3 views

Uploaded by suchi87

ieee

- Chapter 3 Radiation
- Lecture notes
- Carrier_Aggregation_Presentation_ITUASP COE training.pdf
- New Microsoft Word Document (3)
- Chi Square Test
- A Circular Monopole with a Rectangular Microstrip Antenna for Cognitive Radio Applications
- MMSE
- Component Reliability Analysis
- Posibile Subiecte de Interes - Trends in Communications
- In Statistics Lecture4
- NormalDistribution Lesson
- Performance Enhancement for Routing in Cognitive Radio Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using Topology Control
- Moment Generating Function
- 1687-1499-2011-208
- a
- Cognitive radio
- [IJCST-V5I1P4]: S.Tamilarasasan, Bharath Raj D, K. Balakrishnan, Avinash N
- Distributed Coordination protocol for Adhoc cognitive radio networks
- ceyhun
- OS

You are on page 1of 4

Guowei Zhang, Ju Liu, Lei Chen, Weidong Guo

School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University,

Jinan, Shandong, 250100, China

Email: zhangguowei@sdu.edu.cn

AbstractThe energy detector is a very useful detector for

spectrum sensing in cognitive radio systems and has been widely

employed for sensing optimization. However, there is certain mis-

match between the theoretical and actual detection performance

of the conventional energy detector in complex Gaussian noise,

which will undermine the optimization accuracy. To solve this

problem, an efcient energy detector in complex Gaussian noise

is proposed and its theoretical detection performance expressions

are derived based on the approximated distributions of its test

statistic under different hypothesis. Numerical results show that

compared with the conventional energy detector the new energy

detector offers superior detection performance and its theoretical

detection performance is almost as same as the actual one,

which conrms the new energy detectors efciency and is of

great importance for the design of optimal spectrum sensing in

cognitive radio systems.

I. INTRODUCTION

Traditional static management of radio resource has caused

a serious under-utilization of the frequency spectrum, accord-

ing to the measurements conducted by the Federal Communi-

cations Commission(FCC) [1]. On the other hand, the prolif-

eration of wireless equipments and services requires a heavy

demand of radio resource. Cognitive radio technology [2] has

been proposed as an attractive technique to cope with this

problem by improving spectrum utilization for future wireless

systems. In cognitive radio systems, spectrum sensing is a key

enabling functionality and needs to reliably detect the presence

and absence of the primary user so that the secondary user can

opportunistically access the under-utilized frequency band of

the primary user with little or no performance degradation to

the primary user.

Various spectrum sensing algorithms have been proposed,

such as the energy detector [3], [4], matched lter detector [5],

and cyclostationary feature detector [6]. The energy detector

is one of the most commonly employed spectrum sensing

schemes, since it does not require any prior knowledge about

the structure of the primary users signal or the channel.

Cooperative sensing has been proposed to enhance the de-

tection performance via the cooperation of several secondary

users, and cooperative sensing optimization has been further

researched in under complex Gaussian noise by utilizing the

theoretical performance indexes of the conventional energy

detector. However, to our best knowledge, there has been

no investigation about the match between the theoretical

and actual performance indexes of the conventional energy

detector under complex Gaussian noise, which is critical to the

accuracy of the spectrum sensing optimization. We nd that

there is a serious mismatch between the theoretical and actual

performance indexes of the conventional energy detector under

complex Gaussian noise. This will undermine the accuracy of

the spectrum sensing optimization.

To solve this problem, this paper proposes a new and

efcient energy detector for the spectrum sensing of cognitive

radio under complex Gaussian noise. Also the theoretical

expressions of the performance indexes of the new energy

detector are derived. The efcient energy detector is based on

more accurate distribution approximations of the test statistic

with a simple modication to the conventional energy detector.

Simulations conrm the superiority of the proposed energy

detector to the conventional one, not only the match of

the performance indexes, but also a more efcient detection

performance.

II. SYSTEM MODEL

We consider the problem of detecting the presence of one

primary user at a given channel based on the signal observed

by the secondary user. Specially, assuming a general additive

white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel between the primary

and secondary users, the sample signal () received by a

secondary user, dened as () (

) with 1/

being the

sampling rated. Then the spectrum sensing problem becomes

the following hypothesis test problem:

() =

{

1

: () +()

0

: ()

= 1, . . . , (1)

where

0

represents the hypothesis that the primary user

is idle and

1

represents the hypothesis that the primary

user is active. = 1, 2, . . . , index the -th signal sam-

ples with being the assigned sensing time. () is the

received signal by the secondary user with () denotes the

transmitted symbol by the primary user, and () is the

additive noise at the secondary user and is further modeled

as an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) circularly

symmetric complex Gaussian (CSCG) random variable with

zero mean and variance

2

, that is () (0,

2

) and

(),

() (0,

2

/2) where

() and

() represent

the real and imaginary components of the noise, respectively.

