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Unit I

What is DATA COMMUNICATION


When we communicate we share information
Sharing can be locally or on to a large distance
Ex. Telephony, Telegraph
Data means information that we want to
communicate and is agreed upon by both parties.
Data Communication is defined as the exchange of
data between two devices using some form of
transmission medium. (Medium can be wired or
wireless)
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What is DATA COMMUNICATION
For data communication the devices must be a part
of communication system.
Communication system consist of
Physical equipments (Hardware)
Programs to monitor communication (Software)
Ex of Hardware are Transmitter and receiver
Ex of Software is a set of programs that governs
communication. Also called as Protocols


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The Effectiveness of Data Communication System
depends upon four characteristics
Delivery
Accuracy
Timeliness
Jitter
These four parameters decides the efficiency of a
data communication system.

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Delivery : It means that the data should be received
by intended or correct device or user. The data must
be delivered to the correct destination.
Accuracy: It means that the data should be
delivered accurately. The data should not be altered
during the transmission or it should not become
unusable.
Timeliness: It means that data must be delivered in
time. Data delivered late are unusable. This is
specially required in audio and video data.
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The meaning of timely delivery means delivering data
as they are produced and also in correct order as it is
produced. The delay in data delivery should be
minimum. This is called as real time transmission.
Jitter: Jitter refers to the variation in Packet (Small
amount of data) arrival time. It is the uneven delay in
the delivery of audio and video data.
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Components of a Data Communication System:
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Components of a Data Communication System:
The data communication system consist of following
five components
Message
Sender
Receiver
Transmission Media
Protocol
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Components of a Data Communication System:
Message: The message is the information (Data)
that we want to communicate. The form of
information can be Text, Audio, Video, Numbers,
Pictures etc.
Sender: It is the device that is capable of
transmitting the data. It can be Computer, Laptop,
Workstation, Telephone etc.
Receiver: It is the device that is capable of receiving
the data. . It can be Computer, Laptop, Workstation,
Telephone etc.
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Components of a Data Communication System:
Transmission Media: It is the physical path using
which data travels from sender to receiver. The
transmission medium can be wired or wireless. Few
examples are Coaxial Cable, Twisted Pair Cable, Radio
Waves etc.
Protocol: It is nothing but a set of rules that governs
the data communication between two devices.
Protocol represents the agreement between the two
devices for communication. Without protocol two
devices might be connected but not communicating.
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Components of a Data Communication System:
Transmission Media: It is the physical path using
which data travels from sender to receiver. The
transmission medium can be wired or wireless. Few
examples are Coaxial Cable, Twisted Pair Cable, Radio
Waves etc.
Protocol: It is nothing but a set of rules that governs
the data communication between two devices.
Protocol represents the agreement between the two
devices for communication. Without protocol two
devices might be connected but not communicating.
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Data Flow: There are different ways using which the
data flows between two systems. These ways
represents the manner in which data can travel from
one device to other device. The communication
between two devices can be
Simplex
Half Duplex
Full Duplex

Figure Shows these three different ways
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Data Flow:

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Data Flow:
Simplex: In this mode of communication data can
flow in only one direction. Any one of the two
connected devices can transmit the data. The other
device can only receive the data.
Examples of this mode of communication are
Keyboard and Monitor. KB can only transmit data and
monitor can only receive the data.
One of the important characteristic is that this
mode utilizes the complete capacity of transmission
medium for communication.

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Data Flow:
Half Duplex: In this mode of communication both
the devices can transmit and receive the data. But at
a time only one device is allowed to transmit the data.
When one device is transmitting other is
receiving and Vice Versa.
Example is Walkie-Talkie Used by Police Persons.
Here also the complete capacity of the
communication medium is utilized for transmission.
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Data Flow:
Full Duplex: In this mode of communication both
the devices can transmit and receive the data
simultaneously (At the same time).
Here the capacity of communication medium is
shared between two stations. This sharing can be
using either separate paths or on the basis of time
sharing.
The example of this type of communication is
telephone conversation where both the devices can
transmit and receive data at the same time.
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Networks:
A network is a set of more than one devices
connected by communication pathways.
The devices connected in a network are also called
as NODES.
The communication pathways which connects two
nodes in a network are called as LINKS.
A node connected in a network can be a computer,
printer, scanner etc.
Also it can be any other device capable of sending
and receiving data.

