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PHYSICS
QUANTUM PHYSICS QUANTUM PHYSICS
LEARNI NG OUTCOMES LEARNI NG OUTCOMES
NO.
LEARNING OUTCOME
i
Re l a t e t h e c o n c e p t o f p a r t i c u l a t e n a t u r e o f E M r a d i a t i o n . Be
a b l e t o c a l c u l a t e t h e e n e r g y o f a p h o t o n .
ii
Us e e v i d e n c e t o ex p l a i n t h e d u a l n a t u r e o f E M r a d i a t i o n .
iii
Us e t h e p h o t o e l e c t r i c e f f e c t t o s u p p o r t t h e c l a i m t h a t E M
wa v e s e x h i b i t p a r t i c u l a t e n a t u r e .
iv
Us e t h e f a c t t h a t e l e c t r o n s c a n b e d i f f r a c t e d t o e x p l a i n t h e
wa v e b e h av i o u r o f p a r t i c l e s . Ca l c u l a t e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e d e
Br o g l i e wa v e l e n g t h .
v
Re l a t e t h e e mi s s i o n a n d a bs o r p t i o n s p e c t r a t o t h e p r e s e n c e
o f d i s c r e t e e n e r g y l e v e l s i n i s o l a t e d a t o ms . C a l c u l a t e t h e
a p p r o p r i a t e wa v e l e n g t h a n d f r e q u e n c y o f p h o t o n s a n d r e l a t e
i t wi t h t h e e n e r g y l e v e l d i a g r a m.
DUAL NATURE OF EM
RADI ATI ON
DUAL NATURE OF EM
RADI ATI ON
James Maxwell in 1864 proposed that James Maxwell in 1864 proposed that
EM radiation is made up of coupled
electric and magnetic oscillations that
move at the speed of light and exhibited
wave behaviour.
Figure 2.1; Page 53, Chapter 2: Particle Properties of Waves; Concepts of Modern
Physics, by Beiser, Arthur; McGraw Hill Publications; New York, USA; 2003.
However, Maxwell had no physical
diffraction (wave properties).
However, Maxwell had no physical
evidence to support his claim.
Heinrich Hertz in 1988 by
experimentation, was able to produce
EM radiation. In addition, Hertz was able
to show that the radiation he produced
had both electric and magnetic
components, and these radiation could
undergo reflection, refraction and
diffraction (wave properties).
DUAL NATURE OF EM
RADI ATI ON
DUAL NATURE OF EM
RADI ATI ON
Thomas Young, using light, showed that Thomas Young, using light, showed that
EM radiation can undergo interference
and diffraction, a property inherent to
waves.
DUAL NATURE OF EM
RADI ATI ON
DUAL NATURE OF EM
RADI ATI ON
Figure 2.4; Page 57, Chapter 2: Particle Properties of Waves; Concepts of Modern
Physics, by Beiser, Arthur; McGraw Hill Publications; New York, USA; 2003.
The scientific community accepted that EM The scientific community accepted that EM
radiation is made up of waves up till the end
of the 19
th
century.
However, Maxwells theory failed when
radiation originating from matter was tried
to be explained.
To analyse this radiation, it is assumed, with
strong justification that all objects be
classified as blackbodies.
A blackbody is an object that absorbs all
radiation incident upon it.
Thus, the radiation emitted by objects is
known as blackbody radiation.
DUAL NATURE OF EM
RADI ATI ON
DUAL NATURE OF EM
RADI ATI ON
A typical blackbody radiation spectrum is A typical blackbody radiation spectrum is
shown below:
DUAL NATURE OF EM
RADI ATI ON
DUAL NATURE OF EM
RADI ATI ON
Figure 2.6;
Page 58,
Chapter 2:
Particle
Properties of
Waves;
Concepts of
Modern
Physics, by
Beiser, Arthur;
McGraw Hill
Publications;
New York,
USA; 2003.
A radiation spectrum is a plot of spectral A radiation spectrum is a plot of spectral
energy density vs. frequency for a
specific material at different
temperatures.
The English duo of Rayleigh and Jeans at
the end of the 19
th
century proposed an
equation for the shape of the radiation
spectrum. However, the equation was
incorrect because it showed that the
spectral energy density would approach
infinite values for high frequencies.
DUAL NATURE OF EM
RADI ATI ON
DUAL NATURE OF EM
RADI ATI ON
DUAL NATURE OF EM
RADI ATI ON
DUAL NATURE OF EM
RADI ATI ON
Figure 2.8; Page 60, Chapter 2: Particle Properties of Waves; Concepts of Modern
Physics, by Beiser, Arthur; McGraw Hill Publications; New York, USA; 2003.
In 1900, Max Planck (a German In 1900, Max Planck (a German
physicist), proposed a new formula to
rectify Rayleigh and Jeans formula at
higher frequencies.
However, any equation needs to be
justified by a physical explanation.
Planck explained that the energy
changes inside a blackbody must have
discrete values, and not continuous
values.
DUAL NATURE OF EM
RADI ATI ON
DUAL NATURE OF EM
RADI ATI ON
Planck explained that the energy

