Digital Re-print

-
July | August 2014
FEED FOCUS: Pigs
www.gfmt.co.uk
Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom.
All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies,
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M
ost of the feed and food safety assurance systems are
focused on prevention of contamination of feed and food
materials with undesirable substances or microbiologi-
cal agents.
A certification scheme has three main components: the normative
references, the assurance and corrective action tools, and the rules
of certification.
The normative references determine what is considered as a
safe product for consumption, or what is sustainable or responsible
related to environment or society. The rules of certification are about
the certification process of companies obtaining for a certificate
against the involved certification scheme, which the certification bod-
ies have to apply and comply with.
The assurance & corrective action tools are the instruments and
procedures, which the company obtaining a certificate have to apply
in the daily business operations.
The assurance tools are focused on preventive actions and
measurements in order to avoid the occurrence of contamination.
A starting point for the control of potential risk is the application
of prerequisite programs in order to create a basic level of control.
The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) approach
is important to identify in advance the remaining risks in the process
and operations and to determine appropriate control measures, as
well as a monitoring plan. A risk could be the purchased / supplied
ingredients.
For feed or food safety, a full control of the supply chain can
be an option, like followed in the GMP+ Feed Safety Assurance
certification. In case of product responsibility other supply chain
models (material accounting system) can be applied, like book and
claim, mass balance and segregated system. Application of a quality
management system makes it possible to ensure control measures
and monitoring plan in the daily operations in a consistent way.
Besides the preventive measures, also corrective actions need to
be applied for the case of the occurrence of contamination.
It is about traceability, recall procedures and early warning. The
aim is to reduce the distribution of contaminated lot(s) of feed or
food material in the market or withdraw it.
EWS applied within the GMP+ Feed Safety Assurance (FSA)
certification operates as follows. If a certified company determines
a level of undesirable substance(s) exceeding the maximum permit-
ted level, it is obliged – besides taking the appropriate control and
corrective measurements and informing its customers – to notify
the scheme manager GMP+ International as well as the involved
certification body.
The primary focus of the certification body is to monitor the
application of the appropriate actions and measurements by the
involved feed company. The primary focus of GMP+ International is
to alert the other GMP+ FSA participants about the occurrence of a
concrete contamination event in the market, if the contaminated lots
are delivered by supply chain partner(s), or the contaminated lots are
or can be delivered to other companies in the market.
In that case, GMP+ International informs all other GMP+ FSA
participants about the involved product (generic name), the kind of
undesirable substance(s), the detected level(s), and the country of
origin. When other GMP+ FSA participants are also buying or dealing
with the reported product from the mentioned origin, they can take
the right measures, like sampling and analysing or asking guarantees
of his supplier.
In 2013, GMP+ International published 29 EWS messages, in
2014 until end July already totally 25.
Sometimes more than one EWS message has been related to the
same case. It was about Aflatoxin B1 in maize and copra, lead in deer
meal, dioxins in pre-mixture and dried beet pulp, peas, maize and
soybean extractions, non-dioxin liked PCB’s in fatty acids, dioxin liked
PCB’s in apple pulp, chloramphenicol in pre-mixtures and vitamins,
ergot in triticale, wheat and rye, ethyl-esters in fish oil, DON and
ZEA in maize and maize gluten feed, ambrosia in maize, hydrogen
cyanide in linseed, biogenic amines in fish meal, etc.
Only a limited number was related to a more or less serious
feed safety emergency. Most of the reported issues were controlled
in an early stage. GMP+ International always tries to find out the
source and cause of contamination, because that could be relevant
for the risk assessments and could contribute to avoid occurrence
in the future. The GMP+ FSA certified companies observe these
EWS messages as worthwhile, because it increases their alertness
regarding specific risks.
It add also value in comparison of the Rapid Alerts System Feed
& Food (RASFF) of the European Union, due to more details and
sometimes quicker publication.
Of course, the functioning of EWS depends on the willingness
of companies to notify a perceived contamination. The increasing
number of EWS notifications is a signal of increasing awareness of the
common interest of EWS notification. Recently, GMP+ International
tightened the obligation to notify contaminations by classifying non-
conformity with this obligation as ‘critical nonconformity’.
My final conclusion is that EWS is a worthwhile measurement in
addition to all kind of preventive actions. It contributes to reduce the
spread out of contaminated material in the market and therefor, it
contributes to reduce the size of a feed safety emergency.
FEED FOCUS
PIGS
Added value of
early-warning
systems (EWS)
by Johan den Hartog, Managing
Director GMP+ International
28 | July - August 2014
GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
F
M
ost of the feed and food safety assurance systems are
focused on prevention of contamination of feed and food
materials with undesirable substances or microbiologi-
cal agents.
A certification scheme has three main components: the normative
references, the assurance and corrective action tools, and the rules
of certification.
The normative references determine what is considered as a
safe product for consumption, or what is sustainable or responsible
related to environment or society. The rules of certification are about
the certification process of companies obtaining for a certificate
against the involved certification scheme, which the certification bod-
ies have to apply and comply with.
The assurance & corrective action tools are the instruments and
procedures, which the company obtaining a certificate have to apply
in the daily business operations.
The assurance tools are focused on preventive actions and
measurements in order to avoid the occurrence of contamination.
A starting point for the control of potential risk is the application
of prerequisite programs in order to create a basic level of control.
The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) approach
is important to identify in advance the remaining risks in the process
and operations and to determine appropriate control measures, as
well as a monitoring plan. A risk could be the purchased / supplied
ingredients.
For feed or food safety, a full control of the supply chain can
be an option, like followed in the GMP+ Feed Safety Assurance
certification. In case of product responsibility other supply chain
models (material accounting system) can be applied, like book and
claim, mass balance and segregated system. Application of a quality
management system makes it possible to ensure control measures
and monitoring plan in the daily operations in a consistent way.
Besides the preventive measures, also corrective actions need to
be applied for the case of the occurrence of contamination.
It is about traceability, recall procedures and early warning. The
aim is to reduce the distribution of contaminated lot(s) of feed or
food material in the market or withdraw it.
EWS applied within the GMP+ Feed Safety Assurance (FSA)
certification operates as follows. If a certified company determines
a level of undesirable substance(s) exceeding the maximum permit-
ted level, it is obliged – besides taking the appropriate control and
corrective measurements and informing its customers – to notify
the scheme manager GMP+ International as well as the involved
certification body.
The primary focus of the certification body is to monitor the
application of the appropriate actions and measurements by the
involved feed company. The primary focus of GMP+ International is
to alert the other GMP+ FSA participants about the occurrence of a
concrete contamination event in the market, if the contaminated lots
are delivered by supply chain partner(s), or the contaminated lots are
or can be delivered to other companies in the market.
In that case, GMP+ International informs all other GMP+ FSA
participants about the involved product (generic name), the kind of
undesirable substance(s), the detected level(s), and the country of
origin. When other GMP+ FSA participants are also buying or dealing
with the reported product from the mentioned origin, they can take
the right measures, like sampling and analysing or asking guarantees
of his supplier.
In 2013, GMP+ International published 29 EWS messages, in
2014 until end July already totally 25.
Sometimes more than one EWS message has been related to the
same case. It was about Aflatoxin B1 in maize and copra, lead in deer
meal, dioxins in pre-mixture and dried beet pulp, peas, maize and
soybean extractions, non-dioxin liked PCB’s in fatty acids, dioxin liked
PCB’s in apple pulp, chloramphenicol in pre-mixtures and vitamins,
ergot in triticale, wheat and rye, ethyl-esters in fish oil, DON and
ZEA in maize and maize gluten feed, ambrosia in maize, hydrogen
cyanide in linseed, biogenic amines in fish meal, etc.
Only a limited number was related to a more or less serious
feed safety emergency. Most of the reported issues were controlled
in an early stage. GMP+ International always tries to find out the
source and cause of contamination, because that could be relevant
for the risk assessments and could contribute to avoid occurrence
in the future. The GMP+ FSA certified companies observe these
EWS messages as worthwhile, because it increases their alertness
regarding specific risks.
It add also value in comparison of the Rapid Alerts System Feed
& Food (RASFF) of the European Union, due to more details and
sometimes quicker publication.
