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7

Contract Costing
BASIC CONCEPTS AND FORMULAE
Basic Concepts
1. Contract costing:- Contract or terminal costing, as it is termed, is one form of
application of the principles of job costing. In fact a bigger job is referred to as a
contract. Contract costing is usually adopted by building contractors engaged in the
task of executing Civil Contracts.
2. Sub-Contract : Sub-contract costs are also debited to the Contract Account.
3. Extra work: The extra work amount payable by the contractee should be added to
the contract price. If extra work is substantial, it is better to treat it as a separate
contract. If it is not substantial, expenses incurred should be debited to the contract
account as Cost of Extra work.
4. Cost of work certified: All building contractors received payments periodically
known as running payment on the basis of the architects or surveyors certificates.
But payments are not equal to the value of the work certified, a small percentage of
the amount due is retained as security for any defective work which may be
discovered later within the guarantee period.
5. Work uncertified: It represents the cost of the work which has been carried out by
the contractor but has not been certified by the contractees architect. It is always
shown at cost price.
6. Retention money: A contractor does not receive full payment of the work certified
by the surveyor. Contractee retains some amount (say 10% to 20%) to be paid, after
sometime, when it is ensured that there is no fault in the work carried out by con-
tractor.
7. Work-in-progress: In Contract Accounts, the value of the work-in-progress consists
of (i) the cost of work completed, both certified and uncertified; (ii) the cost of work
not yet completed; and (iii) the amount of profit taken as credit. In the Balance Sheet,
the work-in-progress is usually shown under two heads, viz., certified and uncertified.
8. Notional profit : It represents the difference between the value of work certified and
cost of work certified.
The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
7.2 Cost Accounting

9. Estimated profit : It is the excess of the contract price over the estimated total cost
of the contract.
10. Cost plus Contract : Under Cost plus Contract, the contract price is ascertained by
adding a percentage of profit to the total cost of the work. Such type of contracts are
entered into when it is not possible to estimate the Contract Cost with reasonable
accuracy due to unstable condition of material, labour services, etc.
14. Operating Costing: It is a method of ascertaining costs of providing or operating a
service. This method of costing is applied by those undertakings which provide
services rather than production of commodities.
15. Multiple Costing: It refers to the method of costing followed by a business wherein
a large variety of articles are produced, each differing from the other both in regard
to material required and process of manufacture. In such cases, cost of each article
is computed separately by using, generally, two or more methods of costing.
Basic Formulas
1. When work on contract has not reasonably advanced, no profit is taken into account.
In practice, no profit is calculated when work certified is less than 1/4
th
but less than
of the contract price.
2. When work certified is more than 1/4
th
but less than of the contract price, following
formula is used to determine the figures of profit to be credited to profit and loss account:
1/3 Notional profit
certified Work
recieved Cash

3. When work certified is more than of the contract price, but it is still not in the final
stage, following formula is used to determine the figure of profit to be credited to
profit and loss account:
2/3 Notional profit
certified Work
received Cash

4. When the contract is almost complete, an estimate total profit is determined by
deducting aggregate of cost to date and estimated additional expenditure from
contract price. A portion of this estimated total profit is credited to profit and loss
account. The figure to be credited to profit and loss account is ascertained by
adopting any of the following formulae:
4.1 Estimated total profit
price Contract
certified Work

The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
Contract Costing 7.3

4.2 Estimated total profit
price Contract
received Cash

4.3 Estimated total profit
cost total Estimated
date to Work of Cost

4.4 Estimated total profit
t cos total Estimated
date to Work of Cost

certified Work
received Cash

5. Profits on incomplete contracts: The overriding principle being that there can be
no attributable profit until the outcome of a contract can reasonably be foreseen. Of
the profit which in the light of all the circumstances can be foreseen with a
reasonable degree of certainty to arise on completion of the contract there should be
regarded as earned to date only that part which prudently reflects the amount of
work performed to date. The method used for taking up such profits needs to be
consistently applied.
6. The computation of escalation claim is based on wording of escalation clause.
Normally it is calculated on stipulated quantity of material and labour hours based on
price and rate differential.
7. Work certified and consequent payment: Work certified and consequent payment m
7.1 The amount of work certified can be debited to contractees account. On receipt
of money from contractee, his personal account will be credited and cash or
bank account, as the cause may be will be debited.
7.2 At the time of balance sheet preparation, Contractees Account will be shown
on the Assets side as debtors.
7.3 Under the second method (it is more common than the first, students are
advised to follow this method only) the amount of work certified is debited to
work-in-progress account and credited to contract account. The work-in-
progress should be shown on the assets side after deduction of cash received.
Next year work-in-progress account will be debited to contract account.
Question 1
Write note on cost-plus-contracts.
Answer
These contracts provide for the payment by the contractee of the actual cost of manufacture
plus a stipulated profit, mutually decided between the two parties.
The main features of these contracts are as follows:
The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
7.4 Cost Accounting

1. The practice of cost-plus contracts is adopted in the case of those contracts where the
probable cost of the contracts cannot be ascertained in advance with a reasonable accuracy.
2. These contracts are preferred when the cost of material and labour is not steady and the
contract completion may take number of years.
3. The different costs to be included in the execution of the contract are mutually agreed, so that
no dispute may arise in future in this respect. Under such type of contracts, contractee is
allowed to check or scrutinize the concerned books, documents and accounts.
4. Such a contract offers a fair price to the contractee and also a reasonable profit to the
contractor.
5. The contract price here is ascertained by adding a fixed and mutually pre-decided component
of profit to the total cost of the work.
Question 2
Write notes on Escalation Clause
Answer
Escalation Clause: This clause is usually provided in the contracts as a safeguard against
any likely changes in the price or utilization of material and labour. If during the period of
execution of a contract, the prices of materials or labour rise beyond a certain limit, the
contract price will be increased by an agreed amount. Inclusion of such a term in a contract
deed is known as an 'escalation clause'
An escalation clause usually relates to change in price of inputs, it may also be extended to
increased consumption or utilization of quantities of materials, labour etc. In such a situation
the contractor has to satisfy the contractee that the increased utilization is not due to his
inefficiency.
Question 3
Discuss briefly the principles to be followed while taking credit for profit on incomplete
contracts
Answer
Principles to be followed while taking credit for profit on incomplete contracts:
The portion of profit to be credited to, profit and loss account should depend on the stage of
completion of the contract. This stage of completion of the contract should refer to the certified
work only. For this purpose, uncertified work should not be considered as for as possible. For
determining the credit for profit, all the incomplete contracts should be classified into the
following four categories.
(i) Contract less than 25% complete
(ii) Contracts is upto 25% or more but less than 50% complete
The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
Contract Costing 7.5