Planck explained that the energy


changes, that occur inside a blackbody
are like that in a oscillator.
where , , , , ;
.

.
When radiation of frequency is
absorbed, the oscillator jumps to a
higher state. When radiation of
frequency is emitted, the oscillator
jumps to a lower state.
DUAL NATURE OF EM
RADI ATI ON
DUAL NATURE OF EM
RADI ATI ON
Each discrete bundle of energy has energy,

Each discrete bundle of energy has energy,
and is known as a quantum (Latin
for how much).
We now accept that EM radiation exhibits
a particulate nature; i.e. EM radiation can
also be said to be made up of discrete
bundles of energy called photons as well as
a wave nature; i.e behaving like waves.
This is called the dual nature of EM
radiation.
DUAL NATURE OF EM
RADI ATI ON
DUAL NATURE OF EM
RADI ATI ON
EXAMPLES EXAMPLES
Calculate the energy of one photon of Calculate the energy of one photon of
red light if the wavelength is 680 nm.
2.93 x 10
-19
J
How many photons of red light are found
in red light with energy of 4.39 x 10
-18
J ?
15
Is it possible to have 6.00 x 10
-18
J of
energy of red light?
No. It is not a multiple of quantum.
EXAMPLES EXAMPLES
Questions; Page 328, Chapter 9: Photons, Electrons and Atoms; Section 9.1: The
Photoelectric Effect, International A/AS Level Physics, by Mee, Crundle, Arnold and
Brown, Hodder Education, United Kingdom, 2008.
EXAMPLES EXAMPLES
Questions 8,9 and 10; Set 45: Wave Particle Duality of Electromagnetic Radiation ; page 113;
PROBLEMS IN PHYSICS ; E.D GARDINER, B.L McKITTRICK; McGraw Hill Book Company, Sydney
1985.
EXAMPLES EXAMPLES
Question 12; Set 45:
Wave Particle Duality of
Electromagnetic
Radiation ; page 113;
PROBLEMS IN PHYSICS ;
E.D GARDINER, B.L
McKITTRICK; McGraw
Hill Book Company,
Sydney 1985.
The photoelectric effect provides us The photoelectric effect provides us
with further evidence of the
particulate nature of EM radiation.
This effect occurs when metal is
illuminated (by EM radiation).
Under certain conditions, electrons
can be ejected from the surface of
the metal.
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
Electrons in metal are bound
to the positive ions in the
metal.
To eject electrons, there must
be enough energy supplied.
If the illuminating EM
radiation has photons that
have enough energy, then
electrons will be ejected. Else,
no electrons will be ejected.
Diagram 38.1, page 1261, Chapter 38: Photons: Light Waves behaving as Particles; Sears and Zemanskys
University Physics, Young and Freedman, 13
th
edition, Pearson Education, San Francisco, 2012.
Electrons are ejected if the amount of Electrons are ejected if the amount of
energy contained in the photons (of EM
radiation) is at least equal to the work
function energy, of the metal.
Definition: The work function energy is
the minimum energy required by the
electron to escape from the surface of the
metal.
The table on the next slide gives some
values of work function energy.
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
The interaction between photons and electrons
are one to one; i.e. one electron interacts with
one photon.
If an electron absorbs the photon, it will
absorb all the energy of the photon.
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
Table 38.1, page 1264, Chapter 38:
Photons: Light Waves behaving as
Particles; Sears and Zemanskys
University Physics, Young and
Freedman, 13
th
edition, Pearson
Education, San Francisco, 2012.
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
Figure 2.9; Page 63, Chapter 2: Particle Properties of Waves; Concepts of Modern
Physics, by Beiser, Arthur; McGraw Hill Publications; New York, USA; 2003.
The diagram on the previous slide shows The diagram on the previous slide shows
how the photoelectric effect may be
observed.
Two conducting electrodes are separated in
an evacuated tube and connected to a
battery, and the anode is illuminated.
Note that the ejected electrons would have
to go against the direction of the electric
force; hence they will lose kinetic energy.
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
Conclusions of the experiment:
,
Conclusions of the experiment:
I. Electrons are ejected only if the
incident light had a minimum
frequency,