Of course, the functioning of EWS depends on the willingness
of companies to notify a perceived contamination. The increasing
number of EWS notifications is a signal of increasing awareness of the
common interest of EWS notification. Recently, GMP+ International
tightened the obligation to notify contaminations by classifying non-
conformity with this obligation as ‘critical nonconformity’.
My final conclusion is that EWS is a worthwhile measurement in
addition to all kind of preventive actions. It contributes to reduce the
spread out of contaminated material in the market and therefor, it
contributes to reduce the size of a feed safety emergency.
FEED FOCUS
PIGS
Added value of
early-warning
systems (EWS)
by Johan den Hartog, Managing
Director GMP+ International
28 | July - August 2014
GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
F
Paul Phillips gets back £6 for every £1 spent on
Digest-it
®
Digest-it treatment boosts slurry value
Increasing the fertiliser value of slurry from the pig-finishing unit
on Brian and Paul Phillips’s 670 acre Bridge Farm, Northallerton,
is showing good results part-way through a 12 month trial
period. They have been treating the slurry in the under-floor
storage tanks of their slatted pig-finishing houses with Digest-it
®
, a
live culture of aerobic bacteria. So far, before and after treatment
analysis has shown a 6:1 return on the investment in Digest-it in
terms of artificial fertiliser replacement value.
Bridge Farm is a mixed enterprise growing cereals, fattening
beef cattle and lambs, and running a 200 sow unit with progeny
taken through to finish in slatted finishing units. Introduction
of NVZ regulations in 2002 raised awareness of the fertiliser
potential of the pig manure, and careful consideration of crop
nutrient requirements has increased the earning potential of the
pig enterprise.
The aerobic bacteria in Digest-it break down slurry solids,
releasing the potash and phosphate and converting ammonia
nitrogen into organic, plant-available nitrogen. Because increased
aerobic microbial activity in the store reduces the levels of the
putrefying toxic anaerobic bugs, slurry is converted from a smelly
waste to a valuable source of nutrients that support soil fertility
and health, and reduces ammonia and smell emissions.
The results of the first 4 months’ treatment are shown below.
Conclusion
Digest-it treated slurry has improved the fertiliser value by
£2.30 per m
3
at an input cost of £0.36 per m
3
. This represents a
cost effective ratio of 6.4:1.
Slurry is removed from the under-slat storage tanks twice
a year: in February, when it is injected into silage ground, and
again in the summer onto stubble turnip fields. In the past, stir-
ring the slurry has had the potential to cause problems with the
pigs housed above it, due to the release of ammonia and other
noxious gases. Smell has also been a problem when application
to land near housing has been necessary. Digest-it reduces smell
significantly, and also helps to keep the slurry in a homogenous
liquid state, reducing or eliminating the need for agitation, and
making injection easier.
Digest-it is supplied as a liquid which Paul dilutes and pours
into the slats from a watering-can once a week. “So far the
analysis has shown a really worthwhile improvement,” says Paul,
“and with fertiliser costs increasing, every little helps.
PIG SLURRY ANALYSIS
Analysis date: 03/02/12 07/06/12 Difference
Sample No.: 244 296 -
Sample ID: Pre-
Treated
Post-
Treated
-
Total Nitrogen % 0.600 0.836 +39%
Total Phosphate % 0.125 0.054 -57%
Total Potash % 0.404 0.688 +70%
Slurry Fertiliser Value £/m
3
5.87 8.53 +45%
Digest-it Input Cost £/m
3
--- 0.36 ---
Net Benefit +5.87 +8.17 +2.30
(+48%)
*Slurry Fertiliser Value is based on the following fertiliser unit prices,
Nitrogen - £0.96, Phosphate - £0.70, Potash - £0.70.
Digest-it is priced at £8.00 per litre, with an application rate of 1 litre per
22m3 of slurry.
July - August 2014 | 29 GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
EXCELLENCE IN YEAST –
EXCELLENT IN FEED
REAL
BREWERS‘
YEAST
Made in Germ
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• M
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n
y
• M
a
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a d
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• M
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any •
Biolex® MB40
Leiber GmbH
Hafenstraße 24
49565 Bramsche
Germany
Tel. +49 (0)5461 9303-0
Fax +49 (0)5461 9303-29
www.leibergmbh.de
info@leibergmbh.de

acts prebiotic

for immunity & resistance
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Hall 14 Stand F28
11. –14. November
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F
T
he British pig industry is small in sow
numbers but large in global terms
due to the widespread export and
influence of UK pig genetics. Furthermore,
there are several essential features of the
industry:
• Specialised and highly professional
• Market-focused
• Quality driven with the highest
standards of welfare and safety
• Integrated quality assurance
• Whole supply chain starting with
advanced genetics.
Much of the excellent performance of
UK pigs comes from the genetic potential
supplied with the advanced genetics. British
breeders are proud of their achievements in
continuing to maintain high levels of genetic
progress with very little evidence of any
‘plateau’ effect.
A recent publication reported that the
achieved commercial value of this genetic
progress in the UK was US$19.5 million per
year, while current forecasts suggest that
future progress could be worth US$30 mil-
lion per year.
Among the main techniques employed
by British geneticists and breeders to achieve
these high levels of genetic progress have
been:
• 40 years of focussed within line
selection
• Initially emphasis on growth and carcase
• Now increasing emphasis on
reproductive performance
• Maximising hybrid vigour
• Different sire and dam line selection
objectives
• Accurate performance testing
• Advanced Best Linear Unbiased
Prediction (BLUP)
• Sophisticated selection indices
• Intensive selection on commercial
rations
• Rapid uptake of new technologies,
including biotechnology
Excellent genetic progress
The results of this strategy have been
excellent genetic progress across a range of
important economic traits.
As a direct result, the British pig is
proving itself consistently superior in
the international market place in inde-
pendent comparisons. Recent examples
of international success are outlined
below:
Added value
One of the main tools used in the suc-
cessful superior breeding of British pigs has
been the use of advanced BLUP, combining
trait EBV’s into sophisticated selection indices.
These indices utilise genetic parameters,
population data and industry economic val-
ues.
The latter are very important as they
allow the optimum ranking and weighting of
traits. Brief details on the values are shown
in Appendix 1. They are:
Value of 0.1 FCR = US$1.73
Value of growth (1 day) = US$0.426
Value of 1 mm P2 Backfat = US$1.84
Value of one extra pig = US$51.59
Averaged across all the presented results,
the added value of British sows is US$214
per year. With annual production of 22.5
pigs sold per year, the total added value per
sow is a staggering US$374!
Finally, as well as excellent performance,
data from the IRTA (Spain) Central Test
programme also show significant advantages
to UK pigs in conformation across a range of
important structural traits:
World leader
Results from independent international
comparisons are showing superior perfor-
mance over British global competitors.
The added value of these benefits is
highly significant at more than US$200
per sow per year and over US$7 per pig
produced. These combine to give a margin
of some US$375 for a breeder/finisher
using British genes compared with other
breeding stock.
Growth
Metabolic body weight = LiveWt0.75
70kg pig has M body wt = 700.75 = 24.2
Maintenance need per kg M body wt =
0.48MJ DE/day
Maintenance feed requirement = 24.2 x
0.48 = 11.61 MJ/day
At diet of 13.5 MJ/DE = 0.86kg/day
Feed cost saving = 0.86 x US$0.216 =
US$0.186
Fixed Costs
Typical fixed costs to 105kg = US$43
From this it is possible to estimate the
‘saving’ per day
A 180 day lifetime gives a fixed cost per
day = US$0.24
Add the cost savings from faster growth
= US$0.186
Value of growth (1 day) = US$0.426
Acknowledgements
With thanks to the British Pig Association
and UPB for access to some of the data
presented.