(iii) Contracts is upto 50% or more but less than 90% complete
(iv) Contracts nearing completion, say between 90% and 100% complete.
The transfer of profit to the profit and loss account in each of the above cases is done as
under:
(i) Contract less than 25% complete: if the contract has just started or it is less than 25%
complete, no profit should be taken into account.
(ii) Contracts is upto 25% or more but less than 50% complete: In this case one third of the
notional profit reduced in the ratio of cash received to work certified, may be transferred
to the profit and loss account. The amount of profit to be transferred to the profit and loss
account may be determined by using the following formula:

3
1
Notional profit
certified Work
received Cash

(iii) Contracts is upto 50% or more but less than 90% complete: In this case, two third of the
notional profit, reduced by the portion of cash received to work certified may be
transferred to the profit and loss account. In this case the formula to be used is as under:

3
2
Notional profit
certified Work
received Cash

(iv) Contracts nearing completion, say between 90% and 100% complete: When a contract is
nearing completion or 90% or more work has been done on a contract. The amount of
profit to be credited to profit and loss account may be determined by using any one of the
following formula.
(a) Estimated profit
price Contract
certified Work

(b) Estimated profit
price Contract
certified Work

certified Work
received Cash

or Estimated profit
price Contract
certified Work

(c) Estimated Profit
t cos total Estimated
date to work of Cost

(d) Estimated profit
certified Work
received Cash
cost total Estimated
date to work of Cost

(e) Notional profit
price Contract
certified Work

The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
7.6 Cost Accounting

Question 4
Discuss the process of estimating profit/loss on incomplete contracts
Answer
Process of estimating profit / loss on incomplete contracts
(i) If completion of contract is less than 25% no profit should be taken to profit and loss
account.
(ii) If completion of contract is upto 25% or more but less than 50% then
1/3 Notional Profit
certified Work
received Cash

may be taken to profit and loss account.
(iii) If completion of contract is 50% or more but less than 90% then
2/3 Notional Profit
certified Work
received Cash

may be taken to profit and loss account
(iv) If completion of contract is greater than or equal to 90% then one of the following
formulas may be used for taking the profit to profit and loss account.
1. Estimated Profit
price Contract
certified Work

2. Estimated Profit
certified Work
received Cash
price Contract
certified Work

3. Estimated Profit
t cos total Estimated
date to work the of Cost

4. Estimated Profit
certified Work
received Cash
t cos total Estimated
date to work the of Cost

5. Notional Profit
price Contract
certified Work

Question 5
Brock Construction Ltd. commenced a contract on November 1, 2003. The total contract was
for ` 39,37,500. It was decided to estimate the total profit on the contract and to take to the
credit of P/L A/c that proportion of estimated profit on cash basis, which work completed bore
The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
Contract Costing 7.7

to the total contract. Actual expenditure for the period November 1, 2003 to October 31, 2004
and estimated expenditure for November 1, 2004 to March 31, 2005 are given below:
November 1,2003 to
October 31, 2004
(Actual)
(`)
November 1,2004 to
March 31 , 2005
(Estimated)
(`)
Material issued
Labour Paid
Prepaid
Outstanding
Plant purchased
Expenses Paid
Outstanding
Plant return to store
(Historical cost)
Work certified
Work uncertified
Cash received
Material at site
6,75,000
4,50,000
25,000

3,75,000
2,00,000
50,000
75,000
(on March 31, 2004)
20,00,000
75,000
17,50,000
75,000
12,37,500
5,62,500

2,500

3,50,000
25,000
3,00,000
(on March 31, 2005)
Full


37,500
The plant is subject to annual depreciation @ 33% on written down value method. The
contract is likely to be completed on March 31, 2005.
Required
Prepare the contract A/c. Determine the profit on the contract for the year November, 2003 to
October, 2004 on prudent basis, which has to be credited to P/L A/C
Answer
Brock Construction Ltd. Contract A/c
(November 1, 2003 to Oct. 31, 2004)
Dr. Dr.
Particulars Amount
(`)
Amount
(`)
To Materials issued 6,75,000 By Plant returned to
store on
31/03/04 at cost


75,000
To Labour paid
Prepaid
To Plant Purchased
To Expenses paid
4,50,000
25,000
2,00,000
4,25,000
3,75,000
Less: Dep (1/3)
By WIP
Certified
Uncertified
10,417

20,00,000
75,000
64,583
20,75,000
The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
7.8 Cost Accounting

To Outstanding 50,000 2,50,000 By Plant at site
31/10/04 at Cost

3,00,000
To Notional profit
c/d
6,89,583
24,14,583
Less: Dep (1/3)
By Materials at site
1,00,000 2,00,000
75,000
24,14,583
To P/L A/c
3,34,305
(17,50,000 /
20,00,000)
(20,00,000 /
39,37,500)
To Work-in-progress
(Profit in reserve)
1,48,580
5,41,003
6,89,583
By Notional Profit
b/d
6,89,583

6,89,583
Brock Construction Ltd. Contract A/c (November 1, 2003 to March 31, 2005)
(For computing estimated profit)
Dr. Cr.
Particulars Amount
(`)
Amount
(`)
To Material issued
(6,75,000+12,37,500)
To Labour (paid &
outstanding)
(4,25,000+5,87,500+2,500)
To Plant purchased
19,12,500
10,15,000
3,75,000
By Material at site

By Plant returned to
stores on 31/3/04
By Plant returned to
stores on 31/3/05
Cost
Less: Dep.
Less: 5 month Dep.






