parts of the wall.
Mr Wambeke relayed experiences of several bin failures in
Washington State and North Idaho. They were not total collapses
but a lot of them he stated had something to do with tampering of
the original construction of the bin by adding or subtracting latches.
Furthermore, managing grain in the storage pays off if you want to
maintain the quality of the grain when you put it in. In the northern
part of the US most of the wheat you get comes in good condition.
It is cool and does not have a big insect infestation. But if you do no
not use it very quickly you want to avoid grain deterioration. Once
you put it in the bin its never going to get better than it was, but it
could get worse.
The talk then addressed avoiding uncontrollable insect activity.
Controlling insect activity with chemicals and with a good aeration
system are normally the best solutions. Equally, paying close attention
to the way in which you operate the aeration system is important. It
can reduce shrinkage in the grain that you store and reduce weight
quality losses. It can also avoid damage to the grain by filling in dis-
charge equipment.
On the topic of silo maintenance and repair, Mr Wambeke
addressed the use of equipment and tools that can be used in order
to maintain grain quality, for example, the proper use of an aeration
system. A grain temperature monitoring system is a management tool
available to help you know when to aerate and how long to aerate.
It can help to detect any unusual activity in the bin like mould growth
or unusual insect activity. There are moisture detection systems that
come with temperature cables. With these moisture cables positioned
in the centre of your bin, you can have a read out sent to your com-
puter. There are insect detection systems also. By using traps inside
the bin, any unusual activity is reported back to the computer. Carbon
dioxide monitoring inside the bin is a tool that can be used to detect
grain deterioration.
Staff must be properly trained when it comes to the use of the
aeration system advises Mr Wambeke.
catastrophe
storage bins
S
CAFCO Grain Systems Vice President Mr Dan Wambeke
attended the 118th IAOM annual conference and Expo in
May where he gave a talk about ways to avoid catastrophe
with storage bins and silo maintenance and repair.
by Daniel Wambeke, VP of sales and engineering
SCAFCO Grain Systems, Spokane WA, US
16 | July - August 2014
GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
F
STORAGE
One of the things that must be kept in mind is what your plant
is doing with regards to average temperature, relative humidity, and
grain quality.
Mr Wambeke relayed a story about when he was at a crushing
plant in Bangladesh. They had Soy Beans in the bin. The people
at the plant asked why their Soy Beans were always 3 degrees
centigrade. His advice to them was that you should operate your
fans in the evening and early in the morning but not in the middle
of the day as they had been doing. In tropical climates there is a
window from 5 pm to 8pm and maybe from 5am to 8am where
conditions are good for cooling without pumping excess humidity
into the bin.
Mr Wambeke then moved on to discuss corrosion on steel bins.
Corrosion usually occurs around the base of the bin if you do not
have a good seal. If it is not sealed effectively to stop water from
getting in, water gets under the lip of the bin and it comes in contact
with the grain. The grain then spoils, mould grows and live acid is
produced. Acid attacks the coating of the bin wall and the coating
literally disappears in days. This can even corrode the bottom of the
stiffeners enough to make the stiffeners buckle.
The final topic addressed was that of concrete silos.
Internal Cracks in the walls often happen with concrete silos but
it is not a big deal if the cracks are vertical. If cracks are horizontal
they are often small and chipping out around the crack and boxing it
in should repair them. If it occurs in the outside of the bin it is going
to allow water to get in to corrode the reinforcement bar. The bar
will pop out so those should be repaired.
At GEAPS there was a program by a structural engineer. He
stated that a lot of problems with silos are that people look
around the top of the wall connection and either it was improp-
erly designed or the reinforcing steel wasnt detailed or was not
installed the way it should be. A crack develops and the hopper
tries to pull away from the wall. However, this is something that
can be checked. The advice given was to: look for any cracks in
the junction of a wall knob or - it could be indicative of a future
problem. Dont be cutting openings in a wall just because it is
convenient. These concrete silos were equipped with side caps so
they could load by metric and load trains and they cut some pretty
big openings in the side of the silos.