The added value of British pig
genetics and feed converstion
by Dr Rex Walters, International Genetics Consultant
Appendix 1:
Current UK economic values of key traits
Feed Conversion
Weight gain: 25 to 105kg = 80kg
0.1 FCR saves 80 x 0.1kg of feed = 8kg
Feed cost per tonne = US$216
Feed cost per kg = US$0.216
Feed saving = US$0.216 x 8 = US$1.73
Value of 0.1 FCR = US$1.73
British Others Advantage
General
conformation
7.85 7.74 +0.11
Head, neck, colour,
skin
8.23 7.83 +0.40
Back, loin, thorax 8.14 8.03 +0.09
Ham 8.06 7.91 +0.15
Legs 7.74 7.53 +0.21
Reproductive
organs
8.39 8.13 +0.26
Figure 2: Grower/finisher performance - Terminal
sire trials in Germany. Trials in Saxony compared
four terminal sire genotypes (British, German
Landrace, German Large White and German
Pietrain) on a ‘Field’ performance test
Age Weight Growth
Fat▪
British 173 120.3 698 8.8
Landrace 182 123.9 681 12.0
Large White 185 127.4 689 11.9
Pietrain 204 123.9 609 8.5
▪ Average of three measurements (mm)
(Source: SSZV, Germany)
Figure 1: Sow performance – Litters and
weaned performance (international review)
Litters/sow Weaned/
lifetime
Britain 5.4 52.8
Netherlands 4.6 39.3
France 4.2 37.6
US 4.2 36.8
(Source: Gill)
FEED FOCUS
PIGS
30 | July - August 2014
GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
F
T
he British pig industry is small in sow
numbers but large in global terms
due to the widespread export and
influence of UK pig genetics. Furthermore,
there are several essential features of the
industry:
• Specialised and highly professional
• Market-focused
• Quality driven with the highest
standards of welfare and safety
• Integrated quality assurance
• Whole supply chain starting with
advanced genetics.
Much of the excellent performance of
UK pigs comes from the genetic potential
supplied with the advanced genetics. British
breeders are proud of their achievements in
continuing to maintain high levels of genetic
progress with very little evidence of any
‘plateau’ effect.
A recent publication reported that the
achieved commercial value of this genetic
progress in the UK was US$19.5 million per
year, while current forecasts suggest that
future progress could be worth US$30 mil-
lion per year.
Among the main techniques employed
by British geneticists and breeders to achieve
these high levels of genetic progress have
been:
• 40 years of focussed within line
selection
• Initially emphasis on growth and carcase
• Now increasing emphasis on
reproductive performance
• Maximising hybrid vigour
• Different sire and dam line selection
objectives
• Accurate performance testing
• Advanced Best Linear Unbiased
Prediction (BLUP)
• Sophisticated selection indices
• Intensive selection on commercial
rations
• Rapid uptake of new technologies,
including biotechnology
Excellent genetic progress
The results of this strategy have been
excellent genetic progress across a range of
important economic traits.
As a direct result, the British pig is
proving itself consistently superior in
the international market place in inde-
pendent comparisons. Recent examples
of international success are outlined
below:
Added value
One of the main tools used in the suc-
cessful superior breeding of British pigs has
been the use of advanced BLUP, combining
trait EBV’s into sophisticated selection indices.
These indices utilise genetic parameters,
population data and industry economic val-
ues.
The latter are very important as they
allow the optimum ranking and weighting of
traits. Brief details on the values are shown
in Appendix 1. They are:
Value of 0.1 FCR = US$1.73
Value of growth (1 day) = US$0.426
Value of 1 mm P2 Backfat = US$1.84
Value of one extra pig = US$51.59
Averaged across all the presented results,
the added value of British sows is US$214
per year. With annual production of 22.5
pigs sold per year, the total added value per
sow is a staggering US$374!
Finally, as well as excellent performance,
data from the IRTA (Spain) Central Test
programme also show significant advantages
to UK pigs in conformation across a range of
important structural traits:
World leader
Results from independent international
comparisons are showing superior perfor-
mance over British global competitors.
The added value of these benefits is
highly significant at more than US$200
per sow per year and over US$7 per pig
produced. These combine to give a margin
of some US$375 for a breeder/finisher
using British genes compared with other
breeding stock.
Growth
Metabolic body weight = LiveWt0.75
70kg pig has M body wt = 700.75 = 24.2
Maintenance need per kg M body wt =
0.48MJ DE/day
Maintenance feed requirement = 24.2 x
0.48 = 11.61 MJ/day
At diet of 13.5 MJ/DE = 0.86kg/day
Feed cost saving = 0.86 x US$0.216 =
US$0.186
Fixed Costs
Typical fixed costs to 105kg = US$43
From this it is possible to estimate the
‘saving’ per day
A 180 day lifetime gives a fixed cost per
day = US$0.24
Add the cost savings from faster growth
= US$0.186
Value of growth (1 day) = US$0.426
Acknowledgements
With thanks to the British Pig Association
and UPB for access to some of the data
presented.
The added value of British pig
genetics and feed converstion
by Dr Rex Walters, International Genetics Consultant
Appendix 1:
Current UK economic values of key traits
Feed Conversion
Weight gain: 25 to 105kg = 80kg
0.1 FCR saves 80 x 0.1kg of feed = 8kg
Feed cost per tonne = US$216
Feed cost per kg = US$0.216
Feed saving = US$0.216 x 8 = US$1.73
Value of 0.1 FCR = US$1.73
British Others Advantage
General
conformation
7.85 7.74 +0.11
Head, neck, colour,
skin
8.23 7.83 +0.40
Back, loin, thorax 8.14 8.03 +0.09
Ham 8.06 7.91 +0.15
Legs 7.74 7.53 +0.21
Reproductive
organs
8.39 8.13 +0.26
Figure 2: Grower/finisher performance - Terminal
sire trials in Germany. Trials in Saxony compared
four terminal sire genotypes (British, German
Landrace, German Large White and German
Pietrain) on a ‘Field’ performance test
Age Weight Growth
Fat▪
British 173 120.3 698 8.8
Landrace 182 123.9 681 12.0
Large White 185 127.4 689 11.9
Pietrain 204 123.9 609 8.5
▪ Average of three measurements (mm)
(Source: SSZV, Germany)
Figure 1: Sow performance – Litters and
weaned performance (international review)
Litters/sow Weaned/
lifetime
Britain 5.4 52.8
Netherlands 4.6 39.3
France 4.2 37.6
US 4.2 36.8
(Source: Gill)
FEED FOCUS
PIGS
30 | July - August 2014
GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
F
July - August 2014 | 31 GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
Precision Sensors
for inline production
Analog & Digital RF-Solutions

Suitable for solid,
granular and
powdered materials

High speed
measurement

Non-nuclear
technology
www.work-microwave.de
Premium Quality
Foods
Sensor
F
FEED FOCUS
P
rotease enzymes, an important factor
in protein digestion, hydrolyze the
proteins found in animal feeds and
break them down into more useable
peptides which are short chains of amino
acids.
Endogenous proteases are naturally pro-
duced in the intestine.
The addition of a highly efficient exog-
enous protease to the feed improves the
digestibility of dietary protein.
Consequently, the feed cost is reduced
by allowing lower crude protein (CP) and
digestible amino acids (AAs) inclusion levels
in feed formulation. The levels of CP and
digestible AAs in the formu-
lation can be effectively low-
ered by up to 10 percent,
increasing the use of alterna-
tive feedstuffs in substitution
to soybean meal; therefore
reducing the risk of intes-
tinal disorders caused by
protein fermentation is also
bringing significant economic
benefits.
Recent research
Recent research with
poultry and swine has
shown that diets supple-
mented with a protease
enzyme support gut health
and optimise animal per-
formance as compared to
un-supplemented diets.
This was explained by the
effect the enzyme had on
reducing the anti-nutrition-
al effects of indigestible
proteins in the hindgut of
the animal (see Figure1).
The use of alternative
protein sources in place of
soybean meal (SBM), such
as cottonseed meal (CSM), canola meal,
rapeseed meal, meat and bone meal (MBM)
and corn distillers dried grains with solubles
(DDGS), can reduce the level of quality
protein and AA digestibility.
Supplementing with protease helps those
monogastrics that lack adequate levels of
endogenous enzymes to digest the proteins
in the diet. Supplemental protease also
reduces the flow of undigested protein and
other anti-nutritional factors entering the
large intestine.
Without supplemental protease, indi-
gestible protein serves as a fermentation
substrate in the gut for undesirable bacterial
strains such as Escherichia coli, Clostridium
perfringens, Salmonella and Campylobacter.
These harmful bacteria use the proteins
that are not digested by the animal, as nutri-
ents and can increase in population, shifting
the balance of intestinal microflora against
beneficial strains, a situation typically referred
to as ‘Dysbacteriosis.’