3,00,000
1,00,000
27,778
37,500

64,583

1,72,222



To Expenses
(2,50,000 + 3,25,000)
5,75,000 By Contractee A/c 39,37,500
To Estimated profit 3,34,305
42,11,805

42,11,805
Question 6
Paramount Engineers are engaged in construction and erection of a bridge under a long-term
contract. The cost incurred upto 31.03.2001 was as under:
Fabrication ` In Lakhs
Direct Material 280
Direct Labour 100
The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
Contract Costing 7.9

Overheads 60
440
Erection costs to date 110
550
The contract price is ` 11 crores and the cash received on account till 31.03.2001 was ` 6 crores.
The technical estimate of the contract indicates the following degree of completion of work.
Fabrication Direct Material 70%, Director Labour and Overheads 60% Erection 40%.
You are required to estimate the profit that could be taken to Profit and Loss Account against
this partly completed contract as at 31.03.2001.
Answer
Estimation of Profit to be taken to Profit and Loss Account against partly completed
contract as at 31.03.2001.
Profit to be taken to P/L Account =
3
2
Notional profit
certified Work
received Cash

(Refer to working notes 1,2,3 & 4)
=
3
2
` 92.48 lakhs
s`
`
600lakhs
642.48lakhs
= `57.576 lakhs
Working Notes
1. Statement showing estimated profit to
date and future profit on the completion of contract
Particulars Cost to date Further Costs Total
Cost
(`)
(a) + (b)
%
Completion
to date
Amount
(`)
(a)
%
completion
to be done
Amount
(`)
(b)
Fabrication costs:
Direct material
Direct labour
Overheads
Total Fabrication cost (A)
Erection cost: (B)
Total estimated costs: (A+B)
Profit
(Refer to working note 2)
70
60
60
40
280.00
100.00
60.00
440.00
110.00
550.00
92.48
______
30
40
40
60

120.00
66.67
40.00
226.67
165.00
391.67
65.85
______
400.00
166.67
100.00
666.67
275.00
491.67
158.33
______
642.48 457.52 1,100.00
The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
7.10 Cost Accounting

2. Profit to date (Notional Profit) and future profit are calculated as below:
Profit to date (Notional Profit) =
Cost Total
date to Cost contract whole the on profit Estimated

=
` `
`
158.33 550
941.67


= ` 92.48 (lakhs)
Future Profit = ` 158.33 ` 92.48 = ` 65.85
3. Work certified:
= Cost of the contract to date + Profit to date
= ` 550 + ` 92.49 = ` 642.48 lakhs
4. Degree of Completion of Contract to date:
=
Price Contract
date to Contract the of Cost
100 =
`
`
642.48lakhs
1,100lakhs
100 =58.40%
Question 7
A construction company undertook a contract at an estimated price of `108 lacs, which
includes a budgeted profit of ` 18 lacs. The relevant data for the year ended 31.03.2002 are
as under:
(` '000)
Materials issued to site 5,000
Direct wages paid 3,800
Plant hired 700
Site office costs 270
Materials returned from site 100
Direct expenses 500
Work certified 10,000
Progress payment received 7,200
A special plant was purchased specifically for this contract at ` 8,00,000 and after use on this
contract till the end of 31.02.2002, it was valued at `5,00,000. This cost of materials at site at the end
of the year was estimated at ` 18,00,000. Direct wages accrued as on 31.03.2002 was ` 1,10,000.
Required
Prepare the Contract Account for the year ended 31
st
March, 2002 and compute the profit to
be taken to the Profit and Loss account.

The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
Contract Costing 7.11

Answer
Contract Account for the year ended 31
st
March, 2002
Dr. Cr.
` 000 ` 000
To Materials issued to site
To Direct wages
To Wages accrued
To Plant hire
To Site Office Costs
To Direct expenses
To Depreciation of special plant
5,000
3,800
110
700
270
500
300
By Materials at site
By Materials returned
By Cost of contract
1,800
100
8,780



_____
10,680 10,680
To Cost of contract 8,780 By Work certified 10,000
To Profit & Loss A/c
(Refer to working note 2)
1,200
To Work-in-progress c/d 20 _____
(Profit in reserve) 10,000 10,000
Working notes
1. Percentage of contract completion =
contract the of Value
certified work of Cost
100
=
lacs 108
lacs 100
100 = 92.59%
2. Since the percentage of Contract completion is more than 90% therefore the profit
to be taken to Profit and Loss Account can be computed by using the following
formula.
Profit to be taken to P & L A/c = Budged/Estimated Profit
price Contract
certified Work
certified Work
received Cash

= 1,800
800 , 10
000 , 10
000 , 10
200 , 7
= 1,800
800 , 10
200 , 7
= ` 1,200
Question 8
Explain the following:
(i) Notional profit in Contract costing
(ii) Retention money in Contract costing
The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
7.12 Cost Accounting

Answer
(i) Notional profit in Contract costing:
It represents the difference between the value of work certified and cost of work certified.
Notional Profit = Value of work certified (Cost of works to date Cost of work not yet
certified)
(ii) Retention Money in Contract Costing:
A contractor does not receive the full payment of the work certified by the surveyor.
Contractee retains some amount to be paid after some time, when it is ensured that there
is no default in the work done by the contractor. If any deficiency or defect is noticed, it
is to be rectified by the contractor before the release of the retention money. Thus, the
retention money provides a safeguard against the default risk in the contracts.
Question 9
(a) Modern Construction Ltd. obtained a contract No. B-37 for ` 40 lakhs. The following
balances and information relate to the contract for the year ended 31st March, 2008:
1.4.2007 31.3.2008
(`) (`)
Work-in-progress:
Work certified 9,40,000 30,00,000
Work uncertified 11,200 32,000
Materials at site 8,000 20,000
Accrued wages 5,000 3,000
Additional information relating to the year 2007-2008 are:
(`)
Materials issued from store 4,00,000
Materials directly purchased 1,50,000
Wages paid 6,00,000
Architects fees 51,000
Plant hire charges 50,000
Indirect expenses 10,000
Share of general overheads for B-37 18,000
Materials returned to store 25,000
Materials returned to supplier 15,000
Fines and penalties paid 12,000