We also assume that () and () are independent of each

other.

978-1-4244-7555-1/10/$26.00 2010 IEEE

As to the detection performance of spectrum sensing algo-

rithm, there are two measurements: the detection probability

declares the presence of primary signal when in fact the

primary user is active and the false alarm probability

which

is the probability that the secondary user falsely announce the

presence of primary signal when the secondary user is actually

idle.

III. NEW AND EFFICIENT ENERGY DETECTOR

A. Conventional Energy Detector

The test statistic of the conventional energy detector under

complex Gaussian noise is dened as [7][9]

=

=1

()

2

2

=

=1

()

2

+

()

2

2

. (2)

And several kinds of distribution have been proposed to

approximate the distribution of the test statistic under

0

and

1

, respectively. Specically, under

0

the probability

density function (PDF) of can be approximated by the Chi-

square distribution with degrees of freedom or the Gaussian

distribution with mean and 2 variance. That is,

(

0

) =

(

0

) :

1

2

/2

(

2

)

2

1

exp

(

2

)

(

0

) :

1

4

exp

{

()

2

4

}

(3)

where () is the gamma function. On the other hand, under

1

the PDF of can be approximated by the non-central Chi-

square distribution with degrees of freedom and parameter

or the Gaussian distribution with (+) mean and 2(+2)

variance:

(

1

) =

(

1

) :

1

2

(

2

)exp(

2+

2

)

1

(

2)

(

1

) :

1

4(+2)

exp

{

()

2

4(+2)

}

(4)

where =

=1

()

2

2

is times the average SNR at

the output of the energy detector and

() is the th-order

modied Bessel function of the rst kind.

The decision rule of the energy detector is given by

0

(5)

where is the corresponding decision threshold. According to

the (3) and (4), the theoretical detection performance of the

conventional energy detector for a specic decision threshold

will be

= {

0

} =

{

:

(

2

,

2

)

(

2

)

: (

2

)

(6)

and

= {

1

} =

{

: 1 (, , )

: (

2(+2)

)

(7)

where () is the complementary cumulative distribution

function (CDF), i.e., () =

exp(

2

/2)/

2; and

() is the noncentral chi-square CDF, i.e., (, , ) =

=0

[

(

1

2

)

!

exp

2

](

2

+2

).

B. The Efcient Energy Detector

For the conventional energy detector, we nd that the theo-

retical detection probability is far from the actual one, which

implies that there is lack of accurate theoretical detection

performance expressions of the conventional energy detector

for the existing sensing optimizations under complex Gaussian

noise. To solve this problem and improve the detection perfor-

mance of the conventional energy detector, an efcient energy

detector is proposed in this paper with certain improvement

of the conventional energy detector. The test statistic of the

improved energy detector is

=1

()

2

2

/2

=

=1

()

2

2

/2

+

=1

()

2

2

/2

. (8)

As a result of the modication, under

0

,

of the squares of 2 Gaussian random variables with zero

mean and unit variance, which follows a central chi-square

distribution with 2 degrees of freedom and

0

) =

1

2

()

(1)

exp

(

2

)

. (9)

Also according to the central limit theorem when the number

of samples is large enough (e.g., 10 in practice), the test

statistic

2 and variance 4. That is

0

) =

1

8

exp

{

2)

2

8

}

. (10)

Similarly, under

1

the test statistic

sian distribution with mean 2( +) and variance 4( +2)

1

) =

1

8( + 2)

exp

{

2 2)

2

8( + 2)

}

.

(11)

In [10], Gamma distribution has been proposed to approximate

the distribution of the test statistic under

1

in the situation of

real signals. Here we extend this approximation to the situation

of complex signals. That is,

1

) =

1

()

(1)

exp

(

)

(12)

where = 2(1 +/) and = .

The decision rule of the improved energy detector is similar

to (5)

(13)

where

changed accordingly. Thus based on (9) (12) the theoretical

detection performance of the improved energy detector will be

= {

0

} =

:

(,

2

)

()

: (

4

)

(14)

and

= {

1

} =

{

: (

22

4(+2)

)

: 1 (

, , )

(15)

where (, , ) =

0

1

()

(1)

exp(

) denotes the

CDF of a Gamma distribution with scale parameter and

shape parameter .