When you side-tap a concrete silo you change the forces of the
silo walls. You have more drawdown forces on one side than the
other and this could lead to problems like the collapse of the silo that
was unloaded improperly. It is potentially acceptable on the smaller,
older ones. It will work however, it is not advised by Mr Wambeke
unless side draw flumes are inside the steel bin.
If you have a square silo - a rectangular silo with lots of bins in
it watch for cracks, this is indicative of the rewire not being placed
properly round the corner. This can be repaired by drilling in there
and putting in bolts which will pull the wall back tight, sealing it so
no water gets in. If you see on the inside of the silo cracks in the
junctions at the interstices or the corners, this is caused by stress
in the wall or caused by settlement of foundation. If you know the
significant settlement of the foundation, particularly in these multiple
bins, then you need to call in a professional to determine where
the settlement is and what you might do about it. You can pump
concrete under the structure to bring it back up and stop this crack-
ing from happening. Often this is all from grain leaking from one bin
to another.
When a bin breaks out people think the easiest thing to do is
wrap some cable around it but that will put workmen in danger.
Put cables round bin a couple of hours later you come back and
the cables are loose. The best thing to do is to just unload your
bin slowly. Consult a professional either at a bin manufacturer or a
consulting engineer about what you might do.
If the bin is full, as soon as you can, get the cone down. You will
then relieve a lot of stress from the bin. Then you should not load it
full born until you have a bin about half unloaded because dynamic
forces could cause this opening to get bigger and grain to come
falling out.
One consultant said if as little as 15 bushels is taken
out of a steel bin in an eccentric manner it could case a
structural failure. Luckily the stiffeners held it together.
18 | July - August 2014
GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
BUILD YOUR LEGACY.
EMEA/Latin America +34 91 216 14 97
India +91 96 1922 1123
Asia / Oceania +1 204 227-6539
North America 888-WESTEEL (937-8335)
Protecting your hard work and investment is
critical. From initial drawings to delivery and
assembly, you can trust our dedicated team of
engineers, designers and logistics experts to
craft your perfect storage solution. Together
we can build your legacy.
Visit Westeel.com to begin your journey.
SIGNATURES
Proofer Account Executive
Creative Authorization of Process
JOB DETAILS / SPECS
DOCKET # 14WEST5263
JOB NAME Global Ag Campaign
PROOF # 4
PROOF DATE May 5, 2014
TRIM SIZE 190mm x 132mm
BLEED 190mm x 132mm
COLOUR 4 Colour CMYK
PUBLICATION Grain and Feed Milling
ISSUE DATE Jul / Aug 2014
DESIGNER SamG
STOP
info@westeel.com
F
One of the things that must be kept in mind is what your plant
is doing with regards to average temperature, relative humidity, and
grain quality.
Mr Wambeke relayed a story about when he was at a crushing
plant in Bangladesh. They had Soy Beans in the bin. The people
at the plant asked why their Soy Beans were always 3 degrees
centigrade. His advice to them was that you should operate your
fans in the evening and early in the morning but not in the middle
of the day as they had been doing. In tropical climates there is a
window from 5 pm to 8pm and maybe from 5am to 8am where
conditions are good for cooling without pumping excess humidity
into the bin.
Mr Wambeke then moved on to discuss corrosion on steel bins.
Corrosion usually occurs around the base of the bin if you do not
have a good seal. If it is not sealed effectively to stop water from
getting in, water gets under the lip of the bin and it comes in contact
with the grain. The grain then spoils, mould grows and live acid is
produced. Acid attacks the coating of the bin wall and the coating
literally disappears in days. This can even corrode the bottom of the
stiffeners enough to make the stiffeners buckle.
The final topic addressed was that of concrete silos.
Internal Cracks in the walls often happen with concrete silos but
it is not a big deal if the cracks are vertical. If cracks are horizontal
they are often small and chipping out around the crack and boxing it
in should repair them. If it occurs in the outside of the bin it is going
to allow water to get in to corrode the reinforcement bar. The bar
will pop out so those should be repaired.