If pathogenic bacteria thrive, they can
produce toxic components such as bacte-
riotoxins as well as fermentation metabolites
such as biogenic amines, ammonia and
volatile sulfur compounds. All of which can
be detrimental to performance by favor-
ing oxidative stress, intestinal inflammation
and lesions, increasing both mortality and
morbidity rates.
Gut morphology –
Poultry Research
In the gastrointestinal
system, the villi increase sur-
face area for absorption by
the intestinal wall. Measuring
the intestinal villus height-to-
crypt-depth ratio is a stand-
ard parameter for identifying
gut efficiency. Higher ratios
indicate better intesti-
nal function Wang, et al.
(Animal Feed Science and
Technology, 2008).
One study looked at
the effect of a serine-pro-
tease derived from Bacillus
licheniformis PWD-1 fer-
mentation on gut mor-
phology in broilers with
two protein sources.
Researchers fed one
group of broilers SBM as
a digestible protein while a
second group received half
of its protein requirement
from CSM which has a
higher level of indigestible
protein than SBM.
Highly efficient protease
enzymes reduce costs, optimise
performance and sustain optimum
health in Pigs & Poultry
Use of feed protease enzymes offer formulation cost savings by
allowing inferior quality protein alternatives to be used in feed. An
efficient protease improves the digestibility and availability of proteins
so alternative sources can be used when prices of grain and oilseed
meal fluctuate. Recently, poultry and swine research shows evidence
of added value from optimised animal health and performance upon
the use of such proteases in the feed.
by Dr Ajay Bhoyar, Senior Manager, Global Poultry Marketing, Novus
International Inc, USA
PIGS
Figure 1
Figure 2
32 | July - August 2014
GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
F
FEED FOCUS
P
rotease enzymes, an important factor
in protein digestion, hydrolyze the
proteins found in animal feeds and
break them down into more useable
peptides which are short chains of amino
acids.
Endogenous proteases are naturally pro-
duced in the intestine.
The addition of a highly efficient exog-
enous protease to the feed improves the
digestibility of dietary protein.
Consequently, the feed cost is reduced
by allowing lower crude protein (CP) and
digestible amino acids (AAs) inclusion levels
in feed formulation. The levels of CP and
digestible AAs in the formu-
lation can be effectively low-
ered by up to 10 percent,
increasing the use of alterna-
tive feedstuffs in substitution
to soybean meal; therefore
reducing the risk of intes-
tinal disorders caused by
protein fermentation is also
bringing significant economic
benefits.
Recent research
Recent research with
poultry and swine has
shown that diets supple-
mented with a protease
enzyme support gut health
and optimise animal per-
formance as compared to
un-supplemented diets.
This was explained by the
effect the enzyme had on
reducing the anti-nutrition-
al effects of indigestible
proteins in the hindgut of
the animal (see Figure1).
The use of alternative
protein sources in place of
soybean meal (SBM), such
as cottonseed meal (CSM), canola meal,
rapeseed meal, meat and bone meal (MBM)
and corn distillers dried grains with solubles
(DDGS), can reduce the level of quality
protein and AA digestibility.
Supplementing with protease helps those
monogastrics that lack adequate levels of
endogenous enzymes to digest the proteins
in the diet. Supplemental protease also
reduces the flow of undigested protein and
other anti-nutritional factors entering the
large intestine.
Without supplemental protease, indi-
gestible protein serves as a fermentation
substrate in the gut for undesirable bacterial
strains such as Escherichia coli, Clostridium
perfringens, Salmonella and Campylobacter.
These harmful bacteria use the proteins
that are not digested by the animal, as nutri-
ents and can increase in population, shifting
the balance of intestinal microflora against
beneficial strains, a situation typically referred
to as ‘Dysbacteriosis.’
If pathogenic bacteria thrive, they can
produce toxic components such as bacte-
riotoxins as well as fermentation metabolites
such as biogenic amines, ammonia and
volatile sulfur compounds. All of which can
be detrimental to performance by favor-
ing oxidative stress, intestinal inflammation
and lesions, increasing both mortality and
morbidity rates.
Gut morphology –
Poultry Research
In the gastrointestinal
system, the villi increase sur-
face area for absorption by
the intestinal wall. Measuring
the intestinal villus height-to-
crypt-depth ratio is a stand-
ard parameter for identifying
gut efficiency. Higher ratios
indicate better intesti-
nal function Wang, et al.
(Animal Feed Science and
Technology, 2008).
One study looked at
the effect of a serine-pro-
tease derived from Bacillus
licheniformis PWD-1 fer-
mentation on gut mor-
phology in broilers with
two protein sources.
Researchers fed one
group of broilers SBM as
a digestible protein while a
second group received half
of its protein requirement
from CSM which has a
higher level of indigestible
protein than SBM.
Highly efficient protease
enzymes reduce costs, optimise
performance and sustain optimum
health in Pigs & Poultry
Use of feed protease enzymes offer formulation cost savings by
allowing inferior quality protein alternatives to be used in feed. An
efficient protease improves the digestibility and availability of proteins
so alternative sources can be used when prices of grain and oilseed
meal fluctuate. Recently, poultry and swine research shows evidence
of added value from optimised animal health and performance upon
the use of such proteases in the feed.
by Dr Ajay Bhoyar, Senior Manager, Global Poultry Marketing, Novus
International Inc, USA
PIGS
Figure 1
Figure 2
32 | July - August 2014
GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
F
Innovations for a better world.
Success comes with the original
product.
Quality always pays off. Bühler is setting standards in the grain processing industry for more than 150 years. Whether you
grind wheat, corn, rye, oat, buckwheat, soy, or malt grain – our processes and equipment are finely tuned to get the most
from your grain. And this kind of process quality quickly pays off. The highest flour yields and best product quality ensure
fast return on investment. www.buhlergroup.com/milling
MDDR_2014_en_de_es.indd 1 07.05.2014 13:36:20
The CSM-fed group had damaged intes-
tinal morphology, suggesting a higher rate
of protein fermentation and more intestinal
challenges. Results showed that adding pro-
tease to the diet significantly increased the
gut’s efficiency, regardless of the protein
source. The protease overcame the negative
effects of the CSM.
Figure 2 shows the same effects when
even different types of diets were used, in
this case typical corn-SBM diets (Odetallah,
unpublished data 2003).
The photo on the left, from broilers fed
control feed with no protease, shows a dam-
aged intestine with small, misshapen villi and
deeper crypts. The image on the right, from
broilers fed the protease, highlights gut mor-
phology that is more adequate for nutrient
absorption with tall villi exhibiting uniform
height and shorter crypts as compared to
the control.
In a more recent study published in
World’s Poultry Science Journal (Yan et al;
2012), researchers tested the effect of a
protease supplement in broilers challenged
with a triple-dose coccidiosis vaccine and fed
high-protein diets.
The control group was fed a standard,
22 percent protein diet. The other group
was fed excess protein at a 30 percent level
to specifically provoke a flow of indigestible
protein in the hindgut and measure the
impact of adding protease.
As previously mentioned, fermented pro-
teins can promote the growth of harmful
bacteria in the gut. This study, therefore,
measured C. perfringens levels
in digesta.
When the protein content
of the feed was increased, C.
perfringens levels increased sig-
nificantly (see Figure 3), which
is a well-known risk factor for
necrotic enteritis.
However, levels decreased
when protease was added with
the additional protein. A reduc-
tion effect was experienced in
regard to these pathogenic bac-
teria on the fermented protein,
as compared to the control
group.
Protease enzymes help
overcome several of the nega-
tive effects of protein fermenta-
tion by breaking down proteins
in the feedstuffs.
In addition to helping reduce pathogenic
bacteria, the protease enzyme also reduced
the secretion of acute-phase protein. Levels
of serum a-1-acid glycoprotein were meas-
ured to indicate gut barrier function and
inflammation. Study results show that adding
protease to the high-protein diet significantly
improved the inflammatory status of the
animals.
Gut Morphology – Pig Research
With pigs, marked changes in gut struc-
ture and function occur after weaning, such
as villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia.
These generally are associated with poor
performance as they can cause a temporary
decrease in feed intake, as well as in the
digestive and absorptive capacity of the small
intestine. In comparison, an increase in the
villus-to-crypt ratio is associated with better
nutrient absorption.