Note that although here we focus on the situation of AWGN

channel, the results (14) and (15) can be easily extended

to the fading channels. Specically, the detection probability

will be averaged over the particular statistics of the SNR ()

of the corresponding fading channel, while the false alarm

probability remains the same as a result of its independence

of the SNR of the channel.

IV. NUMERICAL RESULTS

In this section, we provide simulations to illustrate the

performance of the proposed energy detector, and compare

it with that of the conventional energy detector. Given the

target false alarm probability, the decision threshold can be

calculated according to the approximated distributions under

0

. Then the theoretical detection probability can be obtained

by using the approximated distributions and the corresponding

decision threshold. Note that the decision threshold can be

calculated according to the Chi-square CDF (

and

) or

the Gaussian CDF (

and

conducted to calculate both the actual false alarm probability

and the actual detection probability. And QPSK signals are

generated as the primary users signals.

Match of the false alarm probability: In Fig.1, we draw

the simulated false alarm probability against the target false

alarm probability for different detectors. It is seen that for the

conventional energy detector (ED:

or ED:

), its actual

distribution approximation of the conventional energy detector

(3) is not quite efcient. This is a good motivation for our

research to improve the spectrum sensing reliability of energy

detector. Shown in Fig.1, the proposed energy detector using

(New-ED:

of the

proposed energy detector using

(New-ED:

) is more

close to the target one than the conventional energy detectors.

These results conrm the accuracy of the proposed distribution

approximations of the test statistic of our efcient energy

detector under

0

, as well as the efciency of the proposed

theoretical false alarm probability expressions (14).

Match of the detection probability: Next, simulations are

conducted to investigate the match between the theoretical

detection probability and the actual detection probability of

the energy detectors. Here both

) and

) are

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

A

c

t

u

a

l

V

a

l

u

e

s

o

f

P

f

.

(a) Target Values of P

f

with N=10

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

A

c

t

u

a

l

V

a

l

u

e

s

o

f

P

f

.

(b) Target Values of P

f

with N=20

ED:

C

ED:

G

NewED:

C

NewED:

G

Gaussian noise with different .

employed as the decision threshold to calculate the actual

detection probability of these detectors while only

)

is used to calculate the theoretical detection probability based

on the previous ndings.

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

D

e

t

e

c

t

i

o

n

P

r

o

b

o

.

(a) Target P

f

, SNR=10dB

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

D

e

t

e

c

t

i

o

n

P

r

o

b

o

.

(b) Target P

f

, SNR=6dB

Simu:

C

Simu:

G

Theo: P

d

Gau

Theo: P

d

Chi

Fig. 2. Comparison of the theoretical

to the simulated

of the

conventional energy detector with = 20.

Fig. 2 plots the theoretical and actual

of the conventional

energy detector versus the target

although the conventional energy detector using

(Simu:

(Simu:

(Theo:

or Theo:

values and the difference between these values are obviously

not negligible. These inaccurate theoretical detection perfor-

mance expressions (6) and (7) of the conventional energy

detector will undermine the efciency of the spectrum sensing

optimization.

In Fig. 3, we investigate the accuracy of the theoretical

detection probability expressions of the proposed energy de-

tector. As we can see, the proposed energy detector using

(Simu:

than that

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

D

e

t

e

c

t

i

o

n

P

r

o

b

o

.

(a) Target P

f

, SNR=10dB

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

D

e

t

e

c

t

i

o

n

P

r

o

b

o

.

(b) Target P

f

, SNR=6dB

Simu:

C

Simu:

G

Theo: P

d

Gau

Theo: P

d

Gam

Fig. 3. Comparison of the theoretical

to the simulated

of the proposed

energy detector with = 20.

using

(Simu:

the proposed

energy detector can make sure its actual

almost as same

as the target one, as displayed in Fig. 1. As to the accuracy

of the different theoretical expressions of

, it is easy to

see that the Gamma approximation (Theo:

) can match

very well with the actual detection performance. While the

values of the Gaussian approximation (Theo:

) deviate a

little from the actual detection performance. It means that the

theoretical expressions

in (14) and

in (15) should

be used for the design of spectrum sensing optimization.

Detection probability comparison: Fig.4 plots the simulated

and

(ED) and the proposed energy detector (New-ED), respec-

tively. In Fig.4-(a), it is observed that our efcient energy

detector can achieve a better detection performance than the

conventional energy detector for a realistic region of the target

the proposed energy detector has an actual

around 0.2

which is almost three times of that of the conventional energy

detector. Fig.4-(b) shows the simulated

of different energy

detectors versus SNR with the same target

of 0.1. One

sees that obvious performance improvement can be achieved

by the proposed energy detector over the conventional energy

detector with about 1dB average gain. So the new energy

detector is of great superiority to the original energy detector

in terms of both the actual detection performance and the

accuracy and efciency of theoretical detection performance

expressions which are critical to the sensing optimization.