. This frequency is
known as the threshold
frequency,
II. The photoelectrons have a range
of kinetic energies, from zero to
,
,
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
III. If the frequency of the incident III. If the frequency of the incident
radiation is increased, the value
of
,
also increases.
IV. For constant frequency of
incident radiation, the value of
,
remains the same, even
for increased intensity of
radiation.
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
Aside on intensity:
,
Aside on intensity:
The intensity of EM radiation is proportional
to , the number of photons being emitted.
The more photons are emitted, the intensity of
the radiation also increases. The less photons
there are, the less intense will be the radiation.
Recall that

. This means
that when the source of EM radiation is more
intense, it contains more photons. No change
occurs to the amount of energy in each
photon.
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
Explanation: Explanation:
Electrons are ejected if the amount of
energy contained in the photons (of EM
radiation) is at least equal to the work
function energy , of the metal (material
from which anode is made).
The remainder of the absorbed energy (if
there is) will be in the form of kinetic
energy of the photoelectrons.
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
Some of the photoelectrons that are


Some of the photoelectrons that are
ejected have sufficient kinetic energy
(
,
) to reach the cathode (overcoming
the effect of the electric field).
The maximum kinetic energy of the ejected
electrons,
,
is the difference between
the energy of the incident photon,

and the work function energy, of the


metal; i.e
,

.
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
If we were to plot the graph of
,
vs.

If we were to plot the graph of


,
vs.
incident light frequency, , we would
obtain a straight line.
The straight lines are unique to the type of
metal used as seen in the next slide.
The horizontal axis intercept of each line
corresponds to the threshold frequency,

.
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
Note that no photoelectrons are ejected for

Note that no photoelectrons are ejected for


frequencies lower than

.
The lines for every metal are parallel to
each other. This means that all lines will
have the same slope. The slope gives the
value of , Plancks constant.
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
Figure 2.12; Page 64, Chapter 2: Particle Properties of Waves; Concepts of Modern Physics, by
Beiser, Arthur; McGraw Hill Publications; New York, USA; 2003.
The electrons with
,
will reach the The electrons with
,
will reach the
cathode and produce a photocurrent in
the external circuit.
All the other photoelectrons will not
reach the anode as they have kinetic
energies less than
,
.
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
If we are to increase the potential If we are to increase the potential
difference between the electrodes, but
keeping the frequency of the incident
radiation constant, the amount of
photocurrent will decrease.
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
We can actually reach a p.d. when the

,
We can actually reach a p.d. when the
photocurrent drops to zero. This p.d. is
known as the stopping potential.
The stopping potential is the minimum
potential difference between the
electrodes necessary to stop electron
flow.
The stopping potential helps us calculate
the value of
,
.
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
How? Notice that the work done on the How? Notice that the work done on the
electrons is negative (it takes away
kinetic energy from the electrons).
Some of the electrons have kinetic
energy equal to
,
. These are the
fastest moving electrons.
We assume that these fastest electrons
are stopped just before they reach the
cathode.
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
Hence,
,

where



.
.
Hence,
,

where


stopping potential, V and charge of an
electron = .