Intestinal inflammation cause villus atro-
phy and, thus, reduce nutrient digestibility.
The hypothesis that the immune
response to dietary antigens, some of which
are derived from soy protein such as glycinin
and b-conglycinin, leads to local inflammation
is considered one of the most plausible rea-
sons for the nutritional weaning-associated
morphological changes in the pig intestine.
Pro-inflammatory cytokines produced
Figure 3: Protease Controls the Effect of
Pathogenic Bacteria on Poultry
34 | July - August 2014
GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
Turning ideas into opportunities.
PROGRESSIVE AQUAFEED PROCESSING
Imagine the possibilities
wenger.com
BELGIUM TAIWAN BRASIL CHINA TURKEY INDIA
Leave it to Wenger to redefine aquatic feed production
via twin screw extrusion. Based on the proven Wenger
Magnum twin-screw series, the new TX-3000 features
barrel geometries that allow greater capacities than
any other extruder in its class.
The combined features allow increased production
capacity of up to 30 percent compared to previous
and competitive aquatic machines — totally
redefining cost/benefit. The TX-3000 can be equipped
with either the High Intensity Preconditioner (HIP) or
the High-Shear Conditioner (HSC) to match specific
process and capacity requirements, making it ideal
for processing a full range of aquatic feed products.
Contact us now. With new concepts and visionary
leadership, we’re ready to help you select
the right tools for your extrusion and
drying needs.
Our business in life is not to get ahead of others, but to get ahead of ourselves.
—Stewart B. Johnson, Dutch Artist
TX-3000 RAISES THE BAR ON AQUATIC FEED PRODUCTION
Wenger14.TX3000.Ad.210x147.indd 1 4/9/14 7:34 AM
F
The CSM-fed group had damaged intes-
tinal morphology, suggesting a higher rate
of protein fermentation and more intestinal
challenges. Results showed that adding pro-
tease to the diet significantly increased the
gut’s efficiency, regardless of the protein
source. The protease overcame the negative
effects of the CSM.
Figure 2 shows the same effects when
even different types of diets were used, in
this case typical corn-SBM diets (Odetallah,
unpublished data 2003).
The photo on the left, from broilers fed
control feed with no protease, shows a dam-
aged intestine with small, misshapen villi and
deeper crypts. The image on the right, from
broilers fed the protease, highlights gut mor-
phology that is more adequate for nutrient
absorption with tall villi exhibiting uniform
height and shorter crypts as compared to
the control.
In a more recent study published in
World’s Poultry Science Journal (Yan et al;
2012), researchers tested the effect of a
protease supplement in broilers challenged
with a triple-dose coccidiosis vaccine and fed
high-protein diets.
The control group was fed a standard,
22 percent protein diet. The other group
was fed excess protein at a 30 percent level
to specifically provoke a flow of indigestible
protein in the hindgut and measure the
impact of adding protease.
As previously mentioned, fermented pro-
teins can promote the growth of harmful
bacteria in the gut. This study, therefore,
measured C. perfringens levels
in digesta.
When the protein content
of the feed was increased, C.
perfringens levels increased sig-
nificantly (see Figure 3), which
is a well-known risk factor for
necrotic enteritis.
However, levels decreased
when protease was added with
the additional protein. A reduc-
tion effect was experienced in
regard to these pathogenic bac-
teria on the fermented protein,
as compared to the control
group.
Protease enzymes help
overcome several of the nega-
tive effects of protein fermenta-
tion by breaking down proteins
in the feedstuffs.
In addition to helping reduce pathogenic
bacteria, the protease enzyme also reduced
the secretion of acute-phase protein. Levels
of serum a-1-acid glycoprotein were meas-
ured to indicate gut barrier function and
inflammation. Study results show that adding
protease to the high-protein diet significantly
improved the inflammatory status of the
animals.
Gut Morphology – Pig Research
With pigs, marked changes in gut struc-
ture and function occur after weaning, such
as villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia.
These generally are associated with poor
performance as they can cause a temporary
decrease in feed intake, as well as in the
digestive and absorptive capacity of the small
intestine. In comparison, an increase in the
villus-to-crypt ratio is associated with better
nutrient absorption.
Intestinal inflammation cause villus atro-
phy and, thus, reduce nutrient digestibility.
The hypothesis that the immune
response to dietary antigens, some of which
are derived from soy protein such as glycinin
and b-conglycinin, leads to local inflammation
is considered one of the most plausible rea-
sons for the nutritional weaning-associated
morphological changes in the pig intestine.
Pro-inflammatory cytokines produced
Figure 3: Protease Controls the Effect of
Pathogenic Bacteria on Poultry
34 | July - August 2014
GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
Turning ideas into opportunities.
PROGRESSIVE AQUAFEED PROCESSING
Imagine the possibilities
wenger.com
BELGIUM TAIWAN BRASIL CHINA TURKEY INDIA
Leave it to Wenger to redefine aquatic feed production
via twin screw extrusion. Based on the proven Wenger
Magnum twin-screw series, the new TX-3000 features
barrel geometries that allow greater capacities than
any other extruder in its class.
The combined features allow increased production
capacity of up to 30 percent compared to previous
and competitive aquatic machines — totally
redefining cost/benefit. The TX-3000 can be equipped
with either the High Intensity Preconditioner (HIP) or
the High-Shear Conditioner (HSC) to match specific
process and capacity requirements, making it ideal
for processing a full range of aquatic feed products.
Contact us now. With new concepts and visionary
leadership, we’re ready to help you select
the right tools for your extrusion and
drying needs.
Our business in life is not to get ahead of others, but to get ahead of ourselves.
—Stewart B. Johnson, Dutch Artist
TX-3000 RAISES THE BAR ON AQUATIC FEED PRODUCTION
Wenger14.TX3000.Ad.210x147.indd 1 4/9/14 7:34 AM
F
during the immune response to infection
might alter protein and lipid metabolism and,
as a result, influence growth and efficiency
of gain.
Solving the dilemma of dietary
protein level at weaning
Supplementation with protease enzymes,
likewise, improved weight gain and feed
conversion for weaned pigs but reduced
feed intake. While most proteins in SBM are
easily digested in mature pigs, newly weaned
pigs lack ample endogenous protease activity
so some proteins are especially difficult for
them to digest.
In addition to that, piglets are very sensi-
tive to excess protein fermentation in the
intestines.
The challenge is that piglets have high
requirements for digestible proteins to pro-
mote early growth and muscle deposition.
However, as mentioned earlier, high-pro-
tein diets pose problems due to pathogenic
bacteria causing scours, intestinal disorders
and morbidity. While a common practice is
to lower the protein level in feed to reduce
health problems, this is done at the expense
of growth and performance
Moreover, newly weaned pigs are immu-
nosensitive to the allergenic SBM proteins
glycinin and b-conglycinin which make up
approximately 40 percent and 30 percent
respectively of total soybean globulin pro-
teins.
These proteins cause intestinal inflam-
mation and lead to villus atrophy, disruption
of gut barrier functions and loss of appetite.
They can impair immune function in newly-
weaned pigs. When combined with the
stress of weaning, the weaned pig’s nutrient
metabolism and immune function can be
seriously impaired.
In a recent study when a highly efficient
protease was used, weaned piglet perfor-
mance was not affected by crude protein
levels, driven by the inclusion rate of soy-
bean meal.
This result is consistent with other stud-
ies. Adding a protease caused less produc-
tion of ammonia nitrogen, reduced the
E. coli population in the cecum, the total
anaerobes in the colon and the fecal score
in the same way as reducing crude protein,
while sustaining growth performance
Significant results in weaning
pigs
Research conducted by Wang et al.
(Asian-Aust J Anim Sci 2011) to study the
effect of a serine - protease on nutrient uti-
lization, gut health and performance during
the 21 days after weaning. A group of nurs-
Figure 4:
Protease
effect
on piglet
growth
rate and
feed
efficiency
Figure 5:
Protease
Effect on
Piglet Ileum
Morphology
July - August 2014 | 35 GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
F
ery pigs was fed a control diet
with 19 percent protein with
and without protease and the
other group a high protein diet
(22 percent) with and without
protease.
Study results showed a
significant improvement in
performance when diets were
supplemented with protease
as measured by a marked
improvement in growth and
a 14 percent improvement in
feed efficiency regardless of a
low- or high-protein diet (see
Figure 4).