V. CONCLUSIONS

A new and efcient energy detector is proposed for spec-

trum sensing in cognitive radio under complex Gaussian noise,

as well as the theoretical expressions of its detection perfor-

mance. Series of simulations verify the efciency of the pro-

posed energy detector and its superiority to the conventional

one. That is, its theoretical detection performance can match

10

2

10

1

10

2

10

1

10

0

S

i

m

u

l

a

t

e

d

D

e

t

e

c

t

i

o

n

P

r

o

b

o

.

(a) Target P

f

SNR=10dB

10 8 6 4 2 0 2

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

S

i

m

u

l

a

t

e

d

D

e

t

e

c

t

i

o

n

P

r

o

b

o

.

(b) SNR (dB) Target P

f

=0.1

ED: N=20

NewED: N=20

ED: N=50

NewED: N=50

Fig. 4. Actual

scenarios.

well with the actual detection performance which conrms

the accuracy of the approximated distribution functions. And

the proposed energy detector can achieve a higher detection

probability than the conventional one when the target

is

within certain realistic region. Some interesting extensions of

this work may include studying the sensing optimization based

on the new energy detector.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foun-

dation of China (60872024), the Cultivation Fund of the Key

Scientic and Technical Innovation Project (708059), Natural

Science Foundation of Shandong Province (No.Y2007G04),

open research fund of National Mobile Communications Re-

search Laboratory (W200802), and the State Key Lab. of

Integrated Services Networks (ISN9-03).

REFERENCES

[1] F. C. Commission, Spectrum policy task force, Rep. ET Docket, Tech.

Rep., Nov. 2002, no.02-135.

[2] S. Haykin, Cognitive radio: brain-empowered wireless communica-

tions, IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 201220,

Feb. 2005.

[3] V. Kostylev, Energy detection of a signal with random amplitude, in

Proc. ICC, New York, May 2002, pp. 16061610.

[4] F. Digham, M.-S. Alouini, and M. Simon, On the energy detection of

unkown signals over fading channels, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 55,

no. 1, pp. 2124, Jan. 2007.

[5] H.-S. Chen, W. Gao, and D. G. Daut, Signature based spectrum sensing

algorithms for ieee 802.22 WRAN, in IEEE Intern. Conf. Comm., Jun.

2007, pp. 64876492.

[6] S. Haykin, D. J. Thomson, and J. H. Reed, Spectrum sensing for

cognitive radio, Proc. IEEE, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 849877, May 2009.

[7] Z. Quan, S. Cui, and A. H. Sayed, Optimal linear cooperation for

spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks, IEEE J. Select. Signal

Processing, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 2840, Feb. 2008.

[8] J. Shen, T. Jiang, S. Liu, and Z. Zhang, Maximum channel throughput

via cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks, IEEE

Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 51665175, Oct. 2009.

[9] W. Zhang, R. Malik, and K. Letaief, Optimization of cooperative

spectrum sensing with energy detection in cognitive radio networks,

IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 57615766, Dec.

2009.

[10] Y. Chen, Improved energy detector for random signals in gaussian

noise, IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 558563, Feb.

2010.

- Chapter 3 RadiationUploaded bylilmadhu
- Lecture notesUploaded byCass
- Carrier_Aggregation_Presentation_ITUASP COE training.pdfUploaded byJakie Smith
- New Microsoft Word Document (3)Uploaded bya_44m
- Chi Square TestUploaded byHannah Aguinaldo
- A Circular Monopole with a Rectangular Microstrip Antenna for Cognitive Radio ApplicationsUploaded bymishranamit2211
- MMSEUploaded bythegioiphang_1604
- Component Reliability AnalysisUploaded byriccardo
- Posibile Subiecte de Interes - Trends in CommunicationsUploaded byHertone Florius
- In Statistics Lecture4Uploaded byrajualag
- NormalDistribution LessonUploaded byRafael Assunção
- Performance Enhancement for Routing in Cognitive Radio Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using Topology ControlUploaded byIJSRP ORG
- Moment Generating FunctionUploaded byDev Anand
- 1687-1499-2011-208Uploaded bysuchi87
- aUploaded byfarihafairuz
- Cognitive radioUploaded bynaaa
- [IJCST-V5I1P4]: S.Tamilarasasan, Bharath Raj D, K. Balakrishnan, Avinash NUploaded byEighthSenseGroup
- Distributed Coordination protocol for Adhoc cognitive radio networksUploaded bySelva612
- ceyhunUploaded bykaminare
- OSUploaded byApurav Gupta
- 05665172Uploaded bysathish14singh
- Session I 1 Software Defined Radio ZhouUploaded byAhmed Mohamed
- good optimiz cr.pdfUploaded byDeepak Sharma
- [Springer 2014]-A Bayesian Learning Automata-Based Distributed Channel Selection Scheme ForUploaded byyaya
- June 2014 (R) QP - S1 Edexcel.pdfUploaded byahamed
- FIN 3710 Mid.1.docxUploaded byAnonymous IZStoqjt3X
- Part2Uploaded bySYAFIQAH ISMAIL
- Normal1 ShivUploaded byParag Manohar Patil
- Part 1 Project-Simulation ExerciseUploaded byNilrey Jim D. Cornites
- 05670358 On Spectrum Sharing With Underlaid Femtocell Networks.pdfUploaded byJJamesran