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Network Criteria:
Any network whether small or large should fulfill
certain network criteria
Performance
Reliability
Security
Performance: The performance of a network can be
measured in different ways. One way to measure the
performance of a network is using
Transit Time
Response time
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Network Criteria:
Transit time is the time required for data to travel
from one to other device. It should be as minimum as
possible.
Response time is the time elapsed between an
request and response. It also should be minimum.
The performance of the network also depends upon
several factors as
Number of users in a network
Type of transmission media used
Capacity of the hardware used
Efficiency of the software
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Network Criteria:
All these factors affects the performance of the
network in different extents.
Performance of the network is often evaluated with
the help of
Throughput
Delay
Often throughput should be more and delay should
be minimum.
But it is observed that if throughput is increased
beyond certain limit the performance degrades.
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Network Criteria:
Reliability: Reliability of a network is measured
using
Frequency of network failure
The time required to recover from failure
The robustness of network against unexpected events.
Security: This is one of the important criteria for a
network. A network should
Protect data from unauthorized access
Protect data from damage
Implement policies for data loss and recovery from
breaches.
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Network Attributes: (Physical Structures)
Two important network attributes are
Type of connection
Physical Topology
Type of Connection: In a network we connect two
or more devices using communication links.
A communication link is a pathway using which
data travels from one to other node in a network.
Two types of connections are possible
Point to Point Link
Multipoint Link
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Network Attributes: (Physical Structures)
Point to Point Link: In this type of connection there
exist a dedicated link between the devices. The entire
capacity of the link is used by two connected devices
only. Figure below shows point to point link



The actual connection of the link can be wired or
wireless.
The example is communication between TV remote and a TV

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Network Attributes: (Physical Structures)
Multipoint Link: This type of connection is also
called as multi-drop connection. In this type the
communication link is shared by more than two
devices. All the devices connected to the link uses the
same link for all communication. Figure below shows
the diagram

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Network Attributes: (Physical Structures)
In this type of connection the capacity of the
communication link is shared by connected devices by
two ways
Spatially
Temporally
In spatial sharing several devices uses the same link
simultaneously
In temporal sharing the link is shared on the basis of
time i.e. TimeSharing
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Network Attributes: (Physical Structures)
Physical Topology: This term refers to the way in
which the networks are laid down physically. Topology
of a network shows the physical arrangement of the
nodes in a network. It also shows geometric
representation of the relationship between
communication links and the nodes that connects to
the links. There are four basic topologies
Mesh
Star
Bus
Ring
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Network Attributes: (Physical Structures)
Physical Topology: This term refers to the way in
which the networks are laid down physically. Topology
of a network shows the physical arrangement of the
nodes in a network. It also shows geometric
representation of the relationship between
communication links and the nodes that connects to
the links. There are four basic topologies
Mesh
Star
Bus
Ring
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Network Attributes: (Physical Structures)
Mesh Topology: In this type of topology there is a
dedicated point to point link between all the devices
in a network. Every device is connected to every other
device in a network using a separate link.
The meaning of dedicated link means that link
carries the traffic between only two devices
connected to that link.
In order to find the number of links required in a
mesh topology following formula is used
No of Links = n(n-1)/2; Where n= No of Nodes
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Network Attributes: (Physical Structures)
Mesh Topology: In this type of topology there is a
dedicated point to point link between all the devices
in a network. Every device is connected to every other
device in a network using a separate link.
The meaning of dedicated link means that link
carries the traffic between only two devices
connected to that link.
In order to find the number of links required in a
mesh topology following formula is used
No of Links = n(n-1)/2; Where n= No of Nodes
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Network Attributes: (Physical Structures)
Also in mesh topology each system requires I/O
ports to connect to other devices in a network.
The formula for number of I/O ports required in a
mesh topology is
No of I/O Ports = n-1 ; Where n= No of Nodes
Figure below shows diagram for mesh topology

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Network Attributes: (Physical Structures)
Advantages of Mesh Topology:
Because of dedicated links each link carries its own data
load thus eliminating the traffic problems.
Mesh topology is robust. If one link fails it does not affect
remaining links in the network.
There is privacy and security in mesh topology because
of dedicated links.
Because of point to point link fault identification and
isolation is easy.
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Network Attributes: (Physical Structures)
Disadvantages of Mesh Topology:
Since each device requires a dedicated link to connect to
other devices in a network more number of cables and I/O
ports are required.
More amount of space is required because of more
number of cables.
Because of more number of I/O ports it can be
expensive.
Because of above reasons mesh topology is implemented
in limited fashion as a backbone of several computers
connected in a hybrid topology.