.
On simplification , we can also obtain

where

mass of an
electron = .

and


speed of the fastest moving electron(s),

.
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
One important thing to note is that the

One important thing to note is that the


intensity of the incident light does not
affect the value of
,
.
If the incident light had a frequency lower
than the threshold frequency, no
photoelectrons will be detected.
This is because the electrons will only be
ejected if they absorb photons with energy
at least equal to the work function energy.
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
The stopping potential remains
the same, regardless of
intensity for the same metal.
The value of
,
is
independent of incident
radiation intensity.
If the intensity of the incident
radiation is increased, the
amount of photocurrent
increases because more
photons hit the surface, and
more electrons can be ejected.
Figure 2.10; Page 63, Chapter 2: Particle Properties of Waves; Concepts of Modern Physics, by
Beiser, Arthur; McGraw Hill Publications; New York, USA; 2003.
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
The stopping potential,

depends on the frequency of


incident radiation, for a
constant value of light
intensity.
This shows that the value of

,
depends on the
frequency of incident
radiation, .
The larger the value of , the
larger will be the value of the
stopping potential,

.
Figure 2.11; Page 63, Chapter 2: Particle Properties of Waves; Concepts of Modern Physics, by
Beiser, Arthur; McGraw Hill Publications; New York, USA; 2003.
Summary of the photoelectric experiment: Summary of the photoelectric experiment:
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
Page 1263, Chapter 38: Photons: Light Waves behaving as Particles, Section 38.1 : Light
Absorbed as Photons: The Photoelectric Effect; Sears and Zemanskys University Physics,
Young and Freedman, 13
th
edition, Pearson Education, San Francisco, 2012.
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
Page 1263, Chapter 38: Photons: Light Waves behaving as Particles, Section 38.1 : Light
Absorbed as Photons: The Photoelectric Effect; Sears and Zemanskys University Physics,
Young and Freedman, 13
th
edition, Pearson Education, San Francisco, 2012.
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
Page 1263, Chapter 38: Photons: Light Waves behaving as Particles, Section 38.1 : Light
Absorbed as Photons: The Photoelectric Effect; Sears and Zemanskys University Physics,
Young and Freedman, 13
th
edition, Pearson Education, San Francisco, 2012.
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
Figure 38.4, Page 1264, Chapter 38:
Photons: Light Waves behaving as
Particles, Section 38.1 : Light
Absorbed as Photons: The
Photoelectric Effect; Sears and
Zemanskys University Physics,
Young and Freedman, 13
th
edition,
Pearson Education, San Francisco,
2012.
Let us go back to the graph of
,
vs.

,

Let us go back to the graph of
,
vs.
incident light frequency, .
Plotting that relationship will give us a
straight line of equation
,

.
On simplification, we may obtain


.
Remember that the
,
the stopping
potential, in eV or J.
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
This equation again tells us that the


This equation again tells us that the
maximum kinetic energy of the
photoelectrons is equal to the difference
between the energy of the absorbed
incident photon (EM radiation) and the
work function energy.
Since, the value
,
can be zero, by
setting the left side = 0, we will obtain

.
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
This means that if EM radiation had