At GEAPS there was a program by a structural engineer. He
stated that a lot of problems with silos are that people look
around the top of the wall connection and either it was improp-
erly designed or the reinforcing steel wasnt detailed or was not
installed the way it should be. A crack develops and the hopper
tries to pull away from the wall. However, this is something that
can be checked. The advice given was to: look for any cracks in
the junction of a wall knob or - it could be indicative of a future
problem. Dont be cutting openings in a wall just because it is
convenient. These concrete silos were equipped with side caps so
they could load by metric and load trains and they cut some pretty
big openings in the side of the silos.
When you side-tap a concrete silo you change the forces of the
silo walls. You have more drawdown forces on one side than the
other and this could lead to problems like the collapse of the silo that
was unloaded improperly. It is potentially acceptable on the smaller,
older ones. It will work however, it is not advised by Mr Wambeke
unless side draw flumes are inside the steel bin.
If you have a square silo - a rectangular silo with lots of bins in
it watch for cracks, this is indicative of the rewire not being placed
properly round the corner. This can be repaired by drilling in there
and putting in bolts which will pull the wall back tight, sealing it so
no water gets in. If you see on the inside of the silo cracks in the
junctions at the interstices or the corners, this is caused by stress
in the wall or caused by settlement of foundation. If you know the
significant settlement of the foundation, particularly in these multiple
bins, then you need to call in a professional to determine where
the settlement is and what you might do about it. You can pump
concrete under the structure to bring it back up and stop this crack-
ing from happening. Often this is all from grain leaking from one bin
to another.
When a bin breaks out people think the easiest thing to do is
wrap some cable around it but that will put workmen in danger.
Put cables round bin a couple of hours later you come back and
the cables are loose. The best thing to do is to just unload your
bin slowly. Consult a professional either at a bin manufacturer or a
consulting engineer about what you might do.
If the bin is full, as soon as you can, get the cone down. You will
then relieve a lot of stress from the bin. Then you should not load it
full born until you have a bin about half unloaded because dynamic
forces could cause this opening to get bigger and grain to come
falling out.
One consultant said if as little as 15 bushels is taken
out of a steel bin in an eccentric manner it could case a
structural failure. Luckily the stiffeners held it together.
18 | July - August 2014
GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
BUILD YOUR LEGACY.
EMEA/Latin America +34 91 216 14 97
India +91 96 1922 1123
Asia / Oceania +1 204 227-6539
North America 888-WESTEEL (937-8335)
Protecting your hard work and investment is
critical. From initial drawings to delivery and
assembly, you can trust our dedicated team of
engineers, designers and logistics experts to
craft your perfect storage solution. Together
we can build your legacy.
Visit Westeel.com to begin your journey.
SIGNATURES
Proofer Account Executive
Creative Authorization of Process
JOB DETAILS / SPECS
DOCKET # 14WEST5263
JOB NAME Global Ag Campaign
PROOF # 4
PROOF DATE May 5, 2014
TRIM SIZE 190mm x 132mm
BLEED 190mm x 132mm
COLOUR 4 Colour CMYK
PUBLICATION Grain and Feed Milling
ISSUE DATE Jul / Aug 2014
DESIGNER SamG
STOP
info@westeel.com
F
The process:
The fan of the GRANIFRIGOR grain cooler draws in the
ambient air (Fig. 1). This air is cooled by an air conditioner to
the desired temperature and is thereby dehumidified. Moisture
is extracted. The downstream HYGROTHERM unit heats up
the cold, moist air. This lowers the relative humidity. Since the
HYGROTHERM heating unit uses energy from the refrigera-
tion circuit; it involves no further energy costs. The air cooled and
dried is pushed through a hose in the ventilation system of the
storage facility and is forced through the grain. This process can
be employed in a warehouse or in a silo. The outgoing air is led
outside via vents, extracting absorbed heat and moisture from
the grain. The process is continued until all grain is cooled to the
desired temperature level.
The storage period timer in Figure 2 shows the estimated
good storage time for grain according to its temperature and
moisture content. The safe storage time for any particular condi-
tion of grain can be read quite simply by matching the grains
moisture content against its actual temperature. The section
of the line on the vertical axis of the storage period gives the
possible storage time of the grain. For example, the possible
storage multiplies times five (position a to b) for a grain of 14.5
% moisture content if the grains temperature drops from 24 C
to 10 C. However, the gained storage periods of the timer are
only approximate values.