Part of the reason for that
might be attributed to the
improvement in digestibility.
However, researchers also
found that protease was able
to break down 90 percent of
the allergenic components of
the SBM in vitro, the glycinin
and b-conglycinin, which may
be another reason why the
protease-supplemented piglets
performed better. Using pro-
tease also allows for improved
intestinal functions by support-
ing a better morphology as
evidenced by improved villus-
height-to-crypt-depth ratio in
this study.
Increased crypt depth in
both the jejunum and ileum
and a higher villus-to-crypt ratio
in the ileum were observed in
pigs supplemented with pro-
tease enzyme after weaning.
The improvement in appar-
ent total tract digestibility of
dry matter, gross energy, crude
protein, and phosphorus in
piglets fed diets supplemented
with protease enzymes is likely
a consequence of this improve-
ment in intestinal morphology
(see Figure 5).
Similar to the results in broil-
ers, using protease reduced
protein fermentation and lim-
ited the growth of pathogenic
bacteria in the intestine – in this
case, E. coli. Reduction in total
E. coli can result in fewer health
problems such as diarrhea and
the release of pro-inflammatory
cytokines (see Figure 6).
Reduction in harmful
bacteria
In addition to lower num-
bers of E. coli, piglets fed diets
supplemented with protease
enzymes had higher numbers of
lactobacilli in the hindgut. These
results corresponded with less
ammonia nitrogen, less branch
chain volatile fatty acids in the
digesta and a numerically lower
pH value in the gut.
The lower pH might favor
the development of beneficial
bacteria and inhibit the develop-
ment of harmful bacteria. An
abnormally high intestinal pH
would provide a better environ-
ment for E. coli to colonize in
the villi, thus resulting in diar-
rhea.
The reduction in harm-
ful bacteria and the improved
biochemical condition of the
intestine could possibly enhance
the health of the gut ecology
as beneficial bacteria would be
more likely to thrive.
Diarrhea caused by infectious
diseases is a serious problem
in weaning animals and usually
leads to an increased incidence
of mortality.
Research results indicated
that supplementation with pro-
tease enzymes reduced diar-
rhea of piglets as shown by
lower fecal scores. This effect
might be due to lower fer-
mentation of protein, as well
as the hydrolysis of soybean
glycinin and b-conglycinin,
which increased the utilization
of nutrients for growth and
decreased numbers of E. coli.
This can be shown in (see
Figure 7).
When a protease was added
to the diet, there was no differ-
ence in fecal scores between
the low- and high-protein diets,
when typically fecal scores
would be much higher, that is
worse, in a high-protein diet.
Figure 6:
Protease Effect
on the Piglet’s
Intestinal
Environment
36 | July - August 2014
GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
Decentral
including
Innovations for modern fish
farming and water treatment
New practical approaches
for practical applications
at Forum Aquaculture
Answers to your questions
at the Aquaculture Advisory
Centre
Get-together for the industry
Showcase “Growth in Water”
Dieses Projekt wird
von der Europäischen
Gemeinschaft
kofinanziert.
This project is
being co-financed
by the European
Community
The world´s leading trade fair for animal production
11 – 14 November 2014
Hanover, Germany
Fish & More
Marketplace for Aquaculture
www.eurotier.com/aquaculture
Hotline: +49 69 24788-265
E-Mail: expo@DLG.org
RZ_105x297_Anzeigen_Fisch ET_EN.indd 1 03.07.14 14:45
F
scalping and sieving
• Sorting by length, using an
indented cylinder that can
pick up either the seed or
contaminant, depending on
the crop type
• Separation by weight, using a
gravity table. The seeds pass
over an inclined, oscillating
mesh deck with a fan that
blows air up through the seed
Other cleanup processes
include colour sorting, spiral sepa-
ration and washing.
Following cleanup, the seeds
are dried to less than seven per-
cent moisture content in drying
bins, and then delivered to the
pelletiser by a V-bin.
Rotary treater produces
pellets
The pelletiser mixes seeds with
gypsum-based powder and a glue
binder (as noted earlier), forming
pellets, which are easier to plant
than single seeds. The machine
can also coat the seed with a film
containing colourant, fertiliser, fun-
gicide or a pesticide, says Pearson.
Seeds are weighed and then
discharged into the rotary treater,
while gypsum powder is delivered
by the flexible screw conveyors at
a rate of 3.5kg/min.
Following the rotary treatment,
seeds are dried and graded, then
packaged for sale in woven poly-
propylene bags, plastic pails, cans
and foil packages.
Seeds are sold by seed count
per kilogram in packages that
range from about 15kg for the
bags, down to a few grams in the
foil packages.
The company has installed
a similar Flexicon system in its
New Zealand sales warehouse in
Pukekohe.
MORE INFORMATION:
Flexicon Europe Ltd
182 John Wilson Business Park
Harvey Drive
Whitstable, Kent CT5 3RB
Tel: +44 1227 374710
Email: sales@flexicon.co.uk
Website: www.flexicon.co.uk
Website: www.southpacificseeds.com.au
July - August 2014 | 13 GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
www.hydronix.com
enquiries@hydronix.com
Hydronix sensors include:
• Digital technology with precise linear output
• Wide moisture measurement range
• Suitable for chutes, silos, mixers or conveyors
• Choice of measurement modes
• Not affected by dust or colour
• Different installation options
• Temperature stable
Hydro-Mix VII
The Hydro-Probe XT has been specifically designed to
measure moisture in organic materials, typically being
installed in or underneath silos or in the material on a
conveyor.
The Hydro-Mix VII is a flush mounted sensor that is
ideally suited to installation in mixers, augers or the inlet /
outlet of grain dryers.
Both sensors offer a choice of digital measurement
modes enabling the producer to select the best option for
the material being measured.
Hydro-Probe XT
Hydronix digital, microwave moisture sensors are
designed and manufactured in the UK and provide
accurate and cost effective moisture measurement and
control in feed meals and pellets, grain, cereal and pulses.
Hydronix Moisture Sensors
Save You Money
GFMT half page vertical 90 x 270 plus 3mm bleed not left.indd 1 13/01/2014 10:00:18
F
ery pigs was fed a control diet
with 19 percent protein with
and without protease and the
other group a high protein diet
(22 percent) with and without
protease.
Study results showed a
significant improvement in
performance when diets were
supplemented with protease
as measured by a marked
improvement in growth and
a 14 percent improvement in
feed efficiency regardless of a
low- or high-protein diet (see
Figure 4).
Part of the reason for that
might be attributed to the
improvement in digestibility.
However, researchers also
found that protease was able
to break down 90 percent of
the allergenic components of
the SBM in vitro, the glycinin
and b-conglycinin, which may
be another reason why the
protease-supplemented piglets
performed better. Using pro-
tease also allows for improved
intestinal functions by support-
ing a better morphology as
evidenced by improved villus-
height-to-crypt-depth ratio in
this study.
Increased crypt depth in
both the jejunum and ileum
and a higher villus-to-crypt ratio
in the ileum were observed in
pigs supplemented with pro-
tease enzyme after weaning.
The improvement in appar-
ent total tract digestibility of
dry matter, gross energy, crude
protein, and phosphorus in
piglets fed diets supplemented
with protease enzymes is likely
a consequence of this improve-
ment in intestinal morphology
(see Figure 5).
Similar to the results in broil-
ers, using protease reduced
protein fermentation and lim-
ited the growth of pathogenic
bacteria in the intestine – in this
case, E. coli. Reduction in total
E. coli can result in fewer health
problems such as diarrhea and
the release of pro-inflammatory
cytokines (see Figure 6).
Reduction in harmful
bacteria
In addition to lower num-
bers of E. coli, piglets fed diets
supplemented with protease
enzymes had higher numbers of
lactobacilli in the hindgut. These
results corresponded with less
ammonia nitrogen, less branch
chain volatile fatty acids in the
digesta and a numerically lower
pH value in the gut.
The lower pH might favor
the development of beneficial
bacteria and inhibit the develop-
ment of harmful bacteria. An
abnormally high intestinal pH
would provide a better environ-
ment for E. coli to colonize in
the villi, thus resulting in diar-
rhea.
The reduction in harm-
ful bacteria and the improved
biochemical condition of the
intestine could possibly enhance
the health of the gut ecology
as beneficial bacteria would be
more likely to thrive.