This means that if EM radiation had


frequency equal to the threshold
frequency,

, the photoelectrons would


have no kinetic energy.
We can then calculate

by using the
equation

THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
THE PHOTOELECTRI C
EFFECT
EXAMPLES EXAMPLES
Examples; Page 243, Chapter 9: Photons, Electrons and Atoms; Section 9.1: The Photoelectric
Effect, International A/AS Level Physics, by Mee, Crundle, Arnold and Brown, Hodder
Education, United Kingdom, 2008.
EXAMPLES EXAMPLES
Questions 2 and 3; Page 244, Chapter 9: Photons, Electrons and Atoms; Section 9.1: The
Photoelectric Effect, International A/AS Level Physics, by Mee, Crundle, Arnold and Brown,
Hodder Education, United Kingdom, 2008.
EXAMPLES EXAMPLES
Question 1; Set 45: Wave
Particle Duality of
Electromagnetic Radiation ; page
113; PROBLEMS IN PHYSICS ; E.D
GARDINER, B.L McKITTRICK;
McGraw Hill Book Company,
Sydney 1985.
EXAMPLES EXAMPLES
Question 1; Set 45: Wave
Particle Duality of
Electromagnetic Radiation ; page
113; PROBLEMS IN PHYSICS ; E.D
GARDINER, B.L McKITTRICK;
McGraw Hill Book Company,
Sydney 1985.
EXAMPLES EXAMPLES
Question 2; Set 45: Wave
Particle Duality of
Electromagnetic Radiation ;
page 113; PROBLEMS IN
PHYSICS ; E.D GARDINER, B.L
McKITTRICK; McGraw Hill
Book Company, Sydney 1985.
EXAMPLES EXAMPLES
Question 2; Set 45: Wave
Particle Duality of
Electromagnetic Radiation ;
page 113; PROBLEMS IN
PHYSICS ; E.D GARDINER, B.L
McKITTRICK; McGraw Hill
Book Company, Sydney 1985.
EXAMPLES EXAMPLES
Question 3; Set 45: Wave
Particle Duality of
Electromagnetic Radiation ;
page 113; PROBLEMS IN
PHYSICS ; E.D GARDINER, B.L
McKITTRICK; McGraw Hill
Book Company, Sydney 1985.
EXAMPLES EXAMPLES
Question 3; Set 45: Wave
Particle Duality of
Electromagnetic Radiation ;
page 113; PROBLEMS IN
PHYSICS ; E.D GARDINER, B.L
McKITTRICK; McGraw Hill
Book Company, Sydney 1985.
EXAMPLES EXAMPLES
Questions 4 and 5; Set
45: Wave Particle
Duality of
Electromagnetic
Radiation ; page 113;
PROBLEMS IN PHYSICS ;
E.D GARDINER, B.L
McKITTRICK; McGraw
Hill Book Company,
Sydney 1985.
Louis de Broglie, a French physicist in 1924, Louis de Broglie, a French physicist in 1924,
asked this about nature. If EM waves can
exhibit a dual nature, why cant objects
(particles) behave likes waves?
As demonstrated in 1927 by electron
diffraction (scattering) , this claim was
indeed true.
The experiment that showed electrons can
diffracted was done independently by
Davisson and Germer (in USA) and G.P
Thompson (In England).
WAVE NATURE OF
PARTI CLES
WAVE NATURE OF
PARTI CLES
WAVE NATURE OF
PARTI CLES
WAVE NATURE OF
PARTI CLES
Diagram 39.2, page 1287, Section 39.1: Electron Waves, Chapter 39: Particles Behaving as Waves; Sears
and Zemanskys University Physics, Young and Freedman, 13
th
edition, Pearson Education, San Francisco,
2012.
WAVE NATURE OF
PARTI CLES
WAVE NATURE OF
PARTI CLES
Diagram 33.6(b), page 1288, Section 33.2: Reflection and Refraction, Chapter 33: The Nature and
Propagation of Light; Sears and Zemanskys University Physics, Young and Freedman, 13
th
edition, Pearson Education, San Francisco, 2012.
The diagram on the previous slide shows the
set up for the Davisson and Germer
experiment.
The diagram on the left shows what the
initial results of the Davisson and Germer
experiment.
As expected, the electron beams underwent
diffuse reflection when it hit the surface of
the nickel crystal that behaved like a
polycrystalline material.
This scattering would have produced very
continuous readings of electron intensity at
any angle .
WAVE NATURE OF
PARTI CLES
WAVE NATURE OF
PARTI CLES
Diagram 39.3(a), page 1288, Section 39.1: Electron Waves, Chapter 39: Particles Behaving as Waves;
Sears and Zemanskys University Physics, Young and Freedman, 13
th
edition, Pearson Education, San
Francisco, 2012.
However, a certain error caused air to enter
the vacuum chamber. They had to heat the
nickel crystal sample. Heating, caused
rearrangement of the structure and now
the sample was like made up of single nickel
atoms.
On repetition, they did not obtain a
continuous distribution of intensity ( vs. ),
but obtained peaks and troughs; similar to
wave interference patterns. This is seen on
the diagram on the left.
This evidence was sufficient enough to
support de Broglies claim.
WAVE NATURE OF
PARTI CLES
WAVE NATURE OF
PARTI CLES
Diagram 39.3(b), page 1288, Section 39.1: Electron Waves, Chapter 39: Particles Behaving as
Waves; Sears and Zemanskys University Physics, Young and Freedman, 13
th
edition, Pearson
Education, San Francisco, 2012.
What had occurred?
The evenly separated atoms of nickel had
behaved similar to how slits respond when
EM radiation is incident on them.
The atoms cause the electron beams to
diffract and interfere.
Similar to waves, constructive interference
occurred if the phase difference was in even
integer multiples of , while destructive
interference occurred when the phase
difference was odd integer multiples of .
de Broglie also proposed a formula to help de Broglie also proposed a formula to help
us calculate the wavelength, of a particle.
The de Broglie wavelength is given by