The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
Contract Costing 7.13

The contractee pays 80% of work certified in cash. You are required to prepare:
(i) Contract Account showing clearly the amount of profits transferred to Profit and Loss
Account.
(ii) Contractees Account.
(iii) Balance Sheet
Answer
(a) Books of Modern Constructions Ltd.
Contract No. B-37 Account for the year ended 31
st
March, 2008
(`) (`)
To WIP b/d
(9,40,000 + 11,200) 9,51,200
By Wages Accrued b/d 5,000
To Stock (materials) b/d 8,000 By Materials returned to Store 25,000
To Materials issued 4,00,000 By Materials returned to
suppliers
15,000
To Materials purchased 1,50,000 By WIP c/d -
To Wages paid 6,00,000 Work
Certified
30,00,000
To Wages Accrued c/d 3,000 Uncertified
work

32,000 30,32,000
To Architects fees 51,000 By Materials stock c/d 20,000
To Plant Hire charges 50,000
To Indirect expenses 10,000
To General overheads 18,000
To Notional profit c/d 8,55,800 ________
30,97,000 30,97,000
To Profit and Loss A/c


100
80
8,55,800
3
2


4,56,427
By Notional Profit b/f 8,55,800
To WIP Reserve c/d 3,99,373 _______
8,55,800 8,55,800
Note: Fines and penalties are not shown in contract accounts.
Contractees Account
(`) (`)
To Balance c/d 24,00,000 By Balance b/d (80% of 9,40,000) 7,52,000
________ By Bank 16,48,000
24,00,000 24,00,000
The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
7.14 Cost Accounting

Balance Sheet (Extract) as on 31.3.2008
(`) (`)
Profit and Loss A/c 4,56,427 Materials stock at site 20,000
Less: Fines 12,000 4,44,427 Materials stock in store 25,000
Outstanding wages 3,000 WIP:
Work Certified 30,00,000
Work Uncertified 32,000
30,32,000
Less: Advance 24,00,000
6,32,000
Less: WIP Reserve 3,99,373 2,32,627
Question 10
Compute a conservative estimate of profit on contract (which has been 90% complete) from the
following particulars:
(`)
Total expenditure to date 22,50,000
Estimated further expenditure to complete the contract (including contingencies) 2,50,000
Contract Price 32,50,000
Work certified 27,50,000
Work uncertified 1,75,000
Cash received 21,25,000
Answer
The contract is 90% complete, the method used for transfer of profit to Profit and Loss Account for
the current year will be on the basis of estimated profit on completed contract basis.
contract completed on profit Estimated Account Loss and Proift to Credit =

certified Work
received Cash

price Contract
certified Work

Estimated profit on completed contract basis = Contract Price (Total expenditure to date +
Estimated further expenditure to completed contract)
= 32,50,000 (22,50,000 + 2,50,000)
= ` 7,50,000.
27,50,000 21,25,000
Credit to Proift and Loss Account 7,50,000 4,90,385
32,50,000 27,50,000
= = `
The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
Contract Costing 7.15

Question 11
What is cost plus contract? State its advantages.
Answer
Cost plus contract: Under cost plus contract, the contract price is ascertained by adding a
percentage of profit to the total cost of the work. Such types of contracts are entered into when it is
not possible to estimate the contract cost with reasonable accuracy due to unstable condition of
material, labour services etc.
Following are the advantages of cost plus contract:
(i) The contractor is assured of a fixed percentage of profit. There is no risk of incurring any loss
on the contract.
(ii) It is useful specially when the work to be done is not definitely fixed at the time of making the
estimate.
(iii) Contractee can ensure himself about the cost of contract as he is empowered to examine
the books and documents of the contractor to ascertain the veracity of the cost of contract.
Question 12
Explain the importance of an Escalation Clause in contract cost.
Answer
During the execution of a contract, the prices of materials, or labour etc., may rise beyond a
certain limit. In such a case the contract price will be increased by an agreed amount.
Inclusion of such a clause in a contract deed is called an Escalation Clause.
Question 13
A contract expected to be completed in year 4, exhibits the following information:
End of Year Value of work
certified
Cost of work to
date
Cost of work not
yet certified
Cash received
(`) (`) (`) (`)
1. 0 50,000 50,000 0
2. 3,00,000 2,30,000 10,000 2,75,000
3. 8,00,000 6,60,000 20,000 7,50,000
The contract price is ` 10,00,000 and the estimated profit is 20%.
You are required to calculate, how much profit should have been credited to the Profit and
Loss A/c by the end of years 1, 2 and 3.

The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
7.16 Cost Accounting

Answer
End of
year
Value of work
certified
(`)
Cost of work
certified*
(`)
Notional
profit**
(`)
Amount that should have been
credited to Profit and Loss A/c by the
end of year
(`)
1 0 0 0 0
2 3,00,000 2,20,000 80,000
24,444
3,00,000
2,75,000
80,000
3
1
=

3 8,00,000 6,40,000 1,60,000
1,00,000
8,00,000
7,50,000
1,60,000
3
2
=

Workings:
End of
year
Completion of Contract Profit credited to P & L Account
year 1 less than 25 per cent. No profit credited
Year 2 25 per cent or more than
25 per cent but less than
50 per cent.
certified work of Value
received Cash
profit notional
3
1
profit Cumulative =

Year 3 50 per cent or more than
50 per cent but less than
90 per cent.
certified work of Value
received Cash
profit notional
3
2
profit Cumulative =

* Cost of work certified = Cost of work to date Cost of work not yet certified
** Notional profit = Value of work certified (Cost of work to date Cost of work not yet certify
Question 14
A contract is estimated to be 80% complete in its first year of construction as certified. The
contractee pays 75% of value of work certified, as and when certified and makes the final
payment on the completion of contract. Following information is available for the first year:
(`)
Cost of work-in-progress uncertified 8,000
Profit transferred to Profit & Loss A/c at the end of year I on incomplete contract 60,000
Cost of work to date 88,000
Calculate the value of work- in-progress certified and amount of contract price.