Grain is a poor conductor of heat. The high temperature of
the harvested grain and the heat generated by cellular respiration
are poorly dissipated to the outside. This problem is exacerbated
by the fact that the air between the grains provides additional
insulation. The cavities in a grain mass make up approximately 40
percent of the volume. In addition, the kernels touch one another
only at single spots, providing a small area only for heat conduction
(Fig.3). This is why bulk keeps its temperature for such a long time.
Grain remains cold if it is cooled once that means re-cooling is only
necessary for many months even at tropic conditions.
Energy consumption for cooling conservation
The energy consumption of cooling conservation depends on the
ambient temperature, the relative humidity of the ambient air, and
the moisture content and temperature of the grain. Furthermore
the temperature of the cooled grain determines how long the grain
cooler is required to operate and therefore how much power it
consumes. (Fig.4).
Influence of the cooling
conservation on the
storage stability of grain
Respiration
Grain continues to live after
being harvested. Losses in fresh-
ly harvested grain are primarily
caused by its cellular respiration
and its heating. The rate of this
process is dependent on the grains
moisture content and temperature.
Respiration becomes more inten-
Treatment of
grains through
conservation
cooling
by Pari Mamallan, Dr Claus M Braunbeck
and Ralph E Kolb
GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
C
onservation cooling technology is a process of
treating the grain on its optimal natural temperature
(usually below +13C) irrespective of any ambient
weather conditions, in order to avoid loss results from
respirations, insect activity and mildew growth.
FEATURE FROM
Figure 3: Porsity and
contact between the
grains and bulk
Figure 2: Storage period timer for grain
Figure 1: process principle of the grain cooling conservation
20 | July - August 2014
GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
F
STORAGE
The process:
The fan of the GRANIFRIGOR grain cooler draws in the
ambient air (Fig. 1). This air is cooled by an air conditioner to
the desired temperature and is thereby dehumidified. Moisture
is extracted. The downstream HYGROTHERM unit heats up
the cold, moist air. This lowers the relative humidity. Since the
HYGROTHERM heating unit uses energy from the refrigera-
tion circuit; it involves no further energy costs. The air cooled and
dried is pushed through a hose in the ventilation system of the
storage facility and is forced through the grain. This process can
be employed in a warehouse or in a silo. The outgoing air is led
outside via vents, extracting absorbed heat and moisture from
the grain. The process is continued until all grain is cooled to the
desired temperature level.
The storage period timer in Figure 2 shows the estimated
good storage time for grain according to its temperature and
moisture content. The safe storage time for any particular condi-
tion of grain can be read quite simply by matching the grains
moisture content against its actual temperature. The section
of the line on the vertical axis of the storage period gives the
possible storage time of the grain. For example, the possible
storage multiplies times five (position a to b) for a grain of 14.5
% moisture content if the grains temperature drops from 24 C
to 10 C. However, the gained storage periods of the timer are
only approximate values.
Grain is a poor conductor of heat. The high temperature of
the harvested grain and the heat generated by cellular respiration
are poorly dissipated to the outside. This problem is exacerbated
by the fact that the air between the grains provides additional
insulation. The cavities in a grain mass make up approximately 40
percent of the volume. In addition, the kernels touch one another
only at single spots, providing a small area only for heat conduction
(Fig.3). This is why bulk keeps its temperature for such a long time.
Grain remains cold if it is cooled once that means re-cooling is only
necessary for many months even at tropic conditions.
Energy consumption for cooling conservation
The energy consumption of cooling conservation depends on the
ambient temperature, the relative humidity of the ambient air, and
the moisture content and temperature of the grain. Furthermore
the temperature of the cooled grain determines how long the grain
cooler is required to operate and therefore how much power it
consumes. (Fig.4).
Influence of the cooling
conservation on the
storage stability of grain
Respiration
Grain continues to live after
being harvested. Losses in fresh-
ly harvested grain are primarily
caused by its cellular respiration
and its heating. The rate of this
process is dependent on the grains
moisture content and temperature.