where Plancks constant;


momentum of the particle,in
kg m s

.
WAVE NATURE OF
PARTI CLES
WAVE NATURE OF
PARTI CLES
Notice the symmetry between de
.
Notice the symmetry between de
Broglies equation and the wave equation
( .
We can also calculate the frequency of a
particle by using the equation
WAVE NATURE OF
PARTI CLES
WAVE NATURE OF
PARTI CLES
EXAMPLES EXAMPLES
Example 3.1; Page 94, Chapter 3: Wave Properties of Particles; Concepts of Modern Physics,
by Beiser, Arthur; McGraw Hill Publications; New York, USA; 2003.
Example 39.1, page 1289, Section 39.1: Electron Waves, Chapter 39: Particles Behaving as
Waves; Sears and Zemanskys University Physics, Young and Freedman, 13
th
edition, Pearson
Education, San Francisco, 2012.
EXAMPLES EXAMPLES
Examples; Page 245, Chapter 9: Photons, Electrons and Atoms; Section 9.2: Wave - particle
Duality, International A/AS Level Physics, by Mee, Crundle, Arnold and Brown, Hodder
Education, United Kingdom, 2008.
EXAMPLES EXAMPLES
Questions; Section 9.2; Page 245, Chapter 9: Photons, Electrons and Atoms; Section 9.2: Wave -
particle Duality, International A/AS Level Physics, by Mee, Crundle, Arnold and Brown, Hodder
Education, United Kingdom, 2008.
EXAMPLES
Question 4;
Section 9.3:
Emission Spectra;
Page 253,
Chapter 9:
Photons,
Electrons and
Atoms;
International
A/AS Level
Physics, by Mee,
Crundle, Arnold
and Brown,
Hodder
Education,
United Kingdom,
2008.
MODERN ATOMI C MODEL
The diagram on the left shows the change
in colour of the flame of a Bunsen burner
when a sample of sodium is placed in the
flame.
You are probably familiar with change in
Chemistry class.
The colour of the flame turns yellow
orange. The colour of the flames
correspond to wavelengths of 589.0 and
589.6 nm.
This also occurs to other metals when you
perform the flame test
Why does this occur?
Figure 39.19(b), page 1299, Section 39.3: Energy Levels and the Bohr Model of the Atom,
Chapter 39: Particles Behaving as Waves; Sears and Zemanskys University Physics, Young and
Freedman, 13
th
edition, Pearson Education, San Francisco, 2012.
Neils Bohr, in 1913, proposed a Neils Bohr, in 1913, proposed a
model of the atom that changed the
way physicists look at the atom.
He proposed that:
Atoms can only exist with certain
specific levels of internal energy;
Each atom has a set of possible
internal energies;
MODERN ATOMI C MODEL
An atom can have an amount of An atom can have an amount of
internal energy equal to any one of
these levels, but cannot have an
internal energy amount intermediate
to these energy levels;
All isolated atoms of the same
element have the same set of energy
levels;
Atoms of different elements have
different sets of energy levels.
MODERN ATOMI C MODEL
MODERN ATOMI C MODEL
Figure 9.9; Page 247, Chapter 9: Photons, Electrons and Atoms; Section 9.3: Emission Spectra,
International A/AS Level Physics, by Mee, Crundle, Arnold and Brown, Hodder Education,
United Kingdom, 2008.
MODERN ATOMI C MODEL
The image on the previous slide shows the energy levels
present in an isolated atom of hydrogen.
Each of the horizontal lines represent a single internal energy
level.
The numbers on the left and right are the internal energies for
each level in Joules and eV respectively.
The lowest energy level is the ground state ( 0).
The ionisation energy level ( ) has internal energy = 0.
The isolated hydrogen atom (and its electrons) are only
allowed to have these specific energy levels.
According to Bohr, under normal