The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
Contract Costing 7.17

Answer
As the contract is 80% complete, so 2/3
rd
of the notional profit on cash basis has been
transferred to Profit & Loss A/c in the first year of contract.
Amount transferred to Profit & Loss A/c =
3
2
Notional Profit % of cost received
or , 60,000 =
3
2
Notional Profit
100
75

or, Notional Profit =
60,000 3 100
2 75

= `1,20,000
Computation of Value of Work Certified
Cost of work to date = ` 88,000
Add: Notional Profit = `1,20,000
`2,08,000
Less: Cost of Work Uncertified = 8,000
Value of Work Certified = `2,00,000
Since the Value of Work Certified is 80% of the Contract Price, therefore
Contract Price =
% 80
Certified Work of Value

=
2,00,000
80%
`
= `2,50,000
Question 15
SB Constructions Limited has entered into a big contract at an agreed price of ` 1,50,00,000
subject to an escalation clause for material and labour as spent out on the contract and
corresponding actuals are as follows:
Material:
Standard Actual
Quantity
(Tonnes)
Rate per
Tonne
Quantity
(Tonnes)
Rate per
Tonne
(`) (`)
A 3,000 1,000 3,400 1,100
B 2,400 800 2,300 700
C 500 4,000 600 3,900
D 100 30,000 90 31,500
Labour:
Hours Hourly Rate Hours Hourly Rate
(`) (`)
L
1
60,000 15 56,000 18
L
2
40,000 30 38,000 35
The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
7.18 Cost Accounting

You are required to:
(i) Give your analysis of admissible escalation claim and determine the final contract price
payable.
(ii) Prepare the contract account, if the all expenses other than material and labour related to
the contract are ` 13,45,000.
Answer
(i) Statement showing additional claim due to escalation clause.
Std.
Qty/Hours
Std. Rate Actual Rate Variation in
Rate (`)
Escalation
claim (`)
(a) (b) (c) (d)= (c-b) (e)= (ad)
Material
A 3000 1000 1100 +100 +3,00,000
B 2400 800 700 -100 -2,40,000
C 500 4000 3900 -100 -50000
D 100 30000 31500 +1500 +1,50,000
Material escalation claim 1,60,000
Labour:
L
1
60,000 15 18 +3 +1,80,000
L
2
40,000 30 35 +5 +2,00,000
Labour escalation claim 3,80,000
Statement showing Final Contract Price
(`)
Agreed contract price 1,50,00,000
Add: Agreed escalation claim: (`)
Material Cost 1,60,000
Labour Cost 3,80,000 5,40,000
Final Contract Price 1,55,40,000
(ii) Contract Account
Dr. Cr.
(`) (`)
To Material: By Contractees A/c 1,55,40,000
A 3,400 `1,100
B 2,300 ` 700
C 600 ` 3,900
The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
Contract Costing 7.19

D- 90 `31,500 1,05,25,000
To Labour:
L1 56,000 `18
L2 38,000 `35 23,38,000
To Other expenses 13,45,000
To Profit and Loss A/c 13,32,000
1,55,40,000 1,55,40,000
Question 16
PQR Construction Ltd. commenced a contract on April 1, 2009. The total contract was for
` 27,12,500. It was decided to estimate the total profit and to take to the credit of P/L A/c the
proportion of estimated profit on cash basis which work completed bear to the total contract. Actual
expenditure in 2009-10 and estimated expenditure in 2010-11 are given below:
2009-10 2010-11
Actual( `) Estimated (`)
Material issued 4,56,000 8,14,000
Labour : Paid
: Outstanding at end
3,05,000
24,000
3,80,000
37,500
Plant purchased
Expenses : Paid
: Outstanding at the end
: Prepaid at the end
2,25,000
1,00,000
-
22,500
-
1,75,000
25,000
-
Plant returned to stores (a historical stores) 75,000 1,50,000 (on Dec 31 2010)
Material at site 30,000 75,000
Work-in progress certified 12,75,000 Full
Work-in-progress uncertified 40,000 ----
Cash received 10,00,000 Full
The plant is subject to annual depreciation @ 20% of WDV cost. The contract is likely to be
completed on December 31, 2010.
Required:
(i) Prepare the Contract A/c for the year 2009-10.
(ii) Estimate the profit on the contract for the year 2009-10 on prudent basis which has to be
credited to P/L A/c
The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
7.20 Cost Accounting

Answer
PQR Construction Ltd.
Contract A/c
(April 1, 2009 to March 31, 2010)
Dr. Cr.
Amount Amount
To Materials Issued 4,56,000 By Plant returned to Stores 60,000
To Labour (Working Note 1)
Paid 3,05,000 By Materials at Site 30,000
Outstanding 24,000 3,29,000 By W.I.P.
To Plant Purchased 2,25,000 Certified 12,75,000
To expenses Uncertified 40,000 13,15,000
Paid 1,00,000
(-) Prepaid 22,500 77,500 By Plant at Site 1,20,000
To Notional Profit c/d 4,37,500 (Working Note No. 2) -
15,25,000 15,25,000
To Profit & Loss A/c 1,59,263 By Notional Profit b/d 4,37,500
(Refer to Working Note 5)
To Work-in-Progress A/c 2,78,237 -
(Profit-in-reserve) 4,37,500 4,37,500
PQR Construction Ltd.
Contract A/c
(April 1, 2009 to December 31, 2010)
Dr. (For Computing estimated profit) Cr.
Amount Amount
To Materials Issued 12,70,000 By Material at Site 75,000
(4,56,000+8,14,000)
To Labour Cost
(Paid & Outstanding)
3,05,000 + 24,000 +

3,56,000 +
37,500)
7,22,500 By Plant returned to Stores
on 31.3.2010
By Plant returned to Stores
on 31.12.2010
60,000
1,02,000
To Plant purchased 2,25,000 (Working Note 3)
To expenses By Contractee A/c 27,12,500
(77,500 + 1,97,500 + 25,000) 3,00,000
To Estimated profit 4,32,000 -
29,49,500 29,49,500