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Network Attributes: (Physical Structures)
A good example of Mesh topology is the connection
between regional offices of a Telephone Exchange.
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Network Attributes: (Physical Structures)
Star Topology: In star topology devices in a network
are not directly connected to each other.
Each device in a network is connected to a central
controller, usually called as HUB.
All the traffic in a network goes through the central
controller.
The central controller relays the traffic between all
devices in a network.
The link between each device and central controller
is a dedicated link.
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Network Attributes: (Physical Structures)
Figure below shows the diagram for Star topology





As shown in figure each device connects to the central
controller using dedicated point to point link and carries
all the traffic between device and central controller.

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Network Attributes: (Physical Structures)
Advantages of Star Topology:
It is less expensive than mesh topology because of less
number of cables and I/O ports.
It is easy to install and reconfigure.
It is robust because if one link fails it does not affects the
performance of other links.
Because of point to point links fault identification and
isolation is also easy.
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Network Attributes: (Physical Structures)
Disadvantages of Star Topology:
One of the biggest drawback of star topology is the
dependence on central controller. If the central controller
fails then entire network is affected.
Also it requires more amount of cabling compared to
some other topologies.
Star topology is popularly used to connect number of
computers in a Local Area Network (LAN).
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Network Attributes: (Physical Structures)
Bus Topology: Bus topology is a example of
Multipoint Connection.
In bus topology one long cable acts as a backbone of
all the devices in a network.
Figure below shows bus topology

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Network Attributes: (Physical Structures)
The nodes are connected to the bus cable by drop lines
and taps.
Drop line is a cable that connects device with the central
bus cable and a tap is a connector used to connect drop
line with bus cable.
One of the important aspect of bus topology is the
number of devices that can be connected to the bus and
the distance between the devices.
This is because as the signal travels along the central
cable it becomes weaker and weaker and therefore there
is limitation on number of devices and the distance
between the taps.
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Network Attributes: (Physical Structures)

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Network Models:
Computer network is collection of heterogeneous
entities.
Heterogeneous means the devices that are
connected in a network are of different i.e.
Computers, Laptops, Mobiles, Printers, Scanners,
Hubs, Routers etc. They are also different in nature.
In order to establish communication between these
heterogeneous entities we require some common
STANDARD, using which they can communicate with
each other.
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Network Models:
The two best known standards in computer
networks are
ISO OSI Reference Model
Internet Model (TCP/IP Model)
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Categories of Network:
There are different ways using which we can
categories computer networks.
One of the important parameter using which
networks are categorized is the distance covered by a
network for communication. (Size of the Network)
Based on this parameter networks are classified as
Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
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Categories of Network:
Local Area Network (LAN): A local area network is a
network that covers a limited distance up to 2
Kilometers.
A LAN usually is privately owned and is used to
connect the devices in single office, building or
campus.
Depending upon the requirement of and the type of
technology used, a LAN can be as simple as
connection between two computers in home or it can
extend in the premise of a organization.
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Categories of Network:
Figure below shows diagram for LAN
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Categories of Network:
Typically LANs are designed to share the resources
among the computers or workstations.
The resource that is shared can be Hardware such as
a printer, it can be software such as application
program or it simply can be data.
In addition to the size, LANs are distinguished from
other networks on the basis of
Transmission medium
Topology
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Categories of Network:
In general LAN uses same type of transmission
medium such as wire cables.
LANs are having regular topology. Most common
type of topologies are STAR, BUS, RING.
The speed of early LANs was limited to 4 to 16
MBPS.
Today LANs can operate at a speed up to 100- 1000
MBPS (1 GBPS).
The new trend is of wireless LANs where the
transmission medium is wireless.
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Categories of Network:
Wide Area Network (WAN): A Wide area network is
a large network and is used to connect the devices
which are separated by a large distance.
A WAN allows transmission of data such as image,
audio, video, text over large geographic areas that
may cover a country, continent or even whole world.
A WAN can be as complex as a backbone that
connects to the Internet or it can be as simple as a
home computer that connects to the Internet using
dial up line.
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Categories of Network:
Figure below shows a WAN
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Categories of Network:
As shown in figure a WAN can be
Switched WAN
Point to Point WAN
A switched WAN is used to connect a end system to
the network with the help of a networking device
called as Router.
In point to point WAN a Home computer is
connected to the ISP (Internet Service Provider) with
the help of lease line (Dedicated) and a MODEM.
A Point to point WAN is often used to provide
Internet Access.
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Categories of Network:
Metropolitan Area Network: A MAN is the
intermediate network between LAN and WAN.
The size of the MAN is in between LAN and WAN.
A MAN is designed to cover entire city or town.
It is usually used by the customers which require
high speed internet connectivity and the end points of
connectivity are spread across the city.
Good examples of MAN are telephone company
network that provides connectivity using DSL and
cable TV network which now a days provides internet
using the same cable.
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Interconnection of Networks: Internetwork
Today it is difficult to identify a LAN, WAN, MAN
separately.
All three networks are connected with each other.
When two or more networks are connected with
each other it becomes an internetwork.
Figure shows a heterogeneous network made of four
WAN and two LAN.
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Interconnection of Networks: Internetwork