According to Bohr, under normal


conditions, atoms are at their ground
state.
Atoms can move up to a higher energy
level by absorbing energy that is
exactly equal to the difference between
the new energy level,

and ground
state,

; i.e.

MODERN ATOMI C MODEL


Excitation can occur either via heating,
internal energy.
Excitation can occur either via heating,
electrical excitation (electron
bombardement), or photon
bombardment.
The excitation can bring the atom up to
anywhere in , , , . , but not
in between.
When the atom is excited, it becomes
unstable, and thus has to lose the extra
internal energy.
MODERN ATOMI C MODEL
It loses the extra internal energy by
the old
It loses the extra internal energy by
emitting a photon that has energy
equal to the difference between the old
energy level and the new energy level;
i.e.

.
Note that absorption can only occur
from ground level up, while emission
can occur anywhere from a higher level
to a lower one.
MODERN ATOMI C MODEL
During emission, there will be at least During emission, there will be at least
one photon emitted. The number of
photons emitted depend on the path
taken by the atom as it returns to the
ground state.
MODERN ATOMI C MODEL
Is there evidence for the emission? Is there evidence for the emission?
MODERN ATOMI C MODEL
The image on the left
shows the line emission
spectra of several
elements.
These spectra are
produced by isolated
atoms of each element.
Each vertical line
corresponds to a particular
photon that was emitted.
Source:
http://www.mso.anu.edu.au/galah/images/emission_spec.png
Is there evidence for the emission? Is there evidence for the emission?
MODERN ATOMI C MODEL
Figure 39.8, page 1293, Section 39.2: The Nuclear Atom and Atomic Spectra, Chapter 39:
Particles Behaving as Waves; Sears and Zemanskys University Physics, Young and Freedman,
13
th
edition, Pearson Education, San Francisco, 2012.
MODERN ATOMI C MODEL
The image on the left
shows the line
emission spectrum of
hydrogen in the
visible spectrum.
Each emission line
has an associated
wavelength (of
photon).
Source:
http://intro.chem.okstate.edu/1314f00/Lecture/Chapter
7/Hemission1.GIF
MODERN ATOMI C MODEL
Diagram 39.7, page 1292, Section 39.2: The Nuclear Atom and Atomic Spectra, Chapter 39:
Particles Behaving as Waves; Sears and Zemanskys University Physics, Young and Freedman,
13
th
edition, Pearson Education, San Francisco, 2012.
How do we obtain a line emission
The diagram on the previous slide shows
How do we obtain a line emission
spectrum?
The diagram on the previous slide shows
a method of obtaining a line emission
spectrum for any element.
A sample of gas is heated. Heating
excites the ground state electron,
moving it to an excited state.
MODERN ATOMI C MODEL
When the atom returns to its ground When the atom returns to its ground
state, it may emit one or more
photons, depending on the path take.
Note that the discrete lines present
indicate the photons that have been
emitted.
MODERN ATOMI C MODEL