Labour paid in 2010- 11:3,80,000 24,000 = 3,56,000


The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
Contract Costing 7.21


Working Notes
(`)
1. Value of the Plant returned to Stores on 31.03.2010
Historical Cost of the Plant returned 75,000
Less: Depreciation @ 20% of WDV for one year 15,000
60,000
2. Value of Plant at Site 31.3.2010
Historical Cost of Plant at Site 1,50,000
Less: Depreciation @ 20% on WDV for one year 30,000
1,20,000
3. Value of Plant returned to Stores on 31.12.2010
Value of Plant (WDV) on 31.3.2010 1,20,000
Less: Depreciation @ 20% of WDV for a period of 9 months 18,000
1,02,000
4. Expenses Paid for the year 2009-10
Total expenses paid 1,00,000
Less: Pre-paid at the end 22,500
77,500
5. Profit to be credited to Profit & Loss A/c on March 31,2010 for the
Contract likely to be completed on December 31,2100

= Estimated Profit
Work Cerfified Cash received
x
Total Contract Price Work Certified

= 4,32,000
12,75,000 10,00,000
27,12,500 12,75,000
= ` 1,59,263
Question 17
A contractor commenced a contract on 1-7-2011. The costing records concerning the said
contract reveal the following information as on 31-3-2012.
Amount (`)
Material sent to site 7,74,300
Labour paid 10,79,000
Labour outstanding as on 31-3-2012 1,02,500
Salary to Engineer 20,500 per month
Cost of plant sent to site (1-7-2011) 7,71,000
Salary to Supervisor (3/4 time devoted to contract) 9,000 per month

The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
7.22 Cost Accounting

Administration & other expenses 4,60,600
Prepaid Administration expenses 10,000
Material in hand at site as on 31-3-2012 75,800
Plant used for the contract has an estimated life of 7 years with residual value at the end of life
` 50,000. Some of material costing ` 13,500 was found unsuitable and sold for ` 10,000.
Contract price was ` 45,00,000. On 31-3-2012 two third of the contract was completed. The
architect issued certificate covering 50% of the contract price and contractor has been paid
` 20,00,000 on account. Depreciation on plant is charged on straight line basis.
Prepare Contract Account.
Answer
Contract Account
(For the period 1.7.11 to 31.3.12)
Particulars Amount Particulars Amount
(`) (`)
To Material Issued 7,74,300 By Material (Sold) 10,000
To Labour 10,79,000 By P&L A/c (Loss)
Add: Outstanding 1,02,500 11,81,500 (13,500-10,000) 3,500
To Salary to engineer (20,500 x 9) 1,84,500 By Material in hand 75,800
To Salary to Supervisor
3
9000 9
4
60,750
By Cost of Contract c/d 26,39,600
To Administration & other
expenses 4,60,600
Less: Prepaid 10,000 4,50,600
To Depreciation on Plant 77,250
(Working Note 1)
27,28,900 27,28,900
To Cost of Contract b/d 26,39,600 By work-in Progress:
-Work certified
50% of 45,00,000 22,50,000
To Notional Profit c/d 2,70,300 -Work uncertified (W.N.-2)
(26,39,600-19,79,700) 6,59,900
29,09,900 29,09,900
To P&L A/c(W.N.3) 1,60,178 By Notional Profit b/d 2,70,300
To Reserve 1,10,122
2,70,300 2,70,300

The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
Contract Costing 7.23


Working Note
1. Calculation of depreciation on Plant
Cost of the Plant 7,71,000
Less: Residual Value 50,000
7,21,000
Estimated life 7 Years
Depreciation per annum 1,03,000
Depreciation for 9 months
=
1,03,000
9=77,250
12

2. Cost of work uncertified = Cost incurred to date minus 50% of the total cost of contract
= `26,39,600(figure already shown in the contract A/c) - `19,79,700
= `6,59,900
3. Calculation of Profit to be transferred =
2 20,00,000
2,70,300 =1,60,178
3 22,50,000

Question 18
From the following particulars compute a conservative estimate of profit by 4 methods on a
contract which has 80 percent complete:
(`)
Total expenditure to date 8,50,000
Estimate further expenditure to complete the contract 1,70,000
Contract Price 15,30,000
Work Certified 10,00,000
Work not certified 85,000
Cash received 8,16,000
Answer
Working Notes:
(i) Calculation of Notional Profit =
(Work certified + work not certified) Total expenditure to date
= ` (10,00,000+85,000) ` 8,50,000 = ` 2,35,000
The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
7.24 Cost Accounting


(ii) Calculation of Estimated Profit
Contract Price (Expenditure to date + Further expenditure to be incurred)
= `15,30,000 ` (8,50,000 + 1,70,000) = ` 5,10,000
Computation of Conservative Estimate of Profit by following methods:
1. Notional Profit x
3
2
x


Cash received
work certified

= ` 2,35,000 x
2
3
x
8,16,000
10,00,000
`
`
= ` 1,27,840
2. Estimated Profit x
Cost of work done
Estimated total Cost

Cash received
work certified

= ` 5,10,000 x
( )
8,50,000 8,16,000
8,50,000 1,70,000 10,00,000

+
= ` 3,46,800
3. Estimated Profit x
Price Contract
received Cash

= ` 5,10,000 x
8,16,000
15,30,000
= ` 2,72,000
4. Notional Profit x
Work Certified
Contract Price
x
Cash Received
Work Certified

= ` 2,35,000 x
10,00,000
15,30,000
x
8,16,000
10,00,000
= ` 1,25,333
5. Estimated Profit x
Price Contract
Certified Work
= ` 5,10,000 x
10,00,000
15,30,000
= ` 3,33,333
6. Estimated Profit x
Cost total Estimated
done work of Cost
= ` 5,10,000 x
8,50,000
10,20,000
= ` 4,25,000
7. Notional Profit x
Work Certified
Contract Price
= ` 2,35,000 x
10,00,000
15,30,000
= ` 1,53,595
Most conservative Profit is ` 1,25,333, therefore profit to be transferred to Profit and
Loss a/c is ` 1,25,333.


