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TRAINING COURSE ON ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY FERTILIZER


PRODUCTION, APPLICATION AND DEMONSTRATION FOR DEVELOPING
COUNTRIES



COMPOSTING IN
VIETNAM:
PRESENT AND
FUTURE VISION


Bui Hai An
VIETNAM ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL
SCIENCES
SOILS AND FERTILIZERS RESEARCH
INSTITUTE
Department of land and fertilizer economic uses

Address: Dongngac, Tuliem, Hanoi

Email: buihaian1403@gmail.com


G U A N G Z H O U , J U N E 2 O 1 2
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my many thanks to all of the professors, organizers, other staffs
and volunteers from CICAT for all of their kindly deliver helpful lectures, and excited
events without any confused. Thank to their works, my classmates and I have haven
appreciated time in SCAU and Guangzhou.
I also thank my new friends in the class, comes from various regions, for their helpful
cooperation and support in the duration.
At last, I sincere thank to my family and to my offices director board who give me a
special chance to attend the course.


















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ABSTRACT


The modern composting methods were introduced to Vietnam since 1980s. Up to now,
there are some composting techniques have been developed by Vietnamese
companies. These techniques are combined technologies, which include 3 producing
chains: one to produce recycling plastic products, one to compost, and another to
produce renewable fuel products. The rest will be land filled. These techniques seem
to be suitable for the purpose of waste recycle, reuse and reduce in medium and big
cities. Furthermore, it also can be used in rural areas as a source of organic fertilizer.
There are some difficulties which are explained in this report that restrict the
enlargement of organic fertilizer using, in general and compost fertilizer application, in
individual. To reach the goal of enhancing organic fertilizer application, some
refinements should be done in the technique. Besides, the support of government and
socio are required.























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CONTENTS

ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................... 2
CONTENTS ................................................................................................................... 3
I. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................... 4
1. Composting in Vietnam: brief history ................................................................. 4
2. The main principles and processes of ASC technique. ...................................... 6
II. CONSTRAINTS AND SUBJECTS ........................................................................ 9
III. STRATEGY OF IMPLEMENTATION ............................................................. 10
IV. CONCLUSION ...................................................................................................... 11
V. RECOMMENDATION .......................................................................................... 11
APPENDIX................................................................................................................... 12























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I. INTRODUCTION
1. Composting in Vietnam: brief history

Vietnam, with thousands years of history, is a traditionally agricultural country. Up to
now, approximately 70 % of population lives in rural areas and agriculture contribute
about 25 % of annual GDP.

From the past, till now, agriculture producing process in Vietnam base on labor and
animal like cow to implement. Due to the lack of investment, for years, Vietnamese
farmers used the animal waste (usually cow excrements), plant residues as sources of
fertilizers with some very simple treatments. Popularly, straw and manure was piled up
together then would be used after weeks, when needed. It may be introduced as a
simplest way of composting in Vietnam. The treatment seems to be very useful due to
its low cost of investment and economical application. It also plays an important role
in aspects of environment and fertilization. In fact, for thousands years, this method of
treating manure provided main source of fertilizer for peasants. Besides that, it
helpfully improved soil fertility and reduced environment pollutions (though these
roles sometime were not recognized by peasants).


Picture 1. Using compost product in field Picture 2. Manure piled up with straw and
vegetable residues

Before 1990s, Vietnamese agriculture still kept in a backward situation. There were
low investment and less advanced technique applications. Due to that, low fertilizer
application led to the low affection to the environment. Besides, less developed
economy means that low quantity of industrial, municipal and other wastes released to
the environment. It also means that the productivity and production of agricultural
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products is too low. Of cause, the phenomenon must be changed to satisfy the greatly
increased demand of quickly rise of population.

From the 1990s, after the starting of innovation process, there has been an amazing
development in Vietnamese economy, especially in fields of agriculture. Vietnam once
was a rice importing country before 1990s; but in 1991, we started exporting rice and
other agricultural products though the population increased very quickly at that time
(more than 3 %/year of population growth rate). This is because of the change in
policy, the increasing in chemical fertilizer application and the extension of advanced
techniques.