Diarrhea caused by infectious
diseases is a serious problem
in weaning animals and usually
leads to an increased incidence
of mortality.
Research results indicated
that supplementation with pro-
tease enzymes reduced diar-
rhea of piglets as shown by
lower fecal scores. This effect
might be due to lower fer-
mentation of protein, as well
as the hydrolysis of soybean
glycinin and b-conglycinin,
which increased the utilization
of nutrients for growth and
decreased numbers of E. coli.
This can be shown in (see
Figure 7).
When a protease was added
to the diet, there was no differ-
ence in fecal scores between
the low- and high-protein diets,
when typically fecal scores
would be much higher, that is
worse, in a high-protein diet.
Figure 6:
Protease Effect
on the Piglet’s
Intestinal
Environment
36 | July - August 2014
GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
Decentral
including
Innovations for modern fish
farming and water treatment
New practical approaches
for practical applications
at Forum Aquaculture
Answers to your questions
at the Aquaculture Advisory
Centre
Get-together for the industry
Showcase “Growth in Water”
Dieses Projekt wird
von der Europäischen
Gemeinschaft
kofinanziert.
This project is
being co-financed
by the European
Community
The world´s leading trade fair for animal production
11 – 14 November 2014
Hanover, Germany
Fish & More
Marketplace for Aquaculture
www.eurotier.com/aquaculture
Hotline: +49 69 24788-265
E-Mail: expo@DLG.org
RZ_105x297_Anzeigen_Fisch ET_EN.indd 1 03.07.14 14:45
F
Animal feed
trials at HGCA
by Tom Blacker, from a visit to
Cereals UK
The UK’s Home Grown Cereals Authority
gave an exclusive presentation to
Grain and Feed Milling Technology
about its new steps in the world of
animal feed. Usually researching and
providing essential services in the wheat
and cereals areas, animal feed is a
new sector it is entering into. GFMT’s
Tom Blacker spoke exclusively to Dr
Jos Houdijk, Reader in Animal Nutrition
and Health at Scotland’s Rural College,
about this development.
P
rocessing grain in a feedmill requires
a lot of quantity. Companies such as
Cargill would tell us to come back with
an amount as large as 500 tonnes to process
as a minimum, the man from HGCA told me.
He found a small pilot plant in France,
working with quantities between 100 to 300kg.
“We packed up 12 batches of variety spe-
cific whole seed grains on a ship to Paris and
Bordeaux and they will be processed and sent
back to us,” says Dr Jos Houdijk, Reader in Animal
Nutrition and Health at Scotland’s Rural College.
“We are now in the process of charac-
terising their chemistry and putting them
through [feeding] chickens and pigs for the
research work.
“In the end, what we are trying to achieve
is to say to levy payers that different varieties
of rapeseeds may have a different feeding
value when it comes to the effect on a pig
or chicken.
“It is going to be a long process to
improve the varieties and improve the nutri-
tional qualities, even from a mix of varieties.
Nevertheless, if for arguments sake we sup-
pose that the range of varieties are split by
half: a good side and a bad side, and if the
bad ones can be phased out, quicker than
the good ones, then by definition, it should
go up in quality: this is what we are trying to
achieve,” he added.
HGCA hopes to get the first results out
in the open by the end of 2014.
It will not be in time for drilling seeds
this year but hopefully for next year’s drill-
ing. Growth trials will follow when HGCA
understands the effect of grain variety on
digestible energy and standardized ileal
digestible amino acid levels.
Grower pigs may expect 7.5 percent of
their feed to be formed by these varieties
and older pigs at 10 to 12 percent.
In poultry, the level will be at about five
percent.
This new type of formulation will mean
HGCA can go higher in information and
advice on using rapeseed for two reasons:
first, the information it does have is 10 to
15 years old, the new information will mean
that feed formulations can go higher in the
amounts of these varieties used; second, a
country like Canada is using much higher
levels of rapeseed meals with pigs without
any side effects in production.
Therefore, the potential must be there
for the UK, HGCA extrapolates.
“In Canada they use more current data
than us, in feed formulations based on stand-
ardised ileal digestible amino acids and net
energy levels. Here, we use that on values from
books that do not tell us information about
these varieties, which are the differences.”
The effects on the animals should hope-
fully be better digestibility of proteins from
one variety compared to another. If we know
the digestibility of protein and other minor
assets in the protein it’s better. We can then
recommend using that variety in feed formu-
lations. This also means using lower amounts
of the other varieties in the feed matrix when
comparing varieties with soy, he says.
Benefits will include the feed industry
being more actively able to accordingly
formulate diets to requirements.
“We can make better use of the differ-
ences between varieties. In the past, it was
not possible.
“We will have a lot of data at the end of
this year that will hopefully be published in
papers and on the HGCA website,” he says.
July - August 2014 | 37 GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
2
4
/
7 P
r
o
t
e
c
t
io
n
Watchdog Wrap advert.(paths).indd 1 27/03/2014 11:38
F
Controlled
Experiments
Provide
Conclusive
Evidence
Spray-dried porcine plasma
is a safe ingredient - and is
not a source of Infective PED
Virus
Research Report by the
North American Spray Dried
Blood and Plasma Producers
Association (NASDBPP)
P
orcine Epidemic Diarrhea virus (PEDv)
is difficult to control and causes high
death loss in suckling pigs less than two
weeks old, resulting in significant financial
loss to all sectors of the swine industry.
PEDv spreads quickly and easily.
The primary route of infection is through
direct contact with infected pigs or from the
manure of infected pigs. Other routes of
infection responsible for spreading the virus
may be contaminated transport vehicles,
farm equipment and farm workers and
visitors.
Industry leaders are actively discussing
and reviewing data concerning the role of
feed and feed ingredients in the spread of
PEDv. Speculation that PEDv is spread by
feed has led to implementation of costly bio-
security programs, often with little controlled
research or data supporting the necessity or
effectiveness of the program.
The first report of PEDv in Ontario,
Canada, and the subsequent investigation
resulted in the belief that nursery feed con-
taining porcine plasma may be the source of
PEDv infections.
The CFIA reported infective virus was
detected in samples of porcine plasma but
infective virus could not be detected in the
feed containing the porcine plasma.
Even with this conflicting data, many
industry professionals concluded spray-dried
porcine plasma is spreading the disease.
In addition, and despite the long history
of indisputable performance benefits, some
veterinarians have recommended removing
spray-dried porcine plasma and in some
cases all porcine-based ingredients from feed
for swine.
Epidemiology is a powerful scientific tool
that can be used to identify associations of
exposure to health outcomes. Epidemiologic
observation allows scientists to form a
hypothesis and then the hypothesis can be
tested in controlled experiments
Testing the hypothesis
Independently, NASDBPP and FDA con-
ducted controlled experiments to test the
hypothesis that spray-dried porcine plasma
may contain infective PEDv. The results of
these experiments support the conclusion
that spray-dried porcine plasma is a safe feed
ingredient.
The manufacturing process under indus-
try standards inactivates PEDv.
However, like any feed ingredient, post-
processing contamination is a constant risk
and may be the cause of the infective PEDv
found on porcine plasma as reported by
the CFIA.
Hypothesis: If PCR+ spray-dried porcine
plasma contains infective PEDv and is a vec-
tor spreading PED:
1: Spray drying inactivated PEDv
2: Retained plasma samples subjected to
bioassay studies by FDA and NASDBPP
were not infective for PEDv
3: Two independent studies using 21-day-
old weaned pigs fed five percent PEDv
PCR+ plasma in a meal diet for 21 or
28 days post-weaning did not infect pigs
with PEDv
4: PEDv inoculated on spray-dried plasma
did not survive by:
• 7 days stored at 71°F (22°C)
• 14 days stored at 54°F (12°C)
• 21 days stored at 39°F (4°C)
5: Millions of pigs in Brazil and western
Canada fed PEDv PCR+ porcine
plasma imported from the US since last
summer have not developed PEDv
Conclusion
Experimental results show that PCR+
spray-dried porcine plasma does not contain
infective PEDv. Infective PEDv reported by
CFIA on samples of spray-dried porcine
plasma collected from the field is likely the
result of post-processing contamination.