The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
Contract Costing 7.25

EXERCISE
Questions for Practice
1. (i) Discuss the implications of cost-plus contracts from the view points of:
(a) the manufacturer
(b) the customer.
(ii) What is the relevance of escalation clause provided in the contracts?
Answer: Refer to Chapter No. 6 i.e. Method of Costing I of Study Material.
2. Discuss briefly the principles to be followed while taking credit for profit on incomplete contracts.
Answer: Refer to Chapter No. 6 i.e. Method of Costing I of Study Material.
3. What are the main features of 'Cost-Plus-Contracts'
Answers: Refer to Chapter No. 6 i.e. Method of Costing I of Study Material.
4. The following particulars are obtained from the books of Vinak Construction Ltd. as on March 1983:
Plant and Equipment at cost ` 4,90,000
Vehicles at cost ` 2,00,000
Details of contract which remain uncompleted as on 31.03.1983:
Contract Nos.
V.20 V.24 V.25
(` Lacs) (` Lacs) (` Lacs)
Estimated final sales value 7.00 5.60 16.00
Estimated final cost 6.40 7.70 12.00
Wages 2.40 2.00 1.20
Materials 1.00 1.10 0.44
Overheads (excluding depreciation) 1.44 1.46 0.58
Total costs to date 4.84 4.56 2.22
Value certified by architects 7.20 4.20 2.40
Progress payments received 5.00 3.20 2.00
Depreciation of Plant and Equipment and Vehicle should be charged at 20% to the three contracts in
proportion to work certified.
You are required to prepare statements to show contractwise and total:
(i) Profit/loss to be taken to the P&L A/c for the year ended 31
st
March 1983;
(ii) Work-in-progress as would appear in the Balance Sheet as at 31
st
March 1983.
Answer: (i) V.20 V.24 V.25 Total
Profit (loss) to be taken 1 1.40 0.06 0.46
to Profit & Loss account
(ii) Work in progress 1.56 0.38 0.40 2.34
5. Deluxe Limited undertook a contract for `5,00,000 on 1
st
July, 1986. On 30
th
June, 1987 when the accounts
were closed, the following details about the contract were gathered:
The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
7.26 Cost Accounting

(`)
Materials Purchased 1,00,000
Wages Paid 45,000
General Expenses 10,000
Plant Purchased 50,000
Materials on Hand 30.06.87 25,000
Wages Accrued 30.06.87 5,000
Work Certified 2,00,000
Cash Received 1,50,000
Work Uncertified 15,000
Depreciation of Plant 5,000
The above contract contained an escalator clause which read as follows:
"In the event of prices of materials and rates of wages increase by more than 5% the contract price would
be increased accordingly by 25% of the rise in the cost of materials and wages beyond 5% in each case."
It was found that since the date of signing the agreement the prices of materials and wage rates increased
by 25%. The value of the work certified does not take into account the effect of the above clause.
Prepare the contract account. Workings should form part of the answer.
Answer: Profit to be transferred ` 20,000
6. Rex Limited commenced a contract on 01.07.1988. The total contract price was ` 5,00,000 but Rex Limited
accepted the same for ` 4,50,000. It was decided to estimate the total profit and to take to the credit of
profit and loss account that proportion of estimated profit on cash basis which the work completed bore to
the total contract. Actual Expenditure till 31.12.1988 and estimated expenditure in 1989 are given below:
Expenses Actuals
Till 31.12.88 (`)
Estimate
For 1989 (`)
Materials
Labour
Plant Purchased (original cost)
Misc. Expenses
Plant Returned to Stores on 31.12.88 at
original cost
75,000
55,000
40,000
20,000
10,000
1,30,000
60,000

35,500
35,500
As on 30.09.89
Materials at Site
Work Certified
Work Uncertified
Cash Received
5,000
2,00,000
7,500
1,80,000
Nil
Full
Nil
Full
The Plant is subject to annual depreciation @ 20% of original cost. The contract is likely to be completed on
30.09.1989.
You are required to prepare the contract account for the year ended 31.12.88. Workings should be clearly given.
It is the policy of the company to charge depreciation on time basis.
Answer: Profit to be transferred to P/L A/c ` 26,400
The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
Contract Costing 7.27

Profit in reserve ` 32,100
Plant returned to stores ` 27,750
7. A contractor, who prepares his account on 31
st
December each year, commenced a contract on 1
st
April
1990. The costing records concerning the said contract reveal the following information on 31
st
December,
1990;
(`)
Materials charged to site 2,58,100
Labour engaged 5,60,500
Foremen's salary 79,300
Plants costing ` 2,60,000 had been on site for 146 days. Their working life is estimated at 7 years and their
final scrap value at ` 15,000. A supervisor, who is paid ` 4,000 p.m. has devoted approximately three-
fourths of his time to this contract. The administrative and other expenses amount to ` 1,40,000. Materials
in hand at site on 31
st
December, 1990 cost ` 25,400. Some of the material costing ` 4,500 was found
unsuitable and was sold for ` 4,000 and a part of the plant costing ` 5,500 (on 31.12.90) unsuited to the
contract was sold at a profit of ` 1,000.
The contract price was ` 22,00,000 but it was accepted by the contractor for ` 20,00,000. On 31
st

December, 1990, two thirds of the contract was completed. Architect's certificate had been issued covering
50% of the contract price and ` 7,50,000 had so far been paid on account. Prepare contract account and
state how much profit or loss should be included in the financial accounts to 31
st
December, 1990. Workings
should be clearly given. Depreciation is charged on time basis.
Also prepare the Contractee's account and show how these accounts should appear in the Balance Sheet
as on 31
st
December, 1990.
Answer: Notional Profit ` 2,13,250
Profit & Loss A/c ` 1,06,625
Profit Reserve ` 1,06,625
8. One of the building contracts currently engaged in by a construction company commenced 15 months ago
and remain unfinished . The following information relating to the work on the contract has been prepared for
the year just ended:
`' 000
Contract Price 2,500
Value of work certified at the end of year 2,200
Cost of work not yet certified at the end of year 40
Costs incurred:
Opening balances:
Case of work completed 300
Materials on site (physical stock) 10
During the year:
Materials delivered to site 610
Wages 580
The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
7.28 Cost Accounting