Respiration becomes more inten-
Treatment of
grains through
conservation
cooling
by Pari Mamallan, Dr Claus M Braunbeck
and Ralph E Kolb
GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
C
onservation cooling technology is a process of
treating the grain on its optimal natural temperature
(usually below +13C) irrespective of any ambient
weather conditions, in order to avoid loss results from
respirations, insect activity and mildew growth.
FEATURE FROM
Figure 3: Porsity and
contact between the
grains and bulk
Figure 2: Storage period timer for grain
Figure 1: process principle of the grain cooling conservation
20 | July - August 2014
GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
F
STORAGE
sive as the temperature and moisture increase. The consequences
of heating are loss of substance and increased risk of insects and
mildew. A grain cooler avoids the disadvantages of the post-harvest
period of the grain. In cellular respiration, oxygen is absorbed and
carbohydrates are then converted into carbon dioxide, water and
heat. The result is a loss of substance. The grain respiration molecular
formula of the chemical process:
Animals in the storage facility
According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations (FAO), approximately 15 percent of harvest crops
spoil worldwide.
Insects and mites
Various types of insects are encountered in a grain storage facility.
All have in common that their activity depends on the temperature.
Figure 6, shows some species of the most common insects in humid
tropical areas and their optimal life and development conditions.
If insects find optimal temperature and humidity conditions, losses
will occur due to feeding and excrement. Insects and mites multiply
explosively under favorable conditions. At locations where the
insects attack, the respiration of the grain increases and hot spots
develop. In addition, there is the metabolic activity of the pests
themselves, which further promotes heat and humidity. This creates
more favorable conditions for mold and, at very high levels of humid-
ity, even bacterial growth. Losses through insects can be effectively
prevented by cooling the harvested crop to temperatures below 15
C, at which insects become inactive.
Fungi mycotoxin
Mi croorgani sms such as
fungi and bacteria adhere to
the surface of the grain ker-
nel. The development of fungi
depends on the temperature,
humidity and the grains mois-
ture content (Fi g. 7). Thi s
development is prevented in
the storage facility by drying
and GRANIFRIGOR grain
cooling. Mycotoxins can be
formed by fungi. Mycotoxins
According to the FAO, the loss is caused by the following:
80% due to insects
10% due to rodents and birds
10 % due to fungi
Figure 4: Empirical values for energy consumption for one
cooling process of grain in the tropics
Cooling (K) 20(eg. From 35C to 15C)
Region Asia
Climate Zone Tropics
Electricity consumption in (KWh/t) 6-12
Figure 5: Shows the grain heat generation depends on the grains temperature and moisture
content. In practice, this can be used to determine the substance loss of the stored grain.
July - August 2014 | 21 GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
F
have a toxic effect on humans and animals. Most
mycotoxins are heat-stable and very resistant. During
processing they are typically neither broken down
chemically nor rendered harmless. For this reason, the
formation of toxins must be prevented by preventing
harmful fungi.
Summary
GRANIFRIGOR grain cooling of wheat, maize, millet,
paddy, oats, rapeseed, oilseed, soybeans, peas, nuts, pal-
lets, cacao, beans are worldwide proven, natural process
for quality assurance of grains of all kinds. In warm and
humid climates, there is virtually no alternative. Cooling
conservation is important worldwide. Good storage
maintenance and care, as well as good air distribution
in the storage facility are all necessary. The temperature
of the grain is checked regularly to monitor the process.
GRANIFRIGORTM cooling conservation offers a number
of benefits which reduce loss, lower cost and simplifies
storage management thereby increasing the revenue and
thus the market strength of grain granaries and proces-
sors.