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THE INTERNET:
The Internet is a organized and structured system.
It has brought wealth of information to our finger
tips.
In our day today life we use Internet for different
purposes i.e. Sending and Receiving E mail, browsing
the information, paying our bills etc.

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Layered Tasks:
In order to simplify the task of communication
between heterogeneous systems, the task of
communicating the data is divided into different
subtasks. (Layers)
The entity carrying out these subtasks are called as
Layers.
Each layer is a combination of some hardware
components and a software program.
Each layer is designed to perform certain specific
tasks.
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Layered Tasks:
For Ex.
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Layered Tasks:
The network models that are used in computer
networks uses layered architecture.
It means that each model consist of several layers
that carries specific task or function.
Each layer also provides certain services(Functions)
to the layer above it.
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The OSI MODEL:
Established in 1947 International Standard
Organization designs standards for different purposes.
The ISO standard that covers all aspects of data
communication is the Open System Interconnection
model.
It was introduced in 1970.
An open system is a set of protocols that allows any
two systems to communicate with each other
regardless of their underlying architecture.
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The OSI MODEL:
The purpose of OSI is to show how we can allow two
systems to communicate with each other without
changing the logic of their underlying hardware and
software configuration.
The OSI model is not a PROTOCOL, it allows us to
understand and design a network model that is
flexible, robust and interoperable.
The OSI is a layered framework that allows design of
network systems for the communication between any
type of systems.
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The OSI MODEL:
The OSI model consist of SEVEN separate but
interrelated layers. Each layer performs a part of process
of communicating the data from one system to other.
The Seven layers are
Application
Presentation
Session
Transport
Network
Data Link
Physical
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The OSI MODEL:
Layered Architecture and Peer to Peer Processes:
The Interaction between layers
The OSI model consist of seven ordered layers.
Figure shows a diagram when a message is sent
from device A to device B.
While the message travels from device A to device B
it passes through many intermediate nodes.
These intermediate nodes usually involves only first
three layer of OSI model.
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The OSI MODEL:

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The OSI MODEL:
While designing the OSI model the designers have
identified the correlated networking functions and
they are grouped into a single layer.
Each layer defines several functions which are
different from functions of other layers.
Because of this the architecture has become flexible.
On a single machine each layer uses or calls services
from the layer below it.
Between two systems a layer n communicates with
layer n on other machine.
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The OSI MODEL:
The communication between two layers is governed
by a set of rules which are agreed upon between
them and are called as PROTOCOLS.
The process on each machine in a specific layer
communicates with a process on another machine in
the same layer. Therefore they are called as peer to
peer processes.
The communication between systems is therefore
peer to peer communication using a protocol suitable
for that layer.
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The OSI MODEL:

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The OSI MODEL:
as shown in figure the data from one machine
propagates through 7 layers from top to bottom.
Then it travels through the transmission medium to
other machine.
At the destination machine the data travels from
bottom layer to top layer and then it is handed over
to the user.
Each layer is going to add a header (H7, H6, H5) to
the data as it passes vertically through them on same
machine.
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The OSI MODEL:
At data link layer only a header as well as a trailer (T2) is
added to the data.
This additional information i.e. Header and Trailer added
by each layer on sending machine is for its corresponding
layer on destination machine.
This information tells the destination layer what
processing it is supposed to do on the data before
handing it over to the user.
When data and this additional reaches to the bottom
most layer it is converted into electromagnetic signals and
transmitted through medium.
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The OSI MODEL:
Upon reaching at the destination the data is
received by bottom most layer and then passes
through the upper layers.
At each layer the Header and Trailer is removed by
respective layer and finally data is handed over to the
user.
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Functions of the Layers of OSI Model:
There are seven layers of OSI model as
Physical
Data Link
Network
Transport
Session
Presentation
Application
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Functions of the Layers of OSI Model:
Physical Layer:
The physical layer coordinates the functions that are
required for the movement of bit stream from one
node to other.
It deals with mechanical and electrical specifications
of interface and transmission medium.
It also defines the procedures and functions of
devices required for transmission.
Figure shows the position of physical layer
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Functions of the Layers of OSI Model:
Physical Layer:





Physical layer also deals with
Physical characteristics of interface and medium
Representation of bits using certain encoding techniques.

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Functions of the Layers of OSI Model:
Physical Layer:
The data rate of the data to be transmitted is also
decided by physical layer. It defines the duration of bits.
It establishes the synchronization of bits between sender
and receiver.
It looks after the line configuration.
It looks after physical topology of the network.
It looks after the transmission mode.
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Functions of the Layers of OSI Model:
Data Link Layer:
It is the job of data link layer to convert raw
transmission facility at physical layer into a reliable
link.
It represents physical layer in an error free manner
to the network layer.
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Functions of the Layers of OSI Model:
Data Link Layer:
The data link layer is responsible for moving the data
frames from one node to other.
Other responsibilities of data link layer are
It divides the packets received from network layer into data
frames.
It looks after physical addressing of the frames.
It manages the flow control between two devices connected
to the link.
It looks after the error control by detecting lost or damaged
frames.
It provides the access control mechanism when the common
medium is shared between more than one devices.
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Functions of the Layers of OSI Model:
Data Link Layer:

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Functions of the Layers of OSI Model:
Data Link Layer:

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Functions of the Layers of OSI Model:
Network Layer:
The network layer is responsible for source to
destination delivery of a packet, across multiple links.
When two devices are connected to the same link,
usually network layer is not required. However when
there are multiple links between the source and
destination network layer is required for the delivery
of a packet.

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Functions of the Layers of OSI Model:
Network Layer:

Unit I
Functions of the Layers of OSI Model:
Network Layer:
The responsibilities of network layer are
It looks after the logical addressing of the packet. Data
link layer take care of physical addressing, but network
layer delivers a packet across network using logical address
(IP Address).
When the source and destination are separated using
multiple links between them there exists multiple paths
from source to destination. In order to deliver a packet to
the destination using shortest path network layer
performs routing of packets.

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Functions of the Layers of OSI Model:
Network Layer:

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Functions of the Layers of OSI Model:
Transport Layer:
Transport layer is responsible for process to process
delivery of the entire message from source to
destination.
While network layer looks after delivery of individual
packets, transport layer ensures that the entire
message is delivered to the destination correctly.
Transport layer sees that the entire message arrives
at the destination intact and in order. It also performs
error control and flow control for entire message.
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Functions of the Layers of OSI Model:
Transport Layer:

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Functions of the Layers of OSI Model:
Transport Layer:
Following are the other responsibilities of transport
layer
In a computer at a time multiple programs are running
and each program is running at different memory address.
Network layer delivers the packet at correct computer. The
transport layer delivers the message to the correct
process. This is called as service point addressing.
It looks after the segmentation and reassembling of
message at the destination.
It performs connection control i.e. connection oriented
or connectionless.
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Functions of the Layers of OSI Model:
Transport Layer:
It performs end to end flow control.
Transport layer is also responsible for error control. It
performs error control for process to process delivery. The
error control is usually achieved by retransmission.
Figure shows reliable process to process delivery

