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Lecture 1 of CS130

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A =

a

11

a

12

a

1n

a

21

a

22

a

2n

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

a

m1

a

m2

a

mn

m,n

= [a

ij

].

If m = n then A is said to be square matrix of order n, denoted

by A

n

, with a

ii

, i = 1, . . . , n forming the diagonal of A.

A diagonal matrix A is a square matrix [a

ij

] with a

ij

= 0, for

every i = j.

A =

2 0

0 3

B =

0 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 2

ii

] with a

ii

= c, a con-

stant.

The identity matrix I

n

is a scalar matrix with a

ii

= 1.

Two matrices A = [a

ij

] and B = [b

ij

] are said to equal, denoted

A = B, if and only if a

ij

= b

ij

for every i = 1, . . . , m and for every

j = 1, . . . , n.

(Needless to say, matrices A and B should be at least of the same

size.)

A =

1 2

0 3

B =

1 a + b

c b

1

Matrix Operations:

1. Matrix Addition: If A = [a

ij

] and B = [b

ij

] are m n

matrices, then the sum of A and B, denoted by A + B, is an

mn matrix [c

ij

] where c

ij

= a

ij

+ b

ij

.

2. Scalar Multiplication: If A = [a

ij

] is an m n matrix, and

r is a real number, then the scalar multiple of A by r, denoted by

rA, is an mn matrix [c

ij

] where c

ij

= ra

ij

.

3. Matrix Multiplication: If A = [a

ij

] is an m p matrix, and

B = [a

ij

] is a p n matrix, then the product of A and B, denoted

by AB, is an mn matrix [c

ij

] where

c

ij

= a

i1

b

1j

+ a

i2

b

2j

+ + a

ip

b

pj

.

Example:

A =

1 2 1

0 3 2

B =

3 2

1 5

2 0

Remarks:

a. For AB to be dened, A and B should be compatible matrices

(or matrices of appropriate sizes).

b. If A and B are matrices of appropriate sizes, AB is dened

but BA may not be dened. BA will be dened only if m = n.

c. If m = n, then AB is mn, while BA is p p. Thus AB

and BA are of dierent sizes.

d. Even if AB and BA are of the same size, in general, the two

are not equal.

Example:

A =

1 2

3 2

B =

2 1

3 4

2

4. Transpose of a Matrix: If A = [a

ij

] is an mn matrix, then

the transpose of A, denoted by A

T

= [a

T

ij

], is the n m matrix

such that a

T

ij

= a

ji

.

A matrix A is said to be symmetric if A

T

= A. That is, A is a

square matrix with a

ij

= a

ji

.

A matrix A is said to be skew-symmetric if A

T

= A.

Example:

A =

1 2 3

2 1 4

B =

3 1 3

4 1 5

2 1 3

C =

3 2

2 4

D =

2 4 5

0 1 4

3 2 1

E =

4 5

2 3

1. C + E

2. AB and BA

3. 2D 3B

4. CB + 2D

5. A

T

and (A

T

)

T

6. (AB)

T

and B

T

A

T

7. B

T

C + A

3

Properties of Matrix Operations:

Theorem 1: For mn matrices A, B and C, we have

1. A + B = B + A

2. (A + B) + C = A + (B + C)

3. There is an m n zero matrix 0 ( i.e. a

i

j = 0, i, j ) such

that A + 0 = 0 + A = A.

4. There is an mn matrix D such that A+D = 0 and D+A = 0

D = A.

Theorem 2: If A, B, and C are matrices of appropriate sizes,

then

1. A(BC) = (AB)C

2. A(B + C) = AB + AC

3. (A + B)C = AC + BC

Theorem 3: For real numbers r, s, and matrices A and B of

appropriate sizes, we have

1. r(sA) = rsA

2. (r + s)A = rA + sA

3. r(A + B) = rA + rB

4. A(rB) = r(AB) = (rA)B

Theorem 4: If r is a scalar, and A and B are matrices of appro-

priate sizes, then

1. (A

T

)

T

= A

2. (A + B)

T

= A

T

+ B

T

3. (AB)

T

= B

T

A

T

4. (rA)

T

= rA

T

4

Lower and Upper Triangular Matrices

A square matrix A

n

= [a

ij

] of order n is a lower triangular matrix

if a

ij

= 0 for i < j, i = 1, . . . , n, j = 1, . . . , n.

A square matrix A

n

= [a

ij

] of order n is an upper triangular matrix

if a

ij

= 0 for i > j, i = 1, . . . , n, j = 1, . . . , n.

The p

th

-power of a square matrix A, denoted by A

p

, is the square

matrix

A

p

= A A A

p factors

.

Remarks:

1. The p

th

-power of a lower triangular matrix is also a lower tri-

angular matrix.

2. The p

th

-power of an upper triangular matrix is also an upper

triangular matrix.

3. The p

th

-power of a diagonal matrix is a diagonal matrix such

that if

D =

d

11

0 0 0

0 d

22

0 0

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

0 0 0 d

nn

then

D

p

=

d

p

11

0 0 0

0 d

p

22

0 0

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

0 0 0 d

p

nn

.

5

If A

k+1

= A where k is the least positive integer, then A is

periodic of period k. In particular, if A

2

= A, then A is idempotent.

If A

p

= 0 where p is the least positive integer, then A is nilpotent

of index p.

Inverse of a Matrix

A square matrix A is said to be invertible if there exists a square

matrix B such that AB = I and BA = I. In this case we denote

B = A

1

.

Properties: For invertible matrices A and B of the same order,

1. (A

1

)

1

= A

2. (AB)

1

= B

1

A

1

6

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