Is there evidence for the absorption? Is there evidence for the absorption?
MODERN ATOMI C MODEL
The image above shows the line absorption spectrum of
atomic hydrogen.
Each vertical black line corresponds to a particular photon that
was absorbed.
All other photons are present, except the ones that were
absorbed.
Source:http://ch301.cm.utexas.edu/atomic/#H-atom/line-spectra.html
MODERN ATOMI C MODEL
Source: http://www.green-planet-solar-energy.com/images/spectrum_abs_1.jpg
MODERN ATOMI C MODEL
The image on the previous slide shows how we can obtain the
line absorption spectrum of a particular sample. For example,
if we wanted to obtain the absorption spectrum of atomic
hydrogen, we would use a sample of cool atomic hydrogen
gas.
White light (all photons within the visible light region present)
is incident upon the sample of cool gas.
The sample of cool gas acts as a filter by absorbing only
certain photons. The photons that were absorbed will be
missing from the spectrum.
MODERN ATOMI C MODEL
Source: http://astronomy.nmsu.edu/tharriso/ast110/1322_0613.jpg
The image on the previous slide shows how we can compare
the line emission, absorption and continuous spectra for a
particular element.
Note that the photons that were absorbed will also be
emitted but in a different direction.
EXAMPLES
EXAMPLES
Example 39.5, page 1299, Section 39.3: Energy Levels and the Bohr Model of the Atom, Chapter
39: Particles Behaving as Waves; Sears and Zemanskys University Physics, Young and
Freedman, 13
th
edition, Pearson Education, San Francisco, 2012.
EXAMPLES
Examples; Page 251, Chapter 9: Photons, Electrons and Atoms; Section 9.3: Emission Spectra,
International A/AS Level Physics, by Mee, Crundle, Arnold and Brown, Hodder Education,
United Kingdom, 2008.
EXAMPLES
Questions; Section 9.3: Emission Spectra; Page 252, Chapter 9: Photons, Electrons and Atoms;
International A/AS Level Physics, by Mee, Crundle, Arnold and Brown, Hodder Education,
United Kingdom, 2008.
EXAMPLES
Question 5; Section 9.3:
Emission Spectra; Page
253, Chapter 9: Photons,
Electrons and Atoms;
International A/AS Level
Physics, by Mee, Crundle,
Arnold and Brown,
Hodder Education, United
Kingdom, 2008.
EXAMPLES
Question 6; Section 9.3: Emission
Spectra; Page 253, Chapter 9: Photons,
Electrons and Atoms; International
A/AS Level Physics, by Mee, Crundle,
Arnold and Brown, Hodder Education,
United Kingdom, 2008.
EXAMPLES
Question 7; Section 9.3:
Emission Spectra; Page
253, Chapter 9: Photons,
Electrons and Atoms;
International A/AS Level
Physics, by Mee, Crundle,
Arnold and Brown,
Hodder Education, United
Kingdom, 2008.
HOMEWORK HOMEWORK
1. Question 7, Paper 4, Winter 2008 (E). 1. Question 7, Paper 4, Winter 2008 (E).
2. Question 8, Paper 4, Summer 2009.
3. Question 7, Paper 42, Winter 2009.
4. Question 7, Paper 41, Winter 2010.
5. Question 8, Paper 43, Winter 2010.
6. Question 7, Paper 41, Summer 2011 (E).
7. Question 7, Paper 42, Summer 2011.
8. Question 7, Paper 41, Winter 2011.
9. Question 7, Paper 43, Winter 2011.