Accompany with economy increasing, some environmental affairs also exposes. More
industrial activities, more industrial wastes; more households income, more
households consumes; and more agricultural products, more byproducts. All that kinds
of wastes comes to the environment, pollutes soil, water bodies and air.

In the field of Vietnamese agriculture and rural, some locally environmental problems
are observed. That may be the polluted products, water resources and soil. One
conclusion can be reviewed about these problems is that the main source of the
pollutants come from the chemical fertilizers and pesticides abuse. Otherwise, the
increasing in using chemical fertilizers and pesticides reduce the manure application,
which means that a large amount of manure and garbage are not treated and used as
usual, so they penetrate into the environment without any treatment. Not like those in
the past, they become a harmful source to environment and human health because of
their large amount.

Those situations are common in all developing countries and be more and more
dangerous as time gone by. It attracts the worlds attention. Many solutions are being
carried out to improve environmental health. One of them is composting.

Composting has many techniques to implement aim to the sources used. In developed
countries, the techniques usually point out for large scale factory due to their enormous
municipal solid waste sources. These manufactures and factories require high
investment and produce high quality and amount of products. Since 1980s, some of
these techniques have been introduced in Vietnam. For examples, in 1981, Dano
system, a Denmarks technique was used in a factory built in Ho Chi Minh City (the
biggest city of Vietnam). This factory has capacity of 25,000 tons of organic fertilizer
per year, treated 240 tons of solid waste per day. Other one was built in Hanoi,
Vietnam capital City in 1992, using Aerated Static Pile Composting technique and
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temperature is controlled automatically. The factory has capacity of 210 tons per day.
Generally, these technologies are expensive investment and high implemented cost
though they have high capacity and good quality.

To adapt with the situation in Vietnam, some modified technologies of composting
were developed in Vietnam in recent years. In 2004, the first factory using ASC
technology, a technology designed by a Vietnamese company named An Sinh
company, was built in Hue City with capacity of 150 tons of waste treated a day. The
technology has been rapidly accepted in medium cities in Vietnam as a best solution
for municipal solid waste treatment. From 2004 up to now, this technology has
continually improved to reduce investment and increase performance. Now, it is the 4
th

generation of the technology. Up to now, there are 3 factories applying this technology
in 3 cities with capacity of 200 tons solid waste a day for one factory.


Picture 3. Transferring band in factory
transfer organic material to treating area.
Picture 4. My master course classmates
and I visited the factory.

2. The main principles and processes of ASC technique.

The technique aims to recycle almost municipal solid waste. The inorganic waste will
be separated and reused to produce recycle plastic products, black bricks. Waste
with high thermotherapy will be produced to renewable fuel and used in industrial
furnaces as an added or replaced resource for fossil fuels. The organic waste will be
composted. The inbiodegraded organic waste will be burned and other waste will be
land filled.

Generally, the waste sources come to factory will be separated to: raw organic material
(50 %), jute bags (3 %), nylon, iron (5 %), glass (2 %), bricks, stones and rubber (15
%) and combusting material (25 %).
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Processes of ASC technique includes:

- Chain to separate waste (manual separating);
- Composting chain (aerated static pile technique);
- Recycling plastic chain;
- Combusting indegraded material chain;
- Chain to Pressure solidifies inert inorganic material.

PHN LOI V X L S B CHT THI RN TH HN HP BNG PP C HC
Sorting and Pretreatment of Mixed Municipal Solid Waste by Mechanical Process
X L HN HP
CHT THI NHA
Treatment of Mixed
Plastic Waste
= PP TI CH
SX VT LIU MI
by Recycling Process to
Produce New Material
X L HN HP
CHT THI HU C
D PHN HY
Treatment of Mixed
Bio-Organic Waste
= PP SINH HC
SX PHN BN

by Biological Process
(composting) to
Produce Fertilizer
X L HN HP
CHT THI HU C
KH PHN HY
Treatment of Mixed
Non-Bio Organic Waste
= PP NHIT
SX NHIN LIU,
NNG LNG MI
by Thermal Process to
Produce RDF and
Renewable Energy
X L HN HP
CHT THI V C
Treatment of Mixed
Inorganic Waste
= PP NG RN
SX VT LIU XD
by Solidification Process
to Produce Building
Material
M HNH KT HP CC HP PHN CNG NGH SERAPHIN
(p dng trong x l cht thi rn sinh hot th hn hp)
Seraphin Technology - Multi-Process Combinative Model in Treatment of Mixed Municipal Solid Waste
C.TY CP CNG NGH MI TRNG XANH SERAPHIN. THNG 10/2006
Seraphin Green Environment Technology JSC. Oct-2006
Figure 1. Seraphin technology process.