Spray-dried porcine plasma investigated
by CFIA did not contain infective PEDv
when it left the plant. Post-processing con-
tamination may have resulted in the detec-
tion of infective PEDv in the samples col-
lected by CFIA.
Less ammonia
produced
An important change in the
intestinal ecology of piglets fed
protease enzymes was that
less ammonia was produced
in the gut compared with pig-
lets fed unsupplemented diets.
Excessive ammonia nega-
tively affects the growth and
differentiation of intestinal epi-
thelial cells, leads to a higher
pH value, and increases the
incidence of diarrhea.
In addition, a reduction in
branched chain volatile fatty
acid is consistent with pro-
tease enzymes supplemen-
tation increasing the apparent total tract
digestibility of crude protein, which would
result in less protein being fermented in
the gut.
Still, however, the relationship between
epithelial barrier function and villous atrophy
at weaning and in young animals is not com-
pletely understood.
A compromise in epithelial barrier func-
tion possibly increases paracellular perme-
ability. With increased paracellular perme-
ability, toxins, allergenic compounds or
bacteria may enter systemic tissues, resulting
in inflammatory or immunologic responses.
Benefits to health
While the main reason for including
enzymes in poultry and swine diets has been
to reduce ration costs, supplementing the
feed with a highly efficient serine-protease
may also optimize health and
performance, adding even
more value for producers.
Not all the proteases are
the same.
To maximise the effect on
formulation cost, gut health and
dietary anti-nutritional factors, it
is important to use a protease
with a broad range of activity,
which allows diversifying the
source of proteins used in the
diet.
Moreover, a suitable pro-
tease must have a high speed of
hydrolysis of indigestible proteins
so the flow of protein entering
the hindgut is minimized.
On a commercial basis, Novus supports
health and performance with CIBENZA
®

DP100 which gathers these characteristics
and improves the protein digestibility in
feeds over the typical industry averages
by as much as 10 percent. This aggres-
sive, heat-stable, broad spectrum protease
complements the monogastric’s endogenous
enzymes to hydrolyze less digestible protein
in animal feeds.
Figure 7: Protease Maintains Fecal Score in High Protein
Diets for Pigs
38 | July - August 2014
GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
F
Controlled
Experiments
Provide
Conclusive
Evidence
Spray-dried porcine plasma
is a safe ingredient - and is
not a source of Infective PED
Virus
Research Report by the
North American Spray Dried
Blood and Plasma Producers
Association (NASDBPP)
P
orcine Epidemic Diarrhea virus (PEDv)
is difficult to control and causes high
death loss in suckling pigs less than two
weeks old, resulting in significant financial
loss to all sectors of the swine industry.
PEDv spreads quickly and easily.
The primary route of infection is through
direct contact with infected pigs or from the
manure of infected pigs. Other routes of
infection responsible for spreading the virus
may be contaminated transport vehicles,
farm equipment and farm workers and
visitors.
Industry leaders are actively discussing
and reviewing data concerning the role of
feed and feed ingredients in the spread of
PEDv. Speculation that PEDv is spread by
feed has led to implementation of costly bio-
security programs, often with little controlled
research or data supporting the necessity or
effectiveness of the program.
The first report of PEDv in Ontario,
Canada, and the subsequent investigation
resulted in the belief that nursery feed con-
taining porcine plasma may be the source of
PEDv infections.
The CFIA reported infective virus was
detected in samples of porcine plasma but
infective virus could not be detected in the
feed containing the porcine plasma.
Even with this conflicting data, many
industry professionals concluded spray-dried
porcine plasma is spreading the disease.
In addition, and despite the long history
of indisputable performance benefits, some
veterinarians have recommended removing
spray-dried porcine plasma and in some
cases all porcine-based ingredients from feed
for swine.
Epidemiology is a powerful scientific tool
that can be used to identify associations of
exposure to health outcomes. Epidemiologic
observation allows scientists to form a
hypothesis and then the hypothesis can be
tested in controlled experiments
Testing the hypothesis
Independently, NASDBPP and FDA con-
ducted controlled experiments to test the
hypothesis that spray-dried porcine plasma
may contain infective PEDv. The results of
these experiments support the conclusion
that spray-dried porcine plasma is a safe feed
ingredient.
The manufacturing process under indus-
try standards inactivates PEDv.
However, like any feed ingredient, post-
processing contamination is a constant risk
and may be the cause of the infective PEDv
found on porcine plasma as reported by
the CFIA.
Hypothesis: If PCR+ spray-dried porcine
plasma contains infective PEDv and is a vec-
tor spreading PED:
1: Spray drying inactivated PEDv
2: Retained plasma samples subjected to
bioassay studies by FDA and NASDBPP
were not infective for PEDv
3: Two independent studies using 21-day-
old weaned pigs fed five percent PEDv
PCR+ plasma in a meal diet for 21 or
28 days post-weaning did not infect pigs
with PEDv
4: PEDv inoculated on spray-dried plasma
did not survive by:
• 7 days stored at 71°F (22°C)
• 14 days stored at 54°F (12°C)
• 21 days stored at 39°F (4°C)
5: Millions of pigs in Brazil and western
Canada fed PEDv PCR+ porcine
plasma imported from the US since last
summer have not developed PEDv
Conclusion
Experimental results show that PCR+
spray-dried porcine plasma does not contain
infective PEDv. Infective PEDv reported by
CFIA on samples of spray-dried porcine
plasma collected from the field is likely the
result of post-processing contamination.
Spray-dried porcine plasma investigated
by CFIA did not contain infective PEDv
when it left the plant. Post-processing con-
tamination may have resulted in the detec-
tion of infective PEDv in the samples col-
lected by CFIA.
Less ammonia
produced
An important change in the
intestinal ecology of piglets fed
protease enzymes was that
less ammonia was produced
in the gut compared with pig-
lets fed unsupplemented diets.
Excessive ammonia nega-
tively affects the growth and
differentiation of intestinal epi-
thelial cells, leads to a higher
pH value, and increases the
incidence of diarrhea.
In addition, a reduction in
branched chain volatile fatty
acid is consistent with pro-
tease enzymes supplemen-
tation increasing the apparent total tract
digestibility of crude protein, which would
result in less protein being fermented in
the gut.
Still, however, the relationship between
epithelial barrier function and villous atrophy
at weaning and in young animals is not com-
pletely understood.
A compromise in epithelial barrier func-
tion possibly increases paracellular perme-
ability. With increased paracellular perme-
ability, toxins, allergenic compounds or
bacteria may enter systemic tissues, resulting
in inflammatory or immunologic responses.
Benefits to health
While the main reason for including
enzymes in poultry and swine diets has been
to reduce ration costs, supplementing the
feed with a highly efficient serine-protease
may also optimize health and
performance, adding even
more value for producers.
Not all the proteases are
the same.
To maximise the effect on
formulation cost, gut health and
dietary anti-nutritional factors, it
is important to use a protease
with a broad range of activity,
which allows diversifying the
source of proteins used in the
diet.
Moreover, a suitable pro-
tease must have a high speed of
hydrolysis of indigestible proteins
so the flow of protein entering
the hindgut is minimized.
On a commercial basis, Novus supports
health and performance with CIBENZA
®

DP100 which gathers these characteristics
and improves the protein digestibility in
feeds over the typical industry averages
by as much as 10 percent. This aggres-
sive, heat-stable, broad spectrum protease
complements the monogastric’s endogenous
enzymes to hydrolyze less digestible protein
in animal feeds.
Figure 7: Protease Maintains Fecal Score in High Protein
Diets for Pigs
38 | July - August 2014
GRAIN
&
FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY
F
www.gfmt.co.uk
LINKS
• See the full issue
• Visit the GFMT website
• Contact the GFMT Team
• Subscribe to GFMT
INCORPORATING PORTS, DISTRIBUTION AND FORMULATION
Ju
ly
- A
u
g
u
st 2
0
1
4
first published in 1891
In this issue:
• NIR Multi Online
Technology:
Real-time
analysis for early
detection of
grain quality
fluctuations
• Feed Focus
Pigs
• GRAPAS
Technology from
the GRAPAS Asia
award
• Dust control
with bulk bag
discharger and
flexible screw
conveyors
• Mycotoxins
How to analyse
and reduce
the hazard to
humans and
animals
• Storage and
silos special
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