Hire of plant 110
Other expenses 90
Closing balance
Materials on site (physical stock) 20
As soon as materials are delivered to the site, they are charged to the contract account. A record is also
kept of materials as they are actually used on the contract. Periodically a stock check is maintained and any
discrepancy between book stock and physical stock is transferred to a general contract material
discrepancy account. This is absorbed back to each contract, currently at the rate of 0.5 of materials
booked. The stock check at the year end revealed a stock shortage of ` 5,000.
In addition to the direct charges listed above, general overheads are charged to contract at 5% of the value
of work certified. General overheads of ` 15,000 had been absorbed into the cost of work completed at the
beginning of the year.
It has been estimated that further costs to complete the contract will be ` 2,20,000. this estimate includes
the cost of materials on site at the end of the year finished and also a provision for rectification.
Required:
(a) Explain briefly the distinguishing features of contract costing.
(b) Determine the profitability of the above contract and recommend how much profit to nearest `'000)
should be taken for the year just ended. (Provide a detailed schedule of costs)
(c) State how your recommendation in (b) would be affected if the contract price ` 40,00,000 (rather than
rs. 25,00,000) and if no estimate has been made of costs to completion. (If required, suitable
assumption should be made by the candidate).
Answer: (a) Refer to Chapter No. 6 Method of Costing
(b) Estimated Profit ` 5,07,000
Profit to be taken to Costing P/L A/c ` 4,51,034
(c) Notional Profit ` 4,67,000
9. A construction company under-taking a number of contracts, furnished the following data relating to its
uncompleted contracts as on 31
st
March, 1996.
(` In Lacs)
Contract Numbers
723 726 729 731
Total Contract Price
Estimated Costs on completion of Contract
Expenses for the year ended 31.03.96
Direct Materials
Direct wages
Overheads (Excluding Depreciation)
Profit Reserve as on 01.04.95
Plant issued at Cost
23.20
20.50

5.22
2.32
1.06
1.50
5.00
14.40
11.52

1.80
4.32
2.60

3.50
10.08
12.60

1.98
3.90
2.62

2.75
28.80
21.60

0.80
2.16
1.05

3.00
The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
Contract Costing 7.29

Material at Site on 01.04.95
Materials at Site on 31.03.96
Work Certified till 31.3.95
Work Certified during the year 1995-96
Work Uncertified as on 31.03.96
Progress payment received during the year
0.75
0.45
4.65
12.76
0.84
9.57

0.20

13.26
0.24
9.00

0.08

7.56
0.14
5.75

0.05

4.32
0.18
3.60
Depreciation @ 20% per annum is to be charged on plant issued. While the Contract No. 723 was carried
over from last year, the remaining contracts were started in the 1
st
week of April, 1995, required.
(i) Determine the profit/loss in respect of each contract for the year ended 31
st
March, 1996.
(ii) State the profit/loss to be carried to Profit & Loss A/c for the year ended 31
st
March, 1996
Answer: (i) 723 726 729 731
Profit (loss) ` In Lacs. 5.20 4.28 (1.27) (0.06)
(ii) Profit to be taken to 2.60 1.80 - -
Profit & Loss Account (` In Lacs)
10. A company undertook a contract for construction of a large building complex. The construction work
commenced on 1
st
April 1993 and the following data are available for the year ended 31
st
March 1994.
` '000
Contract Price 35,000
Work certified 20,000
Progress Payments Received 15,000
Materials Issued to Site 7,500
Planning & Estimating costs 1,000
Direct Wages Paid 4,000
Materials Returned From Site 250
Plant Hire Charges 1,750
Wage Related Costs 500
Site Office Costs 678
Head Office Expenses Apportioned 375
Direct Expenses Incurred 902
Work Not Certified 149
The contractors own a plant which originally cost `20 lacs has been continuously in use in this contract
throughout the year. The residual value of the plant after 5 years of life is expected to be ` 5 lacs. Straight
line method of depreciation is in use.
As on 31
st
March, 1994 the direct wages due and payable amounted to ` 2,70,000 and the materials at site
were estimated at ` 2,00,000.

The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
7.30 Cost Accounting

Required:
(i) Prepare the contract account for the year ended 31
st
March, 1994.
(ii) Show the calculation of profit to be taken to the profit and loss account of the year.
(iii) Show the relevant balance sheet entries
Answer: Notional Profit ` 3,324000
Profit and Loss A/c ` 1,662000
Work-in-progress in Balance Sheet ` 3,487000
11. Compute a conservative estimate of profit on a contract (which has been 80% complete) from the following
particulars. Illustrate four methods of computing the profit:
(`)
Total expenditure to date 1,70,000
Estimated further expenditure to complete the contract 34,000
(including contingencies)
Contract Price 3,06,000
Work Certified 2,00,000
Work not certified 17,000
Cash Received 1,63,200
Answer: Estimated profit ` 1,02,000
Notional Profit ` 47,000
12. Explain escalation Clause.
Answer: Refer to Chapter No. 6 Method of Costing (I) of Study Material
13. An expenditure of ` 4,85,000 has been incurred on a contract till 31st March, 2006 and value of the work
certified is ` 5,50,000. The cost of work performed but not yet certified is ` 15,000. The profit of ` 30,000
had been taken to the credit of Profit & Loss Account till 31st March, 2005. The estimated future expenses
are ` 1,00,000. The estimated total expenses is to include a provision of 2-1/2 per cent for contingencies.
The contract price is ` 7,00,000 and the payment received till date is ` 5,00,000.
Calculate the profit to be taken to the credit of Profit and Loss Account for the year ended on 31st March,
2006.
Answer: ` 48,571.
The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India