In composting process, organic material was treated in closed house by aerated static
pile technique using 3 bio-products named as BP-C1, BP-C2 and BP-C3; emission gas
will be collected and treated by a bio-filter system. Some organic fertilizers will be
added to improve product quality.

In general, the process can be described as shown in figure 2.

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Figure 2. Diagram of composting process

Where:
1. Chain to transfer organic waste after separated
2. Grinding machine to grind organic waste before compost
3. BP-C1 and BP-C2 added
4. Chain to transfer waste to composting system
5. BP-C3 added
6. Closed house
7. Continuing composting windrow with large scale
8. Transferring and mixing machines
9. Environment controlling system
10. Mist spraying system and BP-C4 deodorized product
11. Air controlling system
12. Collecting and treating emission gases system
13. Output belt
14. Moisture decreasing system using hot air
15. Cage screening
16. Reduce size machine
17. Vibrating screening
18. Bagging bio-organic fertilizer
19. Inorganic fertilizers and other products added
20. Processing organic-inorganic fertilizer machine
21. Bagging organic-inorganic fertilizer.


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II. CONSTRAINTS AND SUBJECTS

The new technique has been introduced and refined in Vietnam since 2000s. It is
domestic product with low investment cost so it well adapts with Vietnam situations. It
easily assembles and maintains or operates. It also can easily refine. The technique is
helpful in recycling almost municipal solid waste, greatly reduce rate of landfill waste.
It is really meaningful for environmental subject.

Besides these advantages, there are some constraints restrict the development of this
kind of technique.

Firstly, the factory occupies a large area for composting process. That is really difficult
problem in the city, where land source is limited.

Secondly, Seraphin products were not well accepted because people always have a
problem in using the product produce from waste. Also, these kinds of products must
be strictly controlled to make sure that they do not contain some toxic compounds such
as heavy metals, which usually occur in solid waste at large amount.

Same as that, for composting products, finding a market is also a problem because it
has not been popular in Vietnam in using compost fertilizer. Since 1990s, chemical
fertilizers and compounds application have been rapidly increased in Vietnam
agricultural practices. This may be cause of the temporary effect of chemical fertilizers
and compounds in agricultural productivity. The useful application of chemical
compounds and fertilizers defeated the manure using. That is the reason why some
inorganic fertilizers are added into composting product to enhance the commercial
ability of the end products.

Furthermore, this technique has not been introduced to rural areas and seems not fit
with the characteristics of rural solid wastes, which usually are residues of agriculture
producing, such as excrements, manure, and garbage. In general, this technique
developed as a solution to deal with the large amount of solid waste in the medium and
big cities rather than a composting solution to produce an environmentally friendly
fertilizer like compost fertilizer.

Lastly, the technique has problem in synchronous and stable ability. This is because of
the restriction in financial and human resources.

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All of these constraints should be struggled to increase composting producing and
products in Vietnam, a good way to develop sustainably in agriculture.


III. STRATEGY OF IMPLEMENTATION

Through the course, I have gained helpful knowledge which can be useful to improve
compost producing and application in Vietnam. Focus on these above problems, we
can draw some strategies to fix these problems and enhance composting producing and
application in Vietnam.

1. Government support is a requirement for the promoting of all sectors, especially in
agricultural fields. To promote compost producing and application, the government
should deliver some policies supporting the related companies, such as in taxes policy.
It is may be good to cut off all the taxes for waste processing companies due to the
environmental benefits come from their activities.