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Functions of the Layers of OSI Model:
Session Layer: The functions provided by first three
layers are not sufficient for certain applications. For
such applications session layer acts as a network
dialog controller and also establishes the
synchronization.
Following are the specific responsibilities of session
layer
It allows two systems to enter into a dialog using the
appropriate transmission mode (Half duplex, Full Duplex)
It allows process to insert checkpoints in a stream of data
for synchronization purpose.
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Functions of the Layers of OSI Model:

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Functions of the Layers of OSI Model:
Presentation Layer: It deals with the syntax and
semantics of the information that is exchanged
between two systems.
Specific responsibilities of presentation layer are
The information exchanged by systems is in different
encoding formats. The presentation layer is responsible for
interoperability between these different encoding formats.
The presentation layer at the sender changes the format
of sender specific data into common format and at the
receiver it is converted back into receiver specific data
format.
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Functions of the Layers of OSI Model:
Presentation Layer:
It performs the encryption and decryption of data for
providing the privacy.
For Audio and video data which is of large size, it
performs compression and decompression to utilize the
bandwidth properly.
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Functions of the Layers of OSI Model:
Presentation Layer:

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Functions of the Layers of OSI Model:
Presentation Layer:
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Functions of the Layers of OSI Model:
Application Layer: The application layer enables the
user (Human or Software) to access the network.
It provides different user interfaces to access the
services like E Mail, remote file access and transfer etc.
Specific functions handled by Application layer are
It allows a user to log into a remote terminal using virtual
terminal facility.
It allows user to access and manage remote files located on
other system.
It Provides mail services.
It also provides directory services.
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Functions of the Layers of OSI Model:

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Functions of the Layers of OSI Model:
Summery:
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TCP/IP Protocol Suite:
The TCP/IP protocol suite was developed prior to ISO
OSI model.
Therefore the layers of two models do not match
exactly.
In original TCP/IP model there are four layers
Host to Network
Internet
Transport
Application
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TCP/IP Protocol Suite:
When TCP/IP is compared with ISO OSI model the
Physical and data link layer of OSI are similar to Host
To Network Layer of TCP/IP.
The network layer is similar to internet layer
The transport layer is doing the part of the duties of
session layer.
Finally the application layer of TCP/IP model
performs the functions of Application Presentation
and session layers of ISO OSI model.
Therefore here onwards we will assume that TCP/IP
contains five layers instead of four.
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TCP/IP Protocol Suite:

Unit I
TCP/IP Protocol Suite:
TCP/IP is a hierarchical model containing interactive
modules; each performing a specific functionality.
The protocols in the higher layers are supported by
protocols in the bottom layers.
The protocols in the layers of TCP/IP are relatively
independent. These protocols can be mixed and
matched depending upon the requirement of the
system.
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TCP/IP Protocol Suite:
Functions of the Layers:
Host to Network Layer (Physical and Data Link): At
this layer TCP/IP does not specify any specific
protocol. It supports all the standard and proprietary
protocols.
Internet Layer(Network layer): This layer is more
commonly called as internetwork layer. At this layer it
uses internetworking protocol IP in addition to the
four supporting protocols ARP, RARP, ICMP, and IGMP
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TCP/IP Protocol Suite:
Functions of the Layers:
Internetworking Protocol (IP): IP is an unreliable
connectionless protocol which tries to give best effort
delivery service. The meaning of best effort is that, IP will
try to deliver a packet to the destination by considering
the unreliability of the underlying layers with no
guarantee. It transports packets called as datagram and
each datagram is treated separately. IP has no mechanism
to track the lost packets, packets that arrives out of
sequence. The datagram of same message can arrive at
the destination using different routes. Also IP does not
keep the track of routes.

Unit I
TCP/IP Protocol Suite:
Functions of the Layers:
Internetworking Protocol (IP): IP is an unreliable
connectionless protocol which tries to give best effort
delivery service. The meaning of best effort is that, IP will
try to deliver a packet to the destination by considering
the unreliability of the underlying layers with no
guarantee. It transports packets called as datagram and
each datagram is treated separately. IP has no mechanism
to track the lost packets, packets that arrives out of
sequence. The datagram of same message can arrive at
the destination using different routes. Also IP does not
keep the track of routes.