- SSDFUploaded bysuchi87
- APSC 2013 Prelims General Studies Question Paper BvnbvnUploaded byBaloram Dey
- L12Uploaded bysuchi87
- Geometric (1)Uploaded bysuchi87
- 2016-2Uploaded bysuchi87
- 4impUploaded bysuchi87
- ch3_pt4Uploaded bysuchi87
- BetaUploaded byHappy Mercury
- Outlier 9 ImpUploaded bysuchi87
- 2011-34Uploaded bysuchi87
- lect13Uploaded bysuchi87
- 27Uploaded bysuchi87
- 1impUploaded bysuchi87
- 6impUploaded bysuchi87
- 28Uploaded bysuchi87
- 30Uploaded bysuchi87
- 31Uploaded bysuchi87
- 32Uploaded bysuchi87
- Channel Aware Decision Fusion in WsnUploaded bysuchi87
- art%3A10.1007%2Fs11277-012-0519-4Uploaded bysuchi87
- 5 impUploaded bysuchi87
- 3impUploaded bysuchi87
- [Elearnica.ir] De50544bc7603fd8cd06ed1ea334c39eUploaded bysuchi87
- Efficient Elimination of Erroneous Nodes in Cooperative SensingUploaded bysuchi87
- Outlier 10 ImpUploaded bysuchi87
- 23-15Uploaded bysuchi87
- 18-2015Uploaded bysuchi87

- An Assessment of Factors Affecting Efficiency of Procurement Function in County Government of BungomaUploaded byInternational Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
- S-PLUS (and R) Manual to Accompany Categorical Data AnalysisUploaded bySergio Francisco Juárez Cerrillo
- Descriptive Statistics Chi SquareUploaded byudaysk
- Binomial DistributionUploaded bysiva
- 283 Chi2 f13-HandoutUploaded byngyncloud
- BCA AdvancedUploaded byManasvi Mehta
- 30865256-Study-of-the-Market-Scenario-of-Indian-Packaged-Drinking-Water-Industry-with-Focus-on-Bisleri.docUploaded byrtkob
- 10. Probability Analysis for Estimation of Annual One DayUploaded byMayankDubey
- Statistice for Management MB0040 B1129 1Uploaded byPrafull Varshney
- Lesson 2 - Methods of ResearchUploaded byAngelicaN.Esposo
- Ch 04 - Overview of Estimation TechniquesUploaded byLi Chu Fai
- Chapter 12Uploaded byJJBB33
- Stata Teste de InvarianciaUploaded bymirianalbertpires
- Jntuh-2-1-Sem-R13-CSE-SyllabusUploaded bypraveennallavelly
- Pishghadam 2011Uploaded byAmal Mch
- CROSSTABS.docxUploaded byTeuku Hanafi Hanafi
- Chapter 8 ChiSquareUploaded byYii Phin Jong
- Introduction to Error AnalysisUploaded byMichael Mutale
- One Day PMPUploaded byCelene Pia Ngo
- IE 403 Ch03 RNG RVG With CommentsUploaded bysaleh
- COURSE 5 ECONOMETRICS 2009 chi square.pptUploaded byAlex Ionescu
- CASH FLOW ANALYSIS OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTSUploaded byIzo Serem
- Statistics ManagementUploaded byMohammad Tariqul Islam
- Preliminary Pages EditedUploaded byjonathan22ph
- 8Uploaded bySasha SG
- Stat VivaUploaded byTanjima Mahjabin
- tsvarnormUploaded byStephen Mailu
- CAPE Biology 2017 U1 P2Uploaded byAnonymous19
- Kruskal Wallis TestUploaded byViswan Thrissur
- Testing Random Number GeneratorsUploaded byMak MingChu