Furthermore, government; through the mass media and agricultural extension system,
which well spread in Vietnam and be implemented by government regulations; should
extend the information and knowledge about the useful and advantages of compost
fertilizer and other organic fertilizers to farmers to encourage them in applying this
kind of fertilizers for a sustainable development of their community.

2. The technique needs some adjustment to adapt with rural areas. These
improvements should rely on the characteristics of waste sources in rural area:
excrements, manure or garbage. The scale of the machine may be smaller to fit with
the amount of waste in rural areas.

3. To collect, gather and separate all solid waste in rural area for composting purpose
also be very important aspects influents the efficient of composting. Up to now, almost
of the waste in rural areas of Vietnam are released freely to environment. Building a
consciousness of environmental protection for rural habitants and encouraging them
prefer using organic fertilizer rather than chemical fertilizer seems to be difficult. But
it does not mean that cannot do. With large system of agricultural extensions, mass
media and training centers, the extension staffs, collaborate with composting factories
staffs and technicians, can deliver the knowledge and technique to farmers through
field demonstrations.


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IV. CONCLUSION

In past 20 years, Vietnam has a vast development in all sectors: modernization,
industrialization, urbanization. According to some official statistics, during this time,
industrial products annually grow at 10 15 %, agricultural products increase 4 5 %
per year, commerce and service has a growth rate of 15 % annually, urbanization
velocity reaches 3.4 % per year and urbanization rate is 30 % in 2011. Accompany
with these developments, solid waste released into environment reaches over 15
million tons in 2005 and has increased with the rate of 10 % per year. Of which, 50 %
comes from urban areas, and other 50 % comes from rural areas; 80 % comes from
households, restaurants, markets. These are huge sources for composting.

Composting is a good solution to solve the environmental pollutions cause of
municipal and agricultural solid waste. It has a large potential of reducing and reusing
the amount of waste, maintaining soil fertility and protecting air and water body
quality. Added in ASC technique, we can witness a significantly reduce of solid waste;
include toxic metal and other pollutants.

Composting, therefore, plays a remarkable role in sustainable development process,
especially in developing countries, such as Vietnam.


V. RECOMMENDATION

To enhance organic fertilizers application, government, producers and agricultural
scientists and technicians should work together. Government should play the key
role in supporting the products and producers, protect environment and human health.
Producers should speed up their producing and marketing process. Agricultural
scientists and technicians should be pioneers in refining, transferring techniques and
sciences knowledge to farmers.

Generally, it is needed to synchronize the activities of 4 factors: Government,
Producers and businessmen, Scientists and Farmers, direct to the purpose of a
sustainable development in all sectors of the economy.





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APPENDIX


Appendix 1. A new compost factory using modern technique comes from USA in Ho
Chi Minh City, the biggest city of Vietnam.




Appendix 2. Some products of Seraphin technology.

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Appendix 3. Waste released in Vietnam in 2003

Source Components Quantity (tons/year)
Municipal
waste
Commercial
zones,
inhabitant
zones
Organic mat.,
plastic, paper,
glass.
6,400,000 6,400,000 2,800,000
Non-
toxically
industrial
waste
Industrial
enterprises
Metal, wood 1,740,000 770,000 2,510,000
Toxically
industrial
waste
Industrial
enterprises
Oil, petrol,
sludge, organic
waste
126,000 2,400 128,000
Toxically
medical
waste
Hospitals
Cylan, blood
samples...
126,000 2400 21,500
Total non agricultural waste 8,266,000 7,172,400 1,545,900
Agriculture
Culture,
feeding
Garbage,
excrements
- 6,456,000 6,456,000
(Reference: Vietnam current situation in environment report, 2002; Ministry of Health
care, 2004; Department of Environment, 1999; Ministry of Industry, 2002 2003)

Appendix 4. Municipal waste classification

Per capita waste
(kg/person/day)
Rate % Organic content ( % )
Urban areas 0.7 50 55
Ho Chi Minh City 1.3 9
Ha Noi 1.0 6
Da Nang 0.9 2
Rural areas 0.3 50 60 - 65
(Reference: Survey of advisory group, 2004; Department of Environmental Protection,
Ministry of Industry, 2002 -2003)
.




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Appendix 5. Course activities