Figure 7: Development of various microorganisms as
a function of relative humidity, temperature and the
grains moisture content
Figure 6: Development of relevant insect dependent
on temperature
MORE INFORMATION:
Website: www.frigortec.com
22 | July - August 2014
GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
flat bottom silos hopper silos
www.symaga.com
symaga@symaga.com
Ofces and Factory:
Ctra. de Arenas km. 2,300
13210 Villarta de San Juan Ciudad Real- Spain
T: +34 926 640 475 F: +34 926 640 294
Madrid Ofce:
C/ Azcona, 37 28028 Madrid - Spain
T: +34 91 726 43 04 F: +34 91 361 15 94
inks, 3-6 June Bangalore, 22-24 ugust
BELAGRO
leader worldwide
innovative R&D
since 1985
92% export rate
presence in 120 countries
Grain cooling
GRANIFRIGOR

The most natural way of grain preservation:


Protection against insects and microbes
Without chemical treatment
Short amortisation period
Low energy costs
Independent of ambient weather conditions
F r i g o r T e c G m b H H u m m e l a u 1 8 8 2 7 9 A m t z e l l / G e r m a n y
Phone: +49 7520/ 91482-0 Fax : +49 7520/ 91482-22 E-Mai l : i nf o@f r i gor t ec. de
www. f r i g o r t e c . c o m
F
have a toxic effect on humans and animals. Most
mycotoxins are heat-stable and very resistant. During
processing they are typically neither broken down
chemically nor rendered harmless. For this reason, the
formation of toxins must be prevented by preventing
harmful fungi.
Summary
GRANIFRIGOR grain cooling of wheat, maize, millet,
paddy, oats, rapeseed, oilseed, soybeans, peas, nuts, pal-
lets, cacao, beans are worldwide proven, natural process
for quality assurance of grains of all kinds. In warm and
humid climates, there is virtually no alternative. Cooling
conservation is important worldwide. Good storage
maintenance and care, as well as good air distribution
in the storage facility are all necessary. The temperature
of the grain is checked regularly to monitor the process.
GRANIFRIGORTM cooling conservation offers a number
of benefits which reduce loss, lower cost and simplifies
storage management thereby increasing the revenue and
thus the market strength of grain granaries and proces-
sors.
Figure 7: Development of various microorganisms as
a function of relative humidity, temperature and the
grains moisture content
Figure 6: Development of relevant insect dependent
on temperature
MORE INFORMATION:
Website: www.frigortec.com
22 | July - August 2014
GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
flat bottom silos hopper silos
www.symaga.com
symaga@symaga.com
Ofces and Factory:
Ctra. de Arenas km. 2,300
13210 Villarta de San Juan Ciudad Real- Spain
T: +34 926 640 475 F: +34 926 640 294
Madrid Ofce:
C/ Azcona, 37 28028 Madrid - Spain
T: +34 91 726 43 04 F: +34 91 361 15 94
inks, 3-6 June Bangalore, 22-24 ugust
BELAGRO
leader worldwide
innovative R&D
since 1985
92% export rate
presence in 120 countries
Grain cooling
GRANIFRIGOR

The most natural way of grain preservation:


Protection against insects and microbes
Without chemical treatment
Short amortisation period
Low energy costs
Independent of ambient weather conditions
F r i g o r T e c G m b H H u m m e l a u 1 8 8 2 7 9 A m t z e l l / G e r m a n y
Phone: +49 7520/ 91482-0 Fax : +49 7520/ 91482-22 E-Mai l : i nf o@f r i gor t ec. de
www. f r i g o r t e c . c o m
F
flat bottom silos hopper silos
www.symaga.com
symaga@symaga.com
Ofces and Factory:
Ctra. de Arenas km. 2,300
13210 Villarta de San Juan Ciudad Real- Spain
T: +34 926 640 475 F: +34 926 640 294
Madrid Ofce:
C/ Azcona, 37 28028 Madrid - Spain
T: +34 91 726 43 04 F: +34 91 361 15 94
inks, 3-6 June Bangalore, 22-24 ugust
BELAGRO
leader worldwide
innovative R&D
since 1985
92% export rate
presence in 120 countries
www.gfmt.co.uk
LINKS
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Contact the GFMT Team
Subscribe to GFMT
INCORPORATING PORTS, DISTRIBUTION AND FORMULATION
Ju
ly
- A
u
g
u
st 2
0
1
4
first published in 1891
In this issue:
NIR Multi Online
Technology:
Real-time
analysis for early
detection of
grain quality
fluctuations
Feed Focus
Pigs
GRAPAS
Technology from
the GRAPAS Asia
award
Dust control
with bulk bag
discharger and
flexible screw
conveyors
Mycotoxins
How to analyse
and reduce
the hazard to
humans and
animals
Storage and
silos special
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